Forest Farms: Healthy food for a healthy future

Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future

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Forest Farms Stopping the madness of climate change

Welcome to the Forest Farm report Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future. Here you will learn about the form and principles of forest farming, including the different elements of forest farms and how the farm functions sustainably. And most importantly how forest farms can help prevent climate change.

Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future

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Contents
An overview of today’s problems ............................................................................................................. 4 Global warming..................................................................................................................................... 4 Climate change ...................................................................................................................................... 5 Deforestation ......................................................................................................................................... 7 Factory Farming: ................................................................................................................................... 8 Resources .............................................................................................................................................. 9 The Honeybee ......................................................................................................................................11 The solutions offered by forest farming ...................................................................................................11 How ..................................................................................................................................................... 12 Stopping global warming .................................................................................................................... 15 The simple answer: ............................................................................................................................. 17 Comparisons........................................................................................................................................ 18 So when you walk into the forest farm, what will you see? ................................................................... 19 Polycultures ......................................................................................................................................... 22 Successional Patterns .......................................................................................................................... 23 Water and Terrain ................................................................................................................................ 23 Protection of Catchment Areas. ....................................................................................................... 24 Keyline ................................................................................................................................................ 25 Chinampas ........................................................................................................................................... 25 Terracing: ............................................................................................................................................ 26 Time Lag ............................................................................................................................................. 27 The Tree Crops Farming System ............................................................................................................ 28 Development ....................................................................................................................................... 28

Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future

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Food from the Forest Farms ................................................................................................................ 29 Food Guilds ......................................................................................................................................... 30 Types of Trees: .................................................................................................................................... 31 Wildlife ............................................................................................................................................... 32 Animals ............................................................................................................................................... 33 Animal housing ............................................................................................................................... 35 Movement of Animals ..................................................................................................................... 36 Chickens .......................................................................................................................................... 36 Pigs .................................................................................................................................................. 37 Turkeys ............................................................................................................................................ 38 Other animals .................................................................................................................................. 39 Rotation ........................................................................................................................................... 40 Aquaculture ..................................................................................................................................... 41 Feedback Cycles ..................................................................................................................................... 41 Compost and Waste: ............................................................................................................................ 42 Worm Composting .............................................................................................................................. 42

It has the potential to wipe us from the face of the earth.) The storms of the future have arrived and they soon tear us from the face of the earth.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 5 An overview of today’s problems Global warming Global warming is the single greatest threat humanity has ever faced. This is no longer contested by the world’s leading scientists. . If the “Venus Syndrome” occurs all life on the earth will become extinct. they agree global warming is real and the effects will be worse than expected. (Venus Syndrome is a runaway heating of the earth caused by the melting of the polar caps and release of methane into the atmosphere.

stop using coal to generate electricity and stop factory farming. Global warming will have huge impact on how we grow food. Take Russell J. Reduce the amount of fossil fuels we use. The proof is there. Most will not wake up to global warming until it is too late to do anything. We simply can’t have healthy food if we have an unhealthy environment to grow it in. We know of ways to stop it. It can done quickly and on scale that would make a difference. The climate scientists say we have only a couple of years before irreversible climate change sets in. We must stop this climate madness now. If we don’t solve this madness nothing else matters. No. why? The evidence is there. If we wish to survive the threat of climate change we have to create a tree based agriculture. Forest farming is one of these solutions. It is the will to act that is the problem. And to have a healthy future we need healthy food. Since the 1920’s we have known the potential of tree crops but we have not acted.org a group fighting climate change. Forest farming is tool that can give us time. Forest farming can stop factory farming. There are solutions to all of these that offer an improvement in our standard of living. A unique form of farming it has real potential to reduce CO2 and methane emissions while growing healthy food. . Does this have to happen. Not tomorrow for that will be too late. Current methods of growing food will just not be able to cope with extremes of weather that will occur. Why because it can sequester enough carbon to make a difference while heavily reducing the use of fossil fuels needed to grow food. Smiths book Treecrops: A permanent agriculture.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 6 To learn more check out 350. It must be today. The way to do is clear and concise. To have healthy food we need healthy future. this provides overwhelming proof about the potential of tree crops.

