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Impact of Government Interventions on Small Scale Entreprises in Mubi North Local Government Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria
+li,u +l-a.i Jibrilla Department of economics) +damawa State /niversit,) 0ubi) Nigeria. Email1 ali,umai-a2gmail.com Abstract 3-is stud, e4amined t-e impact of government interventions on Small Scale enterprise in 0ubi Nort- local government +rea. 3-e stud, -as become imperative because of an increasing inabilit, of Small Scale enterprises to live up to e4pected target as t-e engine for economic growt- and development) despite government encouragement in t-is direction. 3-is stud, focused its empirical verification on t-ree 5e, areas w-ic- are ver, fundamental to t-e stud,) vi61 perception of SSEs operators about government interventions t-e relevance of t-ese interventions to t-em) and t-e accessibilit, of t-ese interventions. Data were collected t-roug- interviews and 7uestionnaire. "ercentage and 8-i - s7uare tec-ni7ues were used to describe and anal,sed t-e results obtained from t-e field. 9owever) t-e available data indicates t-at government intervention sc-emes:programmes aimed at elevating t-e SSEs to t-e e4pected targets in t-e area) lac5s t-e awareness of t-e SSEs operators. +gain) t-e available data s-ows t-at accessibilit, to t-e intervention b, SSEs operators is not eas,. +s a result SSEs operators do not feel t-e relevance of t-ese interventions. ;inall,) based on t-e findings of t-e stud, t-e following recommendations are made1 government s-ould embar5 on t-e sensiti6ation:awareness creation and also reduce t-e conditions to be met before accessing t-e interventions. 1 ! IN"#$%&'"I$N /ntil t-e earl, 1<= s) man, economists regarded t-e continuous e4istence of small-scale industries in less developed countries as .ustified b, inade7uac, of capital and administrative capabilit,. It was often argued t-at wit- economic growt-) t-e small) traditional t,pe of enterprise would) in one sector after anot-er) be succeeded b, modern forms of large-scale production. In order to ensure an orderl, switc-) small scale enterprises were appreciated to deserve getting support) but mainl, in areas w-ere modern tec-ni7ues could not be applied straig-tawa, !E5pen,ong and N,ong) 1<<2#. +ccording to &ugui,a ! 2 (#) since independence) promoting small and medium scale enterprises as t-e foundation of economic progress -as been recogni6ed in Nigeria b, ever, regime !S0E) 2 (#. 3-is is because of its perceived relevance in ensuring sustained increase in per-capita income and output) as well as) emplo,ment generation and promotion of effective utili6ation of available resource !s#. Small Scale Enterprises !SSEs# -ave attracted considerable attention of bot- public and private sectors in more t-an two decades ago c-iefl, in most of t-e less developed nations. In a considerable number of suc- countries) government ma5es provisions for policies t-at are deemed promoting in t-eir development plans) policies and programmes for t-e promotion of small scale enterprises because of t-eir perceived benefit to economic development. ;or instance) t-ese perceived ideal benefits include1 emplo,ment generation especiall, for people in rural areas) transformation of traditional to modern tec-nolog,) stimulation of indigenous entrepreneurs-ip) reversal of urban-rural migration) greater utili6ation of raw materials) promotion of local tec-nolog,) mobili6ation of local savings) lin5age balance b, spreading investment more evenl,) abilit, to operate profitabl, in ver, narrow mar5ets wit- low purc-asing power) among ot-ers. 3-e e4tent of resources allocated to eacsector varies considerabl, from countr, to 8ountr,. "reviousl,) incentives were provided to favour large-scale enterprises) small scale enterprises were usuall, relegated to t-e bac5ground !;0S3) 1<<2#. Driven b, t-ese) several financial institutions in c-arge of microcredit and polic, instruments suc- as Nigeria +gricultural 8o-operative and >ural Development ?an5 !N+8>D?#) Nigerian ?an5 for 8ommerce and Industr, !N?8I#) National Economic >econstruction ;und !NE>;/ND#) ?an5 of Industr, !?I# among ot-ers were establis-ed to facilitate growt- of small scale enterprises. +nd of recent Small and 0edium Enterprises E7uit, Investment Sc-eme !S0EEIS#) Small and 0edium Enterprises Development +genc, !S0ED+# and ot-er polic, oriented institutions li5e Entrepreneurs-ip Development "olic, !ED"# run b, t-e National Directorate of Emplo,ment !NDE#) Industrial Development 8entres !ID8# among ot-ers were introduced to offer tec-nical and financial assistance to small scale enterprises. In spite of t-ese interventions underta5en b, successive governments to improve t-e performance of SSEs) .udging b, S0E performance) not muc- progress seems to -ave been ac-ieved) 3-is stud, e4amines surve, data in order to evaluate t-e relevance of government interventions on S0Es@ t-eir effectiveness and t-e sensiti6ation of t-e SSEs operators on t-eir e4istence and importance and to determine w-, t-ese interventions ma, not -ave ac-ieved t-eir goals in relation to t-e growt- performance of SSE in Nigeria.

