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Notable Events Before the Civil War:!

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Event

What it’s about

Significance

Gradual emancipation in North Strict constructionism
very literal interpretation of the Constitution! view held mainly by Southern Democrats divide in interpretation of the Constitution btwn North and South concerning the powers of Congress (important in determining the status of slavery and how much authority Congress had in regards to the expansion of slavery, etc.) states’s rights vs federal authority early on in the South

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions First Fugitive Slave Law! Louisiana Purchase (1803) Marbury v. Madison! Gibbons v. Ogden 1850 Compromise

States’ rights

US buys Louisiana from France powers of congress powers of federal gov’t Allowed special federal commissioners to determine the fate of alleged fugitives w/out jury trial or a testimony from accused person! Prohibited local authorities from interfering w/capture of fugitives & required local citizens to assist when asked by federal agents! Affected all free states Allowed special federal commissioners to determine the fate of alleged fugitives w/out jury trial or a testimony from accused person! Prohibited local authorities from interfering w/capture of fugitives & required local citizens to assist when asked by federal agents! Affected all free states! As a result, many free blacks and slaves fled to Canada (then run by Britain, which was quite ironic)

territorial expansion states vs federal gov’t states vs federal gov’t consolidated slavery as a national system and strengthened it overall

Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 (part of 1850 Compromise)

consolidated slavery as a national system and strengthened it overall

Event

What it’s about Missouri Compromise, which had prohibited slavery in the region (Kansas and Nebraska were part of the Louisiana Purchase)! Popular sovereignty! Anti-slavery congressmen ! Appeal of the Independent Democrats – effective in convincing Northerners to be against slavery, but not enough to debunk the bill! Opposed by Nativists! Kansas-Nebraska Act became law

Significance Shattered Democratic Party’s unity! Whig Part collapsed! South became solidly Democratic and Northern Whigs joined the new Republican Party (which was dedicated to preventing further expansion of slavery)

Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 Douglas’ bill repealed the

Free Soil Party

were against the expansion of slavery (for racist reasons which appealed to many northerners)

slavery was a political issue! sectional tensions between North and South

“Bleeding Kansas” (1854-55)

Many proslavery Missourians political turmoil between free and crossed border to cast fraudulent slave states ballots! Settlers from free states established rival gov’t! Civil War broke out in Kansas! Seemed to discredit Douglas’ policy of leaving decision on slavery up to local population (popular sovereignty)! Democratic platform endorsed popular sovereignty ! won election of 1856, despite “Bleeding Kansas” Dred Scott was a slave who overturned Missouri Compromise accompanied his master into free territory! He sued for his freedom! The court decided that blacks had no right to sue and that going into free territory didn’t make slaves automatically free attempt to admit Kansas to the Union as a slave state went against Douglas’ idea of popular sovereignty, so Douglas teamed up with the Republicans and stopped it —> shattered Democratic Party unity

Dred Scott Decision

LeCompton Constitution

Event

What it’s about white guy who seized Harpers Ferry

Significance precursor to Civil War

John Brown

“Filibustering expeditions”

William Walker went to South America and kept declaring himself ruler of different places which he “captured” Missouri tried to abolish slavery within the state and enter the Union as a free state! Passed in House, but not in Senate!

issue of expansion of slavery

Missouri Controversy

demonstrates divide btwn North and South over slavery!

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free vs slave states! North vs South – sectional tensions

First Missouri Compromise

adopted to resolve Missouri Controversy (Thomas’ plan)

banned slavery in Missouri territory! later overturned by Dred Scott Decision issue of slavery! free vs slave states

Second Missouri Compromise Congress accepted the state’s
constitution, but said that MO couldn’t deprive citizens of any state (including free blacks) of the rights of the US Constitution

McCulloch v. Maryland

federal gov’t authority over that of the states

Gag Rule

prohibited emancipation petitions from being considered

Mexican-American War (1846-48)

resulted in the US’ annexation of Texas

issue of territorial expansion! raised issue of expansion of slavery

Wilmot Proviso

Congressman Willmot (PA) proposed resolution banning slavery in territory newly acquired from Mexico! Supported by Northerners and the House, opposed by Southerners and the Senate

abolition was a political stance instead of just a moral movement!

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sectional tensions between North and South

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The Economy!
Bank of the United States (from Hamilton’s plan)! Bank War!

The Market Revolution!
The American System! Government-funded internal improvements (ex: turnpikes, Erie canal)! Telegraph! Cotton gin! Factory System! “Mill girls”!

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Rebellions!
Shay’s Rebellion! Gabriel’s rebellion (slave)! Nat Turner (failed)! Denmark Vesey Conspiracy (failed)!

Women!
Judith Sargent Murray! “Mill girls”! Cult of Domesticity! Uncle Tom’s Cabin! Dorothea Dix! Margaret Fuller!

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Moral Values!
Second Great Awakening (ID: camp meetings)! Utopian Communities! Temperance Movement! Public Education! “Moral Suasion” (slavery)!