# Chapter 13: Complex Numbers

Sections 13.1 & 13.2

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Chapter 13: Complex Numbers

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Deﬁnitions

Complex numbers and complex plane

1. Complex numbers

Complex numbers are of the form z = x + iy , x , y ∈ R, i 2 = −1.

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Chapter 13: Complex Numbers

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Deﬁnitions

Complex numbers and complex plane

1. Complex numbers

Complex numbers are of the form z = x + iy , x , y ∈ R, i 2 = −1.

In the above deﬁnition, x is the real part of z and y is the imaginary part of z .

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Chapter 13: Complex Numbers

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Deﬁnitions

Complex numbers and complex plane

1. Complex numbers

Complex numbers are of the form z = x + iy , x , y ∈ R, i 2 = −1.

In the above deﬁnition, x is the real part of z and y is the imaginary part of z . y The complex number z = x + iy may be represented in the complex plane as the point with cartesian coordinates (x , y ).
z=3+2i 1 0 1 x

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Chapter 13: Complex Numbers

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Deﬁnitions

Complex conjugate

Complex conjugate

The complex conjugate of z = x + iy is deﬁned as z ¯ = x − iy .

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Chapter 13: Complex Numbers

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As a consequence of the above deﬁnition.Deﬁnitions Complex conjugate Complex conjugate The complex conjugate of z = x + iy is deﬁned as z ¯ = x − iy . (1) () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 3 / 19 . 2 m(z ) = z −z ¯ . 2i zz ¯ = x 2 + y 2. we have e (z ) = z +z ¯ .

(2) () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 3 / 19 . As a consequence of the above deﬁnition. 2i zz ¯ = x 2 + y 2. z1 z2 = z1 z2 . (1) If z1 and z2 are two complex numbers. then z1 + z2 = z1 + z2 . we have e (z ) = z +z ¯ . 2 m(z ) = z −z ¯ .Deﬁnitions Complex conjugate Complex conjugate The complex conjugate of z = x + iy is deﬁned as z ¯ = x − iy .

Deﬁnitions Modulus of a complex number Modulus of a complex number The absolute value or modulus of z = x + iy is √ ¯ = x 2 + y 2. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 4 / 19 . |z | = z z It is a positive number.

Examples: Evaluate the following |i | |2 − 3i | () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 4 / 19 . |z | = z z It is a positive number.Deﬁnitions Modulus of a complex number Modulus of a complex number The absolute value or modulus of z = x + iy is √ ¯ = x 2 + y 2.

Algebra of complex numbers You should use the same rules of algebra as for real numbers. but remember that i 2 = −1. Examples: () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 5 / 19 .Algebra of complex numbers 2.

Algebra of complex numbers 2. Examples: # 13. but remember that i 2 = −1. Algebra of complex numbers You should use the same rules of algebra as for real numbers.1: Find powers of i and 1/i .1. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 5 / 19 .

Calculate z1 z2 and (z1 + z2 )2 . Assume z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = −1 − 7i .Algebra of complex numbers 2. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 5 / 19 . Examples: # 13.1. but remember that i 2 = −1.1: Find powers of i and 1/i . Algebra of complex numbers You should use the same rules of algebra as for real numbers.

Assume z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = −1 − 7i .Algebra of complex numbers 2. no matter how complicated this expression might be. Get used to writing a complex number in the form z = (real part) + i (imaginary part).1: Find powers of i and 1/i . Calculate z1 z2 and (z1 + z2 )2 . but remember that i 2 = −1.1. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 5 / 19 . Algebra of complex numbers You should use the same rules of algebra as for real numbers. Examples: # 13.

() Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 6 / 19 .Algebra of complex numbers Algebra of complex numbers (continued) Remember that multiplying a complex number by its complex conjugate gives a real number.

() Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 6 / 19 .Algebra of complex numbers Algebra of complex numbers (continued) Remember that multiplying a complex number by its complex conjugate gives a real number. Examples: Assume z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = −1 − 7i .

Examples: Assume z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = −1 − 7i .Algebra of complex numbers Algebra of complex numbers (continued) Remember that multiplying a complex number by its complex conjugate gives a real number. Find z1 . z2 () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 6 / 19 .

z1 . z2 Find () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 6 / 19 . Examples: Assume z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = −1 − 7i . z2 z1 Find .Algebra of complex numbers Algebra of complex numbers (continued) Remember that multiplying a complex number by its complex conjugate gives a real number.