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3-e ob.ectives of t-is paper are to ascertain t-e perception of small scale enterprises operators about government interventions and itAs relevant to t-e growt- of small scale enterprises in t-e stud, area@ to ascertain t-e general constraints faced b, small scale enterprises operators and to point out strategies t-at s-ould be adopted in order to overcome t-ese constraints. ;ollowing t-is introduction t-e remaining part of t-e paper is structured as follows) section two presents t-e literature review) section t-ree discusses t-e met-odolog,) section four presentsA results of t-e data anal,sis and section five comprised summar, conclusion and some polic, recommendations. ( ! #E)IE* $+ #ELA"E% LI"E#A"&#E AN% EM,I#I'AL E)I%EN'E /niversall,) t-ere is no generall, accepted definition of a small scale business because t-e classification of businesses into large-scale or small-scale is a sub.ective term and -as 7ualitative .udgment. In countries suc- as t-e /S+) ?ritain) and 8anada) small-scale business is defined in terms of annual income and emplo,ment level b, t-e businesses. 3-is definition also varies wit- w-at is obtainable in ?ritain !E5pen,ong and N,ong) 1<<2#. In Japan) small-scale industr, is defined according to t-e t,pe of industr,) start-up capital and number of business emplo,ees. +ccordingl,) small and medium-scale enterprises are defined as1 t-ose in manufacturing wit- at least 1 million ,en paid-up capital and at least * emplo,ees) t-ose in w-olesale trade wit- at least * million ,en paid-up capital and 1 emplo,ees) and t-ose in t-e retail and service trades wit- at least 1 million ,en paid-up capital and at least % emplo,ees !E5pen,ong and N,ong) 1<<2#. In Nigeria) t-e 8entral ?an5 of Nigeria !8?N#) for t-e purpose of credit guideline to financial institutions classifies as small scale enterprises t-ose enterprises wit- an annual turnover between t-e range of N1 ) . to N1% ) . @ wit- less t-an % emplo,ees@ wit- asset base !e4cluding real estate# of not less t-an 1 million !8?N) 1<$<#. 3-is almost coincide wit- t-e report of t-e ;ederal Bovernment Small Scale ?usiness Development "rogramme !S?D"# sees a small scale enterprise as an, manufacturing) process or service firm wit- investment a capital not e4ceeding N1% ) . in mac-iner, and e7uipment and emplo,ing not more t-an % wor5ers !&suala) 2 (#. >ecogni6ing t-e beneficial effect of SSEs) emerging economies across t-e world ) put in policies t-at are made to favor small scale enterprises as springboard for sustainable economic development !&sadebe) 2 7#. Driven b, t-is) government in Nigeria put in man, policies w-ic- favoured among ot-ers t-e establis-ment of a Small Industries Development "rogramme) in 1<71) to provide tec-nical and financial support for S0Es. 3-is led to t-e setting up of t-e Small Industries 8redit 8ommittee !SI88# to manage t-e Small lndustries 8redit ;und !SI8;# t-roug-out t-e nation. 3-e sc-eme) w-ic- operated as a matc-ing grant between t-e federal and state governments was designed to ma5e credit available in liberal terms to S0Es and was managed b, t-e statesC ministries of Industr,) 3rade and 8o-operatives t-roug- t-e loan management committees !D08s#!8?N) 2 *#. 3-e Nigeria ?an5 for 8ommerce and Industr, !N?8I# on its part was set up in 1<7* to provide among ot-er financial services to t-e indigenous business communit,) particularl, S0Es 3-e N?8l operated as a -ead financial bod, for t-e S0Es and also administers t-eir Doan Sc-eme. 3-e N?8I -owever suffered from operational problems) terminating in a state of insolvenc, from 1<$<. It is now part of t-e newl, establis-ed ?an5 of Industr, !8?N) 2 *#. 9owever) t-e establis-ment of t-e >ural ?an5ing Sc-eme !>?S# in 1<77 seems to mar5 new era in t-e -istor, of S0Es in Nigeria. 3-e Sc-eme was fundamentall, designed to confront t-e problems of inade7uac, of credit to t-e agricultural sector and underdevelopment of t-e rural based small-scale enterprises. ;or ob.ective impact t-e sc-eme mandated establis-ment of commercial ban5s branc-es in t-e rural areas in Nigeria. +nd b, 1<$<) t-ere were about 7%= new rural ban5 branc-es across t-e countr, wit- total deposits in all t-e rural branc-es amounting to about N%.7 billion !t-at is) about N7.% million per branc-# !8?N) 2 *#. In addition) t-e introduction of Structural +d.ustment "rogramme !S+"# in 1<$= was part of Bovernment effort) to come up wit- policies t-at would en-ance industriali6ation in t-e countr,) w-ic- lead to even opening up of doors for foreign investors to in.ect fund to S0Es and ot-er investment opportunities in t-e countr, !;0S3) 1<<2#. 3-is effort also saw t-e formal commissioning of t-e "eoples ?an5 of Nigeria !"?N in &ctober 1<$< wit- t-e ob.ective of meeting t-e credit needs of t-e S0Es. +nd b, 1<<*) in t-e attempt to attain a target of 17 branc-es) t-e activities of t-e ban5 w-ic- administered groups loans to beneficiaries -ad e4tended to all t-e states in t-e countr, !8?N) 2 *#. 9owever) t-e resulting devaluation of naira associated wit- t-e implementation of S+") force man, small and medium scale enterprises fall s-ort of finance. 3-is in turn) -ad force t-e federal government set up t-e National Economic >econstruction ;und !NE>;/ND#) in Januar,) 1<< ) aimed at providing relativel, long term loans to small and medium scale enterprises operators t-at would span for five to ten ,ears at low interest rates) so as to smoot- t-eir development process. 9owever) t-e credit e4tension activities of NE>;/ND was not free from setbac5 emanated from devaluation of t-e national currenc, t-at inevitable affects loan servicing b, t-e beneficiaries. 3-is force merger of NE>;/ND merged wit- some ot-er ;inancial institutions meant for S0Es

