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Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.

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Land Information System for Efficient Lands Administration and Revenue Generation: A Case Study of Trans-Amadi Industrial Layout, Port Harcourt, i!eria
Ndu(we E. )*iemelu+ and $incent ,. ,nwumere -epartment of .eoinformatics and Sur/e0ing 1ni/ersit0 of Nigeria& Enugu )ampus +emmanuel.c*iemelu2unn.edu.ng A"STRACT 3and management could 4e en*anced t*roug* effecti/e land administration& w*ic* in/ol/es t*e processes of land registration& )adastre& /aluation and land in/entor0. 5anual 3and Administration *as 4een in use 40 t*e 5inistr0 of 3ands and Sur/e0 in 6ort 7arcourt since its inception. 8*e cit0 and its surrounding *a/e 4een e9panding rapidl0 4e0ond pro:ections. ;it* t*is rapid e9pansion& manual 3and Administration *as 4ecome inefficient& time-consuming and prone to a4uses& w*ere40 some land officers sip*on re/enues generated& 4ecause of inefficient land transaction records< *ence& a digital& scientific& and operational approac* of 3and Administration was adopted 40 de/elopment of an Integrated 3and Information S0stem. 7owe/er& t*is *as 4een ac*ie/ed 40 con/ersion of e9isting land related information to digital formats wit* t*e aid of rele/ant software li(e 5S E9cel& 5S Access& Auto)A- 3and -e/elopment and Arc.IS =.2 and t*e com4ination of necessar0 >ueries and anal0sis. 8*e results s*ow an efficient& effecti/e and proper 3and Administration and re/enue generation procedure. #ey $ords: )adastre& 3and Administration& 3IS& Arc.IS& re/enue generation. %&' Introduction 3and is t*e most /alua4le possession of man(ind. It is also an important asset of an0 countr0. ;it*out land& t*ere can 4e no countr0. 8*en& t*e wealt* of t*e nation and its economic de/elopment are dependent on t*e state of t*e land and its usage. 8*e a/aila4ilit0 of funds depends on ta9 collection. It is apparent& t*erefore& an0 information concerning land is /alua4le information w*ic* ser/es as a (e0 to financial in/estments& commerce& industr0 and agriculture. Alt*oug* land is part of man?s natural *eritage& access to land is controlled 40 owners*ip patterns. 3and is partitioned for administrati/e and economic purposes& and it is used and transformed in a m0riad of wa0s. 3and information is prime re>uisite for ma(ing decisions related to land in/estment& de/elopment and management. Information reduces uncertaint0 40 *elping to identif0 and anal0@e pro4lems. Enermar(& '===! It is also recogni@ed t*at digital 3and information s0stems must 4e tailored to facilitate an efficient land mar(et as well as effecti/e land-use administration and t*ere40& more generall0& promote economic de/elopment& social co*esion and sustaina4le de/elopment. )adastral s0stems must ser/e a multi-purpose use and t*ere40 meet t*e c*allenge of a modern .IS and I8 en/ironment. 8*is researc* co/ers a wide range of land information s0stem< and s0nc*roni@ing different administrati/e procedures and effecti/e means of generating land related re/enue& w*ic* *a/e 4een used presentl0. 3and records are /er0 important 4ecause t*ese form t*e 4asis for t*e proposed land reform programme of t*e Aederal .o/ernment of Nigeria. %&% (efinitions Land Information SystemB 3and Information S0stem 3IS! is a Ctool for legal& administrati/e and economic decision ma(ing and an aid for planning and de/elopment w*ic* consists of a data4ase containing spatiall0 referenced land related data for a defined area and of procedures and tec*ni>ues for t*e s0stematic collection& updating& processing and distri4ution of t*at dataC. -ale & 2"""!& )*andrase(*ar& 2"""! CadastreB 8*e International Aederation of Sur/e0ors AI.& '==5! defines a cadastre as a Dparcel 4ased and up-to-date land information s0stem containing a record of interests in land e.g. rig*ts& restrictions and responsi4ilities!. It usuall0 includes a geometric description of land parcels lin(ed to ot*er records descri4ing t*e nature of t*e interests& owners*ip or control of t*ose interests& and often t*e /alue of t*e parcel and its impro/ements. It ma0 4e esta4lis*ed for fiscal purposes /aluation and ta9ation!& legal purposes con/e0ancing!& to assist in t*e management of land and land-use control planning and administration!& and ena4les sustaina4le de/elopment and en/ironmental impro/ementE. Land AdministrationB 8*e term Dland administrationE is defined as t*e processes of recording and disseminating information a4out t*e owners*ip& /alue and use of land and its associated resources. Suc*

