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India has a rich and diverse philosophical tradition dating back to the composition of the Upanisads in the later Vedic period. According to Radhakrishnan, the oldest of these constitute "...the earliest philosophical compositions of the world."[1]

Since the late medieval age (ca.1000-1500)[2] various schools (Skt: Darshanas) of Indian philosophy are identified as orthodox (Skt: astika) or non-orthodox (Skt: nastika) depending on whether they regard the Veda as an infallible source of knowledge.[3] There are six schools of orthodox Hindu philosophy and three heterodox schools. The orthodox are Nyaya, Vaisesika, Samkhya, Yoga, Purva mimamsa and Vedanta. The Heterodox are Jain, Buddhist and materialist (Cārvāka). However, Vidyāraṇya classifies Indian philosophy into sixteen schools where he includes schools belonging to Saiva and Raseśvara thought with others.[4]

The main schools of Indian philosophy were formalised chiefly between 1000 BC to the early centuries AD. Subsequent centuries produced commentaries and reformulations continuing up to as late as the 20th century by Aurobindo and Prabhupada among others. Competition and integration between the various schools was intense during their formative years, especially between 800 BC to 200 AD. Some like the Jain, Buddhist, Shaiva and Advaita schools survived, while others like Samkhya and Ajivika did not, either being assimilated or going extinct. The Sanskrit term for "philosopher" is dārśanika, one who is familiar with the systems of philosophy, or darśanas.*5+ Contents [hide] 1 Common themes 2 Schools 2.1 Hindu philosophy 2.2 Jain philosophy

Rishis centred philosophy on an assumption that there is a unitary underlying order (rta) in the universe[8] which is all pervasive and omniscient.4 Cārvāka philosophy 3 Modern philosophy 4 Political philosophy 5 Influence 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 Further reading 10 External links Common themes[edit] The Indian thinkers of antiquity (very much like those of the Hellenistic schools) viewed philosophy as a practical necessity that needed to be cultivated in order to understand how life can best be led.2. The sages urged humans to discern this order and to live their lives in accordance with it. the structure and function of the human psyche and how the relationship between the two have important implications for human salvation (moksha). The efforts by various schools were concentrated on explaining this order and the metaphysical entity at its source (Brahman).3 Buddhist philosophy 2. It became a custom for Indian writers to explain at the beginning of philosophical works how it serves human ends (puruṣārtha). Schools[edit] Hindu philosophy[edit] .*6+ Recent scholarship has shown that there was a great deal of intercourse between Greek and Indian philosophy during the era of Hellenistic expansion. The concept of natural law (Dharma) provided a basis for understanding questions of how life on earth should be lived.[7] Indian philosophy is distinctive in its application of analytical rigour to metaphysical problems and goes into very precise detail about the nature of reality.

The Vedanta school is further divided into six sub-schools: Advaita (monism/nondualism).*9+*10+*11+*2+ Samkhya. the tradition of Vedic exegesis. the theistic Sankhya school Pratyabhijña. with emphasis on Vedic philosophy. and Vedanta (also called Uttara Mimamsa). These are often coupled into three groups for both historical and conceptual reasons: Nyaya-Vaishesika. the "Six Philosophies" (ṣaddarśana). with emphasis on Vedic ritual. the atomist school Purva Mimamsa (or simply Mimamsa). Dvaitadvaita (dualism-nondualism). the enumeration school Yoga. Samkhya-Yoga. school of Shaivism by Nakulisa Saiva. and Mimamsa-Vedanta. the school of Patanjali (which provisionally asserts the metaphysics of Samkhya) Nyaya. the mercurial school Pāṇini Darśana. the school of logic Vaisheshika.Main articles: Hindu philosophy and Hinduism See also: Philosophy from Veda and Philosophy from Upanishada Many Hindu intellectual traditions were classified during the medieval period of Brahmanic-Sanskritic scholasticism into a standard list of six orthodox (astika) schools (darshanas). all of which accept the testimony of the Vedas. Dvaita (dualism). the grammarian school (which clarifies the theory of Sphoṭa)[10] . also includes the concept of Ajativada. Besides these schools Mādhava Vidyāraṇya also includes the following of the aforementioned theistic philosophies based on the Agamas and Tantras:[4] Pasupata. the recognitive school Raseśvara. Suddhadvaita. the Upanishadic tradition. and Achintya Bheda Abheda schools. Visishtadvaita (monism of the qualified whole).

