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CLOUD COMPUTING

1. INTRODUCTION TO CLOUD COMPUTING Cloud computing means using multiple server computers via a digital network, as though they were one computer. Massive computing resources, deployed among virtual datacenters, dynamically allocated to specific users and tasks and accessed as a service via an user interface (UI), such as a web browser. It uses the internet to access someone else's software running on someone else's hardware in someone else's data center. Traditionally, without a cloud, a web server runs as a single computer or a group of privately owned computers. The computers are powerful enough to serve a given amount of request per minute and can do so with a certain amount of latency per request. If the computer's website or web application suddenly becomes more popular, and the amount of request are far more than the web server can handle, the response time of the requested pages will be increased due to overloading. On the other hand, in times of low load much of the capacity will go unused. If the website, service, or web application is hosted in a cloud, however, additional processing and compute power is available from the cloud provider. The website would share those servers with perhaps thousands of other websites varying size and memory. If the website suddenly becomes more popular, the cloud can automatically direct more individual computers to work to serve pages for the site, and more money is paid for the extra usage. If it becomes unpopular, however, the amount of money due will be less. Cloud Computing is popular for its pay-as-you-go pricing model. Clouds are sometimes set up within large corporations, or other institutions, so that many users all share the same server power. As computer power gets cheaper, many different applications are provided and managed by the cloud server. In many cases, users might not download and install applications on their own device or computer; all processing and storage is maintained by the cloud server. 2. WORKING OF CLOUD A cloud user needs a client device such as a laptop or desktop computer, pad computer, smart phone, or other computing resource with a web browser (or other

software. If the user wishes to create a document using a word processor. Macintosh. with a connection to the Internet. A service provider may pool the processing power of multiple remote computers in a cloud to achieve routine tasks such as backing up of large amounts of data. with output displayed on the client device. they work on multiple platforms. or computationally intensive work. Memory allocated to the client system's web browser is used to make the application data appear on the client system display. and Windows computers. in order to make requests to and receive data from the cloud. pads and tablet devices with Internet and World Wide Web access also provide cloud services to telecommuting and mobile users. designed with cloud computing in mind. especially with limited computing resources and funds. The cloud provides server-based applications and all data services to the user. Cloud computing works on a client-server basis. 3. clients require only a simple computer. such as their employer. Performance of the cloud application is dependent upon the network access. such as net books. Typically the user will log into the cloud at a service provider or private company. The outcome of the processing task is returned to the client over the network. Smart phones. and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and . or a company network. hence the term "software as a service" (SaaS). using web browser protocols. thus the client need not purchase expensive hardware or software to handle the task. data access. time consuming. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION Cloud computing provides computation. speed and reliability as well as the processing speed of the client device.approved access route) to access a cloud system via the World Wide Web. or expensive for an individual user or a small company to accomplish. word processing. but all computations and changes are recorded by the server. for example. Computation and storage is divided among the remote computers in order to handle large volumes of both. or even a smart phone. With cloud computing. including Linux. the cloud provides a suitable application running on the server which displays work done by the user on the client web browser display. These tasks might normally be difficult. dependent on the speed of the Internet connection. Since cloud services are web-based. and final results including files created or altered are permanently stored on the cloud servers.

2. IBM. There are hundreds of servers in an enterprise. application. . Even in Amazon. and delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols. wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service. Cloud computing describes a new supplement. Ultra large-scale: The scale of cloud is large. Yahoo. The cloud of Google has owned more than one million servers. CHARACTERISTICS OF CLOUD 4. This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if they were programs installed locally on their own computers. they have more than hundreds of thousands servers. Virtualization: Cloud computing makes user to get service anywhere. Microsoft. 4. Parallels to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid. Table 1: CLOUD TECHNOLOGIES Technology Grid Computing Virtualization IaaS (Infrastructureas-a-Service) SaaS (Software-as-aService) Utility Computing Packaged computing. and storage sold as a service Application availability through the cloud Computational infrastructure available for rent Key Feature Job scheduling across many machines Virtual machines decouple OS from hardware 4.configuration of the system that delivers the services. and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. consumption.1.

