Journal of Natural Sciences Research ISSN 2224-3186 (Pa er! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.3' No.

13' 2#13

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection among Alcoholic Consumers at a Local Community, North-East Nigeria
Ja(es) N*a+o1,.' )(ina -aha.a 2.' Jose hine %. )(ira 1.'/e00. 1.%laolu1.'1a0itha ). )+an*e1. 1./e art(ent of 2iological Sciences' 3an*(ar+ 4ni5ersit. %(uaran'6wara state. 2./e art(ent of &irolog.' 7e*eral 8ollege of &eterinar. an* 9e*ical 3a0orator. 1echnolog.' &o(' Plateau State' Nigeria. , 8orres on*ing )uthor e- (ail:n*a+o;< A!stract )lcohol re(ains the single (ost significant cause of li5er *isease throughout the =estern worl*> which is res onsi0le for a0out 4# ? 8#@ cause of cirrhosis in *ifferent countries. 1his stu*. was therefore carrie* out to in5estigate the sero- re5alence of A2& infection a(ong alcoholics. %ne hun*re* an* thirt. eight (138! alcoholic consu(ers an* fift. ("#! control su0;ects at 2illiri 8o((unit. in 2illiri 3ocal Bo5ern(ent )rea of Bo(0e State were screene* for A2s)g using 8linotech /iagnostic 1hir* Beneration C3IS) 6it. Structure* Duestionnaire was e( lo.e* to o0tain *e(ogra hic *ata of stu*. su0;ects.1he result o0taine* showe* a ositi5it. of 1# (".3@! a(ong the su0;ects screene*. 8onsi*ering gen*er E (3.E@! sero ositi5it. was recor*e* a(ong the alcoholic (ales co( are* to 3 (2.1@! in fe(ales. )ge consi*eration showe* that su0;ects within 21 ? 3# .ears recor*e* 4 (2.1@! re5alence. CDuall. control su0;ects ha* a re5alence of 4 (2.1@!. 8onsi*ering the seru( a(ino transferase ()31! a(ong ositi5e su0;ects screene* 8 (4.3@! recor*e* an ele5ate* )31.1he *ata o0taine* in this stu*. calls for *rastic (easures at curtailing the s rea* of this 5irus' 0ecause of its atten*ant effects on the li5er. )lso' i((uniFation of in*i5i*uals in this co((unit. is highl. reco((en*e*. "ey#or$s: Ae atitis 2 5irus' Infection' )lcoholic consu(ers. % Intro$uction Ae atitis 2 5irus infects the li5er of the ho(ini*ae inclu*ing hu(ans an* causes an infla((ation calle* he atitis. It is a /N) 5irus an* one of the unrelate* 5iruses that cause 5iral he atitis. 1he *isease was originall. +nown as Gseru(H he atitis (2ar+er et al., 1$$6! an* has cause* e i*e(ics in arts of )sia an* )frica. Ae atitis 2 is en*e(ic in 8hina an* 5arious other arts of )sia (=illia(s' 2##6!. 1he ro ortion of the worl*Is o ulation currentl. affecte* with the esti(ate* at 3@ - 6@. S.( to(s of the acute illness cause* 0. the 5irus inclu*e li5er infla((ation' 5o(iting' ;aun*ice an* rarel. *eath. 8hronic he atitis 2 (a. e5entuall. cause li5er cirrhosis an* li5er cancer' a fatal *isease with 5er. oor res onse to current che(othera . (8hang' 2##E!. 1he infection is re5ente* 0. 5accination (Pung a ong et al., 2##E!. Ae atitis 2 5irus infection is esti(ate* to 0e the cause of 3#@ of cirrhosis an* "3@ of li5er cancer in the worl*'(PerF'2##8!.) roJi(atel. 1"-4#@ of atients with chronic A2& will *e5elo cirrhosis' en*-stage li5er failure or he atocellular carcino(a (A88! in their lifeti(e'(3o+ 2##2!.9ost of the *eaths ($4@! were attri0ute* to co( lications. 8hronic infection' such as cirrhosis an* A88' an* onl. 6@ were attri0ute* *irectl. to acute Ae atitis 2' (Bol*stien'et al'2##2!.Ae atocellular carcino(a is the siJth (ost co((on cancer an* the thir* (ost co((on cause of cancer *eath in the worl*'(7erl.'et al 2#1#!.8hronic A2& infection is the (ost co((on cause of A88' accounting for "#@ of A88 cases worl*wi*e an* u to 8#@ of cases in high A2& en*e(ic regions'(2osch'et al 2##4!. 1he ris+ of the worl*Is o ulation li5e in areas of low en*e(icit.' *e5elo ing A88 is greatl. increase* with the *e5elo (ent of cirrhosis. 1hus' the i*eal wa. to *ecrease A2&relate* *eaths is to first re5ent the infection through 5accination an* strategies to re*uce trans(ission an* secon*' to re5ent rogression to cirrhosis an* A88 in those alrea*. infecte*. Ae atitis 2 5irus infection (a. either 0e acute (self-li(iting! or chronic (long stan*ing!' ersons with self-li(iting infection clear the infection' (ore than $"@ of eo le who 0eco(e infecte* as acute or ol*er chil*ren will stage a full reco5er. an* *e5elo rotecti5e i((unit. to the 5irus. Aowe5er onl. "@ new 0orn that acDuire the infection fro( their (other at 0irth will clear the infection. 1hose infecte* 0etween the age of 1 ? 6 .ears' E#@ will clear the infection (6er+ar' 2##"!. 1he li5er which is the largest 5isceral organ' the (ost 5ersatile organ in the 0o*. an* an. con*ition that se5erall. *a(ages the li5er re resent a serious threat to life as it affects al(ost e5er. other s.ste( of the 0o*.. 3i5er has (an. functions which are 5ital to sur5i5al' the. inclu*e: - 1ransfor(ation of foo* into usa0le 0o*. che(icals' filtration of waste 0acteria' oison fro( the 0loo*' hae(atologic regulation' s.nthesis an* secretion of 0ile an* *rug inacti5ation (*etoJification!. 1he li5er also function as a store house for 5arious (inerals' 5ita(ins an* sugar that the 0o*. uses for energ. ()IC' 2##2!. )s a result of these functions' the li5er is 5er. 5ital to sur5i5al. ) nor(al li5er is s(ooth an* fir( to touch 0ut rogressi5e li5er *a(age can lea* to fi0rosis' shrin+age an* har*ening an* for(ation of no*ules (N)1)P' 2##2!. 3i5er in;ur. an* *a(ages such as he atitis' 23

