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**T.K.Sinhamahapatra l , A.Ahmed l , G.K. Mahanti l , N.Pathak2 and A.ChakrabartY
**

IDepartment of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology Durgapur-713209, India (E-mail: gautammahanti@yahoo.com) 2Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Bankura Unnayani Institute of Engineering Pohabagan, Bankura-722146, India (E-mail: narendra.pathak@rediffmail.com) 3Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur-721302, India (E-mail: bassein@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in)

Abstract-In this paper, we describe the use of real-coded Genetic Algorithm (GA) for design of reconfigurable dual-beam linear isotropic antenna arrays with phase-only control of discrete phase shifters. The problem is to find a fixed amplitude distribution that will generate two broadside symmetrical beams in vertical plane: a pencil beam with zero phases and a flat-top beam with discrete phases of a five-bit discrete phase shifter, with or without minimizing dynamic range ratio (amaxlamin) of excitation amplitude distribution.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Phase-only reconfigurable array antennas capable of radiating multiple radiation patterns with a fixed amplitude distribution are used in many applications. In general, the design and implementation of the circuitry feeding the array are simpler if the element excitations corresponding to different patterns differ only in phase than if they also differ in amplitude. Several methods of synthesizing phase-only multiple pattern antenna arrays have been described [1-7]. The synthesis of phase-only multiple radiation patterns with pre-fixed amplitude distributions [1] is reported with modified Woodward-Lawson technique. Bucci et al. [2] proposed the method of projection to synthesize reconfigurable array antennas with asymmetrical pencil and flat-top beam patterns using common amplitude and varying phase distributions. The design of a phase-differentiated reconfigurable array has been described [3] using particle swarm optimization in angle domain. Baskar et al. [4] synthesized reconfigurable array antennas with phase-only control of 6-bit discrete phase shifter and continuous amplitude distribution using generalized generation gap model genetic algorithm and better synthesis results were obtained, as compared to continuous phase excitations with subsequent quantization. Synthesis of 978-1-4244-1864-0/07/$25.00 ©2007 IEEE

continuous phase-only reconfigurable array is described in [5]. Design of phase-differentiated multiple pattern antenna arrays [6] have been described based on simulated annealing optimization technique. Beam reconfiguration of linear arrays of parallel dipoles has been discussed [7] with the help of mechanical displacement of a parasitic array in front of an active one. On the other hand, an evolutionary algorithm such as genetic algorithm (GA) is a global iterative optimizer that performs population-based probabilistic searches with an ability to escape from local optima. In this paper, optimization technique using real-coded GA [8] with some variation in its implementation is applied for the synthesis of a reconfigurable symmetrical dual-beam linear isotropic antenna array in sine space (sine of far-field angle) with a 5-bit discrete phase shifter with or without minimizing dynamic range ratio (DRR) of excitation amplitude distribution. However, minimizing DRR to a lower value makes little compromise on the design specifications. Patterns are optimized in sine space (sine of far-field angle) instead of angle space [3, 4]. The optimized phase excitations obtained by this method can be directly implemented without further quantization. II. PROBLEM FORMULATION

The design of a reconfigurable dual-beam antenna array leads to finding a common amplitude distribution that can generate either a pencil beam or a flat-top beam, when the phase distribution of the array is modified appropriately. All excitation phases are set at 00 to generate a pencil beam, and are varied in the range -180 0 ~ <p ~ 1800 in steps of 3600 /2 5 or

Authorized licensed use limited to: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DURGAPUR. Downloaded on March 24, 2009 at 01:48 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

