You are on page 1of 12

Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.

'2& 2"'%

Land Information System for Efficient Lands Administration and Revenue Generation: A Case Study of Trans-Amadi Industrial Layout, Port Harcourt, i!eria
Ndu(we E. )*iemelu+ and $incent ,. ,nwumere -epartment of .eoinformatics and Sur/e0ing 1ni/ersit0 of Nigeria& Enugu )ampus +emmanuel.c* A"STRACT 3and management could 4e en*anced t*roug* effecti/e land administration& w*ic* in/ol/es t*e processes of land registration& )adastre& /aluation and land in/entor0. 5anual 3and Administration *as 4een in use 40 t*e 5inistr0 of 3ands and Sur/e0 in 6ort 7arcourt since its inception. 8*e cit0 and its surrounding *a/e 4een e9panding rapidl0 4e0ond pro:ections. ;it* t*is rapid e9pansion& manual 3and Administration *as 4ecome inefficient& time-consuming and prone to a4uses& w*ere40 some land officers sip*on re/enues generated& 4ecause of inefficient land transaction records< *ence& a digital& scientific& and operational approac* of 3and Administration was adopted 40 de/elopment of an Integrated 3and Information S0stem. 7owe/er& t*is *as 4een ac*ie/ed 40 con/ersion of e9isting land related information to digital formats wit* t*e aid of rele/ant software li(e 5S E9cel& 5S Access& Auto)A- 3and -e/elopment and Arc.IS =.2 and t*e com4ination of necessar0 >ueries and anal0sis. 8*e results s*ow an efficient& effecti/e and proper 3and Administration and re/enue generation procedure. #ey $ords: )adastre& 3and Administration& 3IS& Arc.IS& re/enue generation. %&' Introduction 3and is t*e most /alua4le possession of man(ind. It is also an important asset of an0 countr0. ;it*out land& t*ere can 4e no countr0. 8*en& t*e wealt* of t*e nation and its economic de/elopment are dependent on t*e state of t*e land and its usage. 8*e a/aila4ilit0 of funds depends on ta9 collection. It is apparent& t*erefore& an0 information concerning land is /alua4le information w*ic* ser/es as a (e0 to financial in/estments& commerce& industr0 and agriculture. Alt*oug* land is part of man?s natural *eritage& access to land is controlled 40 owners*ip patterns. 3and is partitioned for administrati/e and economic purposes& and it is used and transformed in a m0riad of wa0s. 3and information is prime re>uisite for ma(ing decisions related to land in/estment& de/elopment and management. Information reduces uncertaint0 40 *elping to identif0 and anal0@e pro4lems. Enermar(& '===! It is also recogni@ed t*at digital 3and information s0stems must 4e tailored to facilitate an efficient land mar(et as well as effecti/e land-use administration and t*ere40& more generall0& promote economic de/elopment& social co*esion and sustaina4le de/elopment. )adastral s0stems must ser/e a multi-purpose use and t*ere40 meet t*e c*allenge of a modern .IS and I8 en/ironment. 8*is researc* co/ers a wide range of land information s0stem< and s0nc*roni@ing different administrati/e procedures and effecti/e means of generating land related re/enue& w*ic* *a/e 4een used presentl0. 3and records are /er0 important 4ecause t*ese form t*e 4asis for t*e proposed land reform programme of t*e Aederal .o/ernment of Nigeria. %&% (efinitions Land Information SystemB 3and Information S0stem 3IS! is a Ctool for legal& administrati/e and economic decision ma(ing and an aid for planning and de/elopment w*ic* consists of a data4ase containing spatiall0 referenced land related data for a defined area and of procedures and tec*ni>ues for t*e s0stematic collection& updating& processing and distri4ution of t*at dataC. -ale & 2"""!& )*andrase(*ar& 2"""! CadastreB 8*e International Aederation of Sur/e0ors AI.& '==5! defines a cadastre as a Dparcel 4ased and up-to-date land information s0stem containing a record of interests in land e.g. rig*ts& restrictions and responsi4ilities!. It usuall0 includes a geometric description of land parcels lin(ed to ot*er records descri4ing t*e nature of t*e interests& owners*ip or control of t*ose interests& and often t*e /alue of t*e parcel and its impro/ements. It ma0 4e esta4lis*ed for fiscal purposes /aluation and ta9ation!& legal purposes con/e0ancing!& to assist in t*e management of land and land-use control planning and administration!& and ena4les sustaina4le de/elopment and en/ironmental impro/ementE. Land AdministrationB 8*e term Dland administrationE is defined as t*e processes of recording and disseminating information a4out t*e owners*ip& /alue and use of land and its associated resources. Suc*


Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

processes include t*e determination sometimes (nown as t*e Dad:udicationE! of rig*ts and ot*er attri4utes of t*e land& t*e sur/e0 and description of t*ese& t*eir detailed documentation and t*e pro/ision of rele/ant information in support of land mar(ets. Land Revenue GenerationB 3and re/enue generation met*ods is a process w*ere40 /alue can 4e determined& propert0 ta9 collection and t*e nature of land and propert0 mar(ets. It stresses t*e importance of land and propert0 in t*e national econom0. It considers t*e costs and 4enefits of impro/ing land administration s0stems and re/iews t*e potential for reco/ering full0 t*e costs of operating a land information s0stem. %&) Aim and *+,ectives 8*e aim of t*is pro:ect is to emp*asis on t*e de/elopment of 3and Information s0stem of 8rans-Amadi Industrial 3a0out& 6ort 7arcourt& Fi/ers State Nigeria& using application software li(e 5s-Access& Auto)A- 3and -e/elopment and Arc.IS =.2< and *ow it can 4e used as a tool for efficient land administration and re/enue generation t*roug* rele/ant >ueries of data4ase and spatial anal0sis. Specificall0 t*e ,4:ecti/es includesB '. )on/ersion of e9isting coordinates of all sur/e0 4eacons in trans-Amadi industrial la0out from N85 to 185 1ni/ersal 8ra/erse 5ercator! coordinate s0stem. 2. $ectori@ation of e9isting analogue la0out plan of 8rans-Amadi industrial wit* Auto)A- land de/elopment using coordinates of all e9isting 4eacons in t*e la0out plan. %. )reation of data4ase 40 capturing all t*e re>uired spatial and attri4ute data. 4. Guer0ing of t*e created data4ase 5. Funning of spatial anal0sis %&- Sco.e of t/e Pro,ect 8*e scope of t*e wor( in/ol/es detailed procedures for t*e de/elopment of 3and Information S0stem of 8ransAmadi Industrial la0out& 6ort 7arcourt& Fi/ers State. 8*e pro:ect is limited to s*owing parcel& 4oundaries& road networ(& land use& properties& surrounding cree(& sur/e0 plans of eac* plot< and t*e attri4utes includes instruments to land title e.g. ) of ,!& land registr0 data and sur/e0 attri4utes data. All t*ese entities and attri4utes will form t*e 4ase for data4ase creation. )&' Literature Revie0 8*e issue of inefficiencies posed 40 manual met*od of (eeping land records *as 4ecome a topical issue in t*e world& especiall0 de/eloping countries li(e Nigeria. Arnot& 2""#! 5aga:i .aladima H A.ISB 8*e Journe0 so Aar 2""#!B In *is words stated categoricall0 t*at t*e former -epartment of 3and Administration and Fesettlement was operating a manual s0stem of land record management. 8*ese were plagued 40 numerous 4ottlenec(s and cum4ersome& widespread forgeries& document laundering& and rac(eteering of land. According to *im ot*er pro4lems of land administration include cases of multiple allocation& unattended applications& allocations from D6arallel 5inistr0E mismatc*es in land use& and encroac*ments. ,t*er worrisome pro4lems include inefficient re/enue generation and collection& as well as dela0s in issuingIperfecting transactions in land. In t*e same /ein& Adeo0e 2""#!B -uring 5t* AI. Fegional )onference& Accra& .*ana< posits t*at 5anual record-(eeping *as 4een in use 40 3and related -epartments of t*e 5inistr0 of t*e Aederal )apital 8erritor0 5A)8! and t*e Aederal )apital -e/elopment Aut*orit0 A)-A! since t*e inception of t*e Aederal )apital 8erritor0 almost %" 0ears ago. 8*e cit0 and its surrounding *a/e 4een e9panding rapidl0 4e0ond pro:ections. ;it* t*is rapid e9pansion& manual record-(eeping 4ecame inefficient& time-consuming and prone to a4uses. Se/eral unsuccessful attempts were made in t*e past to sol/e t*e pro4lems. 8*e attempt failed 4ecause of t*e gross under estimation of t*e gra/it0 of t*e pro4lems and t*e ill-defined scope of t*e pro:ect. 8*e primar0 reason t*at *as *indered t*e computeri@ation of t*e )adastral and 3and Fegistr0 records in t*e past is lac( of a strong political will on t*e part of t*e aut*orit0 *ence t*e need to eliminate paper 4ased s0stem. Arnot& 2""#!. A land administration s0stem pro/ides a mec*anism t*at supports t*e management of real propert0. 8*e processes of land administration include t*e regulating of land and propert0 de/elopment& t*e use and conser/ation of t*e land& t*e gat*ering of re/enues from t*e land t*roug* sales& leasing& and ta9ation< and t*e resol/ing of conflicts concerning t*e owners*ip and use of t*e land -ale and 5c3aug*lin '=88!. -e/eloping a good land information s0stem in Nigeria will 4e *indered 40 so man0 o4stacles as stated 40 Asoegwu& F.N. unpu4lis*ed 2"""!B • 5ost parcels of land *a/e not 4een located 40 proper sur/e0s t*at are tied to t*e national framewor( of controls< • 8*e records of land alread0 sur/e0ed are eit*er not a/aila4le or fault0< • 8*e records t*at are pertinent to t*e parcels of land properl0 sur/e0ed are not located in a central place or places t*at are integrate a4le<


Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

• • • •

Inade>uate laws t*at could enforce t*e compulsor0 collection of appropriate land data< Ignorance on t*e part of e9perts to appreciate t*e need for land records< Feluctance of some go/ernments to fund ade>uatel0 long-term pro:ects t*at do not 0ield immediate profits< Initial *ig* costIfinancial 4arrier.

-&' 1aterials and 1et/ods -&% (ata Sources 8*e analogue la0out plan and its 6illar coordinates were ac>uired from t*e office of Sur/e0or .eneral of Fi/ers state. 8*e la0out was sur/e0ed on 2=t* Septem4er& '=75 and t*e origin of t*e sur/e0 is 67)IS. It consists of t0o /undred and t0enty 2)))3 plots wit* arterial roads wit*in. 8*e pillar coordinates will 4e used to generate t*e digital la0out plan. Some of t*e land records cadastre! were ac>uired from t*e departments of lands and registr0 of 5inistr0 of 3ands and Sur/e0& Fi/ers State. An I(onos imager0 of 2""8 co/ering area of stud0 was ac>uired from 5egatec* Eart* -igital S0stem 3imited. 8*e imager0 will 4e used for some important anal0sis. -&) 1et/ods Procedures In Layout Plan Conversion To (i!ital 4ormat • 8*e ac>uired coordinates in N85 was t0ped in 5s-E9cel and con/erted to 185 coordinate s0stem& 5inna -atum wit* GeoCalc. Software. • 8*e coordinates were arranged in Notepad in t*e following formatB J6oint Eastings& Nort*ings. for t*e pillar point! J8e9t Eastings& Nort*ings & 8e9t si@e& 8e9t orientation ="K! & and 6illar No 8*e two files script! were sa/ed in .scr e9tension and later& t*ese scripts were imported in AutoCAD window as points and te9t respecti/el0& eac* points *a/ing pillar num4er inscription. 8*e pillar points are :oined wit* pol0line to form plots< and 4earings& distances and areas of t*e plots are auto la4eled su4se>uentl0. 8*en t*e final la0out is e9ported to -LA file format. In Arc.IS En/iroment • 8*e Autocad -LA file is con/erted to S*apefile using t*e con/ersion tool. 8*is ser/es as t*e s*apefile for t*e 6arcels • ,t*er s*apefiles were created in Arc.IS& t*e0 are< Foads& Muilding& Fi/er& Failwa0 and Moundar0 pillars. Layers Creation, Attri+ute Editin! And (i!iti5ation In Arc!is • All t*e created s*apefiles and t*e I(onos Imager0 co/ering t*e area of stud0 into Arc.IS en/iroment in different la0ers were imported • 8wo new fields D6lot NoE and DAreaE were added in t*e Attri4ute 8a4le of t*e 6arcel S*apefile and t0pe t*e plot No and calculated t*e area of t*e parcels using Geometry Calcualtor • All t*e 4uildings& roads wit*in t*e la0out< and railwa0 and ri/ers 4eside t*e la0out were digiti@ed