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development to form t-e ?an5 of Industr, in 2 1 3-e establis-ment of National Directorate of Emplo,ment !NDE# in 1<$= to generate self-emplo,ment in +griculture) Eout- Emplo,ment and 'ocational s5ills Development) and small scale business among ot-ers was anot-er commitment b, t-e national government to en-ance t-e e4ploitation of small scale enterprises to t-eir full potential !;BN) 2 *#. 8ovet) !1<$ #) observed t-at several small scale enterprises operators are -ig-l, proficient in t-eir tec-nical field but are less well e4perienced in managerial competence. 3-is ma, be part of t-e reasons for t-e longevit, in t-eir bac5wardness. It -as -owever been observe t-at insufficient capital is still t-e bottle nec5 face b, t-e small scale operators in Nigeria !&gec-u5wu) 2 11#. &t-ers) argued t-at S0Es failure in t-e countr, is partl, caused b, inabilit, of t-e S0Es operators to lending rules !S0ED+) 2 (# and deliberate divert of loans to ostentatious spending and refusal to pa, bac5 t-e capital and interest w-en time is due because of t-e financial indiscipline !&gu.iuba !2 (@ &sadebe) 2 7# as well as inconsistenc, of government policies directed to en-ancing business environment in t-e countr, !N.o5u) 2 2#. It -as also been argued an inaccessible collateral re7uirement b, S0Es operators was also responsible for t-eir ill performances !Isern) et al, 2009#. In order to obstruct furt-er setbac5 on t-e development of S0Es in Nigeria) t-e Small and 0edium Enterprises Development +genc, !S0ED+# was establis-ed b, t-e S0ED+N act of 2 * to promote t-e development of 0icro) Small and 0edium Enterprises !0S0E# sector of t-e econom,. +n important ob.ective of S0ED+N is to establis- a structured and efficient 0S0E sector t-at will en-ance sustainable economic development of t-e countr, t-roug- stimulating) monitoring and coordinating t-e development 0S0E !S0ED+) 2 %#. ( 1 "-E$#E"I'AL +#AME*$#. 3-is stud, recogni6ed t-at one ma.or feature of investment in developing countries of sub-Sa-aran +frica !SS+# is t-e -ig- import content of capital goods. 3-is buttresses t-e contention in t-e two gap model !8-ener, and ?runo) 1<=2 and ?ac-a) 1<$2#) t-at t-e lac5 of foreign e4c-ange ma, constitute a ma.or constraint to sustain -ig- rates of investment and growt- in developing economies. 3-erefore in countries li5e Nigeria w-ere botprivate and public sectors are -ig-l, complementar,) t-e lac5 of government in economic activities will alwa,s constitute an impediment to growt-. In ot-er word) government intervention is a crucial determinant factor in t-e growt- of Small Scale enterprises in Nigeria. 3-is is a serious issue w-en viewed from t-e perspective of t-is stud,. 3-erefore) t-e Fe,nesian t-eor, is considered to be more appropriate in t-is stud,. 3-is t-eor, offers useful insig-t to t-e understanding of t-e effect of government interventions on small scale enterprises. 3-e ma.or advantage of t-is t-eor, is its abilit, to provide t-e important of government involvement in economic activities. 3-e Fe,nesian economics argues t-at private sector decisions sometimes lead to inefficient macroeconomic outcomes and t-erefore advocates active polic, responses b, t-e public sector. Fe,nesian economics advocates a mi4ed econom,) predominantl, private sector) but wit- a large role of government and public sector. / ! MA"E#IAL AN% ME"-$%S 3-e paper is designed to determine t-e impact of government interventions on SSES in 0ubi nort- local government area of +damawa State. Due to t-e above assertion) t-is stud, ma5es use primar, sources of data collection) w-ic- was collected b, t-e use of 7uestionnaire:interview and observation. 3-e population of t-e stud, include all officiall, recogni6ed small scale enterprises w-ic- are located in 0ubi nort- local government t-at are categori6ed as @one-man business@ partners-ip and famil, business. ;rom t-is a sample si6e is drawn. 3-roug-out t-e stud,) 11% business operations were selected in some related t,pes of enterprises. 3-e sample si6e lies wit-in w-at can effectivel, be manage given t-e time and resources available. 3-e distribution cover t-e following categories of enterprises1 barbing profession) carpentering) welding) 3ailoring) 8omputer services and s-oe s-ining. Simple random sampling was used during t-e data collection t-at cut across t-e areas w-ere SSEs are predominantl, located in t-e local government area. 3wo instruments of data collection were used1 t-e 7uestionnaire and interviews. 9owever) w-ile t-e 7uestionnaire was t-e ma.or instrument) t-e interview complemented it. 3-e interview was used to e4tract information from t-e small scale enterprises operators w-o are responsible for t-e running of t-e da, to da, administration of t-e enterprises in t-e stud, area in order to -ave relevant on t-e impact of government interventions on t-e growt- of small scale enterprises in t-e area. Data collected from t-e issuance of 7uestionnaire and interviews were presented !in figure using percentages# and anal,sed using 8-i- S7uare anal,sis.