It takes less memory space and works faster than binary GA. i the imaginary unit. The fitness function to be minimized for dual-beam array optimization problem is expressed as follows: i(n-l) 21l' du A (1) Where n the element number. Pj . Step 4: Individuals so called parents placed in the mating pool are now allowed to mate followed by mutate using arithmetic crossover and non-uniform mutation [8] respectively. 2009 at 01:48 from IEEE Xplore. The third term in eqn. A the wavelength. and u=sinB.5 dB from the peak value of 0 dB. Downloaded on March 24. III. The difference terms in connection to side lobe level and ripple level in fitness function eqn. the more fit the array to the desired specifications. as given in Table1 and Table2. Numbers of individuals in the mating pool are same as P in order to accommodate more and more copies of superior individuals in the new population. OVERVIEW OF REAL-CODED GA Genetic Algorithm [8] is an iterative stochastic optimizer that works on the concept of survival of the fittest motivated by Darwin. We consider a linear array of N isotropic antennas that are assumed uncoupled and equally spaced a distance d apart along the Y-axis. (3) are made equal to unity. This is shown in Fig. The fourth term in the second summation in eqn. The amplitude and phase distribution are assumed symmetric with respect to the center of the array.I. using methods based on the mechanics of natural genetics and natural selection to construct search and optimization procedures that best satisfies a predefined goal. d is the inter-element spacing. Restrictions apply. (1): F(u) = Lane1qJne n=l N . 1. Real-coded GA uses floating-point number representation for the real variables and thus is free from binary encoding and decoding. Step 2: Evaluate the fitness of the individuals from the fitness function. (3) is dynamic range ratio of excitation amplitude. VPS is variable phase shifter and PDN is power divider network Authorized licensed use limited to: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DURGAPUR. (3) is a ripple parameter for the flat-top beam pattern. d and Pj represent respectively the applicable desired and calculated value of each design specification.25° of a 5-bit discrete phase shifter to form a flat-top beam pattern [3]. qJn the excitation current phases of the elements. an the excitation current amplitudes of the elements. Normalized power pattern in dB can be expressed as follows: !F(u)! P(u) = 1OioglO [ F(u) max Where the superscript p is meant for the design specification of pencil beam and the superscript f is meant for the design specification of flat-top beam pattern. The real-coded GA is summarized as follows: Step 1: Randomly generate an initial population of P individuals within the variable constraint range.19) is not to exceed 0.11.N] (4) ] F(u) max (2) The lower the fitness. . Step 3: Select the superior individuals using nonlinear ranking [8] and place them in the mating pool. defined as: I I ]2 = 201oglO[I !F(u)1 I DRR=(an)max/(an)min VnE [l. The desired maximum ripple level (RL) in the entire coverage region (-0.19~ u ~ 0. (3) are made zero when their respective calculated values are less than their desired values by multiplying appropriate Heaviside step function with these terms whose value is unity when the calculated value is greater than or equal to the desired value and zero elsewhere. For the dual-beam array optimization. The free space [9] far-field pattern F (u) in the principal plane (YZ-plane) is given by eqn. In the z FAR-FIELD a VPS PDN Fig. Geometry of a dual-beam linear antenna array. The weighting factors associated with all the terms in eqn. the fitness function must cover the entire array radiation pattern. e being the polar angle of far-field measured from broadside (-90° to +90°).

