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CXR: 1) Devices / Lines 2) Vasculature a. Heart size, contour, valves, calcifications (valvular or arterial) b.

Look behind heart for retrocardiac opacit / hiatal hernia c. !ortic knob, calcifications, tortuosit , "idth of #ediastinu# d. $ul#onar arter trunk #o%ul and rt/lt #ain pul#onar arteries e. Left $ul#onar atriu# #o%ul f. $ul#onar Vasculature & ede#a, pruned ') (ediastinu# a. Hilar, subcarinal and paratracheal #ass/l #phadenopath b. )rachea #idline, superior #ediastinu# "idened c. pneu#o#ediastinu# *) !ir"a a. )racheal stenosis b. +ranchin% pattern of trachea, endolu#inal #asses / cutoff ,) $leural -pace a. $neu#othora. b. $lural #ass c. $lural fat / thickenin% d. $la/ues / calcifications 0) Lun%s a. 1onsolidations b. 2odules (side to side co#parison) c. 3ffusions d. !ir broncho%ra#s e. +ronchiectasis, peribronchial cuffin% or thickenin% f. 4etrocardiac area 5) 4ibs, clavicles, shoulders, spine, 6) !bdo#en (free air, %astric air bubble, bo"el %as pattern, calcifications)

KUB: 1) 7as $attern a. 2or#al b. -+8 Lo" %rade v. 9leus (s#all bo"el or colonic) c. -+8 Hi%h %rade (%asless or lar%e distention) d. :ree !ir 2) -olid 8r%ans a. 9dentif Liver ed%e, spleen, kidne s, psoas, bladder ') +ones *) !ppliances / -ur%ical 1han%es ,) $eripher of :il# a. $roperitoneal fat stripes b. Hernia c. :ree !ir Abdomen CT: 1) -cout 9#a%e revie"

a. -pleen. includes liver "indo" b. duodenu#.'? @ #i. special focus on ter#inal ileu# b.2) 1ontrast bolus phase. li#itations. 6) 1ecu#.clotted *?. $ancreas a. fatt liver. sto#ach. airspace disease . rectu# >) 1oronal for .ed '?. adrenal nodules 0) (esentar 5) 3sopha%us.*? @ blood un. nodules b. !drenals. include sa%ital 12) +od superficial soft tissue and #uscles Hounsfield Units: ?.1? @ "ater 1?.travasation)  3nhance#ent is a A1. s#all bo"el. 7allbladder. liver #asses. HB chan%e . =idne s. appendi.) -olid or%ans< Liver.contrast *) Lun% bases a. colon. size b.6 1?) Vessels a.. artifacts ') Heart base a.1'? @ blood and contrast (active e. ane#ia on non. include sa%ital 11) +ones a.0? @ blood clotted (sentinel clot) 6?.

hepatic arter and bile duct. )he left and ri%ht portal veins branch superiorl and inferiorl to proCect into the center of each se%#ent. .)he 1ouinaud classification of liver anato# divides the liver into ei%ht functionall indepedent se%#ents. 9n the peripher of each se%#ent there is vascular outflo" throu%h the hepatic veins. Right hepatic vein divides the ri%ht lobe into anterior and posterior se%#ents. 3ach se%#ent has its o"n vascular inflo". o!tal vein divides the liver into upper and lo"er se%#ents. Left hepatic vein divides the left lobe into a #edial and lateral part. )his plane runs fro# the inferior vena cava to the %allbladder fossa. Middle hepatic vein divides the liver into ri%ht and left lobes (or ri%ht and left he#iliver). 9n the centre of each se%#ent there is a branch of the portal vein. outflo" and biliar draina%e.

