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Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.

2%& 2'13

Making Employee Training and Development a Tool for Efficiency and Effectiveness in Ghanaian Universities
1. 2. 3. (we)u Esia-*on)o+1& ,agar -a.po+-/ddo20& *e1ora+ /fful3 *epart.ent of -asic Education& 2ni3ersit4 of Education& 5inne1a& P. #. -o6 25& 5inne1a& 7+ana 8acult4 of 9anguages Education& 2ni3ersit4 of Education& 5inne1a& P. #. -o6 25& 5inne1a& 7+ana *i3ision of , :esource& 2ni3ersit4 of Education& 5inne1a& P. #. -o6 25& 5inne1a& 7+ana 0E-.ail of t+e ;orresponding /ut+or<

Abstract E.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent are considered critical w+en it to e.plo4ee efficienc4& effecti3eness and producti3it4. >+e proposition of t+is paper was t+at e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent could ensure efficienc4 and effecti3eness in uni3ersit4 ad.inistration. >+e paper focused on t+e 1enefits of training and de3elop.ent& and training .et+ods. It also 1uttressed so.e training and de3elop.ent in 7+anaian uni3ersities. >+e paper concluded t+at t+e success of e3er4 organi?ation& including uni3ersities& depends +ea3il4 on @ualit4 resources. It t+erefore follows t+at t+ere is t+e need for uni3ersities in 7+ana to ensure t+at designed for training and de3elop.ent are +olistic in nature to e@uip e.plo4ees wit+ t+e re@uisite )nowledge& attitude& s)ills and e6perience for Ao1 effecti3eness. It is t+us reco..ended t+at .anage.ent of uni3ersities& especiall4 t+ose in 7+ana s+ould .a)e training and de3elop.ent a continuous acti3it4 to .aintain and appraise e.plo4eesB s)ill le3els& and .oti3ate t+e. to grow and i.pro3e professionall4. Keywords: training& de3elop.ent& efficienc4& effecti3eness ! "ntrod#ction $arious factors suc+ as capital& e@uip.ent& resource etc. contri1ute to t+e success of an4 organi?ation (including educational institutions & and t+e significance of t+ese factors cannot 1e o3ere.p+asi?ed. ,owe3er& t+e .ost i.portant of t+ese factors is t+e factor since it is t+e people in t+e organi?ations t+at put t+e ot+er resources to wor). /s a result& .anage.ent needs to pa4 attention to t+e resource in order to ac+ie3e t+e goals and o1Aecti3es of t+e organi?ations. /.ewuda+ (2''2 supports t+is 14 indicating t+at resource is per+aps& t+e .ost i.portant and d4na.ic of all of an organi?ationBs resourcesC and one of t+e )e4 strategies for resource de3elop.ent is e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent. >o +i.& .ost organi?ations see e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent as a tool for e.plo4ees to i.pro3e upon t+eir perfor.ance and also& +elp t+e organi?ation to grow. >raining and de3elop.ent are 3er4 crucial to t+e e.plo4ees& t+e organi?ation and t+eir effecti3eness (*e3i D S+ai) 2'12 . >raining& according to ;ole (2''2 & is t+e preparation for an occupation or for specific s)ills w+ic+ is Ao1 or tas) oriented rat+er t+an personal. >raining could also 1e seen as a learning process t+at see)s a relati3el4 per.anent c+ange in an indi3idual t+at will i.pro3e +is or +er a1ilit4 to perfor. on t+e Ao1. /ccording to #nasan4a (2''E training is a for. of speciali?ed education ai.ed at gi3ing t+e trainee a particular or speciali?ed )nowledge& s)ill and attitude w+ic+ +e .ust possess to effecti3el4 perfor. in a gi3en position (/roge 2'12 . >raining t+erefore in3ol3es t+e ac@uisition and c+anging of specific s)ills& )nowledge& attitudes and social 1e+a3iour for t+e purposes of an occupation or wor). *e3elop.ent on t+e ot+er +and is seen 14 #wens (2''' as a process of e.plo4ee i.pro3e.ent t+roug+ approac+es t+at e.p+asis self-reali?ation& self-growt+ and self-de3elop.ent. >+is de3elop.ent includes t+ose acti3ities ai.ed at i.pro3e.ent and growt+ of a1ilities& attitudes& s)ills and )nowledge of e.plo4ees in an organi?ation. >o #wens (2''' & de3elop.ent in3ol3es pro.oting e.plo4ee ac@uisition of s)ills& infor.ation& attitudes& and 1e+a3iour patterns needed wit+in t+e organi?ationBs wor) units. 8or #nasan4a (2''E de3elop.ent is concerned wit+ specific specificall4 designed to prepare and groo. e.plo4ees wit+ particular education and training for +ig+er responsi1ilities (/roge 2'12 . *e3elop.ent .a4 t+erefore 1e seen as a learning acti3it4 directed towards future needs rat+er t+an present needs. It is concerned .ore wit+ career growt+ t+an i..ediate perfor.ance. >+e focus of de3elop.ent is t+us 1asicall4 on an organi?ations future resource re@uire.ents& and secondl4& on t+e growt+ needs of indi3idual e.plo4ees at t+e wor)place. It is ac)nowledged worldwide t+at e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent contri1ute to organi?ational effecti3eness and efficienc4. ,owe3er& not e3er4 top .anage.ent is co..itted to e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent. Pro1a1l4& t+e reason could 1e t+at suc+ top .anage.ent w+o are not co..itted to t+e training and de3elop.ent of e.plo4ees do not see t+e relations+ip 1etween producti3it4 and resource de3elop.ent (/.ewuda+ 2''2 . Safo (2''E is of t+e 3iew t+at an4 leader w+o t+e training of +is or +er personnel is onl4 wal)ing on a land.ine and it certainl4 would not 1e long for t+e o1ituar4 of t+at organi?ation to 1e read. >+is


Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.2%& 2'13

per+aps& s+ows t+e need for top .anage.ent to .a)e reasona1le in3est.ents in t+e training and de3elop.ent of t+eir e.plo4ees. , (2'11 .aintains t+at organi?ations t+at +a3e policies w+ic+ are .ore progressi3el4 people-oriented +a3e e6celled& lea3ing t+e co.petition 1e+ind. >+e .ain reason is t+at w+en organi?ations in3est in people& in t+eir training and de3elop.ent& t+e4 o1tain +ig+er s)ill and greater co.petence t+at +elps i.pro3e .orale and producti3it4 (*e3i D S+ai) 2'12 . /ccording to Sar3adi (2''5 .an4 top .anagers of organi?ations see. to 3iew e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent as .ore optional t+an essential& a 3iewpoint t+at can 1e costl4 to 1ot+ s+ort-ter. 1enefits and long ter. progress. In t+e 3iew of Sar3adi (2''5 t+e pri.ar4 reason e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent is considered optional 14 so .an4 .anagers and leaders of organi?ations is 1ecause it is seen as an e6pense t+an an in3est.ent. >+e trut+ +owe3er is t+at e.plo4ees& w+o undergo training and de3elop.ent are e6posed& +a3e +ig+er )nowledge and s)ills and perfor. 1etter. It is t+us a parado6 to see so.e top .anagers set .onies aside to purc+ase and .aintain e6pensi3e e@uip.ent& 3e+icles and reno3ating 1ut not t+e training of t+e people w+o o3ersee t+e e@uip.ent and t+e use of ot+er resources. $! %b&ectives >+e paper see)s to ac+ie3e t+e following o1Aecti3es< • >o find out t+e nature of e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent in 7+anaian uni3ersities • >o deter.ine appropriate e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent .et+ods • >o contri1ute to e6isting 1od4 of )nowledge on e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent in educational institutions. '! (enefits of Employee Training and Development :egardless of t+e si?e or t4pe of an organi?ation& training and de3elop.ent can +a3e a .easura1le i.pact on perfor.ance. In t+e 3iew of (2''1 training t+at .eets t+e needs of 1ot+ t+e e.plo4ees and e.plo4er can increase t+e @ualit4 and fle6i1ilit4 of t+e organi?ationBs ser3ices 14 fostering accurac4 and efficienc4& good wor) safet4 practices& and 1etter ser3ice. >o +i.& producti3it4 increases as training ta)es place. In t+e opinion of (2''1 staffs w+o recei3e training can 1e .ore producti3e t+an untrained colleagues w+o are wor)ing in t+e sa.e role. ,ig+ la1our producti3it4& t+us& increases organi?ations output and can open a greater s+are of t+e .ar)et or e6pand it 14 i.pro3ing products& ser3ices and reputations. /lao (2'1' & In t+e de3elop.ent of organi?ations& training and de3elop.ent pla4 a crucial role& and i.pro3es perfor.ance& increases producti3it4& and e3entuall4 put organi?ations in t+e pole position to face co.petition and sta4 at t+e top. >+is i.plies t+at a significant difference e6ists 1etween t+e organi?ations t+at train t+eir e.plo4ees and organi?ations t+at do not. >raining generates 1enefits for t+e e.plo4ee as well as for t+e organi?ation 14 positi3el4 influencing e.plo4ee perfor.ance t+roug+ t+e de3elop.ent of e.plo4ee )nowledge& s)ills& a1ilit4& co.petencies and 1e+a3ior (Sultana& Iru.& /+.ed D Ge+.ood 2'12 . (2''1 inti.ates t+at training and de3elop.ent increase staff retention w+ic+ is significantl4 cost sa3ing. #rgani?ations wit+ effecti3e e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent do not e6perience +ig+ turno3er rate 1ecause t+e trained e.plo4ee feels +e +as a future wit+ t+e co.pan4. ,e 1elie3es +e is 3alued and respected. (2''1 posits t+at t+e loss of one co.plete e.plo4ee can 1e t+e e@ui3alent of one 4earBs pa4 and 1enefits. /ccording to (2''1 training in so.e organi?ations +a3e reduced e.plo4ee turno3er 14 7'H. Safo (2''E postulates t+at it is onl4 t+ose e.plo4ees w+o +a3e now+ere to go t+at will re.ain wit+ an organi?ation t+at does not train its people. It .ust 1e noted t+at toda4Bs e.plo4ee is alwa4s loo)ing for an en3iron.ent t+at pro.otes personal growt+ and to suc+ people& training is Aust as i.portant as t+eir salar4. In line wit+ t+is& Safo (2''E indicates t+at as t+e news of +ow progressi3e 4ou are as an organi?ation goes round& Ao1 see)ers would floc) to 4ou. (2''1 inti.ates t+at t+e 1enefits of e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent in one area can flow t+roug+ to all le3els of an organi?ation. 5it+ ti.e& training reduces costs 14 decreasing wasted ti.e and .aterials& .aintenance cost of .ac+iner4 and e@uip.ent& wor)place accidents w+ic+ leads to lower insurance pre.iu.s& recruit.ent costs t+roug+ t+e internal pro.otion of s)illed staff& and a1senteeis.. ,e argues furt+er t+at organi?ations .ust continuall4 c+ange t+eir wor) practices and infrastructure to sta4 co.petiti3e in a glo1al .ar)et. >raining and de3elop.ent could +elp e.plo4ees to .anage t+e i.ple.entation of new tec+nolog4& wor) practices and 1usiness strategies. Suc+ training can also ser3e as a for future recruit.ent and @ualit4 assurance practices (7ross Es@ 2''Ea . In t+e opinion of (2''1 & continuous e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent pro.otes de3elop.ent of new co.petencies and s)ills and +elp to .eet t+e c+anging tec+nologies of t+e world. Jo1s suc+ as nursing& teac+ing& and co.puter re@uire furt+er training. /lso& indi3iduals w+o de3elop t+eir )nowledge and s)ills t+roug+ training and de3elop.ent report +ig+ .oti3ation& .orale and Ao1 satisfaction. ,utc+ings& I+ua& ;oopera& I+ang1 D S+ao (2''F contend t+at training and de3elop.ent practices +ad a positi3e i.pact on


Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.2%& 2'13

preparing t+e. to 1e .ore effecti3e in t+eir wor)& increasing t+eir tec+nical a1ilities& interpersonal a1ilities& tea.wor)& Ao1 confidence and wor) .oti3ation (*e3i D S+ai) 2'12 . >raining and de3elop.ent do not onl4 teac+ e.plo4ees +ow to do t+eir Ao1s 1etter& 1ut it also +elps t+e. to wor) .ore independentl4 and de3elop a can do attitude. (2''1 is also of t+e 3iew t+at e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent& apart fro. i.pacting on an organi?ationBs profit .argins& can i.pro3e staff .orale and satisfaction& soft s)ills suc+ as interstaff co..unication and leaders+ip& ti.e .anage.ent& and satisfaction. )! Employee Training Methods /ccording to ;ole (2''2 and (2''1 & training .et+ods refer to t+e .eans 14 w+ic+ infor.ation& ideas& s)ills& attitudes and feelings are co..unicated to e.plo4ees at a wor)place. >+e .ost popular training .et+ods are classified as eit+er on-t+e-Ao1 or off-t+e-Ao1. #n-t+e-Ao1 training is t+e .ost widel4 .et+od used 14 organi?ations and it is a situation w+ere e.plo4ees are placed in an actual wor)ing situation and .a)es t+e. appear to 1e i..ediatel4 producti3e. It is learning 14 doing w+ere t+e person is put in a real situation to ena1le +i. learn .ore a1out t+e Ao1 in t+e practical sense. >+e4 are of t+e 3iew t+at on-t+e Ao1 training is si.ple to operate& cost effecti3e& places t+e e.plo4ees in actual wor) situations& pro3ides i..ediate feed1ac) to trainees on t+eir perfor.ance& and it is a fle6i1le .et+od 1ecause t+e e@uip.ent or Ao1 c+ange& .odifications are easil4 .ade in t+e training. *espite t+ese ad3antages t+at could 1e deri3ed fro. on-t+e-Ao1 training& one cannot lose sig+t of t+e fact t+at it .a4 +a3e so.e set1ac)s suc+ as low producti3it4 w+ile t+e e.plo4ees de3elop t+eir s)ills in t+e actual wor) situation. /gain& trainees could .a)e errors as t+e4 de3elop t+eir s)ills. So.e of t+ese errors could 1e disastrous to t+e organi?ation. 8or.s of on-t+e-Ao1 training .et+ods include Ao1 instruction training& Ao1 rotation and second.ent. #ff-t+e-Ao1 training on t+e ot+er +and is a .et+od of e.plo4ee training conducted awa4 fro. t+e wor)site. It could 1e pro3ided 14 e6ternal pro3iders li)e pri3ate consulting fir.s& colleges or uni3ersities. It could also 1e pro3ided 14 internal pro3iders& t+at is& t+e per.anent e.plo4ees. >+e use of e6ternal pro3iders is +owe3er .ore popular t+ese da4s (;ole 2''2C 2''1 . >+e ad3antages t+at could 1e deri3ed fro. off-t+e-Ao1 training include ena1ling participants learn to t+in) on t+eir feet& e6plore interpersonal relations and s+are feelings& de3elop anal4tical and pro1le. sol3ing s)ills& sti.ulate new ideas and creati3e suggestions and pro3ide t+e opportunit4 to s+are ideas on real da4 to da4 pro1le.s. >+ese .erits not wit+standing& participants .a4 1e 1ored w+en resource persons are not professionals or are not effecti3e. It also ignores t+e co.pre+ension le3els of t+e participants. 