Versatility: Cloud computing can produce various applications supported by cloud.6. and gas that can be charged by the amount that you used. 4.3. Using cloud computing is more reliable than local computer. Extremely inexpensive: The centered management of cloud make the enterprise needn’t undertake the management cost of data center that increase very fast. . Cloud provides nearly infinite possibility for users to use internet. 4. and one cloud can support different applications running it at the same time. Cloud computing can realize data sharing between different equipments. Various applications and advantages of cloud computing are listed below:     5. High reliability: Cloud uses data multi-transcript fault tolerant. 4. anywhere. cloud is just like running water. You can complete all you want through net service using a notebook PC or a mobile phone.4. On demand service: Cloud is a large resource pool that you can buy according to your need. and it is easy to use Cloud computing provides dependable and secure data storage center. 4. Users can complete a task that can’t be completed in a single computer. High extendibility: The scale of cloud can extend dynamically to meet the increasingly requirement. the computation node isomorphism exchangeable and so on to ensure the high reliability of the service. electric. 4. Users can attain or share it safely through an easy way. anytime. LAYERS OF CLOUD Once an Internet Protocol connection is established among several computers. so users can fully enjoy the low cost advantage.7.through any kind of terminal. Cloud computing do not need high quality equipment for user. The versatility can increase the utilization rate of the available resources compared with traditional system.5. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers.

is a term often used to refer to a container of a collection of virtual objects. Key characteristics include:  Network-based access to. in either case. not custom) software  Activities that are managed from central locations rather than at each customer's site. is in essence useless without it. when in fact they are two different things. configurations etc.3 Application Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. operating systems.Figure 1 5.2 Client A cloud client consists of computer hardware and ccvc/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery. residing on the cloud. phones and other devices. and management of. 5. People tend to use the terms "SaaS" and "cloud" interchangeably. enabling customers to access applications remotely via the Web . software.. and browsers..1 Provider LAYERS OF THE CLOUD A cloud provider is the Company responsible for providing the cloud service. hardware. Cloud Desktop as a Service or Hosted Desktop. used by a client to interact with remote services and perform computer related tasks. or that is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and that. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support.e. 5. commercially available (i. Examples include some computers.

the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. also known as Platform as a Service (PaaS). Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. multi-tenant architecture) than to a one-to-one model. including architecture. assembled from hundreds of virtual machines. 5. Application delivery that typically is closer to a one-to-many model (single instance.4 Platform Cloud platform services. Rather than purchasing servers. . including multi-core processors.5 Infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services. partnering. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. also known as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). 5. deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings. IaaS evolved from virtual private server offerings. and management characteristics  Centralized feature updating. pricing. Cloud infrastructure often takes the form of a tier 3 data center with many tier 4 attributes. data-center space or network equipment. which obviates the need for downloadable patches and upgrades 5.6 Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. software.

Even within modern utility industries. via web applications/web services. "Private cloud" and "internal cloud" have been described as neologisms.2 Private cloud Douglas Parkhill first described the concept of a "private computer utility" in his 1966 book The Challenge of the Computer Utility. but the concepts themselves pre-date the term "cloud" by 40 years. whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a finegrained. despite the formation of reasonably wellfunctioning markets and the ability to combine multiple providers.6.g. 6. DEPLOYING METHOD Figure 2 TYPES OF CLOUD COMPUTING 6. These (typically virtualization automation) products ..1 Public cloud Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense. from an off-site third-party provider who bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis. hybrid models still exist. He based the idea on direct comparison with other industries (e. Some vendors have used the terms to describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks. the electricity industry) and on the extensive use of hybrid supply models to balance and mitigate risks. self-service basis over the Internet.

"private clouds" are not an implementation of cloud computing at all. Therefore. where the hosting infrastructure is a mix between cloud hosting and managed dedicated servers – this is most commonly achieved as part of a web cluster in which some of the nodes are running on real physical hardware and some are running on cloud server instances.3 Hybrid cloud The main responsibility of the IT department in a non-IT company is to deliver services to the business. Hybrid cloud is also called hybrid delivery by the major vendors including HP. Hybrid storage clouds are often useful for archiving and backup functions. but are in fact an implementation of a technology subset: the basic concept of virtualized computing. the ability to recover from failure. Hybrid delivery is expected to become the norm in data centers. essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". With the proliferation of cloud computing (both private and public) and the fact that IT departments must also deliver services via traditional. Enterprise IT organizations use their own private cloud(s) for mission-critical and other operational systems to protect critical infrastructures. security and privacy concerns that results from the mixed delivery methods of IT services. Private clouds have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy.offer the ability to host applications or virtual machines in a company's own set of hosts. the newest catch-phrase has become “hybrid cloud computing”. IBM. inhouse methods. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management. and the ability to scale up or down depending upon demand. Another perspective on deploying a web application in the cloud is using Hybrid Web Hosting. for all intents and purposes. . VMware and Fujitsu who offer technology to manage the complexity in managing the performance. A hybrid storage cloud uses a combination of public and private storage clouds. allowing local data to be replicated to a public cloud. 6. These provide the benefits of utility computing – shared hardware costs. Oracle. build.