##etr 1?) +ones a. internal Cu%ulars c.. subcarinal. 3picardiu# e. transverse process. Vein< 9V1. $ul#onar arter trunk dia#eter. aortic and #itral valves d. !ne#ia (blood attenuates less than interventricular septu# attenuates in noncontrast & Hb% D 1?) 0) L #ph nodesE a. dia#eter D'?##) & fillin% defects f. bracheocepalics. (uscles and . Heart< LV. hilar (D1c#). !rter < !orta. fibro%landular tissue b.c#) . 4V. calcifications. esopha%eal 5) )rachea/bronchi. $ul#onar !rter (#a. -V1. artifacts Lines and tube positionin% )h roid 1ardiovascular a. coronaries. !$ "indo". scapula b. vertebral bodies. 4ibs. clavicle.Chest CT: 1) 2) ') *) . 4!. ($4 for vertebral bodies 11) 3sopha%us 12) Bpper !bdo#en .) -cout 9#a%e revie" 1ontrast bolus phase. subclavian. bracheocephalics.. +reast (asses. vertebrals. li#itations. paratracheal.illar (D1. abdo#inal b. carotids. debrisF 6) Lun%< airspace disease. L!. nodules >) -oft )issues a.

.tend fro# the ri%ht to the left lateral border of the trachea. *4 nodes e. but behind the esopha%us. Ao!tic %odes *'+ *$ Subaortic )hese nodes are located in the !$ "indo" lateral to the li%a#entu# arteriosu#. Hila!0 Loba! and 1sub2segmental %odes #3'#( )hese are all 21. :ro# upper border of #anubriu# to the intersection of caudal #ar%in of inno#inate (left brachiocephalic) vein "ith the trachea. 2L nodes are located to the left of the left lateral border of the trachea. )hese nodes are not located bet"een the aorta and the pul#onar trunk but lateral to these vessels. )he #idline of the trachea serves as border bet"een 14 and 1L.$ Pulmonary Ligament 2odes l in% "ithin the pul#onar li%a#ents."up!aclavicula! nodes #$ Low cervical. but the are anterior to the vessels. . #3$ Hilar nodes )hese include nodes adCacent to the #ain ste# bronchus and hilar vessels. ) $ Pre-vertebral 2odes not adCacent to the trachea like the nodes in station 2.nodes. . "upe!io! Mediastinal %odes &'( &R$ Upper Paratracheal 24 nodes e. 8n the ri%ht the e. (L$ Lower Paratracheal :ro# the upper #ar%in of the aortic arch to the upper ri# of the left #ain pul#onar arter . 8n the left fro# the upper ri# of the pul#onar arter to the interlobar re%ion. supraclavicular and sternal notch nodes :ro# the lo"er #ar%in of the cricoid to the clavicles and the upper border of the #anubriu#. )A$ Pre-vascular )hese nodes are not adCacent to the trachea like the nodes in station 2. "hich is prevertebral. &L$ Upper Paratracheal :ro# the upper border of #anubriu# to the superior border of aortic arch.nfe!io! Mediastinal %odes -'.tend fro# the lo"er ri# of the az %os vein to the interlobar re%ion. -$ Subcarinal /$ Paraesophageal 2odes belo" carina. (R$ Lower Paratracheal :ro# the intersection of the caudal #ar%in of inno#inate (left brachiocephalic) vein "ith the trachea to the lo"er border of the az %os vein. +$ Para-aortic )hese are ascendin% aorta or phrenic nodes l in% anterior and lateral to the ascendin% aorta and the aortic arch.tend to the left lateral border of the trachea.

