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2.3 Buddhist philosophy 2.

4 Cārvāka philosophy 3 Modern philosophy 4 Political philosophy 5 Influence 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 Further reading 10 External links

Common themes[edit]

The Indian thinkers of antiquity (very much like those of the Hellenistic schools) viewed philosophy as a practical necessity that needed to be cultivated in order to understand how life can best be led. It became a custom for Indian writers to explain at the beginning of philosophical works how it serves human ends (puruṣārtha).*6+ Recent scholarship has shown that there was a great deal of intercourse between Greek and Indian philosophy during the era of Hellenistic expansion.[7]

Indian philosophy is distinctive in its application of analytical rigour to metaphysical problems and goes into very precise detail about the nature of reality, the structure and function of the human psyche and how the relationship between the two have important implications for human salvation (moksha). Rishis centred philosophy on an assumption that there is a unitary underlying order (rta) in the universe[8] which is all pervasive and omniscient. The efforts by various schools were concentrated on explaining this order and the metaphysical entity at its source (Brahman). The concept of natural law (Dharma) provided a basis for understanding questions of how life on earth should be lived. The sages urged humans to discern this order and to live their lives in accordance with it. Schools[edit] Hindu philosophy[edit]

the grammarian school (which clarifies the theory of Sphoṭa)[10] . and Mimamsa-Vedanta. Suddhadvaita. the atomist school Purva Mimamsa (or simply Mimamsa). the mercurial school Pāṇini Darśana. the "Six Philosophies" (ṣaddarśana). with emphasis on Vedic ritual. the theistic Sankhya school Pratyabhijña. Visishtadvaita (monism of the qualified whole). Dvaita (dualism). and Vedanta (also called Uttara Mimamsa). the enumeration school Yoga. the school of logic Vaisheshika. and Achintya Bheda Abheda schools. These are often coupled into three groups for both historical and conceptual reasons: Nyaya-Vaishesika. the tradition of Vedic exegesis.Main articles: Hindu philosophy and Hinduism See also: Philosophy from Veda and Philosophy from Upanishada Many Hindu intellectual traditions were classified during the medieval period of Brahmanic-Sanskritic scholasticism into a standard list of six orthodox (astika) schools (darshanas). the Upanishadic tradition. also includes the concept of Ajativada. the school of Patanjali (which provisionally asserts the metaphysics of Samkhya) Nyaya. all of which accept the testimony of the Vedas. with emphasis on Vedic philosophy. the recognitive school Raseśvara. Samkhya-Yoga. The Vedanta school is further divided into six sub-schools: Advaita (monism/nondualism). Dvaitadvaita (dualism-nondualism).*9+*10+*11+*2+ Samkhya. school of Shaivism by Nakulisa Saiva. Besides these schools Mādhava Vidyāraṇya also includes the following of the aforementioned theistic philosophies based on the Agamas and Tantras:[4] Pasupata.

These systems. During the Vedantic age. Socrates was born in Greece.[12] Jain philosophy[edit] Main articles: Jain philosophy and Jainism Jainism came into formal being after Mahavira synthesised philosophies and promulgations of the ancient Sramana philosophy. Zoroaster in Iran. Mumbai:10 Dec 1904: "In ancient times. during the period around 550 BC.[16][17][18] even as there is constitutional ambiguity over its status.[19] The Hindu scholar Lokmanya Tilak credited Jainism with influencing Hinduism in the area of the cessation of animal sacrifice in Vedic rituals.[10] Chief among the latter category are Buddhism. in the region that is present day Bihar in northern India. human beings who have rediscovered the dharma. in which the Vedic dominance was challenged by various groups like Jainism and Buddhism. Lord Mahavira. The 24th and most recent Tirthankar. During this period. Both streams are known to have mutually influenced each other. as the First Tirthankar. Lord Parsvanatha is recognised now as a historical person.. .The systems mentioned here are not the only orthodox systems. Jain tirthankars find exclusive mention in the Vedas and the Hindu epics. lived during 872 to 772 BC. Jainism. Bal Gangadhar Tilak has described Jainism as the originator of Ahimsa and wrote in a letter printed in Bombay Samachar. Jains follow the teachings of 24 special Jinas who are known as Tirthankars ('ford-builders').. Lao‑Tse and Confucious in China and Mahavira and Buddha in India. and the long defunct and Ajivika on one hand.[14][15] Jaina tradition is unanimous in making Rishabha. represented by Buddhism. and the Brahmana/Vedantic/Puranic schools represented by Vedanta. accept the authority of Vedas and are regarded as "orthodox" (astika) schools of Hindu philosophy. besides these. become fully liberated and taught the spiritual path for the benefit of beings. lived in c.[13] The 23rd Thirthankar of Jains.6th century BC. This period marked an ideological renaissance. Jainism and Cārvāka. India had two broad philosophical streams of thought: The Shramana philosophical schools. and there are other orthodox schools. Vaishnava and other movements on the other. A Jain is a follower of Jinas. schools that do not accept the authority of the Vedas are categorised by Brahmins as unorthodox (nastika) systems.[13] Jainism is not considered as a part of the Vedic Religion (Hinduism). in a period of cultural revolution all over the world. spiritual 'victors' (Jina is Sanskrit for 'victor'). they are the chief ones. Cārvāka is a materialistic and atheistic school of thought and. is noteworthy as evidence of a materialistic movement within Hinduism.