This will result in catastrophic changes in both the temperature and rainfall of the tropics.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 7 Food prices will sky rocket with mass starvation a real threat. Climate change Within a generation climate change could destroy many ecosystems and economies around the world. They are so vulnerable to climate change that even desperate attempts to use GMO's will fail. They have failed. Crops like corn lose a large amount of their nutritional value from being exposed to excessive heat for too long while they are growing. The days of single crop moncultures are over. Even if you can grow food it will have less nutritional value. with the whole world being affected by 2047. Kingston in Jamaica will permanently off the charts hot as one of the first cities affected. This could be easily be within a decade in the tropics. The last city to have it’s coldest day hotter than it’s hottest day now will be Anchorage in 2071. Scientists have revealed that with the current levels of greenhouse gas emissions a catastrophic transformation of the world's climate could occur as soon as 2047. Significant amounts of the world's food supplies could be devastated with the tropics becoming much hotter and drier. And it will be just too costly to produce enough food while relying on huge amounts of fossil fuel which caused the problem in the first place. . Monocultures just do not have robustness to handle the wide range of climatic conditions that we will face. Moving food production indoors won't help either there's just not enough space.

. whatever climate we are used to will be a thing of the past. from the University of Hawaii." said leading climate researcher Dr Camilo Mora. "Within my generation.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 8 The changes will lead to the extinction of many species.

deforestation causes numerous environmental impacts. The absorption of carbon dioxide is also important for reducing fossil fuel emissions that contribute to climate change and global warming. deforestation is an issue that needs to be addressed. From short-term soil erosion to long-term impacts of climate change and rising sea levels. This is enough to support two people over the course of one year. Leaving nothing behind but a baron wasteland. we can develop a sustainable approach that tackles these problems head on.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 9 Deforestation For thousands of years people have been taking trees from the earth to meet demands for food and consumer products – a process known as deforestation. By using farming practices to preserve maximum tree cover. The solution? Bring back the trees! It’s a fact that a single tree can absorb approximately 48 pounds of oxygen each year while producing about 260 pounds of oxygen. .

As a monoculture cannot tolerate other life forms.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 10 Factory Farming: Factory farming is a mess. wheat and barley but legumes such as soya and other beans are also be grown. Most vegetable today are grow as single crops on huge acreages with large chemical support. Today. profit became the only concern. . Animals were confined to cages so as not to waste food by moving about. Large grain fields are used to support the running of these farms and to feed the animals – while the animals remain trapped in cages. The most common monoculture crops are corn. Some of the fields are so big that tractors can take days to cross them. Nobody cared for the consequences. Factory farming developed in the 1930's with the invention of the battery cage. millions of acres supply these factory farms. giant spray rigs are used to kill all other plant and animal life in the way. Feed conversion was the name of the game and profit the objective. It's killing you and our world.

People lose their homes. They are stripping our planet of nutrients and its ability to regenerate itself. Resources Our natural resources are becoming exhausted to feed the factory farm. The way monocultures are used today and their scale makes them unsustainable. There has been a large loss of bio-diversity and damage to the overall ecosystem.000 species go extinct each year. Fish trawled from the seas to provide fish meal to add to feed stocks for the livestock. More than 100. and income to feed the factory monsters.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 11 Note A monoculture is the cultivation of a single crop over a wide area for many years. farms. . Palm oil plantations are grown over huge acreage . Large amounts of soil erosion and soil depletion has occurred.stripping the last of the forest cultures from the earth. The earth has been stripped bare to meet the demands of this insane form of food production.

Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 12 Many people have seized on the fact that agriculture accounts for about 30% of global warming. But will only cause more issues than it will solve. The common belief is stop farming animals. This would help solve so many problems that we face today. It is much better as Russell J Smith suggested to convert the rest into rich tree crop based polycultures to feed our animals.  Global warming  Deforestation  Quality of food  Water quality issues  Animal welfare  Loss of bio-diversity  Soil erosion . This would create an enormous environmental buffer zone against the excesses of todays world. We really don’t need that much good quality land to grow the food we need. A better solution is to grow food forests for those animals on the land where we grow the crops to feed them in their cages. Animal production uses 70% of the land and resources used in agriculture.

