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Chapter #21: The Furnace of the Civil War – Big Picture Themes 1.

The North thought they could win in a quick war. After they lost at Bull Run, the quick-victory approach seemed to have been a mistake. A northern loss on “the Peninsula” at Richmond reinforced that this would be a long war. 2. The South started the war winning. Turning point battles, which the North won, took place at (a) Antietam just before Lincoln’s “Emancipation Proclamation”, (b) Gettysburg which effectively broke the South’s back, and (c) Vicksburg which helped the North control the Mississippi River. 3. Lincoln won a hard-fought reelection in 1864. He did so by starting the “Union Party” made of Republicans and pro-war Democrats and on the simplicity of the slogan, “You don’t change horses midstream.” 4. General Sherman marched across Georgia and the South and reaped destruction. And the South began to lose battle after battle. These events drove the South to surrender at Appomattox Courthouse. IDENTIFICATIONS Draft riots of 1863 Many working class men were outraged when they had to were furious that rich people could pay 300 dollars and get a substitute so that wouldn’t have to enlist.

Charles Frances Adam Frances Adam wanted to prevent the British military from siding with the South. He was also the Prime Minister in Britain.

Sherman's March Sherman’s March was a nickname giving the Savannah Campaign during the months of November and December in 1864. It began with the capture of Atlanta, Georgia and ended with the capture of the port of Savannah.

Clement L. Vallandigham Vallandigham strongly supported a quick end to the war. He was tried in a military tribunal in 1863 for treason and put into jail. Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson was a Southern Democrat and ran against Lincoln in the Election of 1864. He was chosen to balance the election.

John Wilkes Booth John Wilkes Booth was an actor who killed Lincoln in the Ford’s Theatre. He was mad that the south lost and the abolition of slavery.

C.S.S. Alabama This vessel served in the Confederate Navy during the Civil War. It attacked Union merchant and war ships and never settled in a southern port. It

National Banking Act The National Banking Act was a way for the United States to create and universal bank note currency. It allowed people to purchase government bonds and gave money back to the bonds.

Union Party The Union Party was a political party made mostly of Whigs, Know-Nothings and some southern Democrats who were against the disunion over the issue of slavery. GUIDED READING Bull Run Ends the "Ninety Day War” Know: Bull Run, Stonewall Jackson 1. What effect did the Battle of Bull Run have on North and South? The South’s victory under the leadership of General Stonewall Jackson led to many people deserting the battlefield to show their trophies off. Defeat was better for the union because it would crush the illusions of a “one punch” war.

"Tardy George" McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign Know: George McClellan, Peninsula Campaign, Robert E. Lee, "Jeb" Stuart, Seven Days' Battles, Anaconda Plan 2. Describe the grand strategy of the North for winning the war. It would slowly crush the south because all they grew was cotton. This plan was known as the Anaconda Plan. During the Peninsula Campaign McClellan and his troops went on water to the western end of a narrow peninsula made up by James and York Rivers. In the Peninsula Campaign McClellan slowly closed in on the Confederate Troops and his capture of Yorktown.

The War at Sea

Know: Blockade, Continuous Voyage, Merrimac, Monitor 3. What was questionable about the blockade practices of the North? Why did Britain honor the blockade anyway? The North only wanted to block the southern ports. Britain honored the blockade because they thought that it was blinding. Northern ships would seize British ships that were going to Nassau because they thought it would go to the Confederates. The Merrimac was a Confederate Ship with Railroad rails on the side and renamed the Virginia. The Pivotal Point: Antietam 4. Why was the battle of Antietam "...probably the most decisive of the Civil War?" The Battle of Antietam was the most decisive battle because it would determine which side the foreign governments would support. This battle was also the much needed victory than Lincoln needed. He could then launch his Emancipation Proclamation.