great care and awareness is required in going about one's business in the world. Buddhism has had a strong philosophical component.[20] One of the main characteristics of Jain belief is the emphasis on the immediate consequences of one's physical and mental behaviour. Evidence in support of this is found in various poetic compositions such as the Meghaduta." Swami Vivekananda also credited Jainsim as one of the influencing forces behind the Indian culture. the condition of right Knowledge and the kernel of right Conduct in Jainism. A major departure from Hindu and Jain philosophy is the Buddhist rejection of a permanent. Buddhism is founded on the rejection of certain orthodox Hindu philosophical concepts. Anekantavada is related to the Western philosophical doctrine of Subjectivism. The Buddha criticised all concepts of metaphysical being and non-being as misleading views caused by reification. But the credit for the disappearance of this terrible massacre from the Brahminical religion goes to Jainism. those who have infinite knowledge. Jainism encourages spiritual independence (in the sense of relying on and cultivating one's own personal wisdom) and self-control ( .[21] Because Jains believe that everything is in some sense alive with many living beings possessing a soul. Jainism is a religious tradition in which all life is considered to be worthy of respect and Jain teaching emphasises this equality of all life advocating the non-harming of even the smallest creatures. or "awakened one". Events that occur are held to be the direct result of previous events. Buddhism shares many philosophical views with other Indian systems. Non-violence ( Ahimsa) is the basis of right View. a prince later known as the Buddha. a condition of omniscience (Kevala Jnana). vratae) which is considered vital for one's spiritual development. and that all others would only know a part of the answer. as with other Indian religions. The goal. Buddhist philosophy[edit] Main articles: Buddhist philosophy and Buddhism Buddhist philosophy is a system of beliefs based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama.innumerable animals were butchered in sacrifices. . a causeand-effect relationship between all that has been done and all that will be done. From its inception. and that no single point of view is completely true. self-existent soul (atman) in favour of anatta (non-Self) and anicca (impermanence). Anekantavada is one of the principles of Jainism positing that reality is perceived differently from different points of view. can know the true answer. Jain doctrine states that only Kevalis. such as belief in karma. and this critique is inextricable from the founding of Buddhism. is moksha which in Jainism is realisation of the soul's true nature.

opining that if no continuing soul could be accepted then even the effort to attain any worldly objective would be useless. Cārvāka held the view that Invariable Concomitance (vyapti). M. Cārvāka deemed Vedas to be tainted by the three faults of untruth. Swami Sahajanand Saraswati.Jain thinkers rejected this view.*23+ Cārvāka thought consciousness was an emanation from the body and it ended with the destruction of the body. N. Raja Ram Mohan Roy. reincarnation and accumulation of merit or demerit through the performance of certain actions. the viewpoint of relinquishing pleasure to avoid pain was the "reasoning of fools". Debiprasad Chattopadhyay. self-contradiction. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.[26] could not be ascertained. Haridas Chaudhuri. Indra Sen. a theory of Indian logic which refers to the relation between middle term and major term freed from all conditions. Buddhists refuted this view by proposing that Invariable Concomitance was easily cognizable from the relation between cause and effect or from the establishment of identity. They used quotes from Brihadaranyaka Upanishad to support this claim. . as the individual acting and the one receiving the consequences would be different.[23] And in contrast to Buddhists and Jains. founded in the Mauryan period. they mocked the concept of liberation. Ananda Coomaraswamy. Therefore. and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.[27] Modern philosophy[edit] Further information: Timeline of Eastern philosophers#Modern Indian philosophers Modern Indian philosophy was developed during British occupation(1750–1947).[22] Cārvāka philosophy*edit+ Main article: Cārvāka Cārvāka or Lokāyata was a philosophy of scepticism and materialism.*25+ Cārvāka denied inference as a means of knowledge[25] and held sensory indulgence as the final objective of life. and tautology.[24] They believed that. Roy. the conviction in individuals that the doer is also the reaper of consequences establishes the existence of a continuing soul. Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan. Sri Aurobindo. However. Some of them were Bal Gangadhar Tilak. They were extremely critical of other schools of philosophy of the time. The philosophers in this era gave contemporary meaning to traditional philosophy. Ramana Maharshi.