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Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

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processes include t*e determination sometimes (nown as t*e Dad:udicationE! of rig*ts and ot*er attri4utes of t*e land& t*e sur/e0 and description of t*ese& t*eir detailed documentation and t*e pro/ision of rele/ant information in support of land mar(ets. Land Revenue GenerationB 3and re/enue generation met*ods is a process w*ere40 /alue can 4e determined& propert0 ta9 collection and t*e nature of land and propert0 mar(ets. It stresses t*e importance of land and propert0 in t*e national econom0. It considers t*e costs and 4enefits of impro/ing land administration s0stems and re/iews t*e potential for reco/ering full0 t*e costs of operating a land information s0stem. %&) Aim and *+,ectives 8*e aim of t*is pro:ect is to emp*asis on t*e de/elopment of 3and Information s0stem of 8rans-Amadi Industrial 3a0out& 6ort 7arcourt& Fi/ers State Nigeria& using application software li(e 5s-Access& Auto)A- 3and -e/elopment and Arc.IS =.2< and *ow it can 4e used as a tool for efficient land administration and re/enue generation t*roug* rele/ant >ueries of data4ase and spatial anal0sis. Specificall0 t*e ,4:ecti/es includesB '. )on/ersion of e9isting coordinates of all sur/e0 4eacons in trans-Amadi industrial la0out from N85 to 185 1ni/ersal 8ra/erse 5ercator! coordinate s0stem. 2. $ectori@ation of e9isting analogue la0out plan of 8rans-Amadi industrial wit* Auto)A- land de/elopment using coordinates of all e9isting 4eacons in t*e la0out plan. %. )reation of data4ase 40 capturing all t*e re>uired spatial and attri4ute data. 4. Guer0ing of t*e created data4ase 5. Funning of spatial anal0sis %&- Sco.e of t/e Pro,ect 8*e scope of t*e wor( in/ol/es detailed procedures for t*e de/elopment of 3and Information S0stem of 8ransAmadi Industrial la0out& 6ort 7arcourt& Fi/ers State. 8*e pro:ect is limited to s*owing parcel& 4oundaries& road networ(& land use& properties& surrounding cree(& sur/e0 plans of eac* plot< and t*e attri4utes includes instruments to land title e.g. ) of ,!& land registr0 data and sur/e0 attri4utes data. All t*ese entities and attri4utes will form t*e 4ase for data4ase creation. )&' Literature Revie0 8*e issue of inefficiencies posed 40 manual met*od of (eeping land records *as 4ecome a topical issue in t*e world& especiall0 de/eloping countries li(e Nigeria. Arnot& 2""#! 5aga:i .aladima H A.ISB 8*e Journe0 so Aar 2""#!B In *is words stated categoricall0 t*at t*e former -epartment of 3and Administration and Fesettlement was operating a manual s0stem of land record management. 8*ese were plagued 40 numerous 4ottlenec(s and cum4ersome& widespread forgeries& document laundering& and rac(eteering of land. According to *im ot*er pro4lems of land administration include cases of multiple allocation& unattended applications& allocations from D6arallel 5inistr0E mismatc*es in land use& and encroac*ments. ,t*er worrisome pro4lems include inefficient re/enue generation and collection& as well as dela0s in issuingIperfecting transactions in land. In t*e same /ein& Adeo0e 2""#!B -uring 5t* AI. Fegional )onference& Accra& .*ana< posits t*at 5anual record-(eeping *as 4een in use 40 3and related -epartments of t*e 5inistr0 of t*e Aederal )apital 8erritor0 5A)8! and t*e Aederal )apital -e/elopment Aut*orit0 A)-A! since t*e inception of t*e Aederal )apital 8erritor0 almost %" 0ears ago. 8*e cit0 and its surrounding *a/e 4een e9panding rapidl0 4e0ond pro:ections. ;it* t*is rapid e9pansion& manual record-(eeping 4ecame inefficient& time-consuming and prone to a4uses. Se/eral unsuccessful attempts were made in t*e past to sol/e t*e pro4lems. 8*e attempt failed 4ecause of t*e gross under estimation of t*e gra/it0 of t*e pro4lems and t*e ill-defined scope of t*e pro:ect. 8*e primar0 reason t*at *as *indered t*e computeri@ation of t*e )adastral and 3and Fegistr0 records in t*e past is lac( of a strong political will on t*e part of t*e aut*orit0 *ence t*e need to eliminate paper 4ased s0stem. Arnot& 2""#!. A land administration s0stem pro/ides a mec*anism t*at supports t*e management of real propert0. 8*e processes of land administration include t*e regulating of land and propert0 de/elopment& t*e use and conser/ation of t*e land& t*e gat*ering of re/enues from t*e land t*roug* sales& leasing& and ta9ation< and t*e resol/ing of conflicts concerning t*e owners*ip and use of t*e land -ale and 5c3aug*lin '=88!. -e/eloping a good land information s0stem in Nigeria will 4e *indered 40 so man0 o4stacles as stated 40 Asoegwu& F.N. unpu4lis*ed 2"""!B • 5ost parcels of land *a/e not 4een located 40 proper sur/e0s t*at are tied to t*e national framewor( of controls< • 8*e records of land alread0 sur/e0ed are eit*er not a/aila4le or fault0< • 8*e records t*at are pertinent to t*e parcels of land properl0 sur/e0ed are not located in a central place or places t*at are integrate a4le<