se%#ental *) !li%n#ent a. spiral..M"K: :racture Description (7eneral) 1) Location a. lon%itudinal. )orus (buckled corte. Gape. Displace#ent i.) 0) 5) 9liopubic line (anterior colu#n) 9lioischial line (posterior colu#n) -acral !rcuate lines -9 Coints $ubic s #ph sis !nterior acetabular ri# $osterior acetabular ri# . !n%ulation i. 9nco#plete i. #ortise) -houlder (ap.) iii. 1o##inuted ') Direction a. obli/ue) 3lbo" 1) anterior / posterior fat pad si%n 2) hu#eral capiteller line :oot (ap. lateral. 1o#plete i. distal thirds or specific anato#ic location. 3ither in pro. #id. -i#ple ii. lateral.i#al fra%#ent !nkle (ap. obli/ue. 2) ) pe a. )ransverse.illar . #edial/lateral an%ulationH b. +o"in% ii. lateral ) F linin% up of 2nd #etacarpal and cuneifor#s $elvis 1) 2) ') *) . 7reenstick b. obli/ue. Distal fra%#ent relative to pro. a. scapular ) =nee (ap.

is (should be relativel in line "ith the lon%itudinal renal a. pappillar necrosis (ball on tee.) !. )he #ost posterior cut (e% > of >. !n a#puted infundibulu# #a be )11 or )+ 6) . replaced b 1) 9V$ at #ost institutions at this point.is of kidne (lon% a. 1?. 1) $reli#inar scout radio%raph to detect calcifications 2) )hree to#o%ra#s follo"in% I1??#l (children 1cc/lb) of 9V contrast. #edullar spoun%e. lobster cla".is o/" a #ass is posible 5) !ll the calces should displa contrast si#ultaneousl . 11) should have L2 pedicles in focus. (a also %et prone or upri%ht vie"s at this ti#e to see "hole ureter 1?) 1olli#ated bladder pre and post void . cal .4 ("orthless stud that #isses 1/' of renal #asses & still perfor#ed at the V!).. tip as opposed to over the #id papilla as in necrosis) >) 12 #inute bilateral obli/ues. tic Dover the forni.is of kidne should parrellel the psoas) 0) 1ollectin% s ste# a. 1heck for sharp forni. ') 2ephro%ra# should appear s ##etric *) 3d%e around kidne should be co#plete .. #in radio%raph.

nfection< -a% -tir.12 interval. $ost contrast se/uences are re/uired to differentiate scar fro# disc #aterial. )2. Disc does not enhance before 1? #inutes or onl ri# enhances fro# ri# %ranulation tissue.ial for hard"are (less artifact). clivus • 9n lu#bar look for conus ter#ination. T!auma< -a% -tir. atlanto. interspinous. )2E !. postcontrast fat sat )1 1) -a%itals )1< • 1ord • Disk si%nal/hei%ht • Disk contour • Vertebral bodies/#arro" si%nal • -pinous processes • 2erve roots • 2eural fora#ina • 1entral canal • Li%a#ents (!LL/$LL. supraspinous • 3pidural -pace • 9n 1.ial %radient. 9f there is h.ed a.ial )1 and )2 Metastasis 8 . )1.ial )1. pll Dattached fir#l onl at vertebral corners. • (uscles 2) -a%ital )2< • 1ord • Li%a#ents (all. %et )2 a. )2. brain ste# and sphenoid sinus.spine 11. • !nnular tear check J disc h dration • 9n c.) !. Ce!vical "pine< -a% )1.ial plane to allo" deter#ination of pars defect 5isc disease 6ithout h7 of ope!ation< -a% )1. )2 5isc disease 6ith h7 of ope!ation< -a% )1. interspinous. )2E !. • Li%a#ents for hi%h si%nal *) -a%ital 7radient< • 3pidural he#ato#a (usuall bri%ht on )1 as linear structures) . -car is less of a concern in c. )2.spine so contrast is not needed.a. sur%er .ial or se#i. )2E !.occipital Cunctions. )1. postcontrast fat sat )1E !.ial )1. li%a#entu# flavu#). postcontrast fat sat )1E !. %radient echo.ial )1. ') -a%ital -)94< • (arro" si%nal (should be isointense to #uscle).ial )1/ )2< • 2erve roots (clu#pin%) • 1ord • Disk contour • Vertebral bodies • 2eural fora#ina . )2. postcontrast fat sat )1.%eu!o -pine (49< $rotocol< 7eneral 2ote< )1 se/uences are an%led "ith the disc so ou %et entire disc en face. -cars enhance diffusel and i##ediatel .spine check basilar void and chiari. )2 are in a fi.