Soon you may as well be eating cardboard. Therefore the foods you eat will not have the dense array of nutrients you need for good health. So what's killing the honeybees? Pesticides — such as neonicotinoids. you can thank the honeybee. Food Quality The nutrition value of the food you eat today is far less than food that was available 50 years ago. Monocultures provide very little pollen for foraging bees — honeybees are literally starving to death. . If the nutrients do not exist in the soil they can’t be taken by the plant. Honeybees — which pollinate crops are dying off or disappearing thanks to a still-unsolved malady called colony collapse disorder. Even now you have to be careful about planting flowering plants for them as they may have been treated with systematic insecticides that will kill the bees. Pests like the Varroa mite are killing off colonies and spreading diseases. Furthermore as crops are exposed to hotter growing conditions they will lose more nutrient value. making the problem worse.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 13 The Honeybee For 1 in every 3 mouthfuls you'll eat today. Soils have been stripped of the full range of nutrients and micro nutrients that plants need to provide you with healthy food.

. Already they are devastating trees on farmlands. Storms are breaking new records of wind speed. Forest gardens in desert areas are substantially cooler than the surrounding desert. same rooting system and often the same age. There is a suggestion the wind speeds will increase dramatically. They have the same canopy. The forest will be self cooling enabling food to grown at lower temperature. But these are monocultures. The tropics will bear the brunt of these first but they will eventually affect the whole of the planet. trees of one or two species used as shelter belts or crops. The one aspect of climate change that evades people is wind. Yes they will hit by the changing weather patterns but they will offer enough diversity so that something will survive and thrive.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 14 The solutions offered by forest farming Food forests The solution to stop climate change and have healthy food is simple create multilayered food forests. The wide range of plants will be able to provide the range of nutrients that we need. wrecking havoc around the globe. Once one goes the lot go.

shrubs and plants. The fallen trees are regarded as another crop. But this is placed into the planning of the farm. Sure some trees will be blown down but not all. . It will have a varied canopy and rooting structure. This will help sequester more carbon while providing healthy food as the soil food web is replenished.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 15 A forest farm will have 100's if not 1000's of different trees. They can also be seeded with mushroom spores and mushroom crops grown on the fallen branches. A wide of plants suitable to a range of conditions could be grown on the farm so that genetic material and seeds are available for immediately replanting if other species fail due to changing weather patterns. Either to harvest for timber or other products.

Keyline has lead the way here for so long but so few have utilized it's ability to smooth out extremes in the weather. Diverse planting of a wide range of tree crops. Provision for fighting fires has to be on site and ready to response immediately. Droughts will bring increased fire danger so plantings will have to be fire resistant. Rich deep layered polycultures will be the only way to grow food in the future. Water harvesting must be major part of any future farming operation.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 16 Flooding will be more prevalent and provisions made to handle these. Eventually buildings will have to move underground or be protected by earth embankments from excessive storm damage. Floods provide opportunity to catch water and store it for dry periods and of increasing importance fire fighting. . perennials and annuals need to be planted. Earth moving to form mounds. birds and insects also need to be included along with fungi. terraces and dam could be used to provide more sheltered areas and water management. A wide range of animal.

. “What stood out for me about the Corsican mountaineers was their use of chestnut trees instead of cornfields. and the soil is held in place. Forest farming is a unique method of farming.” In other words. he does it by planting beautiful trees whose crops he and his children and his children’s children will later pick up from year to year. is that “when the Corsican starts a crop. It operates with supreme flexibility. when Europeans were carrying out sustainable practices for mountain farming in Corsica. It is the most robust form of farming ever devised with the ability to turn the clock back on climate change. inherit in it's production system. Let’s take a step back in time to the early 20th century. a Mediterranean island and territorial collectivity of France.Russell Smith wrote about this in his 1950’s book Tree crops a Permanent Agriculture The difference. he said between the Corsican people and alternative farming practices. It is able to handle a wide range of possible outcomes. With a wide range of plants from drought tolerate to water loving plants there will be plants that flourish no matter what the climatic conditions. the trees stay put. No other method of farming has so much diversity. The ability to replant quickly is required as part of the overall management of the property.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 17 Forest farming is unique in that a huge range of plants and animals are grown and raised together. With it focus on animals as part of the system means crops that are damaged can still be harvested and not lost. It has the ability to rapidly change it's production goals to suit the prevailing conditions.” J.