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Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

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Inade>uate laws t*at could enforce t*e compulsor0 collection of appropriate land data< Ignorance on t*e part of e9perts to appreciate t*e need for land records< Feluctance of some go/ernments to fund ade>uatel0 long-term pro:ects t*at do not 0ield immediate profits< Initial *ig* costIfinancial 4arrier.

-&' 1aterials and 1et/ods -&% (ata Sources 8*e analogue la0out plan and its 6illar coordinates were ac>uired from t*e office of Sur/e0or .eneral of Fi/ers state. 8*e la0out was sur/e0ed on 2=t* Septem4er& '=75 and t*e origin of t*e sur/e0 is 67)IS. It consists of t0o /undred and t0enty 2)))3 plots wit* arterial roads wit*in. 8*e pillar coordinates will 4e used to generate t*e digital la0out plan. Some of t*e land records cadastre! were ac>uired from t*e departments of lands and registr0 of 5inistr0 of 3ands and Sur/e0& Fi/ers State. An I(onos imager0 of 2""8 co/ering area of stud0 was ac>uired from 5egatec* Eart* -igital S0stem 3imited. 8*e imager0 will 4e used for some important anal0sis. -&) 1et/ods Procedures In Layout Plan Conversion To (i!ital 4ormat • 8*e ac>uired coordinates in N85 was t0ped in 5s-E9cel and con/erted to 185 coordinate s0stem& 5inna -atum wit* GeoCalc. Software. • 8*e coordinates were arranged in Notepad in t*e following formatB J6oint Eastings& Nort*ings. for t*e pillar point! J8e9t Eastings& Nort*ings & 8e9t si@e& 8e9t orientation ="K! & and 6illar No 8*e two files script! were sa/ed in .scr e9tension and later& t*ese scripts were imported in AutoCAD window as points and te9t respecti/el0& eac* points *a/ing pillar num4er inscription. 8*e pillar points are :oined wit* pol0line to form plots< and 4earings& distances and areas of t*e plots are auto la4eled su4se>uentl0. 8*en t*e final la0out is e9ported to -LA file format. In Arc.IS En/iroment • 8*e Autocad -LA file is con/erted to S*apefile using t*e con/ersion tool. 8*is ser/es as t*e s*apefile for t*e 6arcels • ,t*er s*apefiles were created in Arc.IS& t*e0 are< Foads& Muilding& Fi/er& Failwa0 and Moundar0 pillars. Layers Creation, Attri+ute Editin! And (i!iti5ation In Arc!is • All t*e created s*apefiles and t*e I(onos Imager0 co/ering t*e area of stud0 into Arc.IS en/iroment in different la0ers were imported • 8wo new fields D6lot NoE and DAreaE were added in t*e Attri4ute 8a4le of t*e 6arcel S*apefile and t0pe t*e plot No and calculated t*e area of t*e parcels using Geometry Calcualtor • All t*e 4uildings& roads wit*in t*e la0out< and railwa0 and ri/ers 4eside t*e la0out were digiti@ed

