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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.

12* 2%13

Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration in Mount Berecha Area of Main Ethiopian Rift using Hyperspectral Data
1. 2. 3. +,omi"osi -. (luwade.i1* /hristo"h +. 0ec1er2* 2ree1 3. van der 4eer2* -raham 2errier 3 3e"artment of -eological Sciences* (sun State 5niversit,* (sog.o* (sun State* Nigeria 3e"artment of Earth S,stems +nal,sis* 2acult, of -eo-Information Science and Earth (.servation I6/#* 5niversit, of 6wente* Enschede* Netherlands 3e"artment of -eogra"h,* Environment and Earth Sciences* 5niversit, of 0ull* 5nited 7ingdom 8 E-mail of the corres"onding author9 a,omi"

Abstract +ir.orne Imaging S"ectroradiometer for +""lications +IS+# 0aw1 data was used to identif, and ma" h,drothermal alteration mineralog, in 4ount ;erecha area of 4ain Ethio"ian <ift valle,. 6he +ir.orne image ma""ing was cou"led with la.orator, anal,sis involving reflectance s"ectrosco"ic measurements with the use of +S3 2ieldS"ec for mineral and roc1 sam"les. 6he stud, was .ased in the shortwave infrared wavelength S=I<# region. >a.orator, s"ectra ac?uired from field data anal,sis served as guide in selecting image endmem.ers which were used as in"ut in S"ectral +ngle 4a""er S+4# classification for mineral ma""ing. S=I< s"ectrosco", was a.le to detect the main ver, fine grained mineral assem.lages which occur in the stud, area* including 1aolinite* hallo,site* o"al* montmorillonite* nontronite* calcite* 7-alunite* "al,gors1ite* 4g/hlorite* @oisite* illite and miAtures of these minerals. S+4 classification algorithm gives the overall classification of the alteration minerals of ;erecha area and was used to generate the surficial mineral ma" of the stud, area. ;erecha alteration is related to low sulfidation s,stem and the most wides"read alteration effects are re"resented essentiall, in advanced argillic alteration assem.lage consisting mainl, of 1aolinite B o"al B smectite B alunite which is li1el, of steam heated origin. Keywords: 0,"ers"ectral* Imaging S"ectrometr,* +IS+ 0aw1* ;erecha* +S3 2ieldS"ec* S"ectral +ngle 4a""er 1 !ntroduction 0,drothermal alteration is a com"leA "rocess involving chemical re"lacement of original minerals in the roc1 ., new minerals where a h,drothermal fluid delivers the chemical reactants and remove the a?ueous reaction "roducts <eed* 1&&C#. +n understanding of h,drothermal alteration is of great value .ecause it "rovides insight into origin of ore fluids as well as chemical and "h,sical attri.utes of ore de"osit# formation. -old and man, other economic minerali@ations in the world have .een found in alteration @ones. 4ount ;erecha area of the 4ain Ethio"ia <ift 4E<# is a t,"ical eAam"le of h,drothermall, altered area. 6he occurrence of gold in various "art of Ethio"ia is 1nown to .e associated with the metamor"hic roc1s green schist facies D am"hi.olites facies#* low-grade .imodal meta-volcano sedimentar, island-arc o"hiolitic suites# and s,n-tectonic to "osttectonic intrusive 6adesse* 1&&&* 6adesse et al.* 2%%3#. 0owever* recent studies show elevated gold values in geothermal wells in h,drothermall, altered areas of Ethio"ian rift s,stem. 6his wor1 is .ased on identif,ing the alteration mineralog, in the stud, area and the "ossi.ilit, of gold at the surface or occurrence of other im"ortant economic mineral. +n air.orne h,"ers"ectral dataset 0aw1 data# was used to ma1e a mineral ma" of 4ount ;erecha area h,drothermal s,stem and then ground-truthed with the use of +S3 2ieldS"ec. +ir.orne Imaging S"ectroradiometer for +""lications +IS+# 0aw1 is a commercial h,"ers"ectral "ush .room t,"e imaging s"ectrometer s,stem develo"ed ., S!E/I4 .ased in 2inland van der 4eer* 2%%1#. 6he flight cam"aign of the stud, area was carried out in Januar, 2%%' ., NE</-+<S2 National Environmental <esearch /ouncil E +ir.orne <esearch and Surve, 2acilit,# .ased in 5nited 7ingdom. S"ectrosco", is the measurement and anal,sis of "ortions of the electromagnetic s"ectrum to identif, s"ectrall, distinct and "h,sicall, significant features of a material 6homas and =alter* 2%%2#. 4ost minerals have a characteristic s"ectrum and maFor diagnostic a.sor"tion feature .etween the wavelength ranges of 13%%-2$%% nm S=I<# range van der 4eer et al.* 2%12#. 6he maForit, of the s"ectral a.sor"tion features that distinguish different silicates is associated with h,droA,l and water* "roducing a.sor"tion features near 14%%nm (0 and water# and 1&%%nm water#. (ther im"ortant and diagnostic s"ectral a.sor"tion features occur at or near 22%%nm* 22$%nm and 233% and are related to the .ending and stretching of the .onds .etween +l(0* 2e(0 and 4g(0 res"ectivel, 2igure 1#. 6he a.sor"tion features that denote these h,droA,l- and car.onate-.earing minerals or mineral grou"s are characteristic of h,drothermal alteration. 6hese mineral grou"s ma, include 1aolinite* hallo,site* ",ro"h,llite* smectite cla,s* dic1ite* micas* chlorites* alunite* Farosite* calcite !ontual et al.* 1&&C#.


Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

%igure ": 4aFor s"ectral a.sor"tion .and in S=I< !ontual et al.* 1&&C# " #eologic $etting 4ount ;erecha area is situated in the central "art of the 4ain Ethio"ian <ift 4E<# valle, near the cit, of +.a,a 2igure 2#. 6he 4ain Ethio"ia <ift 4E<# constitute the north-eastern "art of the East +frican <ift S,stem E+<S# and com"rises a series of rift @ones eAtending over a distance of a.out 1%%% 1m from the +far 6ri"le Junction at the <ed Sea--ulf of +den intersection to the 7en,a <ift +.e.e et al.* 2%%C#. 6he 4E< is mar1ed ., recent volcanic "roducts roc1s# which are re"resented ., com"osite volcanoes and ., caldera structures ;occaletti et al.* 1&&'#. 6he 4E< develo"ed during >ate 4iocene and characteri@ed ., welldevelo"ed Guaternar, faulting that is mostl, related to =onFi 2ault ;elt 7orme et al.* 2%%4#. 6he 4E< is divided geogra"hicall, into three sectors9 northern* central and southern =olde-a.riel et al.* 1&&%#. 6he stud, area ;erecha# eAists in the central "art of the 4ain Ethio"ian <ift valle, which is mostl, covered ., ignim.rite roc1 3i"aola* 1&C%#. ;erecha ignim.rite is the ,oungest unit out of the three ignim.ritic units of the volcanic com"leA that .elongs to a .imodal magmatic suite eru"ted .etween '3% 7a and 2% 7a thousand ,ears# 6rua et al.* 1&&&#. 6he recent felsic "roducts of the ;erecha unit consist of "antelleritic ignim.rites and o.sidian lava domes and flows ranging from 24% - 2% 7a. 6he ",roclastics are unwelded "umice flows and ashes* which are the final "roducts ;occaletti et al.* 1&&&#. ;erecha area consist of !leistocene E 0olocene H1.6 4a# volcanic com"leA with volcano-sedimentar, roc1s which is <ecent H $%% 7a# 6sega,e et al.* 2%%$#. 6he geolog, ma" of ;erecha area is shown in 2igure 3.


Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

%igure &: 4a" of 4ain Ethio"ian <ift showing stud, area after +,ele et al.* 2%%2#

%igure &: -eolog, ma" of ;erecha area after 6sega,e et al.* 2%%$# & Methodology 3.1 Ground Data Sam"les of mineral and roc1 were collected from eight,three '3# sam"ling "oints locations# with their -!S readings. Sam"ling was carried out in two wa,s* random sam"ling which was done ., random collection of sam"les from altered "art of the stud, area and detailed sam"ling which was .ased on information o.tained from "reliminar, "rocessing wavelength ma""ing# of air.orne imager, +IS+ 0aw1 data# which shows varia.ilit, in colour indicating different alteration minerals. >a.orator, s"ectra of mineral and roc1 were ac?uired using +S3 +nal,tical S"ectral 3evice# 2ieldS"ec with the high intensit, contact "ro.e instrument +rthur* 2%%C#. +S3 2ieldS"ec is a full com"uter-controlled 2igure 49 +S3 2ieldS"ec 3iagram s"ectroradiometer with a s"ectral range of 3$% - 2$%% nm 2igure 4#. It is designed to collect solar reflectance* radiance and irradiance measurements of materials. +S3 11C

Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

2ieldS"ec is com"act and eas, to set u"* thus allowing much data collection. 6he instrument has a contact reflectance "ro.e* which can .e fiAed to the"tic ca.le to "rovide s"ectral ca"a.ilities measurement without the need for sunlight. 6his attachment .rings the +S3 2ieldS"ec in line with other instruments such as the !I4+ S!* allowing collection of high ?ualit, reflectance s"ectra over a range of surfaces* with im"roved signal to noise ratios* thus ma1ing it ideal for s"ectral li.rar, creation. 6he la.orator, s"ectra ac?uired were "rocessed visuall, using )iewS"ec!ro software and further anal,@ed with I6he S"ectral -eologistJ 6S-# software /SI<(* 2%1%#. 6his is s"eciali@ed software designed for s"ectra anal,sis and inter"retation. It "rovides automated assistance in s"ectral inter"retation ., com"aring sam"led s"ectra with eAtensive s"ectral li.raries. 6S- is not "erfect in mineral identification* certain degree of error is "ossi.le and this was ta1en into consideration during anal,sis. 3.2 Airborne data 6he +IS+ 0aw1 data was newl, o.tained* thus it involved some "re-"rocessing ste"s .efore different ma""ing techni?ues were em"lo,ed. 6he aim for "rocessing was to identif, h,drothermal alteration assem.lage and highlight relationshi". 6he +IS+ 0aw1 records the S=I< range .etween 1%%6 nm and 24$C nm and it is accom"an, ., +IS+ Eagle which covers the )IS-)NI< range .etween 3&3 and &'' nm 6a.le 1 shows s"ecification of the +IS+ 0aw1#. +IS+ 0aw1 data was used in this stud, due to its S=I< region s"ectral coverage that is of interest in alteration mineral ma""ing. 6a.le 29 +IS+ 0aw1 Sensor S"ecification S"ectral <ange 1%%6 - 24$C nm Sam"ling Interval 6.3 nm 2$2 S"ectral ;and 12 nm S"ectral <esolution +ltitude amsl 12%%% feet !iAel si@e 2.$ m I2() %.%C$ degree -round I2() at 2%%% m fl,ing height 2.62 m !rocessing was "erformed using EN)I 4.C software ENvironment for )isuali@ing Images#* which is s"ecificall, designed for image "rocessing of satellite and aircraft remote-sensing h,"ers"ectral data. EN)I is suita.le for "rocessing h,"ers"ectral data .ecause of its man, uni?ue interactive anal,sis tools and multi"le d,namic overla, ca"a.ilities. It also allows users to ma1e and a""l, their own customi@ed anal,sis strategies. Image endmem.ers were identified ., using the la.orator, s"ectra ac?uired from field data as guide in "ic1ing "iAels with "ure s"ectra from the "re-"rocessed image. 6he image derived endmem.ers were com"ared with 5S-S s"ectra li.rar, to chec1 their similarit, in a.sor"tion features and sha"e. 6hese image derived endmem.ers# also serves as the training set in"ut# in S"ectral +ngle 4a""er S+4# classification* 0ec1er et al.* 2%%'# which was used to generate the mineral ma". S+4 is a tool that "ermits ra"id ma""ing of the s"ectra similarit, of image s"ectra to reference s"ectra. 6he algorithm determines the s"ectral similarit, .etween test reflectance s"ectrum and reference reflectance s"ectrum ., calculating the KangleK .etween the two s"ectra* treating them as vectors in a s"ace with dimensionalit, e?ual to the of .ands assuming that the data is correctl, cali.rated to a""arent reflectance with dar1 current "ath and radiance removed 7ruse et al.* 1&&3#. ' Results And Discussion 4.1 Ground Data /lassification made ., 6he S"ectral -eologist software from the la.orator, s"ectral of minerals and roc1s show the "resence of several shortwave infrared wavelength S=I<# active alteration minerals which include9 1aolinite and hallo,site 1andite grou" minerals#* montmorillonite and nontronite smectite grou" mineral#* o"al* calcite* 1-alunite* "al,gors1ite* mgchlorite* @oisite* illite and miAtures of these minerals. Some of the sam"les have "ure s"ectra of the mineral identified e.g. 1aolinite* o"al etc#L others however occur as miAture with other mineral without "ure s"ectra to descri.e their s"ectral features these include "al,gors1ite* mgchlorite* @oisite* illite#. Some of the sam"les with distinct "ure# s"ectral com"ared with 5S-S s"ectra li.rar, are shown in 2igure $.


Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

%igure (: >a.orator, s"ectra of minerals com"ared with 5S-S >i.rar, s"ectra9 a# 7aolinite and 0allo,site s"ectral .# ("al

6he alteration minerals are unevenl, distri.uted over the stud, area. 7aolinite dominates other alteration minerals which covers larger "art of the area. It eAists as "ure s"ectra in some cases and as miAed s"ectra with other minerals in most cases. NeAt to 1aolinite is o"al and smectite grou" montmorillonite and nontronite# occur s"arsel, within the stud, area. /alcite and 1-alunite occur in few sam"les anal,@ed* while "al,gors1ite* mgchlorite* @oisite and illite occurs as miAture with other minerals and are "oorl, distri.uted in the area. 2igure 6a# show an overview of the mineral distri.ution in the area using field o.servation "oints overla, on geolog, ma" of the stud, area. 4aFor "art of the alteration is associated with the !leistocene - 0olocene rh,olite felsic roc1 and some occurring on "umice ",roclastic de"osits and on trach,te lithogical unit with fewer occurrence in the volcano-sedimentar, lithological units. 6his infers that alteration in the stud, area is associated with .imodal rh,olite and .asalt# volcanic roc1s. 6he "attern of mineral occurrence was revealed .etter from the "ortion of the area where detailed stud, was carried out 2igure 6.#. 4inerals with similar com"osition often occur together as found in the case of 1aolinite and hallo,site and vice versa. 4ineral-1 indicates the most occurring mineral in a sam"le while mineral-2 is the neAt mineral a.undance and mineral-3 a""ear when there are u" to three minerals in the sam"le. Some sam"les have Fust a mineral in the sam"le anal,@ed


Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

%igure *: a# 4ineral distri.ution in the stud, area overla, on -eolog, ma"L .# !rofile section of detailed stud, area 4.2 Airborne Data Eight grou"s of endmem.ers were identified from the image 2igure C#. 7aolinite s"ectrum is clearl, seen in few area of the image while in man, case* it occur as miAed s"ectra. 6herefore* due to im"urit, of the "iAels* two endmem.ers were selected for 1aolinite Mi.e. 1aolinite a# and 1aolinite .#N in order to o.tain good classification result. 0allo,site and 1aolinite which are .oth 1andite mineral grou" are found in association with each other with main a.sor"tion feature at 2.21C Om* the, are grou" together as hallo,site (ther endmem.ers as shown in the figure have their own diagnostic a.sor"tion features as well as s"ectral sha"e to differentiate them from others. 6he named Iagricultural fieldJ have a.sor"tion feature similar to that of nontronite and calcite .ut was classified as agricultural field area in the S+4 classification .ecause it was confirmed during ground truthing that those areas were used for agricultural "ur"ose. +nother of un1nown miAed s"ectra also eAist in the image in which diagnostic dou.le a.sor"tion feature of +l-(0 was noticed in some of the "iAels at 2.1&2 Om and 2.21C Om and it is similar to alunite a.sor"tion feature .ut other diagnostic a.sor"tion feature of alunite were a.sent* therefore the grou" was not considered as alunite .ut grou"ed as un1nown miAed s"ectra. 6he a.undances of two 1aolinite end-mem.ers show that although the, occur together in most cases* the, also occur se"aratel, and delineate different features. 6he features are inter"reted as .eing caused ., h,drothermal fluids rather than weathering .ecause the, indicate t,"ical h,drothermal mineral associations. 7aolinite cr,stallinit, stud, was also carried out to confirm that the 1aolinite in the stud, area is of h,drothermal origin.

