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Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare ISSN 2224-32 ! "#a$er% ISSN 222&- '3( ")nline% *ol.3, No.+!

, 2 +3

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Inorganic Fertilzer, Vermicompost and Water Quality Effect on Vegetable Farming Along The Ri er !an"s#
Beetseh , I ,hu-wu, J , .e$art/ent of ,he/istry 0ni1ersity of Agriculture 2a-urdi Abstract Inorganic fertili3er , 1er/ico/$ost and water are a usual a$$lication on 1egeta4le far/ing along ri1er 4an-s in order to 4oost its $roduction , issues howe1er arising of interest fro/ these three are highlighted in this wor- on ri1er Benue ri1er 4an- 1egeta4le far/ing . *er/ico/$ost a heterogeneous /i5ture of deco/$osing /aterials in a dust 4in " 1egeta4les , 6ea 4ags , grains , 4read, crac-ers , cereals , eggshells , 7ea1es and grass cli$$ings % co/$osting using 1arious wor/s de1elo$ed within it fro/ flies showed that in 3 days at 2 8 concentration of 1er/ico/$ost $lot of 9ed $e$$er ",a$sicu/ annuu/% a $lant height of a1erage +:.:c/ was recorded while that of che/ical fertili3er showed the sa/e $lant a height of +4.!c/ . ,ontrol $lot "without any a$$lication% showed + .'c/ height . At : days the inorganic fertili3er a$$lied at 2 8 dose showed 2'.2c/ $lant height and in 1er/ico/$ost a$$lied $lots at the sa/e concentration dose, 33.4c/ of $lant height, was the result. A$$lying these $roducts on 1egeta4le far/s using water along the ri1er 4an-s of 9i1er Benue directly and indirectly 4rings to attention the uncontrolla4le ha4it of settlers along ri1er 4an-s es$ecially in the refuse discharge and defeacation which co/$ro/ises the water and the ;uality of $roducts of the far/s . <or- carried out in .elhi 0ni1ersity in 2 ' showed that the a/ount of fecal /atter in ri1er water increased e5$onentially as ,entral #ollution ,ontrol Board ,#,B ca/e out with its findings. 6he a/ount of =ecal colifor/ "=,% > 4acteria "anaero4ic , nons$orulating, rod-sha$ed 4acteria that $roduce acid and gas fro/ the fer/entation of lactose sugar? e.g., @scherichia coli, @ntero4acter aerogenes, and Ale4siella $neu/oniae % a1aila4le in hu/an and ani/al feaces > has grown 4y as /uch as 3 ti/es as co/$ared to ,#,B 1alues. *egeta4les grown on Ba/una 4ed in east and south .elhi are already -nown to ha1e high =, . 6he wor- done on ri1er Benue at inta-e in the greater water wor-s $roCect showed the 1alue of colifor/ 4acteria as high as +! Beetseh and Adulug4a "2 +3% . 2any /illions of /icroorganis/s " though /ost are har/less in the hu/an intestinal tract% are li-ely to carry $athogenic /icro4es. ,olifor/s are used as indicators of sewage $ollutionD a high colifor/ count usually indicates recent sewage $ollution. i/$licating the 1egeta4le $roduction on the ri1er 4an- which on consu/$tion can 4ring one down with se1ere intestinal $ro4le/s li-e 4lood infections, sto/ach u$sets and -idney dysfunction .6he a$$lication of /odern far/ing syste/ inno1ations in the study area 4y the far/ers will 4e difficult since /aCority of the/ are illiterates .a/, #. .. " 2 +2 % es$ecially in the use of $ro$er toilet syste/s . According to the sa/e .elhi 0ni1ersity 2 ' re$ort /entioned earlier the $ro4a4le $artial solution is to allow for the growth of water hyacinth, which a4sor4s conta/inants and 1egeta4les to 4e re$eatedly washed and coo-ed. 9aw 1egeta4les on these ri1er 4an-s should 4e a1oided . $ey%ords *egeta4les , =ertili3er , 9i1er 4an- *er/ico/$ost and =ar/ing . Introduction 2odern cro$ far/ing 1aries widely in its sco$e, ranging fro/ intensi1ely /anaged s/all $lots to co//ercial far/s co1ering thousands of acres. Successful cro$ far/ers /ust 4e e5$ert at selecting the -inds and 1arieties of $lants that are ada$ted to their soils and cli/ate. 6hey /ust 4e s-illed in $re$aring soil and in $lanting, growing, $rotecting, har1esting, and storing cro$s. 6hey /ust 4e a4le to control weeds, insects, and diseases, and they need good /ar-eting s-ills to gain reasona4le returns fro/ their cro$s . <ater is as 1ital for $lants as it is for other organis/s. 6he $ressure of water within the $lant cells hel$s the $lantEs lea1es to re/ain fir/. <ater also is essential for /ost of the $lantEs 4ioche/ical reactions. In addition, water stores essential dissol1ed nutrients. How often $lants need water de$ends on how hot, dry, and windy the cli/ate is, how well the $lant tolerates dry conditions, and how dee$ the roots go into the soil. #lants can 4e watered at any ti/e of day. Howe1er, to a1oid $lant diseases that thri1e in cool, /oist conditions and to reduce water lost through e1a$oration, gardeners water in the early /orning, when the air is cool and still, 4ut the sun will soon dry the lea1es. 6he 4est /ethod for watering $lants is to a$$ly the water directly to the soil, rather than o1er the to$s of the $lants. 6he water should 4e a$$lied at a rate no faster than it can $ercolate into the soil so that the e5cess will not run off and 4e wasted. 6his techni;ue reduces water lost through e1a$oration and -ee$s lea1es dry, which discourages diseases. A few tools for watering the soil efficiently include hoses with tiny holes all along their surface, called soa-er hosesD $lastic tu4es with tiny holes $unched in the/ at inter1als for dri$ irrigationD and $lastic Cugs with s/all holes $unched in the 4otto/, filled with water, and set 4eside a $lant. <atering large, densely $lanted areas, such as a lawn, re;uires a s$rin-ler. @1a$oration of water fro/ the soil can 4e /ini/i3ed 4y co1ering the soil with a $rotecti1e layer -nown as /ulch. 2ulch acts as a 4arrier that slows e1a$oration 4y !+

Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare ISSN 2224-32 ! "#a$er% ISSN 222&- '3( ")nline% *ol.3, No.+!, 2 +3

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reducing the a/ount of air and heat that reaches the soil surface. 2aterials that can 4e used as /ulch include lea1es, 4ar- chi$s, grass cli$$ings, and card4oard. 9ecords of # . .a/ "2 +2% on dry season 1egeta4le far/ing in Benue State has descri4ed a s/all-scale 1egeta4le irrigation far/ing as a syste/ usually $racticed along ri1er 4an-s "flood$lains or =ada/a land% 4y far/ers who ta-e res$onsi4ility for the in1est/ent and /anage/ent of their far/s. In Nigeria dry season 1egeta4le far/ing has its origin in thenorthern region. *egeta4le far/ing is /ore co//on, $o$ular and lucrati1e in towns on the Jos #lateau and along Aatsina Ala and Benue ri1ers . It is a /aCor econo/ic acti1ity during the dry season in1ol1ing /any youths "Ior-ua, I-yernu/ and Aere-u, 2 4, Ade$oCu and .ung, +'''%.)ther areas of irrigation far/ing in Nigeria include 7a-e ,had, Bo4e 9i1er, AanCi .a/, So-oto 9i1er Basin. Ade$etu "+'!'% and go1ern/ent effort to encourage dry season far/ing in the country led to the construction of large .a/s such as Airi .a/ "for/er Fongola State%, 6iga .a/ "Aano State%, Ba-olori .a/ "So-oto State% and .adin-owa .a/ "Fo/4e State%. According to records of Britannica @ncyclo$edia 2 + 1egeta4les are usually referred to the fresh edi4le $ortion of a her4aceous $lantGroots, ste/s, lea1es, flowers, or fruit usually classified on the 4asis of the $art used for food. 6he root 1egeta4les include 4eets, carrots, radishes, and turni$s. Ste/ 1egeta4les include as$aragus and -ohlra4i. A/ong the edi4le tu4ers, or underground ste/s, are $otatoes. 6he leaf and leafstal- 1egeta4les include 4russels s$routs, ca44age, celery, lettuce, rhu4ar4, and s$inach. A/ong the 4ul4 1egeta4les are garlic, lee-s, and onions. 6he head, or flower, 1egeta4les include articho-es, 4roccoli, and cauliflower. 6he fruits co//only considered 1egeta4les 4y 1irtue of their use include 4eans, cucu/4ers, egg$lant, o-ra, $eas, sweet corn, s;uash, $e$$ers, and to/atoes. 2odern 1egeta4le far/ing ranges fro/ s/all-scale $roduction for local sale to 1ast co//ercial o$erations utili3ing the latest ad1ances in auto/ation and technology. 2ost 1egeta4les are $lanted 4y seeding in the fields where they are to 4e grown, 4ut occasionally they are ger/inated in a nursery or greenhouse and trans$lanted as seedlings to the field. .uring the growing season her4icides, $esticides, and fungicides are co//only used to inhi4it da/age 4y weeds, insects, and diseases, res$ecti1ely. Har1esting o$erations are usually /echani3ed in well-de1elo$ed nations, 4ut the $ractice of har1esting 4y hand is still e/$loyed in so/e areas or is used in conCunction with /achine o$erations. Another concern of the 1egeta4le far/er is $osthar1est storage, which /ay re;uire refrigerated facilities. Ho/e gardening $ro1ides 1egeta4les e5clusi1ely for fa/ily use. A4out one-fourth of an acre "one-tenth of a hectare% of land is re;uired to su$$ly a fa/ily of si5. 6he /ost suita4le 1egeta4les are those $roducing a large yield $er unit of area. Bean, ca44age, carrot, lee-, lettuce, onion, $arsley, $ea, $e$$er, radish, s$inach, and to/ato are desira4le ho/e garden cro$s. + . VE&ETA!'E(