Examples of community clouds include Google's "Gov Cloud". a user stores his data through a CSP into a set of cloud servers. In some cases. SYSTEM MODEL In cloud data storage. cooperated and distributed manner. By integrating multiple cloud services. security. A combined cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers "will be typical for most enterprises". and/or policy compliance. Data redundancy can be employed with technique of cyclic redundancy check to further tolerate faults or server crash as user’s data grows in size and importance. for application purposes.4 Community cloud A community cloud may be established where several organizations have similar requirements and seek to share infrastructure so as to realize some of the benefits of cloud computing. which are running in a simultaneous. the user interacts with the cloud servers via CSP to access or retrieve his data. . it can be economically attractive as the resources (storage. This option may offer a higher level of privacy. the user may need to perform block level operations on his data. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a single tenant). workstations) utilized and shared in the community are already exploited and have reached their return of investment. Thereafter.6.5 Combined cloud Two clouds that have been joined together are more correctly called a "combined cloud". users may be able to ease the transition to public cloud services while avoiding issues such as PCI compliance. 6. In addition. 7.

1 USER Users have data to store in the cloud and rely on the cloud for data computation. Three different network entities can be identified as follows: 7. consist of both individual consumers and organizations.3 THIRD PARTY AUDITOR An optimal TPA (Third Party Auditor) has expertise and capabilities that users may not have. .2 CLOUD SEVICE PROVIDER Cloud Service Provider (CSP) has significant resources and expertise in building and managing distributed cloud storage servers. owns and operates live Cloud Computing systems.Figure 3 CLOUD DATA STORAGE MODEL Representative network architecture for cloud data storage is illustrated in the Figure . 7. is trusted to assess and expose risk of cloud storage services on behalf of the users upon request. 7.

but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely.com.082) in the United States.8. Salesforce. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. working with AT&T.g. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones". Dell applied to trademark the term "cloud computing" (U. Google and Microsoft). This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA" and Rackspace Cloud are able to claim PCI compliance. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. and.S. 8. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. Instances such as the secret NSA program. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens.139. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. under non-disclosure agreement. 8. Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. and SOX in the United States. Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification (e.2 COMPLIANCE In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS. thus. HIPAA. The "Notice of Allowance" the company . can monitor at will.3 LEGAL In March 2007.1 ISSUES RELATED TO CLOUD PRIVACY The cloud model has been criticized by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control. 8. Providers typically make this information available on request. While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonize" the legal environment.. Trademark 77. lawfully or unlawfully. and Verizon. Amazon.

resulting in a formal rejection of the trademark application less than a week later. the number of trademark filings covering cloud computing brands. cloud computing trademark filings increased by 483% between 2008 and 2009. Google filed a lawsuit against the U. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. 8.5 OPEN STANDARD Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. Since 2007. The Open Cloud Consortium (OCC) is working to develop consensus on early cloud computing standards and practices." 8.4 OPEN SOURCE Open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. There are many open source platform offerings including AppScale.6 SECURITY As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity. 2010. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework.received in July 2008 was canceled in August. and services has increased rapidly. In November 2007. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being . calling the requirement "unduly restrictive of competition. 8. Department of Interior. CloudFoundry. As companies sought to better position themselves for cloud computing branding and marketing efforts. OpenShift.S. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development. including the OGF's Open Cloud Computing Interface. goods. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through the adoption of this new model. and trademark analysts predict that over 500 such marks could be filed during 2010. On October 29. In 2009. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. 116 cloud computing trademarks were filed. Google sued. which opened up a bid for software that required that bidders use Microsoft's Business Productivity Online Suite. and Heroku. Other legal cases may shape the use of cloud computing by the public sector.

particularly public key infrastructure (PKI). This delivers great incentive among cloud computing service providers in producing a priority in building and maintaining strong management of secure services. data segregation. Security issues have been categorized into sensitive data access. malicious insiders. improving virtual machines support and legal support. . standardization of APIs. management console security. Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security based services. Organizations have been formed to provide standards for a better future in cloud computing services.reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures. privacy. account control. and multi-tenancy issues. The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. Solution to various cloud security issues vary through cryptography. It is the very nature of cloud computing based services.use of multiple cloud providers. accountability. recovery. private or public. bug exploitation. that promote external management of provided services.