9ectures& conferences& wor)s+ops& as well as si.ulation e6ercises and are for.s of off-t+e-Ao1 training .et+ods (;ole& 2''2C 2''1C 7ross Es@ 2''E1 . *! Training and Development +rogrammes in Ghanaian Universities >+e success of e3er4 organi?ation greatl4 depends on +ow well its e.plo4ees are trained and de3eloped. >+e .ost successful and producti3e e.plo4ees are t+ose w+o +a3e recei3ed e6tensi3e training and de3elop.ent Suc+ well trained e.plo4ees are seen as t+e crea. of t+e crop& often wit+ t+e strongest sta)e in t+e future of t+e organi?ation. In an ideal world& an organi?ation would 1e a1le to +ire people w+o alread4 possess t+e e6act s)ills needed 14 t+e organi?ation. ,owe3er in toda4Bs co.petiti3e la1our .ar)et& de.and for s)illed wor)ers far e6ceeds suppl4. >+at is w+ere training and de3elop.ent co.e in. >raining and de3elop.ent do not onl4 ar. e.plo4ees wit+ t+e needed professional or tec+nical s)ills& 1ut it also s+ows t+at t+e organi?ation +as in3ested in t+e. and interested in 1ringing t+e. into t+e future of t+e organi?ation. >+is +elps )eep e.plo4ees .oti3ated and in3ol3ed. 2ni3ersities in 7+ana& as tertiar4 educational institutions& e.plo4 wor)ers wit+ 3aried @ualifications& )nowledge& s)ills and e6perience to +elp t+e 2ni3ersities grow to ac+ie3e t+eir 3ision and .ission. In so doing& eac+ uni3ersit4 +as in place a polic4 on e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent w+ic+ see)s to upgrade t+e )nowledge& s)ills& and e6perience of wor)ers at all le3els (senior .e.1ers& senior staff and Aunior staff to en+ance efficienc4& effecti3eness and producti3it4. Suc+ training and de3elop.ent of wor)ers are seen in sc+olars+ips for e.plo4ees to pursue +ig+er degrees and ot+er professional courses& sponsoring e.plo4ees to participate in wor)s+ops& se.inars and conferences. Jo1 rotation is also a training .et+od e.plo4ed 14 2ni3ersities to ena1le e.plo4ees +a3e a greater understanding of different functional areas for t+e. to 1e generalist. ,! -oncl#sion 7enerall4& e3er4 organi?ation succeeds w+en it +as @ualit4 resource to wor) to see to it t+at t+e goals and o1Aecti3es of t+e organi?ation including uni3ersities are effecti3el4 ac+ie3ed. 8or an4 .anager& irrespecti3e of t+e si?e of t+e organi?ation 14 w+ic+ +e is e.plo4ed or its range of acti3ities& a capa1le& lo4al tea. of staff is of great i.portance if +is organi?ation is to operate s.oot+l4 and efficientl4. No .atter +ow auto.ated t+e organi?ation or part of it .a4 1e& t+e output of t+e organi?ation would ulti.atel4 1e ac+ie3ed t+roug+ t+e efforts of t+e people. >+is .a)es t+e resource in an organi?ation t+e .ost i.portant and co.ple6 resource w+o


Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.2%& 2'13

.ust 1e +andled wit+ care and treated wit+ t+e necessar4 care. Gost organi?ations t+erefore de3ice .eans of training and de3eloping t+eir resource so t+at effecti3eness& efficienc4& increased producti3it4 and lo4alt4 ot+ers could 1e ac+ie3ed 14 t+e organi?ation. It .ust 1e .ade clear t+at in toda4Bs econo.4& an organi?ation t+at does not learn +as t+e tendenc4 of 1eing o3erta)en 14 e3ents. E.plo4ees are t+e ones t+at produce& refine products& deli3er and .anage products or ser3ices e3er4da4& 4ear in 4ear out. 5it+ t+e rapid pace and international reac+ of t+e 21st centur4 .ar)et place& continual learning is 3er4 critical to an organi?ations continued success. ;reating a learning en3iron.ent t+at ena1les staff to grow and reac+ personal goals& in partners+ip wit+ ac+ie3ing organi?ational goals& will +elp staff to re.ain focused& goal-oriented and lo4al to organi?ations. /n educated wor)force could 1e easier to .anage and will welco.e new tec+ni@ues& e@uip.ent and .aterials into t+e organi?ation. >+e s+own to t+e well-1eing of e.plo4ees 14 creating a learning culture& will .a)e t+e. .ore .ar)eta1le& and increase t+eir lo4alt4 and to oneBs organi?ation. 8or e.plo4ees and organi?ations to reac+ t+eir full potential& t+e4 .ust 1e trained& de3eloped and retained. ,! .ecommendations 8or .anage.ent of 7+anaian uni3ersities to successfull4 i.ple.ent and i.pro3e its polic4 on e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent& and reap t+e 1enefits fro. it& t+e following reco..endations are .ade< • Ganage.ent s+ould stress training and de3elop.ent of e.plo4ees as an in3est.ent. >+e reason training is often considered optional in .an4 organi?ations is 1ecause it is taug+t of as an e6pense rat+er t+an an in3est.ent. E3en t+oug+ e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent can 1e costl4 upfront& it is a long ter. in3est.ent in t+e growt+ and de3elop.ent of an organi?ationBs resource. • Ganage.ent s+ould deter.ine t+e training and de3elop.ent needs. / training need is an4 s+ortfall in ter.s of e.plo4ee )nowledge understanding& s)ill and attitude against w+at is re@uired 14 t+e Ao1& or t+e de.ands of organi?ational c+ange. In deter.ining t+e needs& t+e strengt+s and wea)nesses in t+e uni3ersit4 s+ould 1e considered. >+us& deficiencies t+at w+en corrected& represent a potential for upside gain in t+e uni3ersit4 s+ould 1e identified. Needs anal4sis could 1e done under t+ree le3els-indi3idual& group and s4ste.. Indi3idual needs include .atters t+at relate to position effecti3eness& position transition& personal and professional de3elop.ent and position securit4. 