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0 ! %A"A ,#ESEN"A"I$N I$N AN% ANAL1SIS 3-is section contains t-e anal,sis of t-e data resulting from t-e fieldwor5 of t-e stud,. 3-e data was derived from bot- t-e 7uestionnaire and interviews. &ut of one -undred and fifteen !11%# 7uestionnaires distributed) one -undred and nd five were returned after all possible efforts b, t-e researc-er. 3-is is because some of t-e respondents claimed t-e, -ave eit-er no time or -ave loss t-e instrument. 3-e 7uestionnaire return rate is <1.*G. 3en 7uestionnaire representing $.7G were not returned. +s a result) t-e anal,sis is based on t-e one -undred and five !1 %#-completed %# completed 7uestionnaires and t-e findings from t-e interviews. 3-ese) I believe are ade7uate for t-e statistical manipulation involved in t-e stud,. 0 12 .nowledge of respondents ts on government Interventions, its relevance and accessibilit3 In order to ascertain t-e perception of respondents on government interventions on SSEs) participants were as5ed to indicate t-eir awareness on t-e position of government intervention) t-e t-e degree of its relevance and accessibilit, in t-e area. 3-eir responses in t-is regard are s-own in t-e figure 1. 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
82 63 36 58 32 15 6 13 10

Positive response #egative response $n%ifferent ccessi!ilit" of the interventions !" SSEs operators

Perception of government Relevance of the interventions on SSEs government interventions to SSEs operators

;igure 11 percentage of small scale operators on t-eir perception) relevance and accessibilit, of government interventions on SSEs !2 11# ;igure 1 s-ows t-e responses of SSEs operators of t-eir perception on government interventions on t-e SSEs. 3-e figure s-ows t-at = G of t-e respondents are not aware of t-e e4istence of government interventions) w-icis a serious setbac5 in assessing sing t-e sc-eme. Hit- t-e above figure) it s-ows t-at t-e number of respondents t-at are unaware is far above t-ose t-at are aware. Hit- regard to t-e degree of relevance t-e interventions to SSEs operators) w-en as5ed I-ow relevant are t-ese interventions ntions on ,our businessJK +s indicated in figure 1) *1G of t-e respondents indicated t-at t-e, are relevant. Breater number of t-e respondents) representing %%.2G opined t-at t-e interventions are irrelevant w-ile 1(.*G were indifferent. 3-is s-ows t-at t-e t-e government interventions to SSEs -ave not been felt. 3-is mig-t be as a result of t-e fact t-at ma.orit, of t-e SSEs operators are not aware of t-e e4istence of government intervention. +gain) t-is can also be attributed to poor perception of t-e sc-eme b, SSES operators. 3-is finding is in agreement wit- t-e findings from t-e interview wit- t-e SSES operators. 3-is is so because) 7 G of t-ose interviewed are of t-e opinion t-at t-e interventions are of no relevance to t-em) simpl, because of t-e fact t-at t-a t-e, -ave not benefited from it. +s an effort to determine t-e -ow accessible t-e interventions are) figure 1) reports responses of SSEs operators) revealing t-at t-e -ig-est number) w-ic- constitutes 7$.1G of t-e respondents indicated difficult, if possible in accessing t-e interventions. 9owever) insignificant number of t-e respondents) representing12.(G regarded t-e interventions as inaccessible) w-ile <.%G were indifferent. 3-is findings s-ow t-at operators -ave no eas, access to t-e interventions. 0 (2 'onstraints Encountered b3 SSEs $perators 3-e stud, furt-er tried to determine t-e reasons for t-e inaccessibilit, of t-ese interventions b, SSEs operators because a good number of respondents as s-own in figure 1 opined t-at t-e interventions intervent are not accessible. +s a result) t-e stud, tried to find out w-, t-e interventions are inaccessibleK +nd ma.orit, of t-e SSEs operators considered in t-e stud, attributed failure of t-e interventions to -eav, collateral attac-ed to t-e available loans@ @ insufficient access and lac5 of awareness about t-e interventions. 3-is suggests t-at c-ief reason for t-e interventionAs failure is t-e -eav, collateral t-at is attac-ed to t-e available loan opportunities for t-ose t-at are aware of t-e interventions.