G.Among contemporary Indian philosophers.[30][31] Arthur Schopenhauer used Indian philosophy to improve upon Kantian thought.[33][34] See also[edit] Philosophy portal Jainism portal Buddhism portal Advaita Affectionism Indian logic . U. and to a lesser extent Nelson Mandela. T S Eliot wrote that the great philosophers of India "make most of the great European philosophers look like schoolboys". Krishnamurti and Krishnananda are other prominent names in contemporary Indian philosophy. Jr. then he is the best of all prepared to hear what I have to say to him". Schopenhauer writes that one who "has also received and assimilated the sacred primitive Indian wisdom. particularly the Bhagvata Gita. Henry David Thoreau and John Ruskin. especially those led by Martin Luther King. It was influenced by the Indian Dharmic philosophy.[32] The 19th century American philosophical movement Transcendentalism was also influenced by Indian thought.[28] In turn it influenced the later movements for independence and civil rights. is one of the early Indian texts devoted to political philosophy.[29] Influence[edit] In appreciation of complexity of the Indian philosophy. In the preface to his book The World As Will And Representation. It is dated to 4th century BCE and discusses ideas of statecraft and economic policy. Pandurang Shastri Athavale. attributed to the Mauryan minister Chanakya. popularised by Mahatma Gandhi during the Indian struggle for independence. The political philosophy most closely associated with India is the one of ahimsa (non-violence) and Satyagraha. Osho and J. Political philosophy[edit] The Arthashastra. as well as secular writings of authors such as Leo Tolstoy. Krishnamurti developed their own schools of thought.

R. Bombay 1951. Jump up ^ Flood. cit. 59-60. Ramjee Dr.12. 1993. Pujya Sohanalala Smaraka Parsvanatha Sodhapitha. p. A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy'249. p. p. Jaina Perspective in Philosophy and Religion. A. 264. The Principal Upanisads. Moore.C. p. 153. vol. Jump up ^ Chatterjee and Datta. (1996) pp.M. T. 259 ^ Jump up to: a b Cowell and Gough. Majumdar/A. in: The Cambridge History of India. ed. Cambridge 1922.U (1993). (Text with translation ) Arrah. 1994 ^ Jump up to: a b Nicholson 2010. Jump up ^ Mehta. 47. p. p. ^ Jump up to: a b c Chatterjee and Datta. Path of Arhat – A Religious Democracy 63. . p. Harper Collins. p. Jump up ^ Jarl Charpentier: The History of the Jains. 231–232. Jump up ^ Apte. 1. 45. Pujya Sohanalala Smaraka Parsvanatha Sodhapitha. (1916) Jaina Law. in: The Age of Imperial Unity. Jaini. Jump up ^ J. Jump up ^ See McEvilley (2002) Jump up ^ Flood.D.. Jump up ^ Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Pusalkar. 5. Retrieved 2008-03-11. xii. Faridabad. p. Shantaram Bhalchandra Deo: History of Jaina Monachism. Bhadrabahu Samhita. p. ISBN 0-691-01958-4. Jump up ^ Michaels. Poona 1956. 411-412. Ghatage: Jainism.Indian religions M Hiriyanna Svayam bhagavan References[edit] Jump up ^ p 22. Jump up ^ Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. L. ^ Jump up to: a b Singh. op. 497.

Bombay 1951. A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy'249. 1993. Jump up ^ Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Motilal Banarsidass Publ : Delhi. Moore. (1996) pp. Any theory that attempts to link the two traditions. A. Motilal Banarsidass. p. p. ISBN 0-691-01958-4. 264. . in: The Age of Imperial Unity.D. therefore governable by Hindu law. p. Jump up ^ Jarl Charpentier: The History of the Jains.12-13 Jump up ^ P. karmic doctrine and atheism" Jump up ^ Y. ^ Jump up to: a b Singh.” Page 18 ^ Jump up to: a b Nicholson 2010. Shantaram Bhalchandra Deo: History of Jaina Monachism. we are not told this date of secession [. Poona 1956. 1.12.] Jainism certainly has a longer history than is consistent with its being a creed of dissenters from Hinduism. xii.. vedic deities or caste." P. ^ Jump up to: a b c Chatterjee and Datta. vol. 231–232. p. Jump up ^ Michaels.. ed. cit. p. op.S. ISBN 81-208-0815-0 “There is no evidence to show that Jainism and Buddhism ever subscribed to vedic sacrifices. soul theory. Ramjee Dr. Faridabad. p. 59-60. in: The Cambridge History of India. Jump up ^ Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. p. Jump up ^ Apte. They are parallel or native religions of India and have contributed to much to the growth of even classical Hinduism of the present times.. Jaini. (1979). 153. and. 497. 169 "Jainas themselves have no memory of a time when they fell within the Vedic fold. p. Pusalkar. R. Pujya Sohanalala Smaraka Parsvanatha Sodhapitha. p. Jaina Perspective in Philosophy and Religion. Jump up ^ Chatterjee and Datta. moreover fails to appreciate rather distinctive and very non-vedic character of Jaina cosmology.Central jaina publishing House) " As to Jainas being Hindu dissenters. p.M.C. 47. Jump up ^ Flood. p. Delhi. Ghatage: Jainism. Majumdar/A. Masih (2000) In : A Comparative Study of Religions. 5. 259 ^ Jump up to: a b Cowell and Gough. 45. Jump up ^ See McEvilley (2002) Jump up ^ Flood. Cambridge 1922. 411-412. The Jaina Path to Purification.