7roup needs could 1e illustrated 14 anal4sis t+at indicates serious gaps 1etween instructional o1Aecti3es and instructional #rgani?ational needs are t+ose in3ol3ing t+e total s4ste. suc+ as t+e creation of opportunit4 for furt+er stud4 or ad+erence to polic4 go3erning .ini.u. e.plo4ee co.petenc4 re@uire.ents. It could 1e deduced t+at considerations for e.plo4ee training and de3elop.ent s+ould loo) at t+e total de3elop.ent needs of t+e organi?ation& t+e needed i.pro3e.ents in t+e specific )nowledge and s)ills of indi3idual e.plo4ees and t+e potential of e.plo4ees for growt+ and de3elop.ent. /s t+e .anage.ent of 7+anaian uni3ersities .a4 pro1a1l4 not +a3e unli.ited ti.e or funds to e6ecute an e.plo4ee training progra..e& it would 1e prudent for .anage.ent to decide earl4 on t+e focus t+at e.plo4ee training s+ould 1e. Ganage.ent .ust deter.ine t+e s)ills t+at are pertinent to address current or future needs of t+e uni3ersit4 or t+at w+ic+ would pro3ide t+e 1iggest pa41ac). >+e @uestion 7+anaian uni3ersit4 .anage.ent s+ould as) is J+ow will t+e training and de3elop.ent e3entuall4 pro3e 1eneficial to t+e uni3ersit4KL • Ganage.ent s+ould pro.ote a culture of learning. / learning culture is a set of attitudes& 3alues and practices t+at support t+e process of continuous learning wit+in an organi?ation. Pro.oting a learning culture would en+ance superior perfor.ance& 1etter @ualit4 of ser3ice& 1etter satisfaction& co..itted and result-focused wor)force and greater a1ilit4 to deal wit+ c+ange. In toda4Bs fast-paced econo.4& if an organi?ation is not learning& it will definitel4 fall 1e+ind. /n organi?ation learns as its wor)force learns. Ganage.ent s+ould t+erefore co..unicate t+eir e6pectations t+at all e.plo4ees s+ould ta)e t+e necessar4 steps to +one t+eir s)ills and sta4 on top of t+eir professions or fields of wor). Ganage.ent s+ould also ensure t+at resources needed to acco.plis+ t+is goal are pro3ided. In situations w+ere e.plo4ees pa4 t+eir own training e6penses& it would 1e .uc+ appreciated if uni3ersit4 .anage.ent refund so.e or all of t+e cost incurred 14 t+e e.plo4ees& so long as t+e training ac@uired is useful to t+e uni3ersit4. • Ganage.ent s+ould 1e on 1oard. #nce a prioriti?ed list of training o1Aecti3es and topics t+at address )e4 needs wit+in t+e uni3ersit4 +a3e 1een de3eloped& .anage.ent s+ould 1e con3inced enoug+ to rall4 1e+ind t+e initiati3e. Ganage.ent s+ould 1e sincerel4 co..itted to training and de3elop.ent and .ust ensure t+at t+e rig+t people are selected for t+e rig+t training. >raining s+ould not 1e treated as a reward or fa3our e6tended 14 top .anage.ent. /ccording to Safo (2''E it is on record t+at so.e people attend courses at e6or1itant costs to organi?ations& onl4 to sleep 1ecause t+e4 do not understand t+e issues 1eing discussed or t+e4 are senior officers attending F1

Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.2%& 2'13

courses designed for Aunior officers. >+us& 1efore e.plo4ees are sent on training t+e )nowledge and s)ills needed 14 t+e e.plo4ees s+ould 1e deter.ined in line wit+ corporate goals. Ganage.ent s+ould also pro3ide t+e needed support for t+e e.plo4ees to use t+eir new )nowledge and s)ills and closel4 .onitor t+eir progress. 5+en t+is is done& .anage.ent would not 1e sponsoring e.plo4ees w+o would onl4 go and sleep to add to t+e uni3ersit4Bs costs. Ganage.ent s+ould c+oose @ualit4 instructors and .aterials. It .ust 1e noted t+at w+oe3er is selected to conduct t+e training will .a)e a .aAor difference in t+e success of t+e efforts of t+e uni3ersit4 .anage.ent& w+et+er it is a professional educator or si.pl4 a )nowledgea1le staff .e.1er. /gain& .anage.ent s+ould endea3our to +a3e t+e rig+t training .aterials. >+is is i.portant 1ecause after t+e training is o3er& t+ese .aterials 1eco.e 3alua1le resources for trainees. Ganage.ent s+ould clarif4 connections. So.e e.plo4ees .a4 feel t+at t+e training t+e4 are recei3ing is not rele3ant to t+eir Ao1. It is t+erefore i.portant for suc+ e.plo4ees to 1e +elped to understand t+e connection easil4 so t+at t+e4 do not 3iew t+e training sessions as a waste of 3alua1le ti.e. E.plo4ees s+ould 1e .ade to see training as an i.portant addition to t+eir professional portfolios. >+is i.plies t+at training s+ould award e.plo4ees wit+ co.pletion certificates at t+e end of t+e Ganage.ent s+ould .a)e training and de3elop.ent an ongoing acti3it4. >raining s+ould not 1e li.ited solel4 to new e.plo4ees. #rgani?ed& ongoing training will .aintain all e.plo4eesB s)ill le3els& and continuall4 .oti3ate t+e. to grow and i.pro3e professionall4. Ganage.ent s+ould .easure results. 5it+out .easura1le results& it would 1e i.possi1le to 3iew training and de3elop.ent as an4t+ing 1ut an e6pense. Geasuring results for.s part of t+e control process of training and de3elop.ent It gi3es feed1ac) a1out t+e results or outputs of training& and to use t+is feed1ac) to assess t+e 3alue of t+e training& wit+ a 3iew to i.pro3e.ent& w+ere necessar4. Ganage.ent s+ould decide on +ow to o1tain an accepta1le rate of return on t+e training in3est.ent. It would also 1e easier for .anage.ent to 1udget funds for future training and de3elop.ent if concrete results could 1e de.onstrated. / perception 1ased approac+ is appropriate and effecti3e w+en training are to 1e .easured or e3aluated& and it see)s to as) participants to rate t+e persons conducting t+e t+e content of t+e progra..e& t+e organi?ation of t+e progra..e& t+e place and ti.e w+en t+e progra..e was presented. 5+en a training progra..e centers on s)ill or tec+ni@ue ac@uisition it is appropriate to conduct a follow up e3aluation after t+e participants +a3e +ad t+e opportunit4 to i.ple.ent t+e tec+ni@ues or use t+eir new s)ills. >+ese are used as feed1ac) in future design and pro3ide data to i.pro3e t+e w+ole staff de3elop.ent

