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163
Geoelectrical Assessment of a Proposed Dam Site around Ehuhe
area of Oji River, Southeastern Nigeria.

I(ene)e S.I.
1*
' I(e +.+.
1
' Sele)o ,.%.
1
'

-.ensi S./.
2
' Nwag(ara J.%.
1
' 01e I. %.
3
' -(echu 2.%.
1
' %nwu3a /.%.
1

1.4eart)ent of 5eosciences' 6e.eral -ni7ersit8 of 9echnolog8'%werri' I)o State' Nigeria.
2.4eart)ent of Ph8sics' 6e.eral -ni7ersit8 of 9echnolog8'%werri' I)o State' Nigeria.
3.4eart)ent of Pol8)er an. 9e:tile 0ngineering' 6e.eral -ni7ersit8 of 9echnolog8'%werri' I)o State' Nigeria.
* 0-)ail of the correson.ing author; eseesa(i)<g)ail.co)

Astract
9he current stu.8 in7ol7es al8ing the &ertical 0lectrical Soun.ing (&0S! (8 using the s8))etrical
Schlu)(erger configuration to e7aluate the suita(ilit8 of the soil un.erl8ing 0huhe area of %=i Ri7er
Southeastern Nigeria for .a) construction. 9he sur7e8 was con.ucte. along the roose. .a) a:is (a(out 4>>
) long! an. its 7icinit8 with the 7iew to .eter)ining the resence or otherwise of .eleterious )atter along the
.a) a:is .own to a .eth of 3") (elow the surface' e7aluate the geo-structural setting of the conceale. (e.roc3'
the fracture attern an. ossi(le .a) seeage along the .a) a:is an. its (an3s as well as gi7e suggestions on
an8 other )easures?stu.ies that )a8 (e nee.e. for a roer engineering .esign. 9wel7e (&0S! soun.ing stations
at (etween 4#) (&0S 1 @ &0S 1#! an. 6#) (&0S 1# @ &0S 12 an. &0S 2 @ &0S 11! were locate. an. full8
occuie. along the .a) a:is. 9he .ata o(taine. were su(=ecte. to 1-4 in7ersion algorith) to .eter)ine the la8er
ara)eters. 9he results show that the su(surface is re)ar3a(l8 inho)ogeneous in geological co)osition. 9he
geoelectric section re7eale. three (3! lithologic units .efine. (8 to loose .r8 san.stone' har. (ut =ointe. iron
o:i.e-ce)ente. san.stone an. orous san.stone' with shales (eing totall8 a(sent. Resisti7it8 7alues range fro)
$2##-661##' 144#-161### an. """-213## oh)-) in the tosoil' ironstone an. orous san.stone resecti7el8.
4eth to each la8er 7aries fro) #."-12.# ) in the tosoil' 3.6-22.1) in the ironstone rich 1one an. greater than
4#) in the orous san.stone region. No structures that will (e of .eleterious effect were o(ser7e. in all the &0S
oints .own to a(out 4#). 6ro) the results an. fiel. o(ser7ations it is conclu.e. that the roose. .a) a:is is
un.erlain (8 high san.8? arenaceous )atter usuall8 (rought in fro) (oth 0huhe an. -.i areas with high orosit8
an. otentiall8 rife for great infiltration. It is e:ecte. that high (earing caacit8 shall characteri1e the roc3 units.
Aowe7er the a(sence of shales )eans high infiltration in a san.8 en7iron)ent. 0fforts shoul. (e )a.e to
ro7i.e so)e suita(le (lan3et )aterials for the .a) an. )echanis) for .esilting when the .a) is ut in lace.
!e"#ords$ 5eoelectric Section' 5eo)etric factor' Bitholog8' %=i Ri7er' Seeage.