Figure ) !unches of carrots *+aucus carota,# -ourtesy +an !urton./ature 0icture 'ibrary 12)2 2ost fresh 1egeta4les ha1e a water content in e5cess of H $ercent, with only a4out 3.& $ercent $rotein and less than + $ercent fat. *egeta4les, howe1er, are good sources of /inerals, es$ecially calciu/ and iron, and 1ita/ins, $rinci$ally A and ,.

!2

Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare ISSN 2224-32 ! "#a$er% ISSN 222&- '3( ")nline% *ol.3, No.+!, 2 +3

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Figure 1 3nshelled peas# -ourtesy William Whitehurst.-orbis 12)2 2ar-et gardening $roduces assorted 1egeta4les for a local /ar-et. 6he de1elo$/ent of good roads and of /otor truc-s has ra$idly e5tended a1aila4le /ar-etsD the /ar-et gardener, no longer forced to confine his o$erations to his local /ar-et, often is a4le to s$eciali3e in the $roduction of a few, rather than an assort/ent, of 1egeta4lesD a transfor/ation that $ro1ides the 4asis for a distinction 4etween /ar-et and truc- gardening in the /id-2 th century. 6ruc- gardens $roduce s$ecific 1egeta4les in relati1ely large ;uantities for distant /ar-ets. In the /ethod -nown as forcing, 1egeta4les are $roduced out of their nor/al season of outdoor $roduction under forcing structures that ad/it light and induce fa1oura4le en1iron/ental conditions for $lant growth. Freenhouses, cold fra/es, dry season , irrigation and hot4eds are co//on structures used. Hydro$onics, so/eti/es called soilless culture, allows the grower to $ractice auto/atic watering and fertili3ing, thus reducing the cost of la4our. 6o successfully co/$ete with other fresh /ar-et $roducers, greenhouse 1egeta4le growers /ust either $roduce cro$s when the outdoor su$$ly is li/ited or $roduce ;uality $roducts co//anding $re/iu/ $rices 2. FERTI'I4ER( =ertili3ers are organic or inorganic su4stances that are added to the soil to i/$ro1e the fertility of the soil, they contain essential nutrients needed 4y $lant at a gi1en rate. =ertili3ers are su$$lied to the soil in a for/ that it will 4e con1enient for the $lant to a4sor4 the/ fro/ the soil. Inorganic fertili3ers are fertili3ers that are synthetic, that are artificial for/ of $lant nutrients su$$ly. "Nge3e, +''!%. 6he growing $lant re;uires nutrients such as nitrogen "N%, $hos$horus "#%, $otassiu/ "A%, calciu/ ",a%, sodiu/ "Na% and sul$hur "S% for soil fertility /aintenance and cro$ $roduction. 6hese nutrients ha1e s$eciali3ed functions and should 4e su$$lied to $lant at the right ti/e and the right ;uantity According to the study of =iro3, "2 '% Nitrogen and #hos$horus are /aCor nutrients re;uired 4y o-ra for $ro$er growth si/ilarly Sultana "2 % found highest $lant height with the a$$lication of sa/e dose of $hos$horus. ,o/$ost contains 1aria4le a/ounts of N, # and A and is a 1alua4le source of $lant nutrients. A/ong 1arious sources of organic /atter, 1er/ico/$ost ha1e 4een recogni3ed as ha1ing considera4le $otential as soil a/end/ents recently, there is an increasing interest in the $otential of 1er/ico/$ost, which is a $roduct of a non-ther/o$hilic 4iodegradation of organic /aterials through interactions 4etween earthwor/s and /icroorganis/s, as $lant growth /edia and soil a/end/ent. ,hic-en litter, which consists of chic-en /anure /i5ed with sawdust, is an organic fertili3er that has 4een shown to 4etter condition !3

Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare ISSN 2224-32 ! "#a$er% ISSN 222&- '3( ")nline% *ol.3, No.+!, 2 +3

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soil for har1est than synthesi3ed fertili3er.According to <i-i$edia " =ertili3er% 2 +3 researchers at the Agricultural 9esearch Ser1ice "A9S% studied the effects of using chic-en litter, an organic fertili3er, 1ersus synthetic fertili3ers on cotton fields, and found that fields fertili3ed with chic-en litter had a +28 increase in cotton yields o1er fields fertili3ed with synthetic fertili3er. In addition to higher yields, researchers 1alued co//ercially sold chic-en litter at a I+HJton $re/iu/ "to a total 1aluation of IH!Jton% o1er the traditional 1aluations of I:+Jton due to 1alue added as a soil conditioner. )ther A9S studies ha1e found that algae used to ca$ture nitrogen and $hos$horus runoff fro/ agricultural fields can not only $re1ent water conta/ination of these nutrients, 4ut also can 4e used as an organic fertili3er. A9S scientists originally de1elo$ed the Kalgal turf scru44erK to reduce nutrient runoff and increase ;uality of water flowing into strea/s, ri1ers, and la-es. 6hey found that this nutrient-rich algae, once dried, can 4e a$$lied to cucu/4er and corn seedlings and result in growth co/$ara4le to that seen using synthetic fertili3ers. ,ost of inorganic fertili3er is 1ery high and so/eti/es it is not a1aila4le in the /ar-et for which the far/ers fail to a$$ly the inorganic fertili3ers to the cro$s in ti/e. )rganic /anure is easily a1aila4le to the far/ers and its cost is low co/$ared to that of inorganic fertili3ers. A$$lication of 1er/ico/$ost $roduced 4y 4iodegrada4le waste could 4e one of the /ost econo/ical and attracti1e /ethods of sol1ing the $ro4le/s li-e waste dis$osal and the re;uire/ent to increase the organic /atter content of soil. 5#2 6ATERIA'( A/+ 6ET78+8'8&9 5#) (ubstrates 0rea, N#A as che/ical fertili3er was $urchased fro/ the 2inistry of Agriculture 2a-urdi. Soil analysis was done to -now the lac-ing nutrients. *er/ico/$ost was $re$ared fro/ locally a1aila4le /unici$al 4iodegrada4le waste. Analysis was done in tri$licate "nL3% to -now the actual co/$osition of /acro and /icro nutrients of soil , the $H was neutral and 3&.H , te/$erature. 0rea was selected as a che/ical fertili3er for the study of ,a$sicu/ annu/ cro$s.