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Knowledge of the respondents about the constraints encountered

6& 87& 7& 7&

enco'ntere% not enco'ntere% $n%ifferent

;igure 11 percentage of small scale operators based on t-e constraints encountered during t-eir business operations !2 11# H-en as5ed) do ,ou encounter constraintsJK 0a.orit, of t-e respondent $7G said t-at t-e, encounter constraints) =G said t-e, do not encounter constraints) w-ile 7G were indifferent. 3-e stud, tried furt-er to determine t-ose constraints w-ic- SSEs operators encounter in t-eir operations. In addition) a considerable number of SSEs operators considered during t-e stud, indicated t-at apart from inaccessibilit, of government interventions) t-e, also encounter ot-er constraints suc- as inade7uate capital:finance) poor government policies) problem of bad road conditions and power interruption) as well as) disturbances from local aut-orities 3-is s-ows t-at financial capital is t-e ma.or problem encounter b, SSEs operators in t-e area. 0 / -1,$"-ESIS "ES"ING 3-e c-i-s7uare test is used to test t-e -,pot-esis. 3-e significance level c-osen for t-e test is %G ! . %# using t-e formula. H-ere1

χ

2

χ2 = ∑
L

! f o − fe # fe

2

0easurement of discrepanc, e4isting between t-e observed and e4pected fre7uencies. &bserved fre7uencies E4pected fre7uencies

fo

fe

Summation

3-e decision rule is) w-ere t-e computed value of e4ceeds its critical !or figure# value) t-en t-e null -,pot-esis !9o# is re.ected and t-e alternative -,pot-esis !91# is accepted and w-en t-e computed value of is e7ual to or less t-an t-e critical !or figure# value) t-e null -,pot-esis is accepted. 3-is -,pot-esis -as been c-osen b, t-e researc-er for t-is stud,. 9o1 t-e difference between t-e respondents opinion does not implies t-at government interventions -ave no significant impact on SSES in t-e area. 911 t-e difference between t-e respondents opinion implies t-at government interventions -ave no significant impact on SSES in t-e area. 0 0 "est of -3pothesis Degree of freedom !D;# M !>-1#!8-1# !*-1#!*-1# M 2!2# M (

χ

2

χ

2

χ

2
. % !critical

value# M <.(<

fe =

!Row#!column# Total

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0 4 "he relation between respondents opinion on the impact of government interventions on SSEs in the stud3 area "able 12 $bserved fre5uenc3 6 o 7 of the respondents $pinion ,erception of government #elevance of the interventions government interventions "ositive *= *2 response Negative =* %$ response Indifferent = 1% 1 % 1 % "otal

f

Accessibilit3 of interventions 1* $2 1 1 %

the

"otal $1 2 * *1 *1%

"able (2 E8pected fre5uenc3 6 e 7 of the respondents opinion $pinion ,erception of government #elevance of the interventions government interventions ,es 27 27 No =7.7 =7.7 Indifferent 1 .* 1 .* 1 % 1 % "otal