Eventually. The stigma goes back to the 1990’s. No system of farming has been so destructive of soil as that practiced by factory farming and the growing of corn to feed them. Such farming practices leave the earth gutted. With tree crops as it’s main method of production it can sequester large amounts of carbon. after a few seasons of cultivation. and the farmer must find another field to ruin. or chemical-free farming. gullied and abandoned. the cornfield can no longer be used. when the term low input sustainable agriculture was coined to discourage people from looking at organic. Stopping global warming Forest farming offers a real and valid way to stop climate change. few people are aware of the environmental and economic benefits forest farming can bring. However. This cannot be ignored. .Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 18 A corn-based system cannot be permanent.

they are not conflicting goals. hard labor. Forest farms subscribes to the view held by the Amercian Journal of Alternative Agriculture. Current farming practices usually involve high production costs including those associated with groundwater contamination and soil erosion. Resource conservation. What is needed is a ‘reshuffling’ of the former viewpoint. lower yields. In the long run. people began thinking that the adoption of sustainable farming practices would mean going back to hoes. Practices commonly recommended by proponents of sustainability are inherently unprofitable. Forest farming reduces these costs markedly. and lower farm income. The future profitability and productivity of farming will depend significantly on efforts taken from now on to conserve resources and protect the environment. In the midst of all of this a common argument prevailed: No agriculture is sustainable if it is not first and foremost a profitable agriculture. This viewpoint fails to account for the hidden costs of conventional farming.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 19 Because of this. and health and safety are just as important as profitable production. . environmental protection.

Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 20 Sustainable practices need to be implemented – sooner rather than later. especially when the hefty production costs of the latter are considered. us and the environment. and something that needs to be addressed. While providing also providing exceptionally healthy food. who says that sustainability has to be small? It needs to be large scale to combat the problems we face. The simple answer: By simply by letting the animals we farm in cages out of their cages and grow food forests for them. . The common misconception that sustainable farming means lower inputs (and thus lower outputs) is a key concern. So much more healthier for the animals. Sustainable practices have the potentiality to be even more profitable than traditional methods. Even global warming. After all. The animals from the factory farm can simply forage on the foods grown in the forest farm. We can solve a large number of today’s problems. Forest farming provides an alternative to grain growing and is a much better use for the land where grain is grown to feed factory farms. They can live contended lives under the canopy of great forests.

This allows room for the natural world and wildlife corridors throughout the farms. The soil food web is destroyed by cultivation.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 21 Because of the increased productivity of forest farms there is less need to maintain the entire farm under production. creating a sustainable and harmonious system. The simple . The science of agroecology has revealed the benefits of polycultures. unlike grain farming which exhausts and strips the soil of nutrients and life. which are used in forest farms. and other factors that add up to overall farm health. Comparisons While monocultures may be associated with high productivity rates of a single crop. Using trees in forest farming as the main foundation of production stabilizes soils with their extensive root systems. When the amount of land used to grow the feed for the factory farm is compared with what a forest farm could grow on these same lands there is no comparison. soil microorganisms. Planting a variety of crops supports a wider range of beneficial insects. the consequences that come from this type of farming do not justify its use.

The cost of food production has the potential to be much lower with better quality food offered. 3. As forest gardens around the house. The earliest form of farming it has feed billions of people for centuries. 2. This is offers huge potential for an ecologically sound food production. tree-based food production systems produce more per acre. in the suburbs and around our cities. As frameworks around areas where grain and horticultural crops are grown. Large scale animal food forests to replace the factory farming of animals. There are three main ways to use forest farming. .Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 22 fact is. It’s various forms can be adapted to any environment. These massively reduce the fossil fuels used in growing food and organic waste disposal. This would heal a vast areas of the earth’s surface. By creating forest farms with a large assembly of productive food bearing trees and plants we can overcome many of the problems caused by excess grain growing. The outcome is sustainable food for a hungry world. Putting animals back into the forest and meadows will restore a degree of natural balance back to farming. Forest farming reduces it energy use by using one of the main energy harvester of the natural world. With these methods the acreage of productive food forests that could be planted would be large enough to truly help offset global warming through a massive sequestering of carbon and lowering of methane emissions. 1. the tree as it's main producer.

stateliest trees that shelter the property. They hold the land together. Trees are the great nourisher of the farm. The forest farm feeds itself mainly due to the beautiful range of trees on the property. There are no vast tilled spaces devoted to one crop. down to the larger dams and catchment areas on the lower terraces.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 23 So when you walk into the forest farm. you will look up to the highest. and give shelter to the animals and crops on the lower levels. alongside spaces for the animals to graze. which are ultimately the most sustainable and efficient form of farming. what will you see? One of the first things you will notice as you enter the forest farm is that it is all around you. There are many levels. Smaller trees and shrubs will be planted throughout. The land will be terraced to fit with its natural contours. These are not the stripped fields of dairy or sheep farming where the land and animals are under strain to achieve maximum production. provide plentiful fruit and nuts. They will . You will be able to follow the dams as they graduate from smaller on the higher terraces. Ultimately the forest farm is the most sustainable and efficient form of farming You will be struck by how integrated and natural polycultures are.