Journal of Natural Sciences Research ISSN 2224-3186 (Pa er! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.3' No.13' 2#13

fi0rosis' cirrhosis' ortal h. ertension' he atocellular failure an* he atocellular carcino(a are cause* 0. 5arious factors such as toJins (e.g. *rugs' alcohol' oison an* che(icals! an* infecti5e agents (e.g. so(e 5iruses' 0acteria' arasite! ()0*alla' 2##1> 9artin et al., 2###!. Se5eral e i*e(iologic stu*ies suggest that chronic alcoholics are at ris+ of 5iral infections. 8linical an* 0asic research has *e(onstrate* that alcohol not onl. worsens the natural histor. of chronic 5iral he atitis' li+e he atitis 2 5irus (A2&! 0ut also see(s to interact with the 5iral re lication c.cle lea*ing to an unusual seru( 5irologic rofile an*Kor (o*ification in the seru( concentration of 5iral articles (Nal as et al.' 1$$8!. Se5eral stu*ies ha5e shown that atients with alcoholic cirrhosis showe* e5i*ence of ast or current infection with A2& (ore co((onl. than *i* health. nonalcoholic su0;ects (2assen*ine et al.' 1$83' Bou*eau et al.' 1$81' Inoue' 1$EE an* 9ills et al.' 1$81!. )n alcoholic has 0een *efine* as one who consu(es (ore of alcohol i.e. " flui* oF of wine or 1." flui* ounce (oF! of *istille* s irits an* contain a roJi(atel. #." oF (14 gra(s! of ure alcohol an* these le5el re resents hea5. alcohol inta+e an* t. icall. alcohol a0use (3ie0er' 2##1> Peters et al., 2##2! chronic alcohol inta+e is the (ost freDuent cause of li5er *isease an* accounts for (a;orit. esti(ate* 1##'### alcohol relate* *eaths each .ear (NI)))' 1$$8> )0*alla' 2##1!. )lcohol affects (an. organ inclu*ing the li5er ()IC' 2##2!. )n. one who consu(es eJcessi5e a(ount of alcohol will ha5e li5er *a(age' 0ut (a. not alwa.s *e5elo into cirrhosis. Se5eral 5accines ha5e 0een *e5elo e* for the re5ention of he atitis 2 5irus infection. 1hese rel. on the use of one of the 5iral en5elo e* rotein (he atitis 2 surface antigen!. 1he 5accine was originall. re are* fro( las(a o0taine* fro( atients who ha* long-stan*ing he atitis 2 5irus infection. Aowe5er' reco(0inant /N) technolog. through las(a *eri5e* 5accines is eDuall. effecti5e an* safe (Luc+er(an' 2##6!. Ae atitis 2 surface antigen (a. 0e *etecte* in seru( for se5eral *a.s> this is +nown as 5accine antigenae(ia (9artin-)0cel' et al., 2##4!.Pre5ention of the trans(ission of 5iral he atitis shoul* focus on u0lic enlighten(ent ca( aign to re5ent trans(ission to others an* rotection of those at ris+ grou against the 5irus. (/e Pal(a' 2##2!. & 'etho$ology( 2.1. Stu*. /esign: )lcoholic consu(ers in a local co((unit. North- eastern Nigeria were recruite* for this stu*.. 1he stu*. ensure* that onl. 5olunteers who agree* to alcoholic consu( tion at 5arious stages of life were recruite* for the stu*.. 2.2. Cnrol(ent an* /ata 8ollection: )fter o0taining in- for(e* consent' 5olunteer su0;ects co( lete* a Duestionnaire which was 0ase* (ainl. on the +nowle*ge of ris+ of eJ osure. 1hese Duestionnaires were *istri0ute* an* Mlle* 0. su0;ects through the hel of gui*es where e5er necessar.. Cthical clearance was then o0taine* fro( rele5ant ethical co((ittee 0efore sa( ling co((ence*. 2.3 Sa( le collection: 3(l of 5enous 0loo* was collecte*' *ul. la0ele* an* allowe* to clot an* sera carefull. se arate* into cr.o5ials an* store* at -2#o8 rior use. 2.4 Sa( le assa.K)nal.tical rocess: 1his was carrie* out using the A2s)g CI)' which is a soli* ? hase si(ultaneous san*wich i((une assa.' which e( lo.s (onoclonal anti0o*ies s ecific for A2s)g. 9icrotiter well is coate* with (onoclonal anti0o*ies s ecific for A2s)g. ) seru( s eci(en is a**e* to the anti0o*. coate* (icrotiters wells together with enF.(e con;ugate* ol.clonal anti0o*ies. 2." HBsAg )esting( 8linotech /iagnostics A2s)g CI) 3R/ Beneration was use* for the *etection of A2s)g in seru(.(Proce*ures e( lo.e* in the )ssa. were 0ase* on (anufacturers instructions!. *rinciples( 1he A2s)g CI) is a soli* ? hase si(ultaneous san*wich i((une assa.' which e( lo.s (onoclonal anti0o*ies s ecific for A2s)g. 9icrotiter well are coate* with (onoclonal anti0o*ies s ecific for A2s)g. ) seru( s eci(en is a**e* to the anti0o*. coate* (icrotiters wells together with enF.(e con;ugate* ol.clonal anti0o*ies. A2s)g' if resent' will for( a anti0o*.-A2s)g-anti0o*.-enF.(es co( leJ. 1he late is then washe* to re(o5e un0oun* (aterials. 7inall.' a solution of ARP enF.(e su0strate (192! is a**e* to the wells an* incu0ate*. ) 0lue colour will *e5elo in ro ortion to the a(ount of A2s)g resent in the s eci(en. 1he enF.(e su0strate reaction can sto e* an* the result is 5isualiFe* 0. na+e* e.e or rea* 0. CI) late rea*er for a0sor0ance at the wa5elength of 4"#n(. *reparation( 1est sa( le' control' con;ugate' *istille* water' su0strate alu(inu( 0ag containing tetra(eth.l 0enFi*ine (192! were allowe* to stan* to a(0ient te( erature 0efore use*. Assay( It was strongl. a*5ise* to anal.Fe each s eci(en an* control in *u licate. )ll the reagents shoul* eDuili0rate to roo( te( erature 0efore use*. 1. "#ul was *is ense* on ositi5e as well as negati5e control in *u licate into res ecti5e wells. 2lan+ was set as a 0ac+groun* control' an* "#ul of seru( or las(a sa( les into


