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Synthesis of Pencil Beam Pattern with a Uniformly Excited Multiple Concentric Circular Ring Array Antenna
N.Pathak1, G.K. Mahanti2, T.K.Sinhamahapatra2, A.Ahmed2, and A.Chakrabarty3
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Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Bankura Unnayani Institute of Engineering Pohabagan, Bankura-722146, India (E-mail: narendra.pathak@rediffmail.com) Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology Durgapur-713209, India (E-mail: gautammahanti@yahoo.com)

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Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur-721302, India (E-mail : bassein@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in)

Abstract–In this paper, the authors describe the synthesis of pencil beam power pattern for antennas composed of concentric rings of uniformly excited isotropic elements. The synthesis is performed by particle swarm optimization (PSO), varying the inter-element distance of the elements on a common ring uniformly, so as to obtain desired side lobe level and half-power beamwidth of pencil beam. Example illustrates the potential of the method.

I. INTRODUCTION Circular antenna arrays have considerable interest in various applications including sonar, radar, and mobile and commercial satellite communications systems [1–5]. It consists of a number of elements usually omnidirectional arranged on a circle [1] and can be used for beamforming in the azimuth plane for example at the base stations of the mobile radio communications system [2-5]. A very popular type of antenna arrays is the circular array that has several advantages over other schemes such as all-azimuth scan capability (i.e., it can perform 360 scan around its center) and the beam pattern can be kept invariant. Concentric circular antenna array (CCAA) that contains many concentric circular rings of different radii and number of elements have several advantages including the flexibility in array pattern synthesis and design both in narrowband and broadband beamforming applications [2-5]. CCAA is also favored in direction of arrival (DOA) applications since it provides almost invariant azimuth angle coverage. In two-dimensional beamforming especially at directions perpendicular to the circular array plane, the side lobe level will be high (approximately 8 dB below the main lobe) and the

array is inefficient if utilized at angles near to the normal of the array. Therefore, one possible solution to reduce this higher side lobe level is to use multiple concentric circular arrays (CCA) of different number of elements and radii. Uniform CCA (UCCA) is one of the most important configurations of the CCA [2] where the inter-element spacing in individual rings and the inter-ring spacing are kept almost half of the wavelength. The side lobes in the UCCA will drop to about 17.5 dB especially at larger number of rings [2] with uniform excitation. Evolutionary algorithms such as particle swarm optimization (PSO) have been successfully used in the design of antenna arrays [5,7,8]. The PSO algorithm [6] has been shown to be an effective alternative to other evolutionary algorithms [9,10] such as Genetic Algorithms (GA), Simulated Annealing (SA) etc. in handling certain kinds of optimization problems. Compared to GA and SA, the PSO algorithm [6-8] is much easier to implement and apply to design problems with continuous or discontinuous parameters. A common problem in such applications is the need to balance effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) against side lobe level (SLL). The former can be maximized by exciting all the elements equally at the highest possible power level, but for arrays with conventional geometry, this produces power patterns with higher side lobes than are tolerable in satellite communications. In this paper, planar circular array antenna has been synthesized using particle swarm optimization to radiate a pencil beam in the vertical plane with desired side lobe level and half-power beamwidth. Problem is to find optimal uniform inter-element distance in any ring and to vary it radially,i.e. the