f

Accessibilit3 of the interventions 27 =7.7 1 .* 1 %

"otal $1 2 * *1 *1%

"able /2 'omputed 'hi 9 S5uare

f

o

f
27 27 27 =7.7 =7.7 =7.7 1 .* 1 .* 1 .*
2

e

fo − fe
< < < -(.7 -<.7 1(.* -(.* (.7 .*

! fo − fe #2
$1 $1 $1 22. < <(. < 2 (.(< 1$.(< 22. < . <

! fo − fe #2 fe
* * * .** 1.*< *. 2 1.$ 2.1( . < 17.=<

*= *2 1* =* %$ $2 = 1% 1 3otal
2

M 17.=< >eading from figure N2 figure at %G level of significance for D; M ( N2 . % !critical value# M <.(< !tabulated# 0 : %ecision rule +s could be observed) t-e computed value !17.=<# is greater t-an t-e critical or figure value of !<.(<#. Boing b, t-e decision rule) we accept t-e alternative -,pot-esis !91# w-ic- sa,s It-e difference between t-e respondents opinion implies t-at government interventions -ave no significant impact on SSES in t-e areaJ. It could be deduced from t-e above result t-at) t-ere is no evidence to s-ow t-at government interventions -ave significant impact on SSES in 0ubi nort- local government area. 4 12 S&MMA#1 $+ "-E +IN%INGS 3-e focal point of t-is stud, -as been to e4amine t-e impact of government interventions on small enterprises in 0ubi nort- local government. 3-e stud, also appraised t-e perception) accessibilit, and relevance of t-ese interventions b, SSEs operators. 3-e stud, ac-ieved its ob.ectives t-roug- responses from t-e respondents t-at 12=

! f − fe # χ =∑ o fe

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t-e perception is poor) accessibilit, is not eas, and t-e intervention -as less impact. 3-e result also s-ow t-at onl, ver, few SSEs operators access t-ese interventions) w-ile t-e ma.orit, do not -ave good perception and access to it. +s a result) it was suggested t-at combined efforts need to be made in order to create awareness on t-e e4istence of government interventions so t-at its purpose would be ac-ieved. 0oreover) it was also observed t-at SSEs operators encounter constraints t-at militate against t-eir growt-) w-ic- according to t-em include lac5 of finance:capital) bad:inaccessible roads and constant power failure. Solutions to t-ese effects were also suggested. 4 (2 '$N'L&SI$N AN% ,$LI'1 #E'$MMEN%A"I$NS +s pointed out above) t-e inference drawn from t-e stud, is t-at t-e ma.orit, of SSEs operators do not 5now t-at suc- interventions e4ist in t-e stud, area. It is strongl, suggested t-at in order to improve t-e effectiveness of government interventions) concerted efforts s-ould be made in t-e areas of sensiti6ation and awareness creation. ;urt-ermore) more assistance in t-e area of training s-ould be given to e4isting SSEs operators so as to en-ance t-eir effectiveness. +lso access to t-e e4isting interventions s-ould be improved and encouraged. 