%. &ntroduction
, .a) is a (arrier of concrete or 0arth that is (uilt across a ri7er or strea) to o(struct or control the flow of
water there(8 creating a reser7oir ustrea). 2enefits ro7i.e. (8 .a)s inclu.e water sulies for .rin3ing'
irrigation an. in.ustrial usesC floo. controlC h8.roelectric owerC recreationC an. na7igation. ,t the sa)e ti)e'
.a)s also reresent a ris3 to u(lic safet8. 4esite series of geotechnical stu.ies rece.ing the construction of
.a)s' there are still nu)(er of ro(le)s that .a)s are rone to. Such ro(le)s can (e cause. (8 e:istence of
conceale. fracture?faults' fissures' =oints or shears which can greatl8 re.uce the reser7oir caacit8 of the .a)
(,3an)u et al.' 2##>!. 9he statistics of failures of structures such as roa.' (uil.ings' .a) an. (ri.ges throughout
the nation has increase. geo)etricall8. 9he nee. for re-foun.ation stu.ies has therefore (eco)e 7er8
i)erati7e so as to re7ent loss of 7alua(le li7es an. roerties that alwa8s acco)an8 such failures. 6oun.ation
stu.8 usuall8 ro7i.es su(surface infor)ation that nor)all8 assists ci7il engineers in the .esign of foun.ation of
ci7il engineering structures. 5eoh8sical )etho.s ha7e (een use. e:tensi7el8 in .a) site in7estigations
(,rts8(ashe7' 1$>3C ,3o' 1$>6C ,rts8(ashe7 an. ,1ee1' 1$>>C +ilt8 et al.' 1$86C ,nnor et al.' 1$8$C %=o an.
%lorunfe)i' 1$$"C %lasehin.e an. ,.elana' 1$$$!. 5eoelectric sur7e8s' articularl8 resisti7it8 )easure)ents'
still account for a large a)ount of wor3 in using geoh8sical )etho.s for sur7e8s of shallow .eths. 9he
a.7antage is that the8 are not so .e)an.ing for instru)entation. 9his stu.8 in7ol7es a re-.esign geoh8sical
sur7e8 carrie. out along a 4>>) roose. .a) a:is across the %=i Ri7er near 0huhe' Southeastern Nigeria. 9he
o(=ecti7es of the stu.8 are to .eter)ine the resence or otherwise of .eleterious )atter along the .a) a:is .own
to a .eth of 3") (elow the surface' e7aluate the geo-structural setting of the conceale. (e.roc3' the fracture
attern an. ossi(le .a) seeage along the .a) a:is an. its (an3s as well as gi7e suggestions on an8 other
)easures?stu.ies that )a8 (e nee.e. for a roer engineering .esign.
%. 'ocation and Accessiilit" of the stud" area.
0huhe is locate. at a(out 183) Southeast of %=i Ri7er Bocal 5o7ern)ent Secretariat' through ,.u ,chi. 9he
.a) site' across %=i Ri7er is howe7er 2."3) northeast of 0huhe town (figure 1!. 9he 4a) site is locate. at
Batitu.es 6
o
12.24#DN @ 6
%
12.6#"DN an. at longitu.es >
o
21.$68D0 @ >
o
22.">#D0. 9he 4a) a:is is a(out 3"#)
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an. the stu.ie. length inclu.ing the a:is is 4>#) with the centre s8))etricall8 at the ri7er (23") on either si.e
of the ri7er (figure 2!. 9he 4a) site is accessi(le through ,chi' ,gu ,chi an. %=i Ri7er towns.

6igure 1. Bocation )a of stu.8 area Showing %=i Ri7er to (e .a))e..