Journal of Natural Sciences Research ISSN 2224-3186 (Pa er! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.3' No.13' 2#13

the res ecti5e wells. "#ul CnF.(e con;ugate was a**e* to each well-(iJe* gentl. 0. swirling the (icrotiter late on the 0ench for 2 (inutes. /% N%1 )// CNL-9C 8%NJ4B)1C 1% 1AC 23)N6 =C33. 3. Incu0ate at 3Eo8 for 1 hour (6# (inutes!. 4. Cach well was washe* " ti(es 0. filling each well with *ilute* wash 0uffer' then in5erting the late 5igorousl. to get all water out an* 0loc+ing the ri( of the wells on a0sor0ent a er for a few secon*s. ". 1##ul su0strate solution(192! was a**e* to each well' then incu0ate* at 3Eo8 for 1" (inutes. 6. "#ul sto solution was a**e* to each well to sto the color reaction. Rea* %./ at 4"#n( an* 63#n( with an CI) late rea*er within 1# (inutes. Assay +ali$ity( 4sing the %./ 5alue of the 0lan+ well to correct all the %./ rea*ing fro( the wells' %/ 5alue of ositi5e control shoul* 0e (ore than 1.# an* of negati5e control less than #.1. %therwise' the test is in5ali*. Interpretation of result( Positi5e ( ! 1he ration of %/ 5alue of sa( le N 2.1 %/ 5alue of negati5e control Negati5e (N! 1he ration of %/ 5alue of sa( le O2.1 %/ 5alue of Negati5e control =here NP 1he (ean a0sor0ance of the negati5e controls. PP 1he (ean a0sor0ance of the ositi5e controls. SP 1he a0sor0ance of the test sa( le. If the %/ 5alue of the Negati5e control is less than #.#"' it shoul* 0e re orte* as #.#". If it is (ore than #.#"' it shoul* 0e re orte* that as the actual %/ 5alue (easure*. 8alculation of cut-off 5alue: 1he cut-off 5alue is 2.1JNegati5e (N! 1est result: ) 1est is ositi5e if S N cut off 5alue ) 1est is Negati5e if S O cut off 5alue. 2.6 Statistical )nal.sis. /ata fro( all Duestionnaires o0taine* were entere* into SPSS' 5ersion 16' an* anal.Fe*. =hile le5el of signiMcance was set at PO#.#". 2. , -esults 1a0le 1: Show the *istri0ution of A2& a(ong alcoholics an* non-alcoholic su0;ects. Aighest re5alence of 1# (".3@! was recor*e*' out of a total of 138 alcoholic su0;ects screene* while 4 (2.1@! a(ong the non-alcoholic (control! su0;ects. 1a0le 2: 1he age *istri0ution a(ong alcoholic showe* su0;ect age* 21 ? 3# .ears recor*ing the highest sero re5alence with 4 (2.$@! while the lowest re5alence of 1 (#.E@! was recor*e* a(ong those age* "1 ? 6# .ears. 1a0le 3: show the re5alence of A2& 0ase* on gen*er a(ong alcoholic su0;ects. 1he highest re5alence of A2& a(ong alcoholics was recor*e* a(ong (ale su0;ects with E (".1@! while the fe(ale su0;ects 3 (2.1@!. 1a0le 4: Ris+ factors ut into consi*eration a(ong alcoholic su0;ects showe* that su0;ects with histor. of 0loo* transfusion recor*e* 3 (1.6@! re5alence. Si(ilarl. ris+ factors 0ase* on su0;ects with histor. of surger. showe* a recor* of 1 (2."@!' with P-5alue of PO#.#" or PN#.#". 1a0le ": showe* ris+ factor a(ong control (Non-alcoholic! su0;ects those with histor. of 0loo* transfusion recor*e* 3 (2".#@! ositi5it.. 1a0le 6: 1he seru( aninotransferase le5el recor*e* were 0ase* on the 14 (E.4@! A2s)g ositi5e sa( les' 1# (".4@! showe* a slight ele5ation of li5er enF.(e while 4(1.4@! recor*e* nor(al le5el.