3-is can be done b, revisiting t-e conditions or criteria to be met before accessing t-e sc-eme. 3o ensure t-e impact of government interventions on SSEs in t-e stud, area) along side removal of -eav, collateral) creating awareness and ensuring e7ual opportunit, to all t-e SSEs operators as indicated b, t-e respondents) t-ere is also need for proper sensiti6ation of t-e sc-eme so as to accomplis- t-e purpose for setting it:t-em@ encouragement of t-e power 9oldings of Nigeria !"98N# and ot-er power distributors to considerabl, improve t-e provision of ade7uate and constant power suppl, w-ic- is vital for successful enterprising@ ta5ing ade7uate measures b, t-e government and ot-er relevant sta5e-olders to bring t-e roads to a level t-e, could be considered ade7uate for eas, transportation@ more efforts on t-e side of micro credit institutions) and ot-er relevant agencies and financial institutions to pa, t-e e4pected leading role in ma5ing provisions for capital bac5-up to SSEs operators@ finall,) t-ere is need for more assistance in term of finance) training) ) improved e7uipment and public utilities) and securit,) as well as) improved tec-nical support not onl, from government but) ot-er non-governmental organi6ations !NB&s#. Ac;nowledgment 3-e aut-or would li5e to t-an5 "rofessor Barba I. S-e5a) Dr. S-e-u 0o-ammad) 3i..ani and Dr. 0o-ammad Inuwa Dauda for t-eir -elpful comments and suggestions. #E+#EN'ES +nigwe N.&. !1<<2#. + Stud, on t-e effects of government financial policies on small Scale industries in Enugu local government. Unpublished B.Sc Project Presented to the epartment of !ana"ement Uni#ersit$ of %i"eria &nu"u 'ampus. ?ac-a) E. !1<$(# OBrowt- wit- Dimited Supplies of ;oreign E4c-ange1 + >eappraisal of t-e 3wo Bap 0odel(, The )orld Ban* 8?N) 1<$<1 8entral ?an5of Nigeria1 Statistical Report +ol 2.Dagos 8?N) 1<$<1 .Statistical ?ulletin@ +nnual >eport and Statement of +ccount !'arious Issues#. 'entral Ban* of %i"eria, ,a"os 8?N) 2 *1 8entral ?an5 of Nigeria >eport) &conomic and -inancial Re#enue +ol./ %o 2 8-ener,) 9. and ?runo !1<=2# ODevelopment +lternatives in an &pen Econom,1 3-e 8ase of IsraelJ) &conomic 0ournal) 72 Isern) J.) +gba5ob a) +.) ;laming ) 0.) 0antilla ) J.) 0antilla) B. and 3ara6i) 0. !2 <# +ccess to ;inance in Nigeria1 8B+" 0icrofinance) ?ranc-less ?an5ing) and S0E ;inance) 8onsultative Broup to +ssist t-e "oor. -ttp1::www.cgap.org 8overt !1<$ #. Small ;irms and t-eir 0anagement Education in need "olic, Issues in Small ?usiness >esearc-!ed#. Terr$ )ebb and 1llan 2ill, ,ondon3 Se4an 5ouse. Druc5er. ".!1<=$#. ;inding mone, for t-e ?usiness 0anagement in Development in 8ountries &na- Julies!ed#1 ,a"os !acmillan Press. E5pen,ong) D.? and N,ong) 0.&.!1<<2# Small and medium Scale enterprises in Nigeria13-eir c-aracteristics) problems and sourcesof finance. 6a*una Printers ,td, P.7. Bo4 89:08, %airobi, ;en$a. ;0S3 !1<<2<. + 9and ?oo5 on Industriali6ation in Nigeria. ;ederal 0inistr, of Science and 3ec-nolog,) Dagos1 Sahel Pub. Fe,nes) J.0.) !1<*=#) I3-e general 3-eor, of Emplo,ment) Interest >ate and 0one,J. !c!illan and 'ompan$ ,td., ,ondon. NESB) 2 11 9elping Small and 0edium Scale Enterprises out ;inancing. Nigeria Economic and Summit Broup. journal of &conomic =ndicator. #ol.> %o 8