6igure 2. S8))etr8 )a of the stu.8 area

(. )limate, *egetation, Relief and Drainage of the stud" area.
0ssentiall8 0huhe area falls un.er the 5uinea Sa7annah forest with scattere. trees an. grass8 un.er-growth.
&isi(ilit8 is fair an. eole can see an. tal3 u to 2##) aart. Sheer (utter tree is co))on with 7er8 few Iro3o
trees' confine. )ainl8 towar.s 0huhe area. 9he Ri7er in the area suorts .ense 7egetation along the (an3s
t8ical of the rain forest regions of southeast an. south-south Nigeria (Iloe=e' 1$$1!. 0huhe an. ,chi areas are
the .i sloe sections of the fa)ous 0nugu 0scar)ent' which runs fro) %3igwe through 0nugu to ,8ang(a in
the )i..le 2enue area. Ehile the 0huhe area has su(.ue. toograh8' the area aroun. the 4a) site .isla8s
rugge. an. une7en toograh8. ,t the Ri7er 7alle8 the sloes are Fuite ro)inent. 9he area is rone to erosion
as huge gullies ha7e nearl8 cut off the ol. 0huhe-%=i ri7er roa.s. ,s at the )o)ent of this stu.8 the roa. was no
)ore )otora(le .ue to gull8ing. %=i Ri7er is the onl8 ri7er in the area. Gost run-off fro) the hill8 0huhe area


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are naturall8 channele. into the Ri7er which flows northwest fro) southeast. 4rainage attern is .en.ritic with
tri(utaries of 7er8 short flow regi)es. In )ost areas along the ri7er' huge an. high angle gorges are seen along
the Ri7er (an3s.

+. Geological Setting
%=i Ri7er area is un.erlain (8 roc3 units of the 4anian Nsu33a 6or)ation. 9his in turn' is un.erlain (8 the
Gaastrichtian ,=ali 6or)ation. Roc3 units of these 6or)ations inclu.e (a! Shales' li)estones' coal (e.s'
san.stones an. resistant iron-o:i.e-(earing san.stone for the 8ounger Nsu33a 6or)ation ((! San.stone an.
ferruginous san.stone for the ol.er ,=ali 6or)ation. 2ecause of the o7erri.ing san.8 units in the area' soil
erosion is co))on' car7ing huge gullies that are arallel to one another an. running into the %=i Ri7er. 9he
outcros of (oth the har. ironstone of Nsu33a 6or)ation an. the iron-staine. ,=ali counterart are o(ser7e.
along the Ri7er (an3. 9hese stri3e NE-S0 an. .i at 1>
o
to the 24"
o
.irection (lates 1-3!.




















Plate %$ ,aile" ridge, Plate ($ S- dipping .errugenised Sandstone, Plate +$ Profile Direction.
%ne of the )ost re)ar3a(le structural features is that the ri7er aears to (e stratigrahicall8 controlle.' flowing
33"
o
which is the stri3e .irectionC fro) o(ser7ation )a.e on roc3 outcros at the ri7er (an3' =oints tren. N0-SE
(along .i .irection!. 9hus it is 7er8 ossi(le that the net groun.water )o7e)ent is SE fro) N0. ,s in %3igwe
area' the hill8 areas are sites for ironstone Fuarries while the Ri7er (e. areas are sites for san. an. gra7el
Fuarries.

/. 0aterials and 0ethods
9he )etho.s utili1e. in this stu.8 in7ol7e (oth 5eological an. 5eoh8sical aroaches. 9he 5eological )etho.
inclu.es the i.entification of roc3 units along the 4a) a:is ta3ing their attitu.es an. relating these to regional
geolog8. Such outcros hele. in inferring the signals on the geoh8sical recor.s. In other to e7aluate the geo-
structural setting of the conceale. (e.roc3' the fracture attern an. ossi(le .a) seeage along the .a) a:is an.
its (an3s' a geoh8sical sur7e8 in7ol7ing the use of electrical resisti7it8 was e)lo8e..
/.% 1heor"
9he electrical resisti7it8 )etho. is an acti7e geoh8sical )etho.. It e)lo8s an artificial source which is
intro.uce. into the groun. though a air of electro.es. 9he roce.ure in7ol7es )easure)ent of otential
.ifference (etween other two electro.es in the 7icinit8 of current flow. ,arent resisti7it8 is calculate. (8 using
the otential .ifference for the interretation. 9he electro.es (8 which current is intro.uce. into the groun. are
calle. /urrent electro.es an. electro.es (etween which the otential .ifference is )easure. are calle. Potential
electro.es.