Figure 5 Red pepper *-apsicum annuum, courtesy &#R# Roberts 12)2 N#A content in 1er/in-co/$ost $roduced was in the o$ti/u/ range re;uired for $lant growth, $H of co/$ost was al-aline suita4le for $lant growth and acting as growth enhancer. *er/ico/$ost at concentrations of , &, + , +& and 2 8 was a$$lied in the field. Nearly a4out 2 seeds were $lanted $er $lotD watering was done at alternate day on each $lot. 2onitoring was done at +& days inter1al $eriod. #lant height, nu/4er of lea1es, nu/4er of 4uds etc. were /easured at +&, 3 , 4&, and : dayEs inter1al $eriod. )n : th day all ,a$sicu/ annu/ $lant were u$rooted to study the fresh wt. and dry wt. 4io/ass. A co/$arati1e data was $re$ared 4etween each le1el fertili3er concentration on which $lants were grown. 5,1 +etermination of Total -oli:form !acteria + /l of /ac con-ey 4roth was filled in +& 4ottles using sterile syringe. 6he in1erted .urha/ tu4es were inserted in each of the 4ottles and the autocla1ed for +&/inutes at +2+o,. the 4ottle were then re/o1ed and $laced in a sterile en1iron/ent . + /l of the water sa/$les was inoculated in the first fi1e 4ottles . +/l of water was inoculated in the second fi1e 4ottles while .+/l of water was inoculated into the last fi1e 4ottles. 6he 4ottles were -e$t in an incu4ator and o4ser1ed at the end of 24 and 4!hours for $resu/$ti1e and confir/atory test res$ecti1ely . 6he nu/4er of $ositi1e 4ottles indicated 4y colour and gas for/ation in each of the rolls were !4

Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare ISSN 2224-32 ! "#a$er% ISSN 222&- '3( ")nline% *ol.3, No.+!, 2 +3

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recorded and co/$ared with the 4acterial load in a 2ac con-ey ta4le. 6his $rocedure was re$eated for all the water sa/$les ").N<9I, +''H%, 5#5 +etermination of +issol ed 8;ygen 6he dissol1ed o5ygen /eter "/odel ' H+ /ade 4y the HA,H co/$any% was used. 6he /eter was switched on and the $ro4e i//erge into distilled water to rinse and adCust the 1alue to 3ero reading. 6he $ro4e was then i//erged into the water sa/$les and the reading was recorded. 6he $rocedure was re$eated for all the water sa/$les. <#2 RE(3'T( Table <#) &ro%th parameters of -apsicum annum after application of 3rea SJN )4ser1ation 8 &8 + 8 +&8 after +& .ays ",ontrol% "A1gMS.% "a1g MS.% "A1g M S.% "A1gMS.% +. Height "c/% 4.: M .3 4.' M .+ &.: M .& :.' M .3 2. No. of lea1es 2.'M .+ 3.+ M .3 3.!M .2 4.!M .: 3. No of 4uds .'M .2 +.+M .+ +.' M .& 2.: M .4 SJN )4ser1ation After 3 .ays Height "c/% No. of lea1es No of 4uds )4ser1ation After 4& .ays Height "c/% No. of lea1es No of 4uds )4ser1ation After : .ays Height "c/% No. of lea1es No of 4uds No of fruits =resh wt. "g% .ry wt. "g% 8 ",ontrol% "A1gMS.% + .' M .3 &.2M .+ 3.3M .2 8 ",ontrol% "A1gMS.% 23.& M .H '.4M .3 4.2M .2 8 ",ontrol% "A1gMS.% 3+.2 M .& + .3M .+ :.'M .' H.3M .3 +H.:M .3 &.32M .+ &8 "A1gMS.% +2.2 M .4 H.2 M .+ +3.&M .+ &8 "A1gMS.% 2:. M .+ + .3 M .! 4.&M .: &8 "A1gMS.% 32.' M .2 +3.& M .3 H.2M .+ H.'M .+ +!.+M .& :.++M .: + 8 "a1g MS.% +3.!M .: !.&M .3 3.' M .4 + 8 "a1g MS.% 2H.+ M .3 ++.2M .+ 4.!M .+ + 8 "a1g MS.% 33.& M .+ +&.+M .: H.: M .3 !.& M .+ +'.4 M .+ H.+2 M .4 +&8 "A1g M S.% +4.2 M .+ '.+M .+ 4.3 M .2 +&8 "A1g M S.% 2!.2M .+ +2.'M .3 &.2 M .& +&8 "A1g M S.% 34.4 M .H +H.4M .+ 2H.'M .H !.'M .2 22.+M .2 '.+3M .:

2 8 "A1g MS.% !.4 M .+ &.+M .4 3.! M .+ 2 8 "A1g MS.% +4.! M .4 '.:M .2 &.' M .3 2 8 "A1g MS.% 2'.2 M .& +3.'M .: :.H M .+ 2 8 "A1g MS.% 3&.+ M .' +!.+M .+ !.2 M .2 '.&M .+ 24.3 M .+ + .3+M .3

+. 2. 3. SJN

+. 2. 3. SJN

+. 2. 3. 4. &. :.