Figure 1: Parcels, roads, river, imagery, railway in layers displayed in ArcGIS

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Creation *f (ata+ase In 1s-Access A form in 5s-Access was created& w*ic* was an interface used for data capture into t*e data4ase

Aig.2 5s-Access Aorm In t*e parcel data4ase t*e following fields columns! e9istB Fegistration I- Feg. I-!& $olume No.& Aile Feference No.& .rantor& ,wner& -ate of Fegistration& Instrument& 6lot No.& 3and 1se& Nature of t*e 6arcel& 6lan No.& In t*e rent data4ase t*e following fields e9istB • 6arcel ,wner& 6lot No.& 5ont*l0 Fent per plot& Annual Fent per 6lot 8*e0 were lin(ed to t*e second ta4le using 6lot No as t*e primar0 (e0.

Aig.% 8*e ) of , and )adastral sur/e0 plan were scanned and *0perlin( to parcels. '#

Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# "5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

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6&' LIS (ata+ase 7ueries, Results and Analysis In order to ac*ie/e t*e o4:ecti/es of t*is pro:ect& t*e following >ueries and anal0sis were performed on t*e 3and Information -ata4ase. 4.' Gueries Guer0' on owners*ip information. Guer02 on propert0 identification using an0 of t*e followingB 6lot No& 6lan No& Aile Feference No& $olume No and Fegistration Identification No Guer0% on 3and 1se. Guer04 on 6lot Not -e/eloped. Guer05 5ont*l0 Fent pa0a4le 40 a propert0 owner 4ased on 2" Naira per s>.m. Guer0# 0# on Instruments or 8itle o/er 6ropert0 Guer07 on 70perlin( of 6arcel Instrument -ocument Guer08 on 70perlin( of Sur/e0 plan of 6arcels 6&) Analysis and Results

Aig.4 G1EFN 'B ,wners*ip Information-E.g. Information E.g. ;*ic* parcels are owned 40 Elf 6etroleumO

Aig.4 G1EFN 2B 6ropert0 Identification using an0 of t*e following< 6lot No& 6lan No& Aile Feference No& $olume No& and Fegistration Identification H E.g. w*o is t*e owner of propert0 wit* 6lot num4er DAEO

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Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

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Aig.5 G1EFN %B 3and use Identification- E.g. Identif0 t*e parcels occupied 40 ,il and .as companiesO

Aig.# G1EFN 4B Guer0 on 6lot Not -e/eloped. - E.g. Identif0 parcels not de/elopedO

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Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

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Aig.7 G1EFN 5B Guer0 5ont*l0 and Annual Fent pa0a4le 40 a propert0 owner 4ased on 2" Naira per s>.m.E.g. w*at is t*e mont*l0 and 0earl0 rent to 4e paid 40 t*e owner of 6lot No. =% O

Aig.8 G1EFN #B Guer0 on Instruments or 8itle o/er 6ropert0- E.g. identif0 all parcels wit* ) of ,O

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Aig.= G1EFN 7B Guer0 on 70perlin( of 6arcel Instrument -ocument and H E.g. -ispla0 t*e ) of , and Sur/e0 6lan of 6lot No '"O

Aig.'" G1EFN 8B Guer0 on 70perlin( of Sur/e0 plan of 6arcels- E.g. -ispla0 t*e Sur/e0 6lan of 6lot No '"O

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Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