Fish meal and other questionable stock feed will not be used or required. These will have special laying boxes and chicken tunnels will lead the birds to where they will forage. Small. Other animals on the property are pigs. turkeys. Water One of the main features of the farm will be the hydrology of the property. and some cattle. The animals are able to graze of their own free will. are the ‘cleaner-uppers’ of the system and will live in a family enriched sheds. The pigs. mobile houses will be placed around the forest for the chickens. Different types of fencing will be used to contain them.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 24 provide abundant nuts and berries for both human and animal consumption. A series of keyline dams throughout the property will deliver the water to catchment areas. All . You will see many different breeds of chickens with a focus of the farm being on egg production and humanely raising chickens for meat. mainly Tamworth and Berkshires.

and natural intelligence of the farm. It will grow the healthiest food you can eat full of delicious nutrients assembled in the nature designed them. Complex aquatic polycultures will exist within the waterways and chinampas. and avoiding large stands of single crops. Placement of plants and animals is determined by their suitability to the climate and type of land being used. There will be waste to energy projects. biogas and hydrogen production. in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems. These areas will be as natural reserves to support sustainable forestry as the catchment areas fade into productive areas.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 25 catchment areas will contain fish and be planted in natives. Electricity will be generated in a number of ways from hydro through to solar and if not used feed back into the grid. 3. In short. A variety of food-producing trees. With composting. The basic polycultures are: 1. . Perennial plants trees and shrubs Annual plants Aquatic plants and fish Animals and poultry Each of these polycultures will be integrated and incorporated within each other. shrubs and plants form the foundation of this. then various filtration beds before the water is discharged into the natural riparian areas. You will be confident in knowing that compost materials from the local area will have been sourced and used to remediate land that was disturbed during the development phrase. Polycultures The forest farming is a series of integrated polycultures. You will be confident that all food harvested from the farm has been the product of a truly sustainable and humane system. or monoculture. 2. 4. Forest farming is about growing high quality food in the most sustainable way possible. you will be awed by the beauty. Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space. There will be flat swamps with chinampas.

Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 26 Types of land and their associated polycultures include: 1. Forest farming uses the same principles on a much larger scale. Virtually from day one you can get a return if you use tree crops interplanted with fodder crops for egg production. With an evolving succession system from annual plants to perennial plant using animals. Everyday Polycultures that you may be Familiar With The salad mixes and mesculins you eat are examples of everyday polycultures that are common to domestic vegetable gardens. As the perennials and trees grow they replace the annual plants. These will be also used to maintain the productivity of the farm. annual crops and animals together. Time Lag Often the reason people do not plant trees or grow tree crops is the time it take before the tree bear nuts or fruits. It is the opposite of monoculture where land is farmed exhaustively to produce one crop type. This is done by using annual plants interplanted with perennials and trees to provide crops at the initial stages. apart from catchment and riparian areas. 2. It doesn’t have to be one or the other. Successional Patterns Successional patterns (the phenomenon or process by which an ecological community undergoes more or less orderly and predictable changes following disturbance or initial colonization of new habitat) will be used to convert waste land into rich productive forests full of food. You can grow tree crops. Trees can also be planted amongst field and vegetables crops. Then fodder crops planted . Slopes and catchment areas: trees and shrubs Flat areas: annuals and aquatics Animals and poultry are suited to both of the above. You can build rich assemblies of annual plants to either direct harvest or feed to the animals while the tree crops are growing.

Flooding is more difficult to deal with but placement of sensitive activities should be above the flooding level. Plantings that slow the spread of fire can be used also. These fodder crops will be available for the animals along with the residues after harvesting the main crop. floods. Therefore. Climatic variability will most likely increase as global warming increases. The major issues will be droughts. . control will be through water harvesting and types of plantings. storm damage and fire. Water management will assist in preventing fire. preparation for extremes of weather has to be planned for and incorporated into the farming system.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 27 into them later or underneath the main crop. A variety of plantings should mitigate storm damage. and provide water storage in dry periods. Water and Terrain Water harvesting and control is of the highest importance in forest farming as it will allow for flood control in wet periods. For drought.