PB,90 3

PB,90 1
PB,90 2
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6igure 3. 5enerali1e. 0lectro.e configuration for 0lectrical Resisti7it8 sur7e8ing.

, an. 2 are current electro.esC G an. N are otential electro.es.
In Schlu)(erger configuration' GNHH,2.

Potential at G'

Potential at N'

Potential 4ifference

2asicall8 we use .irect currents (ut we can also use low freFuenc8 alternating currents to in7estigate the
electrical roerties (resisti7it8! of the su(surface. /urrent is in=ecte. into the groun. using two electro.es (fro)
, an. 2! an. the resulting 7oltage is )easure. using the re)aining two electro.es (fro) G an. N! (figure 3!.
9he fun.a)ental eFuation is .eri7a(le fro) %h)Ds laws. 9he electric otential' &r at an8 oint' P .istance' r
fro) a oint electro.e e)itting an electric current' I in an infinite ho)ogenous an. isotroic )e.iu) of
Resisti7it8' I is gi7en (8
&
r
J pI KKKKKKKKKKK(4!
2nr
6or a se)i-finite )e.iu)' this is the si)lest 0arth )o.el' an. with (oth current an. otential oint-electro.es
lace. at the 0arthDs surface.
p J &(2nr! KKKKKKKKKKK("!
I
Irresecti7e of surface location an. electro.e srea.' the resisti7it8 is constant in a ho)ogenous an. isotroic
groun.. Aowe7er' it .oes 7ar8 with the relati7e ositions of electro.es when there is resence of su(surface
inho)ogeneities an. an8 co)ute. 7alue is 3nown as aarent resisti7it8
p
a
J 7(2nr! KKKKKKKKKK...(6!
I
6or schlu)(erger arrange)ent
5 J n [(
AB
2
) −(
MN
2

2
KKKKKK..(>!
2 (
MN
2
)
2

p
a
J &5 J R.5 KKKKKKKK(8!
I
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9his can generall8 (e written as
p
a
J n(a
2
?( @ (?4! R KKKKKKK($!
where
p
a
J aarent resisti7it8 in %h)-)
a J ,2?2' the Aalf /urrent 0lectro.e Searation in )etres
( J GN' Potential electro.e searation in )etres
R J Instru)ent rea.ing in %h)s
5 is the 5eo)etric /onstant which is a function of the electro.e configuration e)lo8e. .uring the sur7e8. 9he
.ata collecte. on the fiel. were resente. (8 lotting the aarent resisti7it8 (p
a
! 7alues against the electro.e
sacing (,2?2! on (i-log grah. Luantitati7e interretation of the &0S cur7es in7ol7e. artial cur7e )atching
an. co)uter iteration techniFue. ,s a goo. fit' (u to $"M correlation! was o(taine. (etween fiel. an. )o.el
cur7es' interretation was consi.ere. as right. 9he ,2?2 for this stu.8 range. fro) 1." to "") ensuring a .eth
enetration of aro:i)atel8 36). , rofile of 4>#) across the ri7er' arallel to the 4a) a:is was )a.e. 9he
rofile was ta3en at a(out 13>) ustrea) southeast of the 2aile8 (ri.ge (figure 4!.


6igure 4. &0S Points la8out along the roose. 4a) a:is
9he ,20G 9erra)eter )o.el S,S 4### (figure "! was use. in the fiel. rea.ing oeration. 6iel. rea.ings in
%h)s were re.uce. to aarent resisti7it8 7alues using eFuation $.
9he fiel. la8out is shown in figure 4. 9wel7e 7ertical electrical soun.ing stations at (etween 4#) (&0S 1 @ &0S
1#! an. 6#) (&0S 1# @ &0S 12 an. &0S 2 @ &0S 11! (figure 4!' were )a.e. 9he geoh8sical rofile across the
ri7er tren.s 22#
o
(N0-SE!' nearl8 arallel to the .i .irection.

6igure ". ,20G 9erra)eter S,S 4###.