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Fig. 11 Digital Cadastral

ap o! "rans#Amadi Industrial $ayout

8&'Summary *f Results In t*is pro:ect 3and information s0stem *as 4een identified as tool for proper land administration and re/enue generation 40 considering its de/elopment and implementation& using 8rans-Amadi industr0 la0out& 6ort 7arcourt& Fi/ers State as a case stud0. 8*e 4enefits of implementation of land information s0stem suc* as guarantee of owners*ip and securit0 of tenure& support for land and propert0 ta9ation& securit0 for credit& de/elop and monitor land mar(ets& protect state lands& reduce land disputes& impro/e ur4an planning and infrastructure de/elopment& support for en/ironmental management and production of statistical data. 8*e feature class la0ers suc* as parcels& 4oundar0 pillars& road& 4uilding& ri/er& and railwa0 were created wit* Arc.IS< and t*e parcel data4ase created wit* 5S-Access for good data4ase management s0stem. In order to s*ow *ow land information can 4e used as a tool for land administration and re/enue generation& some selected data4ase >ueries and anal0sis were performed< t*e >ueries and results are as followsB %& $/ic/ .arcels are o0ned +y Elf Petroleum9 6lot Num4ers 24& 25& 2#& 58& 5=& =' and =2 4elongs to Elf 6etroleum Nigeria 3imited. )& $/o is t/e o0ner of 0it/ Plot ' :A;9 6lot No DAE 4elongs to F,)7FIS NI.EFIA 3I5I8E-. -& Identify t/e .arcels occu.ied +y *il and Gas com.anies9 Aort0 se/en 47! out of two *undred and twent0 two 222! parcels are occupied 40 ,il and .as companies. 6& Identify .arcel not develo.ed9 6arcels wit* 6lots Num4ers '#& 87& 8=& and =4 are not de/eloped. 8& $/at is t/e mont/ly and yearly rent to +e .aid +y t/e o0ner of Plot o& <-9 t*e ,wner of 6lot No =% IN8EFNA8I,NA3 AINAN)E ),F6,FA8I,N! is suppose to pa0 8=477%.84 Naira and a total of '"7%728#."8 Naira as 5ont*l0 and Annual rent respecti/el0 at 2" Naira per s>.m . =& Identify all .arcels 0it/ C of *9 8went0 eig*t 28! out of two *undred and twent0 two 222! parcels *a/e certificate of occupanc0 ) of ,!. >& Identify Parcels t/at /ave encum+rances9 Eig*t0 se/en 87! out of two *undred and twent0 two 222! parcels are identified to *a/e encum4rances. ?& (is.lay t/e C of * and Survey Plan of Plot o %'9 8*e Instrument -ocument 2)ertificate of ,ccupanc0! of 6lot No. '" 4elonging to 5andilas .roup Nigeria limited displa0s. <& (is.lay t/e Survey Plan of Plot o %'9 8*e Sur/e0 6lan of 6lot No '" 4elonging to 5andilas .roup Nigeria limited displa0s. Analysis %'& Selection of "uildin!s 0it/out - meters set-+ac@ to t/e road to maintain Ri!/t of $ay 2R*$3 usin! "ufferin!- se/ent0 four 74! 4uildings t*e 4uildings t*at did not o4ser/e % meters set-4ac( from t*e road were selected. 8*e results of t*e data4ase >ueries and anal0sis *elped in ac*ie/ing t*e aim of t*e pro:ect.