[10] Chief among the latter category are Buddhism. accept the authority of Vedas and are regarded as "orthodox" (astika) schools of Hindu philosophy. and the Brahmana/Vedantic/Puranic schools represented by Vedanta. This period marked an ideological renaissance. spiritual 'victors' (Jina is Sanskrit for 'victor').. Jain tirthankars find exclusive mention in the Vedas and the Hindu epics.[14][15] Jaina tradition is unanimous in making Rishabha. in the region that is present day Bihar in northern India. The 24th and most recent Tirthankar. These systems. during the period around 550 BC. represented by Buddhism. . besides these. and the long defunct and Ajivika on one hand. Lao‑Tse and Confucious in China and Mahavira and Buddha in India. is noteworthy as evidence of a materialistic movement within Hinduism. A Jain is a follower of Jinas. Jains follow the teachings of 24 special Jinas who are known as Tirthankars ('ford-builders'). Mumbai:10 Dec 1904: "In ancient times. Lord Parsvanatha is recognised now as a historical person. as the First Tirthankar. lived in c. Both streams are known to have mutually influenced each other. During this period.[13] Jainism is not considered as a part of the Vedic Religion (Hinduism). Vaishnava and other movements on the other. and there are other orthodox schools.6th century BC.. schools that do not accept the authority of the Vedas are categorised by Brahmins as unorthodox (nastika) systems. human beings who have rediscovered the dharma.[16][17][18] even as there is constitutional ambiguity over its status. Jainism.[19] The Hindu scholar Lokmanya Tilak credited Jainism with influencing Hinduism in the area of the cessation of animal sacrifice in Vedic rituals.The systems mentioned here are not the only orthodox systems. in which the Vedic dominance was challenged by various groups like Jainism and Buddhism. in a period of cultural revolution all over the world. they are the chief ones. become fully liberated and taught the spiritual path for the benefit of beings. India had two broad philosophical streams of thought: The Shramana philosophical schools. lived during 872 to 772 BC. Socrates was born in Greece. Cārvāka is a materialistic and atheistic school of thought and.[13] The 23rd Thirthankar of Jains. Lord Mahavira. Bal Gangadhar Tilak has described Jainism as the originator of Ahimsa and wrote in a letter printed in Bombay Samachar. Zoroaster in Iran.[12] Jain philosophy[edit] Main articles: Jain philosophy and Jainism Jainism came into formal being after Mahavira synthesised philosophies and promulgations of the ancient Sramana philosophy. During the Vedantic age. Jainism and Cārvāka.

self-existent soul (atman) in favour of anatta (non-Self) and anicca (impermanence). is moksha which in Jainism is realisation of the soul's true nature. Anekantavada is one of the principles of Jainism positing that reality is perceived differently from different points of view. can know the true answer. the condition of right Knowledge and the kernel of right Conduct in Jainism. and that all others would only know a part of the answer. The Buddha criticised all concepts of metaphysical being and non-being as misleading views caused by reification. a condition of omniscience (Kevala Jnana). Buddhism is founded on the rejection of certain orthodox Hindu philosophical concepts. Jain doctrine states that only Kevalis.innumerable animals were butchered in sacrifices. From its inception. Evidence in support of this is found in various poetic compositions such as the Meghaduta. Buddhist philosophy[edit] Main articles: Buddhist philosophy and Buddhism Buddhist philosophy is a system of beliefs based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama. a prince later known as the Buddha. and this critique is inextricable from the founding of Buddhism. great care and awareness is required in going about one's business in the world. Events that occur are held to be the direct result of previous events. Buddhism shares many philosophical views with other Indian systems. The goal. a causeand-effect relationship between all that has been done and all that will be done. Anekantavada is related to the Western philosophical doctrine of Subjectivism. Jainism encourages spiritual independence (in the sense of relying on and cultivating one's own personal wisdom) and self-control ( . and that no single point of view is completely true. or "awakened one". But the credit for the disappearance of this terrible massacre from the Brahminical religion goes to Jainism. ." Swami Vivekananda also credited Jainsim as one of the influencing forces behind the Indian culture. Jainism is a religious tradition in which all life is considered to be worthy of respect and Jain teaching emphasises this equality of all life advocating the non-harming of even the smallest creatures.[20] One of the main characteristics of Jain belief is the emphasis on the immediate consequences of one's physical and mental behaviour. A major departure from Hindu and Jain philosophy is the Buddhist rejection of a permanent. those who have infinite knowledge. vratae) which is considered vital for one's spiritual development. as with other Indian religions.[21] Because Jains believe that everything is in some sense alive with many living beings possessing a soul. Non-violence ( Ahimsa) is the basis of right View. Buddhism has had a strong philosophical component. such as belief in karma.