%igure ): Image derived endmem.ers 12%

Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

6he image serve as in"ut for S+4 classification algorithm. 2rom this* surficial mineral ma" was generated 2igure 'a and '.# which shows s"atial distri.ution of the alteration mineral in the stud, area. 2igure 'a# shows the mineral ma" for the entire stud, area while 2igure '.# em"hasis the differences in s"atial distri.ution of the alteration areas in the detailed stud, area. 2rom the surficial mineral ma"* 1andite mineral grou" 1aolinite and hallo,site# are mostl, distri.uted over the stud, area* es"eciall, at the center of the stud, area where detailed stud, was carried out. Smectite mineral grou" mainl, montmorillonite# has low a.undance and is s"arsel, distri.uted over the entire area. (ccurrence of o"al in association with 1aolinite is also much in the stud, area. 6he, occur in vast eAtent in north-eastern of the stud, area and at the central "art detailed stud, area#. !al,gors1ite is less common over the stud, area in com"arison with occurrence of o"al and 1aolinite. !al,gors1ite are found on the ridges* edge of the crater# 2igure '.#. +sides the alteration minerals* the agricultural field or the vegetation cover also occu", large "art of the stud, area in which the alteration minerals occur in .etween. 6he un1nown miAed s"ectra occur mostl, on the river channel and this could "ro.a.l, .e miAture of eroded minerals. 6he surficial mineral ma" shows the regional distri.ution of the alteration minerals over the stud, area which is not "ossi.le with the field data although the field data serves as a guide or chec1 in "ic1ing the image 2rom the mineral ma"* mineralogical @ones that could relate to different h,drothermal e"isodes or s,stems could .e easil, recogni@ed.


Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

%igure (: a# Surficial mineral ma" o.tained from S+4 classification algorithmL .# Poom in of detailed stud, area ( $tyle of Hydrothermal Alteration of Berecha Area 0,drothermal alteration of ;erecha area is strongl, reflected in the .imodal volcanic roc1 t,"es rh,olite and .asalt# es"eciall, on the rh,olite roc1. +lteration @onation includes silicification* advanced argillic and argillic. 6he silicic alteration manifest in form of ?uart@ vein locall, develo"ed# and "atches of chalcedon,* without evidence of vugg, silica. 6his suggests a low sulfidation s,stem Sillitoe and 0eden?uist* 2%%3#. 6he most wides"read alteration effects are re"resented essentiall, in advanced argillic alteration assem.lage consisting mainl, of 1aolinite B o"al B smectite B alunite. +rgillic alteration is less in the area with occurrence of some smectite B illite. !,rite is found as sul"hide mineral in the area with a.sence of high sul"hide minerals li1e enargite and lu@onite* which are usuall, found in high sulfidation s,stem 6a.le 2#. ;laded calcites were found in the drill core and few occurrences at the surface with the evidence of the steaming ground. +ccording to 0eden?uist et al 2%%%#* Steam heated water in low sulfidation environment form .lan1ets of 1aolinite* smectite* cristo.alite high-tem"erature "ol,mor"h of silica# and locall, low alunite and native sulfur which might not have direct relationshi" to the ore de"osit* .ut such .lan1ets t,"icall, overlie the ore in the hanging wall. 6hese characteristics features shows that ;erecha area is more related to low sulfidation system than high sulfidation s,stemL with low tem"erature of formation of a.out 1%%%/ - 3%%%/ and shallow de"th var,ing .etween 1%%-6%% m which is t,"ical of low sulfidation environment 0eden?uist et al.* 2%%%#


Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

-eneticall, related volcanic roc1 2luid Silicic alteration

+ow $ulfidation ;imodal <h,olite to ;asalt al1ali to calcal1alic magma# Near-neutral "0* low salinit,* gas-rich /(2* 02S# Guart@ vein and veinlets* silicified .reccias and Qor stoc1wor1* shallow silicification* including chalcedon, andQ or o"aline .lan1et* silica sinter 87aolinite-alunite- illite Q smectite-native sulfur# B o"aline .lan1ets of steam heated originL commonl, underlain ., chalcedon, .lan1ets 87aolinite Q hallo,site -alunite-Farosite .lan1ets o @ones su"ergene origin Illite Q smectite halo to veinsL illite B smectite halo to dee"er sericite @ones S"halerite* galena* arseno",rite* chalco",rite* ",rite !resent .ut t,"icall, minor ;arite uncommon* fluorite "resent locall, +u B +g )eins common with cr,stalline "hases at de"th* .anded at shallow levels