Journal of Natural Sciences Research ISSN 2224-3186 (Pa er! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.3' No.13' 2#13

)a!le %(1otal Nu(0er of Su0;ects screene*. .tatus of su!/ects )otal No of su!/ects )otal No of *ositi+e )otal of Negati+e screene$ screene$ (0) .u!/ects (0) .u!/ects (0) )lcoholics 138 (E3.4! 1# (".3! 128 (68.1! Non-alcoholics (8ontrol "# (26.6! 4 (2.1! 46 (24."! grou ! 1otal 188 (1##! 14 (E.4! 1E4 ($2.6! Q2 P #.3#"' *f P 1' P P#.823' P-5alue O #.#" )a!le &( )ge *istri0ution of A2& infection a(ong alcoholic su0;ects screene* Age range )otal No of su!/ects )otal No of *ositi+e )otal of Negati+e screene$ (0) .u!/ects (0) .u!/ects (0) 21 ? 3# "# (36.2! 4 (2.$! 46 (33.3! 31 ? 4# 3" (2".4! 2 (1."! 33 (23.$! 41 ? "# 26 (18.8! 2 (2.14! 2" (18.2! "1 ? 6# 2# (14."! 1 (#.E! 18 (13.#! 61 ? E# E (".1! 1 (#.E! 6 (4.3! 1otal 138 (1##! 1# (E.3! 128 ($2.E! Q2 P #.4"$' *f P 2' P 5alues P #.E$"' P-5alue N #.#" )a!le ,( /istri0ution of A2& Pre5alence 0ase* on gen*er a(ong ()lcoholic! su0;ects. 1en$er )otal No of su!/ects )otal No of *ositi+e )otal of Negati+e screene$ (0) .u!/ects (0) .u!/ects (0) 9ales 88 (63.8! E (".1! 81 ("8.E! 7e(ales "# (36.2! 3 (2.1! 4E (34.1! 1otal 138 (1##! 1# (E.2! 128 ($2.8! Q2 P #.128' *f P 1' P ?5alues P #.E2#' P-5alue N #.#" )a!le 2( Ris+ factors 0ase* on clinical histor. of )lcoholic su0;ects -is3 4actors )otal No of su!/ects )otal No of *ositi+e )otal of Negati+e screene$ (0) .u!/ects (0) .u!/ects (0) Aistor. of 2loo* 3" (18.6! 3 (1.6! 32 (1E.#! transfusion Aistor. of Surgical 1" (8.#! 1 (#."! 14 (E."! % eration 1otal "# (26.6! 4 (2.1! 46 (24."! Q2 P #.#"2' *f P 1' P 5alue P #.82#' P-5alue O#.#" )a!le 5( Ris+ factors 0ase* on clinical histor. of control (Non-alcoholic! su0;ects -is3 4actors )otal No of su!/ects )otal No of *ositi+e )otal of Negati+e screene$ (0) .u!/ects (5) .u!/ects (0) Aistor. of 2loo* 8 (16.#! 3 (6.#! " (1#.#! transfusion Aistor. of Surgical 4 (8.#! 1 (2.#! 3 (6.#! % eration 1otal 12 (24.#! 4 (8.#! 8 (16.#! Q2 P #.188 ' *f P 1' P 5alue P #.66"' P-5alue N #.#" )a!le 6( /eter(ination 0ase* on total su0;ect of seru( transa(inase le5el on ositi5e su0;ects. .tatus of )otal No of A.) A.) AL) AL) su!/ects .u!/ect (0) A!normal (0) Normal (0) A!normal Normal (0) (0) )lcoholic 1# (".3! 8 (4.3! 2 (1.#! 8 (4.3! 2 (1.#! Non-)lcoholic 4 (2.1! 2 (1.1! 2 (1.#! # (#.#! 4 (2.1! 1otal 14 (E.4! 1# (".4! 4 (2.#! 8 (4.3! 6 (3.1! 5 7iscussion 1he result o0taine* showe* that the freDuenc. of A2& infection in alcoholics in the co((unit. is higher than in non-alcoholics. Aowe5er' acti5e infection (A2s)g ositi5e! was higher in the in*i5i*uals with histor. of alcoholis( than in those without such case histor. or control su0;ects. Aighest re5alence rate of 1# (".3@! out of 138 su0;ects screene* was recor*e* a(ong the alcoholics while 4 (2.1@! was recor*e* a(ong the non-alcoholic su0;ects screene* (1a0le I!. Statistical anal.sis showe* an insignificant 5alue in 0oth grou s (P-