Table <#1 &ro%th parameter of -apsicum *n=5, SJN )4ser1ation 8 After +& .ays ",ontrol% "A1gMS.% +. Height "c/% 4.: M .3 2. No. of lea1es 2.'M .+ 3. No of 4uds .'M .2 SJN )4ser1ation After 3 .ays Height "c/% No. of lea1es No of 4uds 8 ",ontrol% "A1gMS.% + .' M .3 &.2M .4 3.3M .2

annum after application of ermin:compost at arious +oses &8 "A1gMS.% :.' M .! 3.: M .2 2.+M .& &8 "A1gMS.% +3.2M .4 !.4 M .+ &.'M .2 + 8 "a1g MS.% H.:M .3 4.&M .+ 2.HM .: + 8 "a1g MS.% +4.!M .+ '.+M .! :.+M .& +&8 "A1g M S.% !.'M .+ &.:M .H 3.:M .2 +&8 "A1g M S.% +&.4M .' '.:M .2 :.! M . + 2 8 "A1g MS.% '.&M .& &.'M .+ 4.&M .: 2 8 "A1g MS.% +:.:M .+ + -.:M .4 H.&M .:

+. 2. 3.

!&

Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare ISSN 2224-32 ! "#a$er% ISSN 222&- '3( ")nline% *ol.3, No.+!, 2 +3

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SJN

)4ser1ation After 4& .ays Height "c/% No. of lea1es No of 4uds )4ser1ation After : .ays Height "c/% No. of lea1es No of 4uds No of fruits =resh wt. "g% .ry wt. "g%

+. 2. 3. SJN

8 ",ontrol% "A1gMS.% 23.& M .H '.4M .3 4.2M .2 8 ",ontrol% "A1gMS.% 3+.2 M .& + .3M .+ :.'M .' H.3M .3 +H.:M .: &.32M .3

&8 "A1gMS.% 2!. M .& +2.' M .+ H.'M .' &8 "A1gMS.% 3:.4M .: +:.'M .+ !.+M .2 '.3M .& 23.'M .+ !.:&M .H

+ 8 "a1g MS.% 3 .+M .: +3.:M .2 !.+M .+ + 8 "a1g MS.% 3H.&M .3 +H.!M .& !.4M .& + .4 M .+ 24.!M .3 '.2+ M .2

+&8 "A1g M S.% 32.2M .+ +44M .+ !.:M .! +&8 "A1g M S.% 3'.4M .+ +!.3M .4 '.4M .3 '.4M .3 2H.+M .: +3. &M .+

2 8 "A1g MS.% 33.4 M .2 +&.&M .: '.2 M .3 2 8 "A1g MS.% 4 .HM .& +'.!M .2 + .3M .+ +2.'M .H 2H.'M .4 +3.3!M .2

+. 2. 3. 4. &. :.