A Proclamation Without Emancipation Know: Emancipation Proclamation, Butternut Region 7. The Emancipation Proclamation had important consequences. Explain. The Emancipation Proclamation had important consequences because it freed slaves where the Union had no authority. He could not free all the slaves in the United States because that would get rid of the Border States. Blacks Battle Bondage Know: Frederick Douglass, 54th Massachusetts, Fort Pillow 8. African-Americans were critical in helping the North win the Civil War. Assess. Black slaves were critical to the Northern cause because they strongly believed that slavery should be abolished. The first regiment in the north that was comprised of Black Slaves was the 54th Massachusetts Company. It was proposed by Fredrick Douglass to enlist black men into the military. The south at first slaughter many captured African Americans because they branded them as runaway slaves.

Lee's Last Lunge at Gettysburg Know: Ambrose Burnside, Joe Hooker, George Meade, Gettysburg, Pickett's Charge, Gettysburg Address 1. Why was Gettysburg a significant battle? This was the last chance Lee had to win against the Union because without Stonewall Jackson they had no chance of winning. In the Battle of Gettysburg the union refused to let the Confederates march past union lines. It was a Union victory and the south was doomed.

The War in the West Know: Ulysses S. Grant, Fort Henry, Fort Donnelson, Shiloh, David Farragut, Vicksburg 10. Describe General Grant as a man and a general. General Grant was a mediocre student as west point. He made a name for himself in the Mexican War. Grant’s first success was on the Tennessee battlefield. There he captured Fort Henry and Fort Donnellson.

Sherman Scorches Georgia Know: William T. Sherman, March to the Sea 11. How did Sherman attempt to demoralize the South? General Sherman was in charge of capturing Atlanta in 1864 and burned the city. He practiced total war and burned everything in his path. Some people called it “Shermanizing” the south. His marched to the sea took him to the Savannah on the sea. The Politics of War Know: War Democrats, Peace Democrats, Copperheads, Clement L. Vallandingham 12. Describe Lincoln’s political difficulties during the war. Lincoln had to fight with many political parties during the Election of 1864. The Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the War was mostly made up of Radical Republicans. The most dangerous were the North Democrats. The Democrats, having no leader, divided into two separate groups and were called the War Democrats and Peace Democrats.

The Election of 1864 Know: Andrew Johnson, George McClellan, Mobile, Atlanta 14. What factors contributed to Lincoln's electoral victory? Factors that contributed to Lincoln’s electoral victory was when General Farragut captured Mobile, Alabama. Northern soldier were discharged to support Lincoln by voting for him. Andrew Johnson was a War Democrat and was pitched against Lincoln.

Grant Outlasts Lee Know: The Wilderness, Cold Harbor, Grant the Butcher, Richmond, Appomattox Courthouse 15. What strategy did Grant use to defeat Lee's army?

Grant would try to attack on the Confederate Armies so that one could not support the other. In the Wilderness Grant suffered heavy losses of around 50,000 thousand men. Grant fought Lee in Richmond and engaged him a furious battle. Grant was nicknamed “Grant the Butcher” after killing and slaughtering many people. The Martyrdom of Lincoln Know: Ford's Theater, John Wilkes Boothe 16. Was Lincoln's death good or bad for the South? Explain. The death of Lincoln was bad because it increased the hatred the North had toward the South. Lincoln was possible the only thing that would have acted like a shield to protect the southern states.

The Aftermath of the Nightmare Know: Lost Cause 17. What was the legacy of the Civil War? The Civil War caused over 600,000 deaths and more than 1,000,000 wounded. The nation lost the young men of their age because many had to go fight in the war. Many babies weren’t born because men were not present. The Lost Cause was lost but many still believe this was not the best way..

Varying Viewpoints: What Were the Consequences of the Civil War? 18. Do you agree with those historians who say that the importance of the Civil War has been exaggerated? Why or Why not? I don’t think it has been exaggerated because the issue of slavery was a big problem. As stated in the constitution it said that all men were free. But black men somehow were excluded from this proclamation. After the Civil War, the North had the most power and the United States would finally be established as a whole country and not just a union of states.