Journal of Natural Sciences Research ISSN 2224-3186 (Pa er! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.3' No.13' 2#13

5alue P #.823!. 1hese fin*ings agrees with the wor+ of Jerrells et al., (2##2! that alcoholis( has a art to la. in 5iral he atitis' since re5alence was higher in +e. su0;ects than in controls'the reason (a. 0e fro( the *ifferent su0stances such as alcohol (/unn et al., 2##"> Jennifer' 2##6!' which can cause 5iral he atitis.)ccor*ing to 2e*ogni' et al., 2##8A2& infection in alcoholic is associate* with faster rogression in li5er in;ur. with an ele5ate* is+ of *e5elo ing cirrhosis in another stu*. con*ucte* 0. 3as+us' . et al., 1$$2 a(ong alcoholics it was foun* that re5alence of A2& is esti(ate* to 0e four fol* higher than in controls. 8onsi*ering age grou ' the highest re5alence of 4 (2.$@! was recor*e* a(ong the age 21 ? 3# .ears' while the lowest 1 (#.E@! was recor*e* a(ong those age "1 ? 6# .ears (1a0le II!.Statistical anal.sis 0etween the age grou s in*icate* no significant *ifferences with P-5alue #.E$" (i.e. P-5alueO#.#"!'1he age grou consi*ere* to ha5e the highest re5alence in this stu*.' agrees with the wor+ of N*a+o et al 2##$ in a si(ilar stu*ies con*ucte* a(ong alcoholics' this coul* also 0e attri0ute* to .outhful eJu0erance an* h. eracti5it. a(ong this age grou . 8onsi*ering gen*er' a higher re5alent was o0ser5e* a(ong (ales with E (".1@! while fe(ale 3 (2.1@! re5alent rate. 1his result corres on*s to the wor+ of 6ra*;en et al., (2##"! who re ort that the re5alence of A2s)g *e en*ing on the cause is foun* higher in (ales than in fe(ales> also it in agree(ent with the re ort of N*a+o et al., 2##$' where a higher re5alence was recor*e* a(ong (ale su0;ects screene*. 1his (ight also 0e attri0ute* to that fact that (en in this localit. consu(e* the local 0rew as sti(ulants 0efore e(0ar+ing on se5eral acti5ities such as far(ing an* others social functions. Ae atitis 2 infection (ight influence the *e5elo (ent of li5er *isease in hea5. *rin+ers in se5eral wa.s. 7irstl.' ersistent infection with A2& (ight otentiate alcohol-in*uce* li5er *a(age' an* there is e5i*ence that this (a. occur at fairl. low alcohol inta+es (&illa et al.' 1$82!. Secon*l.' chronic acti5e he atitis associate* with A2s)g (a. coeJist with alcoholic li5er *isease' an* the two *isease rocesses woul* ro0a0l. result in (ore ra i* rogression to cirrhosis. 1he seru( a(ino transferase le5els recor*e* were 0ase* on the 14 (E.4@! A2s)g ositi5e sa( les screene*' controls inclusi5e of these 1# (".4@! showe* a slight ele5ation of li5er enF.(e> 2ellentani et al., (1$$E! re orte* si(ilar fin*ings which shows a s ora*ic alteration of li5er enF.(es le5el a(ong the ositi5e su0;ects screene*. Aowe5er' accor*ing to Ba(en et al., (2##4! ersistent ele5ation of seru( )31 for (ore than siJ (onths in*icates rogression to chronic he atitis. Conclusion( In conclusion' Ae atitis 2 infection (ight influence the *e5elo (ent of li5er *isease in hea5. *rin+ers in se5eral wa.s' this coul* 0e *ue to the fact that ersistent infection with A2& (ight otentiate alcohol-in*uce* li5er *a(age' an* there is e5i*ence that this (a. occur at fairl. low alcohol inta+es (&illa et al.' 1$82!.CDuall. chronic acti5e he atitis associate* with A2s)g (a. coeJist with alcoholic li5er *isease' an* the two *isease rocesses woul* ro0a0l. result in (ore ra i* rogression to cirrhosis.7ro( our stu*ies'5accination of su0;ects is strongl. a*5ocate* in this co((unit.'while enlighten(ent on the *angers of this infectious agent 0e gi5en consi*era0le attention so as to re*uce the conseDuences of this 5iral infection a(ong the o ulace. 7isclosure 1he authors re ort no conRicts of interests an* *i* not reDuest or recei5e an. for( of Mnancial su ro;ect.

