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Chapter #20: Girding for War: The North and the South – Big Picture Themes 1. After Ft.

Sumter started the war, keeping the border states were Abe’s top concern. These were slave states that hadn’t left the nation. Throughout the war, Abe would make concessions to “keep them happy.” The border states never left. 2. All along the South felt that England would help them. The idea was that King Cotton’s dominance would force the English into helping the Southerners. This never happened, largely because Uncle Tom’s Cabin had convinced the English people of slavery’s horrors. 3. The North had the advantage in almost every category: population, industry, money, navy. 4. Both sides turned to a draft, the nation’s first. The draft was very unpopular and many riots broke out. IDENTIFICATIONS: Election of 1860 The Election of 1860 was one of the major events that lead to the civil war. It created a divided nation but at the same time put Lincoln in office. William Seward William Seward was the New York Senator and a major advisory of Lincoln. His nickname was “Higher Law” and became Sec State when Lincoln was put into office. Edwin M. Stanton Stanton was a Politician that replaced Cameron as the Sec of War. He caused many arguments in congress and went against Lincoln in every conversation. The Alabama The CSS Alabama was a confederate warship during the Civil War. It was sunk by USS Kearsarge in 1864.

Emancipation Proclamation This document states that all African slaves in the southern states that seceded would be free but Lincoln had no way or implementing it. Trent Affair The Trent Affair was when a Union frigate halted a British ship and took two Confederate ambassadors hostage.

Merrimack and Monitor This event was when two iron clad ships battled each other on the Chesapeake bay for five consecutive hours.. Anaconda Plan Winfield Scoot proposed the Anaconda Plan which blockaded the southern waters from the outside world. It was named the Anaconda Plan because the blockade looked like a snake. Border States These were the States that bordered Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri. They however did not secede. Appomattox General Lee made a smart decision by surrendering to the North under General Grant. The north was generous enough to offer the South an good surrender opportunity in the Appomattox Court House in 1865. Election of 1864 President Lincoln in the Election of 1864 ran against is Democratic counterpart McClellan. Abe received 55% of the popular votes and gave a fair chance for the union to vote as well.

GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: The Menace of Secession 1. What practical problems would occur if the United States became two nations? They would have to decide how much money the South would take on as the National debt would have to be split among the states and how would the distribution of land be done. The Underground Railroad would increase in activity but they would be transported by the Ohio River.

South Carolina Assails Fort Sumter Know: Fort Sumter, Col. Robert Anderson 2. What action did Lincoln take that provoked a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter? What effects did the South's attack have? He didn’t comply with the rule of the south and was a Union War Hero after the attack. The South thought that the word provision was another way of saying reinforcement and so they prepared for war. If the North would to send soldier the South would definitely fight back and retaliate

Brothers' Blood and Border Blood Know: Border States, Billy Yank, Johnny Reb 3. How did the border states affect northern conduct of the war? It would increase the rate of manufacturing and supply twice as many horses to the South. This would give the North a huge disadvantage and could have possibly lost the Civil war. Billy Yank and Johnny Reb were “brothers’ war”. Many groups in opposite states joined their opposite sides. For example many Southerners supported the North and many Northern supported the south.

The Balance of Forces Know: Robert E. Lee, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson 4. What advantages did the South have? The North? Since the South was so big the North would have to divide and conquer. The south would have a bigger advantage because they could just fight in the interior lines. Stonewall Jackson was a master of speed and deception. General Lee didn’t accept Lincoln invitation to join the Union Army because he felt that he was bound to his State honor.

Dethroning King Cotton Know: King Cotton, King Wheat, King Corn 5. Why did King Cotton fail the South? King Cotton failed because the North controlled the Sea. The North established blockades and prevented the South to ship cotton to other nations. It also stopped supplies from coming into the South.

The Decisiveness of Diplomacy Know: Trent, Alabama 6. What tensions arose with Great Britain during the Civil War? A Union ship stopped a British steamer and took two confederate diplomats off of it. British officials were outraged and said they had no right to do that. During the Alabama crisis, the

ship was hijacked by confederate soldiers and was armed to the teeth. Britain became the main naval base for the confederacy.

Foreign Flare-Ups Know: Laird Rams, Napoleon III, Maximilian 5. What other circumstances led to serious conflict with Great Britain during the Civil War? If they were to be delivered to the South they would have broken to blockade. Minister Adam warned that this was war if they released Iron Clads. Napoleon III took advantage of the Civil war by trying to occupy Mexico City. He made Archduke Maximilian emperor of Mexico

President Davis Versus President Lincoln Know: Jefferson Davis, States Rights, Abraham Lincoln 8. Describe the weaknesses of the Confederate government and the strengths of the Union government? The Confederated borrowed the constitution from the Union and contained a major flaw. It stated that future states could not secede from the government. Lincoln wasn’t as flexible as Davis and would rather defy than lead to a public opinion. He was very good at influencing the public.

Limitations on Wartime Liberties Know: Habeas Corpus 9. Give examples of constitutionally questionable actions taken by Lincoln. Why did he act with arbitrary power? He acted with arbitrary powers because it he hadn’t it would have torn the Constitution apart. Example of the actions he did was supervised voting in the Border States. The Federal troops also controlled the public press by disbanding certain newspaper groups.

Volunteers and Draftees: North and South Know: Three-hundred-dollar-men, bounty jumpers 10. Was the Civil War "a rich man's war but a poor man's fight?" Explain. Rich men could hire substitutes by paying three hundred dollars to replace themselves if they were picked into joining the military. Therefore the war was fought with volunteers or

poor men. Draftees were known as Three-hundred-dollar-men because it would be pay the money or join the military. You were basically worth 300 hundred dollars. The Economic Stresses of War Know: Income Tax, Morrill Tariff Act, Greenbacks, National Banking Act, inflation 11. What was the effect of paper money on both North and South? Paper money was determined by the nations credit. The confederated had no choice but to print their own money and make it blue. The National Banking Act stated that Banks that joined the National Banking System could not buy government bonds. After the South surrendered to the North their inflation rate went up to 9000% percent and left the south very poor. As a result, the North went up by 80%. The North's Economic Boom Know: "Shoddy" Wool, Elizabeth Blackwell, Clara Barton, Dorthea Dix 12. Explain why the Civil War led to economic boom times in the North? The North had an economic boom because the war created more jobs for the citizens. The Civil War created the millionaire class. They were cocky and rude. New Laborsaving machinery enabled the north to be more profitable. A Crushed Cotton Kingdom 13. Give evidence to prove that the war was economically devastating to the South. The Blockade on the south made the south die slowly because it did not receive supplies from the outside world. Transportation failed and was driven to economic cannibalism.