η mn = rm sin φ mn . Fig.1 shows the configuration of concentric circular arrays in x-y plane in which there are M concentric circular rings. M. called a particle. II. and this gives arise to different radiation patterns. θ. animals herding. A particle represents a potential solution. Elements are equally placed along a common circle. As an evolutionary algorithm. SLLo are desired and obtained value of side lobe level. . the PSO has gained an increasing popularity as an efficient alternative to GA and SA in solving optimization design problems in antenna arrays. The problem is to find optimal set of inter-element spacing of different rings to satisfy the performance goal. a member in the swarm. Since its introduction in 1995 by Kennedy and Eberhart [6].1 Geometry of multiple concentric circular ring arrays . . and fish schooling where these swarms search for food in a collaborative manner. The objective is to make inter-radial spacing non-uniform.dm= inter-element arc spacing of m-th circle. Each particle has a fitness value and a velocity to adjust its flying direction according to the best experiences of the swarm to search for the global optimum in the D-dimensional solution space. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION Particle swarm optimization [6-8] emulates the swarm behavior of insects. Because of the quadrantal symmetry (Nm be divisible by 4). k1. HPBWd . In PSO. HPBWo are desired and obtained value of halfpower beamwidth. PROBLEM FORMULATION The arrangement of elements in planar circular arrays may contain multiple concentric circular rings. if S > 0 if S ≤ 0 ( 4) III. k=wave number=2π/λ . φ mn = (2n − 1)π / N m =an -gular position of mn-th element with 1≤ n ≤ Nm . azimuth angle. then assign the current fitness value to pbest and assign the current coordinates to pbest coordinates. The fitness function to be minimized is expressed as follows: Fitness = k1 (SLLo − SLL d )2 H ( S ) + k 2 (HPBWo − HPBWd )2 (2) Fig. H (S ) = ⎨ ⎩ 0. PSO emulates the swarm behavior and the individuals represent points in the D-dimensional search space. ξ mn = rm cos φ mn . represents a potential solution. v=sinθ sinφ. during their search for the optimum solution using the concept of fitness. u=sinθ cosφ. These phenomena are studied and mathematical models are constructed. the PSO algorithm depends on the social interaction between independent agents. which is a point in the search space. Step3: Compare the personal best (pbest) of every particle with its current fitness value. λ=wave length. The PSO algorithm is easy to implement and has been empirically shown to perform well on many optimization problems. here called particles. The PSO algorithm is an evolutionary algorithm capable of solving difficult multidimensional optimization problems in various fields. the far-field pattern [1] with uniform excitation (Im=1) is given by: E (θ . birds flocking. where m = 1. k2 are weighting factors emphasizing the relative importance of each of term in fitness function. φ ) = 4 Where SLLd . . The flow chart of PSO is given below: Step1: Initialize positions and associated velocity of all particles (potential solutions) in the population randomly in the D-dimension space. 2. H(S) is Heavyside step function defined as follows: S = (SLLo − SLL d ) (3) ⎧ 1. The m th ring has a radius rm and number of elements Nm. Each member in the swarm adapts its search patterns by learning from its own experience and other members’ experiences.φ = polar. If the current fitness value is better. so as to satisfy certain performance parameters. Step2: Evaluate the fitness value of all particles.2 inter-element distance on a common circle is same but they differ from one circle to another. m =1 n =1 ∑ ∑ I m cos(kξ mn sin θ cos φ ) cos(kη mn sin θ sin φ ) M Nm / 4 (1) Where rm = radius of m-th ring =Nmdm/2π . The global optimum is regarded as the location of food. which differ in radius and number of elements.

5λ and 0. in dB) Half-power beamwidth (HPBW. then assign the current best fitness value to gbest and assign the current coordinates to gbest coordinates.12 6.40 4. Problem is to find optimal set of inter-element spacing dm (between 0.61 0.84 3. t is the current generation number. w= inertia weight varying every generation according to (0.63 0.96 2. Objective is to make inter-radial spacing non-uniform to reduce the side lobe level further. If the current best fitness value is better than global best (gbest).50 0. rand1 and rand2 are two uniform random numbers between 0 and 1.2 and the corresponding three dimensional power pattern in dB is shown in fig.55 0.2 Normalized power pattern in dB Ring 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Number of Elements 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 Inter-element spacing (dm) (λ) 0. Normalized power pattern in dB is shown in fig.51 0. c2 = acceleration constants =2. Table1 shows the optimal inter-element spacing and ring radii.59 0.57 0.26 5. Desired and obtained results are shown in table2. each ring of the antenna contained 8m equi-spaced isotropic elements (a total of 440).05 7.3 Three dimensional power pattern in dB . Excitation amplitudes of all the elements are assumed uniform. Step 6: Repeat steps 2-5 until a stop criterion is satisfied or a prespecified number of iterations is completed.0.59 3.69 Radius (λ) 0. Number of particles in particle swarm optimization is taken to be 30 and the algorithm is run for 400 generations. In the example.56 0. Pencil beam so generated will be invariant in every φ-cut. TABLE 1 OPTIMAL INTERELEMENT DISTANCE AND RING RADII Fig. IV.60 -27.00 3. There is a good agreement between desired and obtained results.5+ rand (.80 1.60 Design parameters Side lobe level (SLL. in degree) ( ) ( ) (5) (6) Where c1. Step5: Update velocity (Vid) and position (Xid) of the d-th dimension of the i-th particle using the following equations: t +1 = w * V t + c * rand 1t * pbest t − X t + V id 1 id id id id t t t c 2 * rand 2 id * gbest d − X id t +1 = X t + V t +1 X id id id TABLE 2 DESIRED AND OBTAINED RESULTS Pencil beam Desired Obtained -28. RESULTS We consider a planar array of ten concentric rings.53 0.)/2).08 8.44 1.3 Step 4: Determine the current best fitness value in the whole population and its coordinates.82 Fig.3. where m is the ring number counted from the innermost ring 1.7λ) in the individual ring using particle swarm optimization that will generate pencil beam in x-z plane with the desired specifications shown in table 1.