ort for this

Ac3no#le$gment 1he authors ac+nowle*ge the contri0utions of staffs &irolog. /e t.78&931' &o(' for allowing the use of 3a0orator..CDuall.'our gratitu*e goes to the 2iliri 8o((unit. for the willingness of the &olunteers use* in this stu*.. -eferences )0*alla' 9.-. (2##1!: )lcohol an* li5er *isease: )lcohol an* li5er *isease: Pg 1 ? 1$. )IC Phar(aceuticals (2##2!: )lcoholic he atitis: )lter nati5e (e*icine for )lcohol he atitis Pg. 1 ? E. )na 9ota' 7Sti(a Bue*es' Jorge )reias ' 3uciana Pinho' 9argari*a 7onsec 8ar*oso'(2#1#!.)lcohol consu( tion a(ong atients with he atitis 2 infection in northern Portugal consi*ering gen*er an* he atitis 2 5irus genot. e *ifferences. Elsevier Science Direct., 444:2 PP 149-156. 2ar+er' 3.' Shil(an' N.' 9urra.' R. (1$$6!: 1rans(ission of seru( he atitis 1$E#I J)9) 2E6 (1#!: 841 ? 844. 9.7. 2assen*ine' 3. /ella Seta' J. Sal(eron' A.8. 1ho(as' S. Sherloc+'(1$83!Inci*ence of he atitis 2 5irus infection in alcoholic li5er *isease' A2s)g negati5e chronic acti5e li5er *isease an* ri(ar. li5er cell cancer in 2ritain.J. Liver.Ds. 3 . 6"?E# 2attiston' 3.' (oretti' 9.' 1ulissi' P.' 9ichel' 3.' 3unaFFi' B. an* PoFFato' B.' (1$$"!: Ae atitis glutathione *eter(ination after ethanol a*(inistration in rate e5i*ence of the first ass (eta0olis( ethanol. Lifi. Sci.' "6: 241


Journal of Natural Sciences Research ISSN 2224-3186 (Pa er! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.3' No.13' 2#13