Keyline is a technique for maximizing beneficial use of water resources of a piece of land.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 28 Protection of Catchment Areas. All catchment areas will be planted in natives and used as natural reserves with some sustainable forestry developed as the catchment areas fade into productive areas. . The Keyline refers to a specific topographic feature linked to water flow. Keyline Keyline is an Australian developed water harvesting method which are idea for the forest farm.

Chinampas Chinampas (a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture which used small. Various filtration beds should be used before the water is discharged into the natural riparian areas.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 29 Keyline dams could be constructed throughout the forest farm property with smaller. rectangle-shaped areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico) will be designed and utilized for the flat swampy areas of the forest farm. As much water as possible should be caught on the farm and reused. . higher dams at the top graduating to larger ones as they progress downhill. Complex aquatic productions systems will be developed in the chinampas with fish and water plants grown.

Housing for the animals and poultry can be placed on the terraces consisting mainly of portable tunnel structures. These would be best with a back cut to capture rainwater. The openness of the terrace will provide for greater light penetration into the system to allow better growth overall. the terraces will be quite wide (up to 20m in width). These will be planted with annual crops such as grains and vegetables. Where the slopes permit. . Smaller bench terrace 3’ or 1m can be placed on the slopes between the main terraces to grow the tree crops.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 30 Terracing: Areas suitable for terracing in the forest farm can be identified and developed.

Direct harvesting of produce can be used along with the raising of a large number of animals and poultry. The cycle of life continues. Mulberries will be a major focus of the plantings as they are hardy. How to develop a forest farm To develop a forest farm large amounts of trees will need to be planted. The animals are also be able to self-harvest and directly return nutrients to the forest farm. Russell Smith’s principles in Tree Crops: a Permanent Agriculture as its basic framework overlaid with a range of food assemblies. These will range from oaks through to vegetables. Smith proposed that to develop a permanent agriculture we have to look at tree crops.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 31 The Forest Farming System The Forest Farming System is a vast polyculture using J. and . timber can be harvested on a sustainable basis. This will be a large initial cost for the trees and other plants. Fish and aquatic products suitable to be produced in the forest farm water systems. shrubs and plants will be planted out over the property. as several hundred types of trees. and as the trees mature.

Trees can be planted on all sloping areas making the land productive and improving soil quality. The canopy should be opened up as much as possible for improved light penetration to enable better growth. chestnuts. There is considerable flexibility of planting design within the forest farming depending on location and climatic conditions. allowing the growth of fruit trees and shrubs underneath. .Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 32 relatively quick to produce fruit. Trees such as oaks. and walnuts can be pruned as peeler logs (specially selected softwood logs used to produce veneer) and encouraged to grow tall.

10. 8. raspberries and blackberries Climbers: Snow beans Water: Fish and floating plants Shore Edge: Water chestnuts Timber: Large native peeler logs and prunings Fungi: Mushrooms . 2.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 33 Food from the Forest Farms Food Guilds The food guilds will consist of 10 levels: 1. 3. 5. 6. 4. 9. 7. Tall Trees: Oaks and other large fruit and nut trees Smaller Trees: Fruit and nut trees Shrubs: Berries and nuts Herbaceous Plants: Vegetables and grains Ground Cover: Strawberries.

a similar system of using trees to grow food. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Natives according for water management and sustainable forestry. Oaks of all varieties Walnuts Chestnuts Kiawe Carob Honey Locust Mulberry Persimmons Pecan Apples Pears A large range of fruit trees Hazelnuts .Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 34 The diagram above is from forest gardens. Types of Trees: Below is a list of the key trees that will be planted on the farm. These are primarily designed to produce food for direct human consumption and are suited to more urban areas.

Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 35 • And many more. The sheer volume of extra food produced will allow for the incorporation of conservational and ethical values and wildlife within the farm. An increase in immune based diseases linked to lowering bio-diversity levels has been proven by a European study. Next to reducing our use of fossil fuel it is the most important thing we must attend to. Increasing bio-diversity is a must. Monitoring will ensure that wildlife will not develop into pests. the reality being that farming can no longer exclude other life from it’s productive areas. . This is required for the overall health of the planet. This allows for better biodiversity within the farming system. Wildlife Maintaining native wildlife is important for the forest farm.