124 0. -0. Subsequent mutations of the parents add diversity to the population and explore new areas of parameter search space. and flat-top beams are also asymmetrical in [2] resulting The best scoring P individuals survive to the next generation. Best run (HPBW. shifter as used in [4].300 0.19:5 u :50.00 take part in crossover and six numbers of parents take part in (SLL. as mentioned before. our case. in u-space) to lie between -180 and 180 degrees. Excitation amplitude dynamic N/A N/A 0.300 0.120 0. Crossover and Pencil beam Flat-top beam mutation operators are called sixth times every generation Design parameters Desired Obtained Desired Obtained respectively in order to ensure that only six pairs of parents Side lobe level -25.500 (HPBW.crossover process.18 and the final fitness value is found to be 5. There is a very good agreement between desired and obtained results using GA. they are all clearly mentioned.4]. All phases are restricted Half-power beamwidth 0. Equally spacing pattern points in sine IV. ripple level is 0. which in tum reduces We consider a uniformly spaced d=0. Because of symmetry.0.272 0. In our design.00 -24. Results are shown in Table 1. Corresponding common amplitude and 5-bit discrete phase distributions in degree are shown in Table 3.700 (in u-space) For design specifications as given in Tablel and Table2. These include P parents.459 is run independently ten times.498 0.306 0.19:5 u :50. beam and a flat-top beam. pencil pairs of crossover children and M candidate mutation children.464 0.3 shows normalized absolute power patterns in dB for dual-beam array with DRR minimization. GA Ripple N/A N/A 0.500 0.500 0. Select M number of parents at random from the mating pool to participate in mutation to produce M number of offspring without replacement of the parents.19) range ratio (DRR) is found to be 9. asymmetrical amplitude and phase distributions that complicate This step has been introduced to prevent loosing the best-found the feed network further. Select C pairs of parents at random to participate in crossover to produce C pairs of offspring without replacement of the parents.17 and the final fitness value is 0.2 shows normalized absolute power patterns in dB for dual-beam array without DRR minimization. -0. In this case. two parents produce two children. where the first 10 values from the vector are scaled to Side lobe level -25.98 -25.19) number but fixed number of generations with an initial TABLE 2 population of 200 and nonlinear ranking with probability of DESIRED AND OBTAINED RESULTS WITH DRR MINIMIZATION 0. We not only scoring individual in the population is taken as the final minimize DRR but also synthesize the dual-beam array with a five bit discrete phase shifter instead of a six bit discrete phase answer.825dB. Coverage region near zero dB for calculating ripple of flat-top beam is not mentioned in [3. each time with different random (in dB.00 -25.35 for selecting the best individual. Each 20Pencil beam Flat-top beam Design parameters element vector is mapped to 10 amplitude and 10 phase Desired Obtained Desired Obtained weights. in dB) mutation in stead of all. 2009 at 01:48 from IEEE Xplore.825 (in dB. GA is run for 2000 generations. sufficiently good solution being discovered or a maximum Moreover. Excitation amplitude dynamic range ratio is found to be 5.700 0. Downloaded on March 24. 2] where it is required.4]. This will reduce the overall Half-power beamwidth 0. in dB) scaled to desired phase weight range. Our method of Step 6: Repeat steps 2-5 until a stopping criterion. For DESIRED AND OBTAINED RESULTS WITHOUT DRR MINIMIZATION convenience. Authorized licensed use limited to: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DURGAPUR.00 -24. .00 desired amplitude weight range and the second 10 values are (SLL.99 -25. only ten TABLE 1 amplitudes and ten phases are to be optimized. In individuals by chance because of crossover and mutation. Amplitude and 5-bit discrete phase distributions in degree are shown in Table 3. 0. 0. is satisfied. The best (DRR) of excitation amplitude distribution. In case of dual-beam pattern with DRR minimization. the genetic algorithm is designed to provide vectors of 20 real values between zero and one.4].116 0.00 -25. the authors [3] did not optimize dynamic range ratio number of generations being completed. 4].692 (in u-space) In case of dual-beam pattern without DRR minimization. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS space provide a more uniform sampling and less number of sampling points than angle space [3.287. little higher than the desired one. Moreover. GA Ripple is run for 1500 generations. The shape parameter in non-uniform mutation is taken to be 3. The optimization technique 20 isotropic elements in order to generate a symmetric pencil used here is very simple and different from [3.120 0.00061. in u-space) Beamwidth at SLL having the lowest fitness value is taken as final.500 computational time in optimization considerably. and Beamwidth at SLL amplitudes between 0 and 1. Restrictions apply. Results are shown in Table 2. Fig. such as a calculating ripple of flat-top beam is quite different from [3. Fig. phases are not required to generate pencil Step 5: Score all individuals again. C beam compared to [1.720 0.5A apart linear array of the complexity of optimization.