2. Results and Discussion
6or the )ultila8er soun.ing cur7es o(taine. after cur7e )atching an. co)uter iteration' 7arious t8es of cur7es
were .eter)ine. (8 the relationshi e:isting (etween the la8er resisti7it8 7alues I1' I2' I3 ... In. It was
.isco7ere. that the cur7es are )ostl8 3-t8e an. L-t8e. /ur7e shaes an. not necessaril8 the resisti7it8 7alues
are e)lo8e. in resisti7it8 soun.ing .ata interretations. 9his is (ecause the 7alues of resisti7it8 )a8 change



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.ue to wetness or .r8ness as .uring wet an. .r8 seasons' (ut the real .eths to geoelectric la8ers re)ain constant.
9hus cur7e shaes were use. to infer the nu)(er of geoelectric la8ers rior to Fuantitati7e treat)ent.
Preli)inar8 fiel. .ata were fe. into Noh.8 software to generate real .eths an. la8er resisti7ities in the twel7e
soun.ing oints. Go.el interretations of the results of the &ertical 0lectrical Soun.ings in the twel7e stations
are shown in ta(le 1 an. a t8ical )o.ele. cur7e shown in figure 6.


.igure 3. 1"pical modeled curve of the stud" area.

9a(le 1. Go.el Interretations of the &0S results.
&0S
Stations
Ba8er Para)eters
Ba8er1
4eth
()!
I(%h)-
)!
Bitholog8 4eth()! I(%h)-
)!
Bitholog8 4eth()! I(%h)-
)!
Bitholog8
&0S 1 ".# 232## San.8 to
soil
12.3 "23## Aar.
ironstone
4#.# 1"6# Porous
san.stone
&0S 2 1.# 183## San.8 to
soil
11.8 411## Aar.
ironstone
4#.# 31"# Porous
san.stone
&0S 3 12.# 213## 4r8 to soil 22.1 144# Iron staine.
san.stone
4#.# 334# Porous
san.stone
&0S 4 3.3 188## 4r8 to soil >.4 133## Aar.
ironstone
4#.# 362# Porous
san.stone
&0S " 1.$ $2## Eet san.8
soil
12.2 214# Saturate.
ironstone
4#.# """ Saturate.
san.
stone
&0S 6 1.6 144## 4r8 to soil 6.4 142## Eet
ironstone
4#.# "86# Porous
san.stone
&0S > 4.4 661## 4r8 to soil 2#.2 1>$## Aar.
ironstone
4#.# 84## Porous
san.stone
&0S 8 >.# 31$## 4r8 san.8
soil
1>.> 246# Iron staine.
san.stone
4#.# 664# Porous
san.stone
&0S $ 1.# 1$2## 4r8 san.8
soil
3.6 632## Aar.
ironstone
4#.# 4>$#

Porous
san.stone
&0S 1# 2.> 384## 4r8 san.8
soil
>.1 $1### Aar.
ironstone
4#.# 1$8## Porous
san.stone
&0S 11 #." 1>### 4r8 san.8
to soil
21.1 "3"## Aar.
ironstone
4#.# 44"# Porous
san.stone
&0S 12 #.8 33$## 4r8 san.8
to soil
>.3 161### Aar.
ironstone
4#.# 213## Porous
san.stone

9he toograhic section with the 5PS rea.ings are shown in figure > while the geoelectric section correlate.

Ba8er 2 Ba8er 3
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with all twel7e &0S oints is shown in figure 8.

6igure >. Aeight (5PS! Profile along the roose. a:is (in feet!.


