The kidneys are bean shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrate animals.

They are essential in theurinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid–base balance, and regulation of blood pressure (via maintaining salt and water balance). They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes, which are diverted to the urinary bladder. In producing urine, the kidneys excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium, and they are also responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids. The kidneys also produce hormones includingcalcitriol, erythropoietin, and the enzyme renin. Located at the rear of the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneum, the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal arteries, and drain into the paired renal veins. Each kidney excretes urine into a ureter, itself a paired structure that empties into the urinary bladder. Renal physiology is the study of kidney function, while nephrology is the medical specialty concerned with kidney diseases. Diseases of the kidney are diverse, but individuals with kidney disease frequently display characteristic clinical features. Common clinical conditions involving the kidney include the nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, renal cysts, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, urinary [1] tract infection, nephrolithiasis, and urinary tract obstruction. Various cancers of the kidney exist; the most common adult renal cancer is renal cell carcinoma. Cancers, cysts, and some other renal conditions can be managed with removal of the kidney, or nephrectomy. When renal function, measured by glomerular filtration rate, is persistently poor, dialysis and kidney transplantation may be treatment options. Although they are not normally harmful, kidney stones can be painful and repeated, chronic formation of stones can scar the kidneys. The removal of kidney stones involves ultrasound treatment to break up the stones into smaller pieces, which are then passed through the urinary tract. One common symptom of kidney stones is a sharp to disabling pain in the medial/lateral segments of the lower back or groin. In humans the kidneys are located in the abdominal cavity, more specifically in the paravertebral gutter and lie in aretroperitoneal position at a slightly oblique angle. There are two kidneys. One is on each side [2] of the spine. The asymmetry within the abdominal cavity caused by the liver typically results in the right kidney being slightly lower than the left, and left kidney being located slightly more medial than the [3][4] [5] right. The left kidney is approximately at the vertebral level T12 to L3, and the right slightly lower. The right kidney sits just below the diaphragm and posterior to the liver, the left below the diaphragm and posterior to the spleen. Resting on top of each kidney is anadrenal gland. The upper (cranial) parts of the kidneys are partially protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs, and each whole kidney and adrenal gland are surrounded by two layers of fat (the perirenal and pararenal fat) and therenal fascia. Each adult [6] kidney weighs between 125 and 170 grams in males and between 115 and 155 grams in females. The [7] left kidney is usually slightly larger than the right kidney. Renal histology studies the structure of the kidney as viewed under a microscope. Various distinct cell types occur in the kidney, including:       Kidney glomerulus parietal cell Kidney glomerulus podocyte Kidney proximal tubule brush border cell Loop of Henle thin segment cell Thick ascending limb cell Kidney distal tubule cell

   Kidney collecting duct cell Interstitial kidney cells Renal arteries and their branches The renal artery enters into the kidney at the level of first lumbar vertebra just below the superior mesenteric artery. which runs into lobar vein. which form afferent arterioles. which is regulated by aldosterone. − + Thin descending loop of Henle H2O −  Reabsorbs via medullary hypertonicity and makes urine hypertonic. which leads into the interlobular artery. Early distal convoluted tubule Na . H2O and HCO3 reabsorption. Reabsorption of vital nutrients[edit] Glucose at normal plasma levels is completely reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. + Collecting tubules Na (3–5%). From here. Hartnup's [11] disease is a deficiency of the tryptophan amino acid transporter. Cl . A plasma level of 350 mg/dL will fully saturate the transporters and glucose will be lost in the urine. + Na is reabsorbed in exchange for K . + − bicarbonate (90%). Cl + −   PTH causes Ca + 2+ reabsorption. Location of Reabsorption Reabsorbed nutrient Notes Early proximal tubule Glucose (100%). and then from it blood moves into the inferior vena cava. Na (65%). Amino acids are reabsorbed by sodium dependent transporters in the proximal tubule. which divides into 2 or 3 lobar arteries. which further divide into the arcuate artery. which is an important clinical clue to diabetes mellitus. amino acids (100%). which results inpellagra. K . indirectly induces para cellular reabsorption of 2+ 2+ Mg . efferent arterioles leaves the glomerulus and divide into peritubular capillaries. H2O + . The mechanism for this + is the Na /glucose cotransporter. As it enters the kidney it divides into branches: first the segmental artery. A plasma glucose level of approximately 160 is sufficient to allow glucosuria. phosphate and H2O (65%)   PTH will inhibit phosphate excretion AT II stimulates Na . and H . which opens into the segmental vein and which drains into the renal vein. then further divides into interlobar arteries. The afferent arterioles form the glomerulus (network of capillaries closed in Bowman's capsule). which drain into the interlobular veins and then into arcuate vein and then into interlobar vein. Thick ascending loop of Henle Na (10–20%). Cl . Ca + +  This region is impermeable to H2O and the urine becomes less concentrated as it ascends.

 ADH acts on the V2 receptor and inserts aquaporins on the luminal side .