Electronics Letters.00 0. Mahanti. pp. [5] G. with little compromising on the design specifications. 1. Ares. Dashed line.75 0. and P. Vo1.7833 o (/ I J -1. Singapore. Technol.5684 0. Bucci. and Y.tl Fig. pp.2097 11.J. [9] C. flat-top beam pattern.50 0.50 0.36.50 78. "Multiple-pattern linear antenna arrays with single prefixed amplitude distributions: modified Woodward-Lawson synthesis". Tee/lIlol..1345-1346. pencil beam pattern. Genetic Algorithms + Data Structures = Evolution Programs. Dashed line. Vol. Microwave Opt.Ares. Normalized absolute power patterns in dB for dual-beam array without DRR minimization. [4] S.. Vol. This leads to better synthesis results.1366 56. even with a 5-bit discrete phase shifter instead of a continuous phase shifter [2-3] and a 6-bit discrete phase shifter [4]. "Reconfigurable arrays by phase-only control".3828 -45. solid line. c~ I \ .K. 1. Second Edition. 3.00 0. A. Chakraborty.1 a=doI 0 . 1991. [2] O.. Michalewicz. and E. . Trastoy.r . Kharagpur for supporting this work. REFERENCES I .2 1\ ( . 919-925. C.4377 -45.25 0.5842 0. Moreno. Results for a linear isotropic antenna array have illustrated the performance of this proposed technique. "Particle swarm optimization for reconfigurable phase differentiated array design.00 0. "Design of Phasedifferentiated multiple-pattern antenna arrays". Bregains. Vol. (De2ree) 146. the design of reconfigurable antenna arrays with fixed amplitude and quantized phases is preferred in order to keep costs low.Rahmat-samii.0967 101. "Genetic Algorithm based design of a reconfigurable antenna array with discrete phase shifter". and G. Diaz. compared to conventional methods where phases are subsequently quantized [4]. Berlin.6135 0.00 0.pp.M.168-175. Suganthan. Lett. and S.50 0.50 0." Microwave Opt. Trastoy. Bhaskar. Das..52-53.38. (Degree) -157. A. 2. Rodriguez. l .25 0. CONCLUSIONS An optimization technique based on real-coded Genetic Algorithm for the design of a reconfigurable dual-beam array antenna with or without DRR minimization has been proposed in this paper.N. Results clearly show a very good agreement between the desired and GA synthesized one with or without minimizing DRR. [3] D.7.5720 -67.l31-133. Microwave Opt. F. 2006.A. [6] X. Ares. solid line. Vol.1510 -146.6912 67.6623 -135. IEEE Trans. 2009 at 01:48 from IEEE Xplore.~.TABLE 3 AMPLITUDE AND PHASE DISTRffiUTIONS IN DEGREE v. Normalized absolute power patterns in dB for dual-beam array with DRR minimization. A. and F. No. . A. Springer-Verlag. pp." Electronics Letters. Technol.8874 Optimized DRR Phase (5-bit) Amp.5268 -22. G. Authorized licensed use limited to: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DURGAPUR. pencil beam pattern. "Design of Phase-Differentiated Reconfigurable Array Antennas with Minimum Dynamic Range Ratio. pp. 1. Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design.7277 -146. ACNOWLEDGMENT The authors are grateful to ISRQ-Kalpana Chawla Space Technology Cell. and G. Franceschetti. A. 1 1 n .262-264.1 0 a~dDI Fig. This method is very simple and can be used in practice to synthesize multiple beam patterns with continuous as well as discrete phase shifter. vol. Antennas and Propag. pp. amplitude and phase distributions are all symmetric in nature. Alphones. F. Lett. The patterns.2340 -67.1' '.'.25 0. Vol. . No. The method presented here takes discrete phases directly into account during synthesis.461-465.26. Moreover. 45. The effect of coupling between antenna array elements is reduced by minimizing the excitation amplitude dynamic range ratio.5. "Beam reconfiguration of linear arrays using parasitic elements.25 0. Gies.39.3175 -22.. pp. Durr.75 0. Balanis. [7] I. [1] M. r J -1.Panariello. 2003. 2000. Downloaded on March 24. [8] Z. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed procedure. Restrictions apply.. for practical applications. flat-top beam pattern.42." IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters. 2003. Lett. Rodriguez. 1999.5 1' fr\. John Wiley and Sons (Asia). f .1545 -90. This design method can be used directly in practice to synthesize reconfigurable linear isotropic antenna arrays with phase-only control of discrete phase shifters.00 0.5899 33.A.25 0. 2005.50 -101. . Indian Institute of Technology..16. 2000. Mazzarella. ~ ~ 11 II \ 0.25 0.25 0. 2006. control simple and maintain accuracy. and this symmetry greatly simplifies the feed network. Element Number 1&20 2&19 3&18 4&17 5&16 6&15 7&14 8&13 9&12 10&11 Unoptimized DRR Phase (5-bit) Amp.

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