<#5 Results of dissol ed o;ygen and fecal count: bacterial load of ri er !enue at inta"e and after treatment A> Ra% %ater source !> Treated %ater from old %ater %or"s -> Treated %ater from ne% %ater %or"s A+ A2 A3 A( B+ B2 B3 B( ,+ ,2 ,3 ,( .)2"S% 4. 4. 4.2 4. : &.2 &.2 &.+ &.+: &.& &.4 &.4 &.4 Bacterial +! +! +! 2&+33.3 + 2 + ?# 2 +I(-3((I8/( In *er/ico/$ost $lot at 2 8 concentration, on +&th day, $lant height was '.&c/ , the leaf nu/4er and 4uds of the $lants were /ore that of che/ical fertili3er. )n 3 th day at 2 8 concentration of 1er/ico/$ost height of $lant was +:.:c/ and that of che/ical fertili3er was +4.!c/ res$ecti1ely. 6he control $lot showed + .'c/ height . )n 3 th day che/ical fertili3er and 1er/ico/$ost $lants recorded 2'.2c/ $lant height, +3.' nu/4er. of lea1es and :.H nu/4er of 4uds and 33.4c/ of $lant height, +&.& nu/4er of lea1es and '.2 nu/4er of lea1es and '.2 nu/4er of 4uds res$ecti1ely .6his $attern has shown clearly o1er ti/e and is consistent and yet the 4acterial load of +! is of concern and will 4e discussed in the conclusion cha$ter. @ #2 -8/-'3(I8/ . A/ong 1arious sources of organic /atter, 1er/ico/$ost ha1e 4een recogni3ed as ha1ing considera4le $otential as soil a/end/ents . ,ost of inorganic fertili3er is 1ery high and so/eti/es it is not a1aila4le 1er/ico/$ost at +&8 and 2 8 concentration dose showed highest result for $lant growth $ara/eters co/$ared to che/ical fertili3er and control $lots. 2 8 1er/ico/$ost is 4eneficial for $lant growth and is econo/ically reali3a4le . <hen a$$lied at a$$ro$riate doses acts as hel$ in soil nutrient restoration for the $roduction of 1egeta4les . 6he $resence of o5ygen in water to the 1alue of 4/gJl as shown a4o1e /a-es it useful for $lant growth , 4ut the fecal count of +! in the sa/e water draws attention on the cro$s grown in the sa/e 1icinity . 6a-ing raw 1egeta4les li-e garden eggs , carrots, onions and $e$$er nor/ally eaten as s$ices can $ose $ossi4le danger. A#2 RE-866E/+ATI8/( *egeta4le far/ing, co/$ared with other ty$es, re;uires su4stantial s-ills and luc- to 4e successful. Frowers /ust 4e ade$t at $roducing high-;uality, attracti1e 1egeta4les that the $u4lic will want to 4uy. 6hey /ust 4e -nowledgea4le a4out soil $re$aration, $lanting and growing cro$s, weed and $est control, and water /anage/ent. 6hey /ust har1est and handle their $roducts carefully to /aintain ;uality, and they /ust de1elo$ and follow well-$lanned sales strategies. 2ista-es, o1ersights, $oor weather, or 4ad luc- can render a 1egeta4le cro$ unsightly and unsala4le or reduce yields 4elow $rofita4le le1els. =ro/ the results o4tained, co/$ost /anure is here4y reco//ended for the $roduction of 1egeta4les due to their $ronounced effects on the growth and yield of 1egeta4les. 6oilet facilities and general residential areas to 4e cited away fro/ culti1ation $oints to a1oid conta/ination. REFERE/-E( Journal of @n1iron/ental Issues and Agriculture in .e1elo$ing ,ountries *ol. 4, No. +, A$ril 2 +2 +! .a/, #.

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Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare ISSN 2224-32 ! "#a$er% ISSN 222&- '3( ")nline% *ol.3, No.+!, 2 +3