? 284. 2ec+' J.' Nassal' 9. (2##E!: Ae atitis 2 5irus re lication. World Jo rnal !astroenteral 13 (1!: 48 ? 64. 2e*ogni' B.' 9ighoul' 9asutt' 7. (2##8!: National course of chronic A8& an* A2& infection an* role of alcohol in the general o ulation the /ion.sos. "#. J. !astroenterol. 2##8: 1#3 (a!: 2248 2ellentani' S.' Saccoccio' B. an* 8osta' B. (1$$E!: /rin+ing ha0it as cofactor of ris+ for alcohol in*uce* li5er *a(age. $%e Dion&sos St d& !ro ' ! t.' P . 84" ? 8"#. 2osch 7Q' Ri0es J' /iaF 9' et al.( 2##4!.Pri(ar. li5er cancer: worl*wi*e inci*ence an* tren*s. !astroenterolo(&.12E("!:S"-S16. 2lu(0erg' 2.' )lter' A.' (1$$6!: 7urther stu*ies on a new hu(an iso reci itis s.ste(. ()ustralian antigen! 2loo* 2E(3!: 2$E ? 3#$. 2lu(0erg' A.' 2aruch' S. (2##2!:1he Aunt for a +iller 5irus. Princeton' NJ: Princeton. 2onino' 7.' %lwerri' 7.' 2runetto' 9.R. (1$$1!: Patho0iolog. of chronic he atitis 5irus infection an* he atocellular carcino(a (A88!. $%e )talian Jo rnal of !actroenterolo(&. 23 (8!: 4$8 ? "#2. 2ouchar*' 9.J.' Schnei*er R.J. (2##4!. 1he enig(atic Q gene of he atitis 2 5irus. J. 5irol. E8 (23!: 12E2"-34 8hang' 9. (2##E!: Ae atitis 2 5irus infection seru(. *etal +eonatal #ed 12 (3!: 16# ? E. 8hees0rough' 9. (2##2!: /istrict la0orator. ractice in tro ical countries art 2 Pg 2"# ? 2"2. 8enter for *isease control an* re5ention. (1$$E!: Reco((en*ation for re5ention an* control of A2& an* A2& relate* chronic *isease (or0i*it. an* (ortalit.. Wee,l& re'ort 4E:1-3$ /ane' /.' 8a(eron' 8.' 2riggs' 9. (1$E#!: &irus-li+e article in seru( of atients with )ustralian )ntigen associate* he atitis lancet (E64$!: 6$" -8 /o(ingo' C. (1$$"!: &iral he atitis 2. fro( 5irolog. to control' a co( rehensi5e re5iew. Phili ine council for Aealth Research an* /e5elo (ent /%S1. P . 146 ? 162. /rosten' Ni iirasch+' 1.' 9anegol*' 8. (2##4!: Pre5alence of he atitis 2 5irus /N) in anti-A2&Positi0eKA2s)g-Negati5e sera correlates with 28& 0ut not AI& serostatus. J. -%in. .irolo(&. 2$: "$ ? 68. /unn' =.' Ja(al' 3.).' 2rown' 3.S.' =iesner' R.A.' 6i(' =.R. an* 9enon' 6.4. (2##"!: 9CI/ accuratel. re*ict (ortalit. in atients with alcoholic he atitis. /e'atolo(&' 41 (2!: 3"3 ? 3"8. C*(on*o' C.7. (1$$6!. 8linical significance of Ae atitis 2. (e* *igest. 2(21!:1#-1" 7erla. J' Shin AR' 2ra. 7' et al.(2#1#! Csti(ates of worl*wi*e 0ur*en of cancer in 2##8: B3%2%8)N 2##8. )nt J -ancer> C. u0 Jun 1E. Bail0ert' 7.' 9an*art' C.' 1iloussi' 7.' 1oilais' P.' 8harne.' P.' (1$E$!: Nucleoti*e seDuence of the he atitis 2 5irus geno(e (su0t. e! clone* in E.coli: +at re 2"1 ("E33!:646-"# Bane(' /.' Prince' ).9. (2##4!: Ae atitis 2 5irus infection ? National histor. an* clinical conseDuences. +. En(l. J. 0ed. 3"# (11!: 1118. Bol*stein S1' Lhou 7' Aa*ler S8' et al.(2##"!.) (athe(atical (o*el to esti(ate glo0al he atitis 2 *isease 0ur*en an* 5accination i( act. )nt. J E'ide#iolo(&. 34(6!:132$-133$. Bou*eau').' 9au as'P.' /u0ois'7.'8oursaget.'P.' 2ougnouJ .'P.(1$81!.Ae atitis 2 infection in alcoholic li5er *isease an* ri(ar. he atocellular carcino(a in 7ranceProg. 9e*. &irol.' 2E> . 26?34. Aowar*' 8.R. (1$86!: 1he 0iolog. of he a*a5iruses. J. !en. .irol. 6E ( t E!: 121" ? 3". Jennifer' 6.J. (2##6!: Aealth s.ste(. In: )*a(' A./. (e*.!> )ll stration enc&clo'edia. Phila*el hia P). Jerrells' 1.R.' 9itchell' 6. an* Paul' 6.J. (2##2!: Influence of ethanol consu( tion on eJ eri(ental 5iral he atitis. "lco%ol -lin. E1'.' 26: 1E34 ? 1E46. 6a.' S.' Loulin' 7. (2##E!: Ae atitis 2 5irus genetic 5aria0ilit. an* e5olution 5irus Res 12E (2!: 164 ? E6. 6er+ar' N. (2##"!: Ae atitis 2 in chil*ren: co( leJities in (anage(ent. Pediatric trans#ission $ ("!: 68" ? $1. 6ra;*en' 9.' 9acna00' B. an* Petric' 9. (2##"!: 1he la0orator. *iagnosis of he atits 2 5irus. -anadian Jo rnal of infectio s a#d 0edical 0icro2iolo(&, 16 (2!: 6" ? E". 3annaccone' 9.' Sitia' B.' Ruggeri' L. (2##E!: A2& athogenesis in ani(al (o*el: recent a*5ance on the role of latelet. J. /e'atol 46 (4!: E1$ ? 26. 3as+us' 1.' Ra*+ows+i' 9.' 3u a' C.' Aor0an' ).' 8ianciara' J.' SlusarcF.+' J. (1$$2!: Pre5alence of 9ar+ers of he atitis 5irus in out- atient alcoholics. J. /e'atol. 1$$2: 1" (1-2!: 1E4. 3ier0er' 8.S. (2##2!: )lcoholic an* he atitis: )lcohol research an* health' 2": 24" ? 2"4. 3ocarnini' S.' (2##4!: 9olecular 5irolog. of he atitis 2 5irus. Se(in. 3i5er' /is. 24 su 1: 3 ? 1#. 3o+ )S.' (2##2!. 8hronic Ae atitis 2. + En(l J 0ed.> 346(22!: 1682-1683. 9ac8allu(' 7.%.' (1$4E!. Ao(ologous seru( Ae atitis. Lancet 2' 6$1 9acSween' R.9.' =ale.' 6.' et al., (2##1!: 3i5er' 2iliar. tract an* ancreas> (uirIs teJt0oo+ of atholog.. (13 e*.!. Pg. E4" ? E8". C*war* )rnol* Pu0lication' 3on*on. 9ora* our' /.' 8arn.' ).' 2hi(' C.' Ae atitis 8: a (ulti lication of acute he atitis in ost transfuse* thalassae(ia chil*ren. Lancet (2##1!: 34" ? 388. 9aritini' 7.A.' %0er' =.8.' Barrison' 8.=.' =elch' 6.' Autchings' R.1.' et al., (2##1!: 1he *igesti5e s.ste(. In