contrast • -oft tissue. roots or for scar enhanc#ent. . 0) (-ee separate docu#ent for no#enclature).• 1entral canal • Lateral recesses • Li%a#ents (li%a#entu# flavu#) • 3pidural space • :acets • $araspinal #uscles • !orta • 4etroperitoneu# or prevertebral soft tissues / or%ans • 4oots for clu#pin% !.ial and -a%ital )1 post. cord.

traconal post septal fat. 1) !. supraclinoid) iii. +lood products . 1orpus 1allosu# C. 8ptic 2erve.Head MR. cavernous. (asseter. $18( f. +ri%ht thin%s ') -a%ital )1 a$ Tongue b. -kull base. 8ptic chias# C. black v. 1orpus 1allosu# k. !18(. (idbrain. (iddle ear . n. +lood Vessel voids i. (a#illar bodies. Lateral. 1erebellar ver#is i. petrous. (1!. 9nner ear . o. $aranasal sinuses and #astoid air cells iv. (edulla. :ora#en of Luschka and (a%endie. 3. )hala#i i. )ectu#. -pinal cord %. )uber cinereu#. +rain ste# %. 9ntraconal and e. 2asophar n. -ulci l. !/ueduct of . Ventricles i. Vertebrae f. eustachion ostiu# iii. )entoriu# *) 7radient a. 1erebellar tonsil position h. 1arotid (cervical. . Tongue. 9!1Ks 2) :L!94 a. laceru#. $ituitar stalk. -a%ital -inus flo". :ossa of 4osen#ueller. 1erebral he#ispheres k. 4evie" osseous structures . 8rbits i. "hite e.occipital Coint e. :ora#en of #onroe. $ineal %land. clivus d. Vitreous d. J $aranasal sinuses i. 2 Verts to basilar ii.lvian :issure #. Lense. $ons. -upraseller cistern and associated structures. -trai%ht sinus l.ial )2 a. +asal 7an%lia h.ial a.lvius (check of flo" void artifact). (edial J Lateral pter %oids. lon%us coli b. 8pthal#ic vein. 2asal 1avit ii. :ourth ventricle. (uscles of #astication i. $arotids c.traocular #uscles. 1alvariu# c. )orus tuberious. !1!. !tlanto.) )1 !. )e#poralis.

infundibulu#. facial nerve. (enin%es. ventricles. pineal . orbits.0) Diffusion a. Diffusion restriction 5) $ost 1ontrast )1 a. nasal cavit . choroid. cisterns.

-uprasellar cistern #. $ituitar stalk / optic chias# l. $har n. *th ventricle and fora#en of Luschka and (a%endie p. Ndensit of vessels & basilar. -ulci i. 2 Vertebral to basilar. -utures . -a%ital and transverse sinus s. d. Muadra%e#inal plate cistern n. -kull base and fora#ina d.Head CT: 1) -cout 2) +rain Lindo" a. +asal %an%lia e. -inuses b. paraphar n%eal fat e. $ineal %land re%ion /. 8rbits *) +one Lindo" a. 4etro#a. Lateral and 'rd ventricles k. (uscles of #astication c. 1erebral he#ispheres h. bilateral (1! ') -oft )issue Lindo" a..illar fat. 1erebellu# d. +rain ste# c. $eripheral soft tissues b. carotid arter b. 9nterpeduncular cistern o. $ituitar re%ion r. . )hala#i f. 1orpus 1allosu# %. (astoids c.lvian :issure C.