No. S. Rengarajan.64λ. “Design of Phase-Differentiated Reconfigurable Array Antennas with Minimum Dynamic Range Ratio.5 dB [2]. New Jersey. Results clearly show a very good agreement between desired and obtained results.” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation.” Progress In Electromagnetics Research. John Wiley. February 2004. [3] M. Ares. Moreno.IEEE Int.” Journal of Electromagn. Sharshar. [7] D. ACNOWLEDGMENT The authors are grateful to ISRO–Kalpana Chawla Space Technology Cell. pp. No. and E. Indian Institute of Technology. Sharshar.. No. . the maximum side lobe level achieved from such an array with uniform excitation is about 17. [6] J. Villanueva.S. 20. Robinson. Zhang.” Progress In Electromagnetics Research. 20. REFERENCES [1] R. [10] F. When the inter-element distance and inter-ring distance both are kept 0.84 dB even with uniform excitation.4 V. Vol. Conf.” Electronics Letters. 14. “Synthesis of circular antenna array using crossed particle swarm optimization algorithm. Chen. S. Das. Chakraborty. Elliott. Dessouky. Vol. No. vol. “Particle swarm optimization in electromagnetics. Albagory. H. [5] T. E. and Y. 2006. pp. 1996. [4] M. Neural Networks.K. and F. The diameter of the outermost ring is about 17.771–779. Albagory.3. 2003. pp. and Y. 2006. “Particle swarm optimization. This method is very simple and can be used in practice to synthesize multiple beam patterns with arbitrary or other regular shaped planar array.2077–2089..” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation. 2006. PIER 69. pp.” Journal of Electromagn. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed procedure. H.397–407.Werner. pp. H. no. C.and D. “Application of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing technique in optimizing the aperture distributions of antenna array patterns. Rahmat-Samii. C. pp. “Optimum normalizedgaussian tapering window for side lobe reduction in uniform concentric circular arrays. Antenna Theory and Design. 2. Mahanti. Our design method is better than [2] as the obtained side lobe level is about –27. which can be practically designed. Skochinski. [2] M. 52. Revised Edition. Waves and Appl.5λ. Eberhart. 52. 1942–1948.” in Proc.1785–1795. Pattern symmetry is well and evident from three-dimensional figure. Vol. Y. Jiao.5. Dessouky. Boeringer. Sharshar. pp.” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters. [9] G.R. vol.187–200. March 2004.148-149. Kennedy and R. W. L. 3. Dessouky. Dong. 35–46. 1995. B. Vol. “A novel tapered beamforming window for uniform concentric circular arrays.32. 2006. H. and Y. “Efficient sidelobe reduction technique for small-sized concentric circular arrays. CONCLUSIONS A synthesis method based on particle swarm optimization for generating a pencil beam in the vertical plane with a planar circular array has been proposed in this paper. PIER 65. E. Waves and Appl. and Y. 13.262-264. 2007. [8] J. and S. Albagory. Y. A. pp. “Particle swarm optimization versus genetic algorithms for phased array synthesis. Kharagpur for supporting this work.