This can be viewed more as a partnership than farming the animals. Fish can raised in various pond arrangements and a beetle bank is a must. They would enhance the . On a larger scale as full a range of animals as possible should be raised. Stock management should follow the lines of operant conditioning. Animals of all types are encouraged on forest farms. There are many other ways to farm or involve them in a forest farm.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 36 Animals Do you have to raise animals on a forest farm for meat? NO. In a backyard you maybe limited to just a few chickens. Even within an animal group different breeds should be raised. One example of this is with pigs. Then of course there are the bees and butterflies. Pig based worm castings are capable of converting your basic food crops into superfoods. This holds with the bio-diversity and polycultural principals of forest farming. They can be taught to manure in areas where you can collect their manure much easier. This can then be converted by compost worms into a very high grade natural plant growth medium. Instead of a monoculture of animals with large numbers of one type of animal it is far better to have smaller numbers of different animals. Animals can be trained to move and perform functions that you would like them to do by using positive reinforcement for doing so. and perhaps a couple of ducks. Bird life should be encouraged along with native pollinators. As a catalyst they increase production and quality far in excess of what would be normally achieved.

This will reduce the use of fossil fuels in mining. Less fertilizer would have to be applied. Reduce the numbers and move them frequently into new areas for feeding. Reducing the need for fossil fuels is an important area that animals can help in a forest farm. This will ensure the soil food web is functioning well. Don't overload it by keeping too many animals for too long in one area. clothes or insulation it reduces the need for fossil fuels. They can aid the nutrient feedback cycle by reconverting plant material into manure that feeds the soil. Less fuels will have to be used in applying the fertilizers. They can reduce the need for mechanization by providing alternative cultivation and vegetation control methods. . Sheep lead the way here with their wool being particularly valuable. Fiber is an important crop that animals can provide. manufacturing and the transportation of the fertilizers. The animals emissions especially co2 and methane can be caught and utilized in the forest farm if the density of the animals isn't too high. Pigeons can be used as phosphate harvesters on farms.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 37 nutritional value of your food considerably. Used as carpet.

chickens and turkeys. Due to the huge amount of food produced from the complex polycultures in comparison to other forms of farming we no longer have to contain animals because of feed conversion issues. Forest farming is basically creating a food forest for the animals where they can self-forage and put nutrients directly back into the forest farm system. Parasite cycles can be broken.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 38 The animals emissions can be caught. stabilized and used for plant growth by as the cycle of life continues. With little or no feed costs there isn't same pressure to produce as much per animal as is usually required in traditional commercial farming allowing for much more familyoriented and humane systems to be developed. This is something the planet desperately needs. So there are many ways to involve animals in a forest farm without using them for meat. These are animals that have evolved and live naturally in forests for eons including pigs. With a greater range of animals and less numbers their health can be improved with less disease issues. Simply by reducing the feed costs per animal we can let them out of their cages and allow them to forage for their food. The animals farmed in a forest farm will be mainly forest animals. It is putting them back in their home. Involving a broad range of animals amongst a broad range of plant can only enhance bio-diversity. . This is what allows a fundamental change in how the animals can be raised.

Most of this will be mobile. Tunnel houses can be used here to provide shelter for the animals. Being able to move is such a fundamental need and right of all animal life.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 39 Animal housing Good quality housing of modern design will be used for the animals. Animals with a nervous system must be able to move about. This is non negotiable in a forest farm. This will be a priority on the property. Movement of Animals Free movement of the birds and other animals will be catered for according to their natural range. Emergency shelter areas from storms will also have to be provided for the animals. it is a natural expression of life. . This is the greatest freedom of all. enabling movement of the animals around the farm. They must have the freedom to move around to the degree that they would in their natural environment.

Mixed breeds of chickens are best used. Chicken tunnels lead the birds to where they forage. Wire netting can be used for the chickens and deer. and they will be rotated around the farm. The young roosters can be used as chicken tractors. All the natural needs of the chickens will be met. Stolba. developed by ethnologist A. More humane methods of managing the birds are a must with birds kept as long as possible and the rooster chicks kept and grown out on the property. while maintaining a secure and safe environment for them. especially the light Sussex chickens as developing strains of good producing dual purpose birds will be a priority. and electric fencing for pigs and cattle. Different types of fencing are used to contain them. such as dust baths. .Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 40 Chickens Small mobile housing units of up to 100 birds will be used for the chickens. Egg production will be a large focus of the farm. would contain special laying boxes. These houses.