High $ulfidation 4ainl, +ndesite to <h,odacite calcal1ali magma +cid "0* "ro.a.l, saline initiall, )ugg, silica residual ore .odies#L "artial to massive silicificationL ?uart@ vein and silicified .reccias* shallow silicification* including chalcedon, andQ or o"aline .lan1et* no sinter 8+lunite-1aolinite Q dic1ite",ro"h,llite-dias"ore of h,"ogene origin* t,"icall, surrounding silicic coresL also sericite ",ro"h,llite roots 87aolinite-alunite .lan1ets of steam heated or su"ergene origin Illite and illite Q smectite halo to advanced argillic core Enargite* lu@onite* covelite* famatinite* ",rite +.sent ;arite common* t,"icall, late +u-+g* /u* +s- S. 0osted in clasts or matriA in com"etent wall roc1 alteration

+dvanced argillic

+rgillic or Intermediate argillic 7e, sulfide s"ecies /ar.onate gangue (ther gangue 4ain metals /haracter of minerali@ation

* ,onclusion Integrated anal,sis of .oth la.orator, s"ectra from field data and S=I< h,"ers"ectral dataset ena.le the identification of main alteration areas "resent in the stud, area. 4a""ing h,drothermal s,stems with imaging s"ectrosco", is effective and can "rovide detailed information. 6he mineral ma"s "roduced show distinctive areas of alteration which is significant in minerali@ation. 6he alteration @ones area commonl, associated with the structures over the stud, area which inferred that the s"atial distri.ution of the alteration minerals is structurall, controlled. 4ount ;erecha alteration s,stem is similar to other s,stems that occur in some other "arts of the world in terms of geological setting* alteration assem.lage "attern* gangue minerals* and other features. <elated features found in ;erecha alteration s,stem eAists in Northern -reat ;asin in =estern 5nited States John* 2%%1# as well as >ogan cree1 in +ustralia =hite et al.* 1&&$#. 6hese s,stems are low-sulfidation and the, host economic ?uantit, of minerali@ation mainl, +u-+g#. 6hus* there is "ossi.ilit, of minerali@ation in 4ount ;erecha alteration s,stem* though it is not discovered at the surface .ased on this stud,. 0owever* further stud, on s"ectra from drill core o.tained from the stud, area will give .etter understanding a.out the alteration minerals with de"th which can serve as a guide to mineral eA"loration in this "art of the <ift S,stem. !ossi.le minerali@ation in 4ount ;erecha area can .e traced to veins in the alteration "art. Ac-nowledgements =e are grateful to NE</-+<S2 +ir.orne <esearch and Surve, 2acilit, of the Natural Environment <esearch /ouncil# of 5nited 7ingdom for "roviding the air.orne data sets. Staff of -eological Surve, of Ethio"ia assisted us during the field wor1. 6his stud, was su""orted ., Netherland 2ellowshi" !rogram N2!#. References +.e.e* ;.* +cocella* ).* 7orme* 6. D +,alew* 3. 2%%C#* Guaternar, faulting and volcanism in the 4ain Ethio"ian <ift. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 4'. 11$-124. /able &: /haracteristics features of different sulfidation s,stems after Sillitoe and 0eden?uist* 2%%3# +rthur* +. 4. 2%%C#* 2ield -uide for the +S3 2ieldS"ec !ro- <aw 3N 4ode. National Environmental <esearch /ouncil 2ield S"ectrosco", 2acilit,* 5nited 7ingdom. htt""ec.shtml. ;occaletti* 4.* ;onini* 4.* 4a@@uoli* <.* +.e.e* ;.* !iccardi* >. D 6ortorici* >. 1&&'#* Guaternar, eAtensional tectonics in the Ethio"ian <ift 0orn of +frica#. ectono!hysics, 2'C. &C-116.


Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

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