Figure 1: Parcels, roads, river, imagery, railway in layers displayed in ArcGIS


Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

Creation *f (ata+ase In 1s-Access A form in 5s-Access was created& w*ic* was an interface used for data capture into t*e data4ase

Aig.2 5s-Access Aorm In t*e parcel data4ase t*e following fields columns! e9istB Fegistration I- Feg. I-!& $olume No.& Aile Feference No.& .rantor& ,wner& -ate of Fegistration& Instrument& 6lot No.& 3and 1se& Nature of t*e 6arcel& 6lan No.& In t*e rent data4ase t*e following fields e9istB • 6arcel ,wner& 6lot No.& 5ont*l0 Fent per plot& Annual Fent per 6lot 8*e0 were lin(ed to t*e second ta4le using 6lot No as t*e primar0 (e0.

Aig.% 8*e ) of , and )adastral sur/e0 plan were scanned and *0perlin( to parcels. '#

Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# "5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

6&' LIS (ata+ase 7ueries, Results and Analysis In order to ac*ie/e t*e o4:ecti/es of t*is pro:ect& t*e following >ueries and anal0sis were performed on t*e 3and Information -ata4ase. 4.' Gueries Guer0' on owners*ip information. Guer02 on propert0 identification using an0 of t*e followingB 6lot No& 6lan No& Aile Feference No& $olume No and Fegistration Identification No Guer0% on 3and 1se. Guer04 on 6lot Not -e/eloped. Guer05 5ont*l0 Fent pa0a4le 40 a propert0 owner 4ased on 2" Naira per s>.m. Guer0# 0# on Instruments or 8itle o/er 6ropert0 Guer07 on 70perlin( of 6arcel Instrument -ocument Guer08 on 70perlin( of Sur/e0 plan of 6arcels 6&) Analysis and Results

Aig.4 G1EFN 'B ,wners*ip Information-E.g. Information E.g. ;*ic* parcels are owned 40 Elf 6etroleumO

Aig.4 G1EFN 2B 6ropert0 Identification using an0 of t*e following< 6lot No& 6lan No& Aile Feference No& $olume No& and Fegistration Identification H E.g. w*o is t*e owner of propert0 wit* 6lot num4er DAEO


Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

Aig.5 G1EFN %B 3and use Identification- E.g. Identif0 t*e parcels occupied 40 ,il and .as companiesO

Aig.# G1EFN 4B Guer0 on 6lot Not -e/eloped. - E.g. Identif0 parcels not de/elopedO


Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

Aig.7 G1EFN 5B Guer0 5ont*l0 and Annual Fent pa0a4le 40 a propert0 owner 4ased on 2" Naira per s>.m.E.g. w*at is t*e mont*l0 and 0earl0 rent to 4e paid 40 t*e owner of 6lot No. =% O

Aig.8 G1EFN #B Guer0 on Instruments or 8itle o/er 6ropert0- E.g. identif0 all parcels wit* ) of ,O


Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

Aig.= G1EFN 7B Guer0 on 70perlin( of 6arcel Instrument -ocument and H E.g. -ispla0 t*e ) of , and Sur/e0 6lan of 6lot No '"O

Aig.'" G1EFN 8B Guer0 on 70perlin( of Sur/e0 plan of 6arcels- E.g. -ispla0 t*e Sur/e0 6lan of 6lot No '"O


Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

Fig. 11 Digital Cadastral

ap o! "rans#Amadi Industrial $ayout

8&'Summary *f Results In t*is pro:ect 3and information s0stem *as 4een identified as tool for proper land administration and re/enue generation 40 considering its de/elopment and implementation& using 8rans-Amadi industr0 la0out& 6ort 7arcourt& Fi/ers State as a case stud0. 8*e 4enefits of implementation of land information s0stem suc* as guarantee of owners*ip and securit0 of tenure& support for land and propert0 ta9ation& securit0 for credit& de/elop and monitor land mar(ets& protect state lands& reduce land disputes& impro/e ur4an planning and infrastructure de/elopment& support for en/ironmental management and production of statistical data. 8*e feature class la0ers suc* as parcels& 4oundar0 pillars& road& 4uilding& ri/er& and railwa0 were created wit* Arc.IS< and t*e parcel data4ase created wit* 5S-Access for good data4ase management s0stem. In order to s*ow *ow land information can 4e used as a tool for land administration and re/enue generation& some selected data4ase >ueries and anal0sis were performed< t*e >ueries and results are as followsB %& $/ic/ .arcels are o0ned +y Elf Petroleum9 6lot Num4ers 24& 25& 2#& 58& 5=& =' and =2 4elongs to Elf 6etroleum Nigeria 3imited. )& $/o is t/e o0ner of 0it/ Plot ' :A;9 6lot No DAE 4elongs to F,)7FIS NI.EFIA 3I5I8E-. -& Identify t/e .arcels occu.ied +y *il and Gas com.anies9 Aort0 se/en 47! out of two *undred and twent0 two 222! parcels are occupied 40 ,il and .as companies. 6& Identify .arcel not develo.ed9 6arcels wit* 6lots Num4ers '#& 87& 8=& and =4 are not de/eloped. 8& $/at is t/e mont/ly and yearly rent to +e .aid +y t/e o0ner of Plot o& <-9 t*e ,wner of 6lot No =% IN8EFNA8I,NA3 AINAN)E ),F6,FA8I,N! is suppose to pa0 8=477%.84 Naira and a total of '"7%728#."8 Naira as 5ont*l0 and Annual rent respecti/el0 at 2" Naira per s>.m . =& Identify all .arcels 0it/ C of *9 8went0 eig*t 28! out of two *undred and twent0 two 222! parcels *a/e certificate of occupanc0 ) of ,!. >& Identify Parcels t/at /ave encum+rances9 Eig*t0 se/en 87! out of two *undred and twent0 two 222! parcels are identified to *a/e encum4rances. ?& (is.lay t/e C of * and Survey Plan of Plot o %'9 8*e Instrument -ocument 2)ertificate of ,ccupanc0! of 6lot No. '" 4elonging to 5andilas .roup Nigeria limited displa0s. <& (is.lay t/e Survey Plan of Plot o %'9 8*e Sur/e0 6lan of 6lot No '" 4elonging to 5andilas .roup Nigeria limited displa0s. Analysis %'& Selection of "uildin!s 0it/out - meters set-+ac@ to t/e road to maintain Ri!/t of $ay 2R*$3 usin! "ufferin!- se/ent0 four 74! 4uildings t*e 4uildings t*at did not o4ser/e % meters set-4ac( from t*e road were selected. 8*e results of t*e data4ase >ueries and anal0sis *elped in ac*ie/ing t*e aim of t*e pro:ect.


Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

=&'Conclusions and Recommendations 8*ere is an increasing awareness t*at land administration *as a wider communit0 and e/en glo4al imperati/e Adeo0e 2""#!. 3in(ed to t*is& 8rans-amadi industrial la0out is t*e industrial *u4 of Fi/ers state and ma:or source of land re/enue< re>uires land information s0stem. Esta4lis*ment of 3IS of 8rans-amadi industrial la0out is an integral to t*e reali@ation of t*at /ision. 8*e (nowledge con/e0ed in t*is pro:ect *as considera4le potential support to t*e people of Fi/ers state in pro/iding *uman(indIland relations*ip and information for decision ma(ers land administrators! t*at will ena4le t*em to ma(e decisions fa/ora4le to sustaina4le de/elopment in t*e conte9t of efficient land administration and management. In t*e lig*t of t*e o4ser/ation drawn from t*e discussions and results of >ueries and anal0sis a4o/e& t*e use of t*e 3IS will graduall0 impro/ed efficienc0 and increased producti/it0 in /arious aspects of ser/ices offered at t*e 5inistries of 3ands and Sur/e0s and it is *ere40 recommend t*atB P -e-centrali@ation of information s*ould 4e implemented to ma(e it easier to (eep trac( of and to recall information. P 8*ere s*ould 4e 8ransparenc0 in all land dealings wit* due process and accounta4ilit0 4eing t*e (e0 watc* words. In line wit* t*is t*e ministr0 will pu4lis*ed and displa0ed fees c*arged for different ser/ices offered. P Simplified official procedures - a faster and more effecti/e wa0 of mo/ing files s*ould 4e de/eloped. P Feduction in waiting times for o4taining information on land matters s*ould 4e curtailed to t*e 4arest minimum. 8*e Sur/e0 and Fegistr0 s*ould pu4lis* a QFegistration 6rocedure Moo(letE to con/e0 t*e re>uirements for eac* of t*eir Fegistration 6rocedures. P Installation of a state of t*e art securit0 and fire alarm s0stem wit* securit0 monitors s*ould 4e placed in strategic locations around t*e Fegistr0 will lead to a *ig*er le/el of confidence on t*e part of customersIusers. All /isitors s*ould wear 4adges for eas0 identification. P Setting up of a call centre for en>uiries and complaints 40 users of t*e Fegistr0. Alongside t*e esta4lis*ment of t*e 3IS progress s*ould 4e made in t*e production of digital 4ase maps to pro/ide accurate and up to date information. P An et*os of staff training s*ould 4e de/eloped and computer training a watc*word. E9ternal )onsultants s*ould 4e gi/en training in )ustomer Ser/ice& )*ange 5anagement& 8ime 5anagement& 6ro:ect 5anagement& Super/isor0 5anagement& and S0stems Administration. P 5inistr0 of lands and sur/e0 s*ould esta4lis* a we4site& w*ic* will ena4le e-pa0ment of rents& application for ) of , and ma(ing en>uiries a4out land in t*e state. Ainall0& it is imperati/e to e9press at t*is :uncture t*at t*is 3IS of 8rans Amadi lIout is a pilot pro:ect t*at s*ould 4e implemented in t*e entire land in Fi/ers state for efficient land administration and re/enue generation in line wit* t*e current land reform programme of t*e Aederal .o/ernment of Nigeria. . References A4dul& 5a:id Min 5o*amed '=84!. 6roposed 3and Information S0stem in t*e 5ala0sian )onte9t. National Seminar on 3IS. Rualalumpur& 5ala0sia. 6. 2-= Angus-3eppan& 6.$. '=88!. A )adastral 3and Information S0stem for 8*ailand. International. .IS -e/elopment 6u4lis*ers. 6.'"-'4 Ant*on0 A. Adeo0e 2""#!. A4u:a .eograp*ic information S0stems A.IS! As a 8ool for .ood .o/ernance in Nigeria. 6. '-8 Arnot& M. and meadows& J 2""#!. Feforming t*e 3and Fegistration 6rocess in Nigeria. 6romoting 3and Administration and .ood .o/ernance 5t* AI. Fegional )onference Accra& .*ana& 5arc* 8-''& 2""#. Asoegwu F.N. 2"""! unpu4lis*ed!& A paper deli/ered for t*e seminarIwor(s*op on Dfunctional multipurpose cadastre for national de/elopmentE 40 NIS Enugu State Mranc*. Merugoda& S. '=="!. Introduction of a )adastre Mased 3IS to Support 3and 1se 6lanning in Sri 3an(a. International Aederation of Sur/e0ors- AI. LIL )ongress . 7elsin(i& AinlandB AI.. '2#- '4". 6.2-5 Mogaerts& 5.J.5. '=85!. Impro/ements of cadastres and ot*er land information s0stems in de/eloping countries. 1r4an data management s0mposium. 8*e 7ague. 6.'#-25 )*andrase(*ar Nori. 2"""!. -e/elopment of ,riented 3and Administration in India. 5anaging -irector Spec( S0stems 3imited 8' -omlur 3a0out& Mangalore& India. )*eng& Ared '=88!. 8erminolog0 in 3and Information 5anagement . New Mrunswic(& )anadaB -epartment of Sur/e0ing Engineering& 1ni/ersit0 of New Mrunswic(. 6.'7%. -ale 6. A. and 5c3aug*lin J. -& '=88!B 3and Administration. ,9ford 1ni/ersit0 6ress. Enermar( & S. and Se/atdal & 7. '===!. )adastres& 3and Information S0stems and 6lanning -decentrali@ation a significant (e0 to sustaina4le de/elopment. 1N-AI. )onference on 3and 8enure and )adastral Infrastructures for Sustaina4le -e/elopment& 5el4ourne& Australia.


Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

Enermar( Stig& 2""4!. Muilding 3and Information 6olicies& 1N& AI.& 6) I-EA Inter-regional Special Aorum on 8*e Muilding of 3and Information 6olicies in t*e Americas &Aguascalientes& 5e9ico. 6.8-''Aederation of Sur/e0ors-AI. 3and Information S0stem ;or(s*op. Mali& IndonesiaB AI.. AI. '===!B Feport of t*e ;or(s*op on 3and 8enure and )adastral Infrastructures for Sustaina4le -e/elopment. Mat*urst& Australia. *ttpBIIwww.fig.netI. 6.'2-'= ,4oli& E.). and A(po0oware& A.,. 2"'"!. Feform in )adastre and 3and Administration in Nigeria- )oping wit* )*allenges in -e/elopment. International Aederation of Sur/e0ors-AI. ;or(s*op S0dne0& Australia& ''-'# April 2"'". 6otdar $.M& 3and Information S0stem in t*e present da0 conte9t. E9ecuti/e )onsultant 8*eo/el Sur/e0s& 8' -omlur 3a0out& Mangalore India. 6.2-8 1nited Nations& Economic )ommission for Europe '==#! 3and Administration .uidelines. New Nor( and .ene/a& '==#. 6. %"-%2


This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open Access Publishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute is Accelerating Global Knowledge Sharing. More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage: CALL FOR JOURNAL PAPERS The IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals and collaborating with academic institutions around the world. There’s no deadline for submission. Prospective authors of IISTE journals can find the submission instruction on the following page: The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualified submissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to the readers all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of the journals is also available upon request of readers and authors. MORE RESOURCES Book publication information: Recent conferences: IISTE Knowledge Sharing Partners EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP Open Archives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe Digtial Library , NewJour, Google Scholar