-pinal canal J 2eural fora#en c.. pirifor# sinus *. $revertebral soft tissue "idth 2) !. 3sopha%us iii. vi. 2. bl 1arotids. Lun% apices b. Vessels 1.ial +one a. bl int Ou%ular ') !.Ce!vical "pine CT: 1) -a%ittal 4econs a. vellecula '. -oft tissue i. -ub#andibular and $arotid %lands. Lar%e air"a s. 1livus dens relationship e. spinola#inar. H oid d. !li%n#ent (ant/post spinal. )h roid iv. !r epi%lottic folds. )h roid cartila%e . Vocal cords . !erodi%estive )ract 1. Lun% "indo" i. L #ph nodes v. posterior ele#ents b. 3pi%lottis. Vertebral bod . bl Vertebrals. :acets %. -pinous processes h.ial -oft )issue a. $redental space d. posterior spinous) f. $eripheral soft tissues ii. -kull base b. 8ropha rn. !tlantooccipital Coint c.

%enioh oid.) :alse 1ord. -oft palate/uvula ()ensor Veli $alatini 12 P. posterior trian%le 2*) Vessels / carotid sheath 2. sternoth roid. true cords 10) -ub%lottic lar n.%ec9 "oft Tissue: 1) 2) ') *) . ventricle. left. fat filled sublin%ual space "ith h po%lossal neurovascular bundle) 5) -trap #uscles (o#oh oid. #ediastinal. th roh oid) 6) (uscles of #astication >) $arotids (-tensons duct posterior to facial vein.) 0) -pinal 1anal +rain al%orith# 8rbits 2asophar n.) $osterior neck tissues 20) Lun%s 25) +ones 26) -inuses 2>) -a%ittal bones .illar fat 12) -ub#andibular %lands 1') $har n. and trachea 15) H oid 16) !r tenoid cartila%e 1>) )h roid cartila%e 2?) 1ricoid cartila%e 21) )h roid %land 22) 3sopha%us 2') 2odes< ri%ht. Levator Veli $alatini 12 999) )on%ue (7enio%lossus. # loh oid. supraclavicular (an "here ou can see clavicles is supraclavicular level). facial #uscle is anterior) 1?) $araphar n%eal fat 11) 4etro#a. di%astric.epi%lottic fat 1. 1*) 3pi%lottis / Vellecula / $irifor# -inus / !r epi%lottic folds / $re. h o%lossus.

tri%one. periventricular blush d) 'rd ventricle t picall not visible unless enlar%ed..4 < Vircho" (cricoid to clavicle) Level 4a < accessor spinal (posterior trian%le) < superior half Level 4b < accessor spinal (posterior trian%le) < inferior half Level 4. +lood A choroid ple.. 1apture serial cronoal i#a%es anterior to posterior.us A periventricular blush. ') $eriventricular paranch #a for $VL (c stic lesions chronicall or echo%enic acutel ).b < sub#andibular Level . 2) Ventricles a) 1hroid ple. -hould not be in frontal or occipital horns b) 3cho%enicit ./6(hz curved s#all transducer. c) Differential for echo%enic si%nal is blood. *) 7 ration & pre#ature brain has less % ri. (fro# cricoid to supraclavicular re%ion) Level .) 1alcifications & look periventricularl & indicitive of )841H infection 0) 1audate 2ucleus & on sa%itals a h poechoic band adCacent to lateral ventricles.< $osterior trian%le.thala#ic %roove for he#orrha%e. Level .. < superior #ediastinal (bet"een 11!s. !/uire sa%itals startin% on ri%ht then to left.us usuall in bod . < Cu%ulodi%astric (base of skull to h oid) Level .a < sub#ental. 5) 1orpus callosu# 6) 1audo. < prelar n%eal / pretracheal / Delphian node Level 4.Level 1< -ub#ental Level 2< 9nternal Cu%ular fro# skull base to carotid bifurcation. (or h oid bone to cricoid cartila%e) Level *< 9nternal Cu%ular belo" o#oh oid. >) Vein of %allen (posterior to 'rd ventricle) .. < deep cervical (h oid to cricoid) Level . ()racheoesopha%eal %roove is "here recurrent lar n%eal nerve lies) Level . < belo" # oh oid to h oid bone anteriorl . belo" top of #anubriu#) +rain Bltrasound< 1) Ho" to !/uire i#a%es< Bse F. Li%ht points to patient ri%ht on transverse and for"ard on sa%itals. Level .* stations are like train station and #ust spread to each one before hittin% #ediastinu#. acute stroke or periventricular leuko#alacia. (or h oid bone) Level '< 9nternal Cu%ular belo" carotid bifurcation to o#oh oid. .tendin% into 'rd ventricle. the 2.'.) Level 5< )racheal esopha%eal %roove and superior #ediastinu#. Level 0< !dCacent to th roid. ()his level can spread all the "a to #ediastinu#. e.