Journal of Natural Sciences Research ISSN 2224-3186 (Pa er! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.3' No.13' 2#13

fun*a(entals of anato(. an* h.siolog. "th e*. Pg. 8E4 ? 8E$. Prentice-Aall' Inc. Pu0lication New Jerse.. 9artin-)ncel.' 8asas'9.3.' 2onet' 2. (2##4!: I( lication of ost 5accination he atitis 2 surface antigenae(ia in the (anage(ent of eJ osure to 0o*. flui*s. )nfec. -ontrol /os'. E'ide#iol 2"(E!: 611-613. National Institute on )lcohol )0use an* )lcoholis( (NI)))! (1$$$!: 1' Ae atitis Infection an* )lcoholic li5er *isease: NIA Bui*e: 1 ? 8. National institute of Aealth (2##4!. 8oncensus *e5elo (ent conference on (anage(ent of Ae atitis 2: !astroenterolo(& 23(8!: 4$8-"#2. Nal as' S. Pol' &. 1he ot' A. L.l0er0erg' P. 2erthelot' 8. 2rechot 319945. CS2R) 1$$E )war* lecture: relationshi 0etween eJcessi5e alcohol *rin+ing an* 5iral infections. "lco%ol and "lco%olis#'J%Jfor* J.9e*icine 33>3 . 2#2?2#6 N*a+o' J.).' %la0o*e' ).%.' Ccheonwu' B.%.N.' Nwan+iti' %.%.' %nwuliri' %.' )naele' J.7.' )+a0ahile' %.I.' %+e+e' an* J.9' 2an*a (2##$!: Pre5alence of he atitis 2 surface antigen (A2s)g! a(ong alcoholic consu(ers at 2assa 3.B.). Plateau State: )nternational Jo rnal of +ational and "''lied Science. " (3!: 2E6 ? 28# PerF J7' )r(strong B3' 7arrington 3)' et al.' (2##6!. 1he contri0utions of he atitis 2 5irus an* Ae atitis 8 5irus infections to cirrhosis an* ri(ar. li5er cancer worl*wi*e. J /e'atolo(&> 4"(4!:"2$-"38. Peters' 9.B.' 1errault' N. (2##2!: )lcohol use an* he atitis 8.J /e'atolo(& 36 (su l!: "22# ? "22". Peter' 9.B.' 1errault'N. (1$$6!: )lcohol use an* he atitis 2. GAe atolog. ositi5e in;ection *rug users in the 4S citiesH. /rug )lcohol *e en*: 8(3! Pu0lic. 9e*. =A% (2##4!. Pung a ong' S.' 6i(' =.R.' oteurucha' J.J. (2##E!: Natural histor. of he atitis 2 5irus infection: an u *ate for clinicians. 0a&o -lin. Proc. 82 (8!: $6E ? E". Renato' /.' Aarol*' S.B. (1$$#!: Ae atitis 5irus in 5irolog.. P 1#8$ ? 11#2. Seff' 3.2. (2##2!: Natural histor. of chronic he atitis. /e'atolo(& 36: 1 ? 1$. Sirisena' N./.' N;o+u' 9.' 3elo+o' J.).' Isa(a*e' C.' 2aran' 8.' Jel e' /.' La(ani' ).' %lowo' S. (2##2!: 8arriage rate of he atitis 2 surface antigen in an ur0an co((unit. in Jos Plateau State. +i(. Post !rad. 0ed Jo rnal $: E ? 1#. 1a.lor' J.9. (2##6!: Ae atitis *elta 5irus-5olog. 344 (1!: E1.6. 1o le.' =.=.8.' =ilson' B.S. (1$$#!: 9icro0iolog. an* (icro0ial infections 8th e*ition P . E4" ? $66. =A% (2##8!: Blo0al re5alence (u *ate!' wee+l. e i*e(iolog. recor*. =orl* Aealth %rganiFation. 1he worl* health re ort. www.who.intKwhrK2##2KanneJKen. )ccesse* 7e0ruar. 2##2 =orl* Aealth %rganiFation. (2##1!. &iral he atitis. W/6 7 ll. &ol. 6#("!: 643. =A%' (2###!: Ae atitis 2 =orl* Aealth %rganiFation &ol. 1# P 2#4. =A% (2###!. Blo0al re5alence (u *ate! wee+l. e i*e(iolog. recor* =ile.' 1.C.' 9c8arth.' 9.' 2rei*i' 3.' 3a.*en' 1.J. (1$$8!: I( act of )lcohol on the histological an* clinical rogression of he atitis 8 infection. /e'atolo(& 28: 8#2 ? 8#$. =illia(s' R. (2##6!: Blo0al 8hallenges in li5er *isease. /e'atolo(& 44 (3!: "21 ? 6. Louli(' 7. (2##6!: New Nucleic aci* *iagnostic tests in 5iral he atitis. Ser # Liver Dis. 26 (4!: 3#$ ? 1E. Luc+er(an').J. (1$$6!. Ae atitis 5iruses. In : 2aroonIs (e*cal (icro0iolog. (2aroonIs et al.' e*s!' 4th e*.' 4ni5ersit. of teJas (e*ical 2ranch


This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open Access Publishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute is Accelerating Global Knowledge Sharing. More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage: CALL FOR JOURNAL PAPERS The IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals and collaborating with academic institutions around the world. There’s no deadline for submission. Prospective authors of IISTE journals can find the submission instruction on the following page: The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualified submissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to the readers all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of the journals is also available upon request of readers and authors. MORE RESOURCES Book publication information: Recent conferences: IISTE Knowledge Sharing Partners EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP Open Archives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe Digtial Library , NewJour, Google Scholar