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=&'Conclusions and Recommendations 8*ere is an increasing awareness t*at land administration *as a wider communit0 and e/en glo4al imperati/e Adeo0e 2""#!. 3in(ed to t*is& 8rans-amadi industrial la0out is t*e industrial *u4 of Fi/ers state and ma:or source of land re/enue< re>uires land information s0stem. Esta4lis*ment of 3IS of 8rans-amadi industrial la0out is an integral to t*e reali@ation of t*at /ision. 8*e (nowledge con/e0ed in t*is pro:ect *as considera4le potential support to t*e people of Fi/ers state in pro/iding *uman(indIland relations*ip and information for decision ma(ers land administrators! t*at will ena4le t*em to ma(e decisions fa/ora4le to sustaina4le de/elopment in t*e conte9t of efficient land administration and management. In t*e lig*t of t*e o4ser/ation drawn from t*e discussions and results of >ueries and anal0sis a4o/e& t*e use of t*e 3IS will graduall0 impro/ed efficienc0 and increased producti/it0 in /arious aspects of ser/ices offered at t*e 5inistries of 3ands and Sur/e0s and it is *ere40 recommend t*atB P -e-centrali@ation of information s*ould 4e implemented to ma(e it easier to (eep trac( of and to recall information. P 8*ere s*ould 4e 8ransparenc0 in all land dealings wit* due process and accounta4ilit0 4eing t*e (e0 watc* words. In line wit* t*is t*e ministr0 will pu4lis*ed and displa0ed fees c*arged for different ser/ices offered. P Simplified official procedures - a faster and more effecti/e wa0 of mo/ing files s*ould 4e de/eloped. P Feduction in waiting times for o4taining information on land matters s*ould 4e curtailed to t*e 4arest minimum. 8*e Sur/e0 and Fegistr0 s*ould pu4lis* a QFegistration 6rocedure Moo(letE to con/e0 t*e re>uirements for eac* of t*eir Fegistration 6rocedures. P Installation of a state of t*e art securit0 and fire alarm s0stem wit* securit0 monitors s*ould 4e placed in strategic locations around t*e Fegistr0 will lead to a *ig*er le/el of confidence on t*e part of customersIusers. All /isitors s*ould wear 4adges for eas0 identification. P Setting up of a call centre for en>uiries and complaints 40 users of t*e Fegistr0. Alongside t*e esta4lis*ment of t*e 3IS progress s*ould 4e made in t*e production of digital 4ase maps to pro/ide accurate and up to date information. P An et*os of staff training s*ould 4e de/eloped and computer training a watc*word. E9ternal )onsultants s*ould 4e gi/en training in )ustomer Ser/ice& )*ange 5anagement& 8ime 5anagement& 6ro:ect 5anagement& Super/isor0 5anagement& and S0stems Administration. P 5inistr0 of lands and sur/e0 s*ould esta4lis* a we4site& w*ic* will ena4le e-pa0ment of rents& application for ) of , and ma(ing en>uiries a4out land in t*e state. Ainall0& it is imperati/e to e9press at t*is :uncture t*at t*is 3IS of 8rans Amadi lIout is a pilot pro:ect t*at s*ould 4e implemented in t*e entire land in Fi/ers state for efficient land administration and re/enue generation in line wit* t*e current land reform programme of t*e Aederal .o/ernment of Nigeria. . References A4dul& 5a:id Min 5o*amed '=84!. 6roposed 3and Information S0stem in t*e 5ala0sian )onte9t. National Seminar on 3IS. Rualalumpur& 5ala0sia. 6. 2-= Angus-3eppan& 6.$. '=88!. A )adastral 3and Information S0stem for 8*ailand. International. .IS -e/elopment 6u4lis*ers. 6.'"-'4 Ant*on0 A. Adeo0e 2""#!. A4u:a .eograp*ic information S0stems A.IS! As a 8ool for .ood .o/ernance in Nigeria. 6. '-8 Arnot& M. and meadows& J 2""#!. Feforming t*e 3and Fegistration 6rocess in Nigeria. 6romoting 3and Administration and .ood .o/ernance 5t* AI. Fegional )onference Accra& .*ana& 5arc* 8-''& 2""#. Asoegwu F.N. 2"""! unpu4lis*ed!& A paper deli/ered for t*e seminarIwor(s*op on Dfunctional multipurpose cadastre for national de/elopmentE 40 NIS Enugu State Mranc*. Merugoda& S. '=="!. Introduction of a )adastre Mased 3IS to Support 3and 1se 6lanning in Sri 3an(a. International Aederation of Sur/e0ors- AI. LIL )ongress . 7elsin(i& AinlandB AI.. '2#- '4". 6.2-5 Mogaerts& 5.J.5. '=85!. Impro/ements of cadastres and ot*er land information s0stems in de/eloping countries. 1r4an data management s0mposium. 8*e 7ague. 6.'#-25 )*andrase(*ar Nori. 2"""!. -e/elopment of ,riented 3and Administration in India. 5anaging -irector Spec( S0stems 3imited 8' -omlur 3a0out& Mangalore& India. )*eng& Ared '=88!. 8erminolog0 in 3and Information 5anagement . New Mrunswic(& )anadaB -epartment of Sur/e0ing Engineering& 1ni/ersit0 of New Mrunswic(. 6.'7%. -ale 6. A. and 5c3aug*lin J. -& '=88!B 3and Administration. ,9ford 1ni/ersit0 6ress. Enermar( & S. and Se/atdal & 7. '===!. )adastres& 3and Information S0stems and 6lanning -decentrali@ation a significant (e0 to sustaina4le de/elopment. 1N-AI. )onference on 3and 8enure and )adastral Infrastructures for Sustaina4le -e/elopment& 5el4ourne& Australia.

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Journal of Information Engineering and Applications ISSN 2224-5782 print! ISSN 2225-"5"# online! $ol.%& No.'2& 2"'%

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