Some of them were Bal Gangadhar Tilak. the conviction in individuals that the doer is also the reaper of consequences establishes the existence of a continuing soul. . Haridas Chaudhuri. they mocked the concept of liberation.[22] Cārvāka philosophy*edit+ Main article: Cārvāka Cārvāka or Lokāyata was a philosophy of scepticism and materialism. Sri Aurobindo.*25+ Cārvāka denied inference as a means of knowledge[25] and held sensory indulgence as the final objective of life. They were extremely critical of other schools of philosophy of the time. Cārvāka deemed Vedas to be tainted by the three faults of untruth. Ramana Maharshi.[23] And in contrast to Buddhists and Jains. Raja Ram Mohan Roy.Jain thinkers rejected this view. Indra Sen. Cārvāka held the view that Invariable Concomitance (vyapti). They used quotes from Brihadaranyaka Upanishad to support this claim. opining that if no continuing soul could be accepted then even the effort to attain any worldly objective would be useless. Therefore. Ananda Coomaraswamy. M. N. founded in the Mauryan period. as the individual acting and the one receiving the consequences would be different. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. a theory of Indian logic which refers to the relation between middle term and major term freed from all conditions. and tautology.[27] Modern philosophy[edit] Further information: Timeline of Eastern philosophers#Modern Indian philosophers Modern Indian philosophy was developed during British occupation(1750–1947). Swami Sahajanand Saraswati. However. reincarnation and accumulation of merit or demerit through the performance of certain actions. Debiprasad Chattopadhyay. Buddhists refuted this view by proposing that Invariable Concomitance was easily cognizable from the relation between cause and effect or from the establishment of identity.*23+ Cārvāka thought consciousness was an emanation from the body and it ended with the destruction of the body. the viewpoint of relinquishing pleasure to avoid pain was the "reasoning of fools". and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan.[26] could not be ascertained.[24] They believed that. Roy. The philosophers in this era gave contemporary meaning to traditional philosophy. self-contradiction.

Krishnamurti and Krishnananda are other prominent names in contemporary Indian philosophy. U. Schopenhauer writes that one who "has also received and assimilated the sacred primitive Indian wisdom. T S Eliot wrote that the great philosophers of India "make most of the great European philosophers look like schoolboys".[33][34] See also[edit] Philosophy portal Jainism portal Buddhism portal Advaita Affectionism Indian logic . The political philosophy most closely associated with India is the one of ahimsa (non-violence) and Satyagraha.[30][31] Arthur Schopenhauer used Indian philosophy to improve upon Kantian thought.[28] In turn it influenced the later movements for independence and civil rights.[32] The 19th century American philosophical movement Transcendentalism was also influenced by Indian thought. especially those led by Martin Luther King. then he is the best of all prepared to hear what I have to say to him". G.Among contemporary Indian philosophers. In the preface to his book The World As Will And Representation. It was influenced by the Indian Dharmic philosophy. popularised by Mahatma Gandhi during the Indian struggle for independence. and to a lesser extent Nelson Mandela. as well as secular writings of authors such as Leo Tolstoy. is one of the early Indian texts devoted to political philosophy. Krishnamurti developed their own schools of thought. Henry David Thoreau and John Ruskin. Jr. It is dated to 4th century BCE and discusses ideas of statecraft and economic policy. Political philosophy[edit] The Arthashastra. attributed to the Mauryan minister Chanakya. Pandurang Shastri Athavale. Osho and J. particularly the Bhagvata Gita.[29] Influence[edit] In appreciation of complexity of the Indian philosophy.

Path of Arhat – A Religious Democracy 63. xii. Moore. R. A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy'249. Bombay 1951. 5. in: The Age of Imperial Unity. A. Ramjee Dr. p. p. Bhadrabahu Samhita. p. p.C. Ghatage: Jainism. Harper Collins. vol. 59-60. 497. 1. ISBN 0-691-01958-4. p. Jump up ^ Chatterjee and Datta. The Principal Upanisads. ^ Jump up to: a b c Chatterjee and Datta. in: The Cambridge History of India. Poona 1956. cit. p. Jaini. . Faridabad. 259 ^ Jump up to: a b Cowell and Gough. T. 47. Pujya Sohanalala Smaraka Parsvanatha Sodhapitha. Jump up ^ Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. ^ Jump up to: a b Singh. Majumdar/A. p. (Text with translation ) Arrah.D. Jump up ^ Flood. Retrieved 2008-03-11.U (1993). 1994 ^ Jump up to: a b Nicholson 2010.M. 1993.Indian religions M Hiriyanna Svayam bhagavan References[edit] Jump up ^ p 22. 264. Pusalkar. Shantaram Bhalchandra Deo: History of Jaina Monachism. p. Cambridge 1922. (1996) pp. (1916) Jaina Law. Jump up ^ Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. p. op.12. 411-412. Pujya Sohanalala Smaraka Parsvanatha Sodhapitha. L. ed. 153. Jaina Perspective in Philosophy and Religion.. Jump up ^ J. Jump up ^ Michaels. 45. 231–232. Jump up ^ Apte. Jump up ^ Mehta. Jump up ^ Jarl Charpentier: The History of the Jains. Jump up ^ See McEvilley (2002) Jump up ^ Flood. p.

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