12-13 Jump up ^ P. The World of Jainism." P. Bhadrabahu Samhita. the sramana tradition included it its fold. which disagreed with the eternality of the Vedas. p. 6–7. Michael (1991). Any theory that attempts to link the two traditions. vedic deities or caste. 15. Jaini. Retrieved 2008-03-11.Jump up ^ Mehta. Motilal Banarsidass Publ : Delhi. therefore governable by Hindu law. ISBN 81-7120-825-8 Page 15 Jump up ^ Tobias.U (1993). Life Force. California: Asian manush Press. Inc ISBN 1-933316-22-5 "What is historically known is that there was a tradition along with vedic Hinduism known as sramana dharma. ISBN 0-89581-899-X.. Page 141 Jump up ^ Dulichand Jain (1998) Thus Spake Lord Mahavir. Jump up ^ J. They are parallel or native religions of India and have contributed to much to the growth of even classical Hinduism of the present times.. soul theory. the needs for ritual sacrifices and the supremacy of the Brahmins". 36 ^ Jump up to: a b Cowell and Gough. Mediaeval. Materialism in India: A Synoptic View. Delhi. Central jaina publishing House) " As to Jainas being Hindu dissenters. Masih (2000) In : A Comparative Study of Religions. p. p. 3 Jump up ^ Satis Chandra Vidyābhūṣaṇa. Jaini. (1979). World Wisdom. Berkeley. and. Path of Arhat – A Religious Democracy 63. (1916) Jaina Law. ^ Jump up to: a b Cowell and Gough. 169 "Jainas themselves have no memory of a time when they fell within the Vedic fold. and . 4 Jump up ^ Bhattacharya. Retrieved 27 July 2012. karmic doctrine and atheism" Jump up ^ Y. Pujya Sohanalala Smaraka Parsvanatha Sodhapitha. the Jain and Buddhist traditions. (Text with translation ) Arrah. Essentially. Jump up ^ Cowell and Gough. The Jaina Path to Purification. moreover fails to appreciate rather distinctive and very non-vedic character of Jaina cosmology. pp. ISBN 81-208-0815-0 “There is no evidence to show that Jainism and Buddhism ever subscribed to vedic sacrifices.” Page 18 Jump up ^ Harry Oldmeadow (2007) Light from the East: Eastern Wisdom for the Modern West. Motilal Banarsidass. p.] Jainism certainly has a longer history than is consistent with its being a creed of dissenters from Hinduism. we are not told this date of secession [. Sri Ramakrishna Math Chennai. A History of Indian Logic: Ancient.S. Ramkrishna. T. L.

p. James D. p. Cambridge University Press. Gandhi as Disciple and Mentor. Jump up ^ Eliot. ISBN 81-208-0565-8. Karel (1998). Web. ISBN 978-81-208-1609-1. Jump up ^ Cowell and Gough. Northern Book Centre. Arati (2008). 3. Sources . Yoga And Indian Philosophy.Modern Schools. Tuck (1985). Oxford Reference Online. 136. Jump up ^ "Transcendentalism". Motilal Banarsidass. 1995.The Oxford Companion to American Literature. 140. "The Hidden Advantage of Tradition: On the Significance of T. (London: Faber). ISBN 978-81-7211-243-1.Oxford University Press. Jump up ^ Barua. p. Eliot's Indic Studies". Retrieved 2012-08-13. p. p. Schopenhauer and Indian Philosophy: A Dialogue Between India and Germany. Thomas (2004). P. 40. ISBN 978-1-139-45657-9. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. Thomas Stearns (1933). 170. Hart ed. Jump up ^ Jeffry M. iii Jump up ^ Weber. Perl and Andrew P. Philosophy East & West (University of Hawaii Press) 35.2011 Jump up ^ Werner. After Strange Gods: A Primer of Modern Heresy. 12-13 Jump up ^ Gandhi (1961) p. 24 Oct. S.