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.. A29I6HA7INFA2, 2.,+'!!, Studies on the effect of A3os$irillu/, nitrogen and NAA on growth and yield of chilli. South Indian Horticulture, 3:?2+!. A29I6HA7INFA2, S. AN. BA7AASI9HNAN, 9., +'!!, Studies on the effect of A3os$irillu/, nitrogen and NAA on groundnut and chilli ",a$sicu/ annu/% c1. A-+. South Indian Horticulture, 3:"4%? 2+!-2+'. ANB09ANI, A., 2ANI*ANNANA, A. AN. A9020FA2-SHAAI7A, 2 3, integrated nutrient and weed /anage/ent on yield and yield $ara/eters in 4rinCal "Solanu/ /elongena 7.% c1. Anna/alai. #lant Archi1es, 3"+% ?!&-!! BA7A9AJ, 9. +''', In1estigations on seed technological as$ects in chilli ",a$asic/ Annu/ 7.%, $h. . 6hesis, 0ni1ersity of Agricultural Sciences, .harwad. INF7@, *. F., 6HAA9@, A .0. BA.H@, S. B. AN. AHAN, 2. A. H., +''3, @ffect of foliar s$ray of au5ins, /icronutrients with urea on fruit dro$ and yield of chilli c1. ,A-': . #unCa4rao Arishi *idya$eeth 9esearch Journal, +H?+N42-+4&. JA,AS)N, 2. 7., +'H3 Soil and ,he/ical Analysis, #rentice Hall of India #ri1ate 7i/ited, New .elhi. 2AJANB0, I. S., *. B. )gunlelaD 2.A. A4/ed and J... )larewaCu. +'!&. 9es$onse of two 1arieties to fertili3ers, yield and yield co/$onents as influenced 4y nitrogen and $hos$horous a$$lication. =ertili3er 9es. :"3%? 2&H-2:H NAIA, 7.B. AN. 9.*. SINFH, +''', 9es$onse of )-ra "A4el/oschus esculentus% to Nitrogen, #hos$horous and s$acing. 9es. J. Birsa Agri. 0ni1. ++"+%? 3&-3H. S2I7., *. 2 . #hos$horous in the @n1iron/ent? Natural =lows and Hu/an Interferences. Annual 9e1iew of @nergy and @n1iron/ent. 2&?&3-!! ".)I?+4:Jannure1.energy.2&?+.&3% 9ASHI., 2.2. +''', Sa4Ci Biggan "*egeta4les OScience%. 2E edition, 9ashid #u4lishing House, .ha-a. 2Sc 6H@SIS, .e$t. of Horticulture, Bangladesh Agri. 0ni1., 2y/ensingh, Bangladesh. SHA92A, B. 2. and J.#.S. Bade1. +'H:. A1aila4ility of #hos$horous grain as infleucned 4y $hos$hatic fertili3ation and irrigation, Indian J. of Agric. Sci. 4:?2 &-2+ S076ANA, S. 2 2. @ffect of Nitrogen, #hos$horous, #otasiu/, sul$hur and 4oron on o-ra. 2.Sc. 6H@SIS. .e$art/ent of Soil Science, Bangha4andhu Shie-h 2uiCi4ur 9ah/an Agril. 0ni1., Fa3i$ur. P Stewart, <.2.D .i44, ..<.D Johnston, A.@.D S/yth, 6.J. "2 &%. K6he ,ontri4ution of ,o//ercial =ertili3er Nutrients to =ood #roductionK. Agrono/y Journal 'H? +>:. doi?+ .2+34JagronC2 &. +. P ,eresana, 2ar-et Study =ertili3ers - <orld, 2ay 2 +3, htt$?JJwww.ceresana.co/JenJ/ar-etstudiesJagricultureJfertili3ers-worldJ P @ris/an, Jan <ille/D 2A Sutton, J Falloway, Q Ali/ont, < <iniwarter ")cto4er 2 !%. KHow a century of a//onia synthesis changed the worldK. Nature Feoscience + "+ %? :3:. Bi4code?2 !NatFe...+..:3:@. doi?+ .+ 3!Jngeo32&. 9etrie1ed )cto4er 22, 2 + . P KA@S7 #lant Analysis Hand4oo- > Nutrient ,ontent of #lantK. Aesl.ces.uga.edu. 9etrie1ed 2 + - !2&. P H.A. 2ills, J.B. Jones Jr. "+'':%. #lant Analysis Hand4oo- II? A $ractical Sa/$ling, #re$aration, Analysis, and Inter$retation Fuide. ISBN +-!H!+4!- &-2. . P KQinc is Soils and ,ro$ NutritionK. Scri4d.co/. 2 + - !-2&. 9etrie1ed 2 +2- :-+H. P KNitrogen =ertili3ation? Feneral Infor/ationK. Hu4ca$.cle/son.edu. 9etrie1ed 2 +2- :-+H. P KA1oiding =ertili3er BurnK. I/$ro1e-your-garden-soil.co/. 9etrie1ed 2 +2- :-+H. P K0nderstanding Salt inde5 of fertili3ersK "#.=%. 9etrie1ed 2 +2- H-22. P Ale-sander A4ra/ and .. 7ynn =orster "2 &%. A #ri/er on A//onia, Nitrogen =ertili3ers, and Natural Fas 2ar-ets. .e$art/ent of Agricultural, @n1iron/ental, and .e1elo$/ent @cono/ics, )hio State 0ni1ersity. $. 3!. P I=A > Statistics > =ertili3er Indicators > .etails > 9aw /aterial reser1es, "2 2>+ % P Beetseh , I and Adulug4a 2 R0A7I6B A##9AISA7 )= )7. AN. N@< " F9@A6@9 % <A6@9 <)9AS IN 2AA09.I 0ni1ersity of Agriculture 2a-urdi B@N0@ S6A6@ NIF@9IA 2 +3

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