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Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development ISSN 2222-17 !"aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline# 'ol.() No.17) 2 1*

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N.o5u !2 2<. Bovernment policies for small and medium Scale Enterprises. =n &gun.iuba) F !ed# 8redit +vailabilit, to Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria Important of New 8apital ?ase for ?an5s-?ac5ground and Issues Retrie#ed from www.Business.com &digbo. ".8. !2 1#. O9uman >esources1 8-allenges off Small Scale Industries Development in NigeriaO. .0ournal of &conomic e#elopmen =ssues .+ol.? %o.? &gun.iuba.F.F !2 (#. 8redit +vailabilit, to Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria1 Important of New 8apital ?ase for ?an5s-?ac5ground and Issues. Retrie#ed from www.Business.com &gec-u5wu) +.D. !2 11#. 3-e >ole of Small Scale Industr, in National Development in Nigeria. Uni#ersal 0ournal of !ana"ement and Social Sciences +ol. ?, %o.?3 2/@8? &sadede. N.& !2 7#. 3-e effect of government Interventions on Small Scale Enteprises /npublis-ed 0.Sc 3-esis "resented to t-e Department of Sociolog, and +nt-ropolog,. Uni#ersit$ of %i"eria %i"eria. &suala. !2 (#. "rinciple and "ractice of small ?usiness 0anagement in Nigeria. &nu"u. 'heston 1"enc$ ,td. S0ED+N !2 %# &pportunities in Small scale enterprises. Small and 0edium Enterprises Development +genc, of Nigeria. >etrieved from www.smedan.gov.n7 S0ED+N !2 (#.8lassifications of Enterprises. Small and 0edium Enterprise Development +genc, of Nigeria. -ttp1::www.smedan.gov.n7 3-e Horld ?an5 !1<$<# Horld Development >eport New Eor51 74ford Uni#ersit$ Press.

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