6igure 8. 5eoelectric Section correlate. for the &0S Points along the Proose. a:is.
6ro) the results resente. in the for)s of resisti7it8 an. .eth 7alues of 7arious la8ers' outcros o(ser7e. along
the .a) a:is an. a.=oining areas' stratigrahic relations' a nu)(er of facts co)e out 7er8 clearl8; height
.ifferentials of u to 1"# feet occur (etween the highest oint along geoh8sical rofile (&0S 2! an. the ri7er
(e. (&0S " an. &0S 6!. %7erri.ing san.8 units .o)inate the area. No shales were o(ser7e.. 9he san.stone
ranges fro) to loose .r8 san.stone' through 7er8 har. (ut =ointe. iron o:i.e-ce)ente. san.stone to orous
san.stone. 9he ri7er flows along the stri3e an. through the orous la8er' thus (eing stratigrahicall8 controlle..
No structures that will (e of .eleterious effect were o(ser7e. in all the &0S oints. Aowe7er results show high
.egree of orosit8' cross-(e..ing an. .is of 1"-2#
o
in the 24"
o
.irection. 9he ri7er flows along (e..ing lanes
an. .oes not lea7e an8 fine )atter at the (an3s. So )uch san. is generate. fro) the ustrea) area. 9hus )uch
arenaceous )atter shall co)e in fro) the san.8 units ustrea). No faults were .etecte. .own to 4#).

3. )onclusion
6ro) the results an. fiel. o(ser7ations it is conclu.e. that the roose. .a) a:is is un.erlain (8 highl8 san.8
)atter with high orosit8 an. otentiall8 rife for great infiltration. ,lso great san.8 )atter is (oun. to (e
(rought in fro) ustrea) eFuall8 rich in arenaceous )atter.
It is e:ecte. that high (earing caacit8 shall characteri1e the roc3 units. Aowe7er the a(sence of shales )eans
high infiltration in a san.8 en7iron)ent. 0fforts shoul. (e )a.e to ro7i.e so)e suita(le (lan3et )aterials for
the .a). Soil test fro) oints along the roose. a:is shall confir) our conclusion on high co)etence of the



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roc3 units along the a:is. 5reat san.8 )atter is (rought in fro) (oth 0huhe an. -.i areas. 9his )ust (e chec3e.
an. )echanis) for .esilting ut in lace.

References
,3an)u' J.%.' 0luwa' %.an. 03o' I. (2##>!' Chronicles of river basin management in Nigeria. , =ournal
resente. at the international congress on ri7er (asin )anage)ent.
,3o' 2. 4. (1$>6!' ,n integration of 5eoh8sical an. 5eological .ata in 4a) site In7estigation. 9he /ase of
%a 4a). Jour. Min. Geol.13(1! 1-6.
,nnor' 0. ,.' %lasehin.e' P. B. an. Pal' P. /. (1$8$!' , geological e7aluation of a Prosecti7e site for a Eeir in
the Ri7er %8in' Ilorin' Nigeria. Nangew; 5eowiss' heft 8' S. 83 @ $#.
,rts8(ashe7' &. ,. (1$>3!' 5eoh8sical In7estigation of %8i)o .a) site' I3are' Eestern Nigeria. (-nu(lishe.
reort! 4eart)ent of 5eolog8. -ni7ersit8 of Ife.
,rts8(ashe7' &. ,. an. ,1ee1e' B. %. (1$>>!' 5eoh8sical In7estigation of %8ile .a) site' Ilesha. Journ. of Min
and Geol.14(2!' 44 @ 46
Iloe=e' N.P. (1$$1!' A new geography of Nigeria' New Re7ise. 0.ition. Bong)an Nigeria Bt..
+ilt8' +. 9.' N%RRIS' R. ,.' Gc Ba)ore' E. R.' Aennon' +. P. an. 0uge' +. (1$86!' Seis)ic Refraction at
Aorse Gesa .a); ,n alication of the generali1e. recirocal )etho.. Geophysics' "1(2!' 266 @ 2>".
%=o' J. S. an. %lorunfe)i' G. %. (1$$"!' 5eoelectric Gaing of a Near &ertical /ontact; , case stu.8 ,roun.
0rusu' I3are ,rea' South-Eestern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. 13(2!' 1"1 @ 1"3.
%lasehin.e' P. I. an. ,.elana' S. G. ,. (1$$$!' , 5eoh8sical In7estigation of a Proose. 4a) Site in
Southwestern Nigeria. Water Resources.1#' "# @ "4.
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