This is based on the work of A.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 41 Pigs Old pig breeds such as Tamworth and Berkshire are best used. especially through their foraging. They play a crucial role in the reconversion of land back to forest. Family-enriched shedding is a perfect method of housing and raising the pigs. Raspberries are well known to improve the health of pigs in many ways. They are incredibly value as energy and nutrient harvesters. especially their association with raspberries and blackberries. Pigs can maintain the overall health of the forest farm systems and substantially reduce pest issues. Stobla. They can produce one of the most productive growing medium ever tested while they . Pigs do not need to be only farmed for meat on a forest farm. Raised in family groups all their social and behavioural needs of the pigs will be meet . Whole natural succession patterns have evolved around pigs.

Turkeys Turkeys can also be raised on the forest farm. . Turkeys provide us with the highest quality meat that we can eat. Care of how they interact with the chickens will have to be taken to reduce disease spread. This will be further improved by providing the birds with a very diverse diet. along with a limited number of sheep. deer and goats.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 42 also offer news ways to produce non polluting energy. Other animals Some cattle will be farmed in the forest.

Seeds and fresher produce will be used for the poultry. sheep and cattle. The order of the rotation is to prevent disease transmission and address the feeding needs and types feeds available for different types animals. An example of this rotation is: When an area is ready for harvesting if there is suitable produce for direct sale it should be picked first. . A mixture of temporary and permanent fencing will contain and rotate the animals and poultry as they are moved around the farm. coarser food material will be used for the goats.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 43 Rotation A complex rotation of the animals and poultry occurs around the property. Then the turkeys will be let in to feed. followed by the chickens and then the other animals.

3.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 44 The rotation order will be as follows: 1. Chickens. Harvesting of the best fruits. Pigs Cattle Goats. . Feedback Cycles Feedback cycles (or loops) are of paramount importance to the health of natural systems. 5. Aquaculture Complex aquatic polycultures can be developed within the chinampa and farm dams. Turkeys. These have colossal potential. nuts and vegetables for direct sale to people. with the interface between land and water the most productive zone we have. 2. sheep. 6. Ducks and geese. 7. 4.

The rapid uptake will substantially reduce that amount of gases escaping into the atmosphere. We break the nutrient recycling cycles with so many of our farming and food practices. Worm Composting Worm composting plays an important role in the overall development and health of the forest farm. in the root zone of the trees and plants. Worm castings are a more concentrated form of compost. plus good rotation and resting of areas will allow safe onsite disposal of manures. Worm farms and a compost unit should be set up to facilitate this process. Nutrients and the biological activity in the casts are placed where they are of most use. Active decay systems and high bio-diversity. Worm castings are also the most cost efficient and the safest method to return nutrients back to the areas where the food was grown from. Compost and Waste: Organic waste materials from the farm and surrounding areas will be composted and used to remediate land that has been disturbed during the development phase. Any concentration of manures will be composted on the farm. These will enable quicker establishment and growth of the tree crops and other plants.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 45 And therefore the health of the food we eat and ultimately our health. It is not possible to have a truly sustainable farming without addressing this issue. The animal and poultry manure is recycled in the actual growing areas of the farms. This is deposited in small enough amounts to allow rapid absorption within the growing system. Therefore they reduce transportation costs. This can be also used for the ongoing maintenance of soil health. Forest farming addresses the nutrient cycle at the point of production as most the nutrients used to produce the food grown on the farm are recycled within the farm itself. This is the ultimate way to health is eating food grow on nutrient . Worm castings with good nutrient rich compost can improve to health of soil to provide for nutrient dense food. This will be offset by the sheer volume of carbon sequestered within the forest farm system itself through the growing of trees. Potting mixes with added worm castings have been proven to out-perform other potting mixes.

This will provide good health for you and your family. We can’t wait for them. Even good foods grow on poor soils will be less healthy for you.  Invest in and support the development forest farms. Stop the climate madness now. Can-o-worms worm farm What can you do. Reduce your carbon footprint by:  Using forest farming to grow your own food where you live or in your community. Banks and governments are not currently supporting the development of forest farms. It is your choice.  Support forest farming by sourcing products from forest farms. . You can either leave a Garden of Eden for your children or a one way ticket to hell. Worm castings ensure that you have nutrient dense superfoods to eat.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 46 rich soils.

.Forest farms healthy food for a healthy future 47 The world is in your hands.