) +od shape 0) Disc hei%ht !$ 1) )ransverse processes 2) !li%n#ent ') $edicles ("idened in dural ectasia and spinal tu#ors.) -pinola#enar line 0) $osterior spinous line 5) Bncal. 12 distance should be D '## in adults 11) -cottie do%. Lateral.1. %one in #ets or sur%er ) *) Brolithiasis C'"pine: Vie"s< 8pen.collar 2) 1ount vertebral bodies visible on lateral vie" ') !nterior vertebral line *) $osterior vertebral line .## children >) 3. lar n. D . epi%lotis and are epi%lotic folds. sub%lottic trachea 1') $revertebral soft tissue 1*. dens and lateral #ass of c1 J c2 should line up) 11.#outh odontoid. D@5## or 1/' vertebral bod "idth oka ) 1*) Lun% apices .vertebral Coints should shin%le 6) $redental space D '## adults.a#ine skull / #andible / occiput for fractures 1?) -pace bet"een atlanto. check neural fora#en 12) $osterior soft tissues< H oid J st loh oid li%a#ent.a. can be "idth of vertebral bod . above this. vallecula.. 8bli/ues ("hen patient looks to the ri%ht.L'spine: Lateral 1) 2u#ber of rib bearin% vertebrae 2) !li%n#ent ') -pinous processes *) :acets . !$.ial space (base. ou see the left neural fora#en) 1) Look for 1.

illar 2 . frontal. 0 #o -phenoidal 1..1? !ll Vie"s< 3valuate thin cortical ri# of sinuses and adCacent densit (#ucosal thickenin%) and look for strai%ht lines (air fluid levels).2 :rontal 6 . eth#oids) =ate!s: lookin% up to #ove petrous te#poral (#astoid) out of "a of #a.ation of the a!anasal "inuses< (a.illar '. A : evaluate eth#oids.illar 4isuali.illar sinus ."inus lain :ilms: -inus Develop#ent< +irth< rudi#entar eth#oid and #a. ' #o 3th#oidal ' . frontal Late!al: evaluate sphenoid. rs< Develop#ent of sphenoid and then frontal "ith enlar%e#ent of ethoids and #a.

) (velocit encoded se/uences) .) 4i%ht Ventricle "all thickness 0) 4i%ht Ventricle contractilit 5) 4i%ht !trial size 6) Left !trial size >) 9nteratrial septu# 1?) 9nterventricular septu# 11) !ortic valve 12) $ul#onic valve 1') )ricuspid valve 1*) (itral valve 1.1ardiac (49 1) Left Ventricle cha#ber size 2) Left Ventricle "all thickness ') Left Ventricle contractilit *) 4i%ht Ventricle cha#ber size .

Bni or bilateral b.+reast 1alcifications< 1) Densit a. 4ound or linear b. :ocal or #ultifocal c. Diffuse or se%#ental. 1ourse or fine c. Lo" 2) 1alcification a. (ono or pleo#orphic ') Distribution a. . Hi%h b.