.eferences /lao& -. S. (2'1' & J>+e i.pact of training and de3elop.ent on e.plo4eesB perfor.ance< / case stud4 of Nigerian 1ottling co.pan4L& B. Sc. Research Project& 8acult4 of -usiness and Social Sciences& 2ni3ersit4 of Ilorin. /.ewuda+& N. *. (. (2''2 & J/n e3aluation of staff training and de3elop.ent acti3ities at t+e 2ni3ersit4 of ;ape ;oast& 1F!7-1FF7L& Journal of Educational Management )/ 1E%-17!. /roge& S. >. (2'12 & JE.plo4eeBs training and de3elop.ent for opti.u. producti3it4< >+e role of Industrial >raining 8und (I>8 & NigeriaL& Developing Country Studies $(% & 5'-5!. ;ole& 7. /. (2''2 & Personnel and human resource management. (5t+ ed. . 9ondon< E9>S wit+ ;ontinuu.. *e3i& $. :.& D S+ai)& N. (2'12 & J>raining and de3elop.ent< / Au.p starter for e.plo4ee perfor.ance and organi?ational effecti3enessL& nternational Journal of Social Science and nterdisciplinary Research! 0& 2'2-2'7. 7ross& Es@. -. (2''Ea & J>+e 1enefits of s)ill-1ased trainingL. M#nlineN /3aila1le< http"###$$$''('&'htmltipne$s )#cto1er 1%& 2''E . 7ross Es@. -. (2''E1 & JE.plo4ee training tipsL. M#nlineN /3aila1le< http"###$$$ resources#careers&jo%&training#'*+(&'.html (#cto1er 1%& 2''E . , S. (2'11 & J/ stud4 of effecti3eness of training and de3elop.ent of 2PS>*;& India< /n anal4sisL& South ,sian Journal of -ourism and .eritage! )(1 & 72-!2. ,utc+ings& ).& I+u& ;. J.& ;ooper& -. (.& I+ang& O.& D S+ao& S. (2''F & JPerceptions of t+e effecti3eness of training and de3elop.ent of Pgre4-collarB wor)ers in t+e PeopleBs :epu1lic of ;+inaL& .uman Resource nternational! $(3 & 27F-2FE. #nasan4a& ;. G. *. (2''5 & JEffecti3e personnel .anage.ent and industrial relationsL (;G* 2''5 & p. 2'E. #wens& :. 7. (2''' & /rganisational %ehaviour in education. Gassac+usetts< /ll4n and -acon. F2

Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.2%& 2'13

:e1ore& :. 5. (2''! & .uman resources administration in education" , management approach (7t+ ed. . New Jerse4< /ll4n and -acon. Safo& 5. -. (. (2''E& Ga4 2' & J,ow 3alua1le is e.plo4ee de3elop.entKL -he Mirror (No. 2E!3 & p. 1E. Sar3adi& P. (2''5 & JI.portance of e.plo4ee de3elop.entL. M#nlineN /3aila1le< http"###$$$!*+1'!21'1+'!00.html (June 5& 2''E . /. (2''1 & J:eturn on in3est.ent in training< :esearc+ readingsL. M#nlineN /3aila1le<http"###$$$*.html ( June 5& 2''E . Sultana& /.& Iru.& S.& /+.ed& (.& D Ge+.ood& N. (2'12 & JI.pact of training on e.plo4ee perfor.ance< / stud4 of teleco..unication sector in Pa)istanL& nterdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business! )(E & E%E-EE1. -9#7SP#> (2''! & JEffects of training and .anpower de3elop.ent on producti3it4 of wor)ersL& M#nlineN /3aila1le< http"##$$$ (8e1ruar4 7& 2'13 .


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