Examples: Assume z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = −1 − 7i . z2 Find Find m 1 z1 3 . z1 .Algebra of complex numbers Algebra of complex numbers (continued) Remember that multiplying a complex number by its complex conjugate gives a real number. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 6 / 19 . z2 z1 Find .

# 13. z2 z1 Find . z2 Find Find m 1 z1 3 .Algebra of complex numbers Algebra of complex numbers (continued) Remember that multiplying a complex number by its complex conjugate gives a real number.2. z1 .27: Solve z 2 − (8 − 5i )z + 40 − 20i = 0. Examples: Assume z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = −1 − 7i . () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 6 / 19 .

Polar coordinates form of complex numbers In polar coordinates. where r= x 2 + y 2 = |z |. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 7 / 19 . y y θ 0 x z=x+iy x is the modulus of z .Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions 3. x = r cos(θ). y = r sin(θ).

y = r sin(θ). and is given by  y if x ≥ 0  arctan x y arctan x + π if x < 0 and y ≥ 0 ± 2nπ. y y θ 0 x z=x+iy x is the modulus of z . Polar coordinates form of complex numbers In polar coordinates.Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions 3. The angle θ is called the argument of z . It is deﬁned for all z = 0. where r= x 2 + y 2 = |z |. arg(z ) = θ =  arctan y x − π if x < 0 and y < 0 () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 7 / 19 . x = r cos(θ).

() Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 8 / 19 . it is convenient to agree on a particular choice of arg(z ).Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Principal value Arg(z ) Because arg(z ) is multi-valued. in order to have a single-valued function.

Arg(z ). () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 8 / 19 . in order to have a single-valued function.Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Principal value Arg(z ) Because arg(z ) is multi-valued. is such that tan (Arg(z )) = y . The principal value of arg(z ). x with − π < Arg(z ) ≤ π. it is convenient to agree on a particular choice of arg(z ).

Arg(z ). in order to have a single-valued function. The principal value of arg(z ). x with − π < Arg(z ) ≤ π. y .π x () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 8 / 19 . is such that tan (Arg(z )) = Note that Arg(z ) jumps by −2π when one crosses the negative real axis from above.Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Principal value Arg(z ) Because arg(z ) is multi-valued. it is convenient to agree on a particular choice of arg(z ). y Arg(z)=π 1 0 1 Arg(z)–> .

y 1 0 1 x () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 9 / 19 .Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Principal value Arg(z ) (continued) Examples: Find the principal value of the argument of z = 1 − i .

Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Principal value Arg(z ) (continued) Examples: Find the principal value of the argument of z = 1 − i . y 1 0 1 x () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 9 / 19 . Find the principal value of the argument of z = −10.

() Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 10 / 19 . z = x + iy = |z | cos(θ) + i |z | sin(θ).Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Polar and cartesian forms of a complex number You need to be able to go back and forth between the polar and cartesian representations of a complex number.

z = x + iy = |z | cos(θ) + i |z | sin(θ).Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Polar and cartesian forms of a complex number You need to be able to go back and forth between the polar and cartesian representations of a complex number. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 10 / 19 . In particular. you need to know the values of the sine and cosine of multiples of π/6 and π/4.

In particular. you need to know the values of the sine and cosine of multiples of π/6 and π/4. Convert cos π π + i sin 6 6 to cartesian coordinates. z = x + iy = |z | cos(θ) + i |z | sin(θ).Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Polar and cartesian forms of a complex number You need to be able to go back and forth between the polar and cartesian representations of a complex number. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 10 / 19 .

z = x + iy = |z | cos(θ) + i |z | sin(θ). π π + i sin to cartesian coordinates. In particular.Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Polar and cartesian forms of a complex number You need to be able to go back and forth between the polar and cartesian representations of a complex number. 6 6 What is the cartesian form of the complex number such that |z | = 3 and Arg(z ) = π/4? Convert cos () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 10 / 19 . you need to know the values of the sine and cosine of multiples of π/6 and π/4.

θ ∈ R.Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Euler’s formula Euler’s formula Euler’s formula reads exp(i θ) = cos(θ) + i sin(θ). () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 11 / 19 .

() Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 11 / 19 . θ ∈ R. As a consequence. every complex number z = 0 can be written as z = |z | (cos(θ) + i sin(θ)) = |z | exp(i θ).Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Euler’s formula Euler’s formula Euler’s formula reads exp(i θ) = cos(θ) + i sin(θ).

or for multiplying and dividing complex numbers in polar form. θ ∈ R. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 11 / 19 . every complex number z = 0 can be written as z = |z | (cos(θ) + i sin(θ)) = |z | exp(i θ).Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Euler’s formula Euler’s formula Euler’s formula reads exp(i θ) = cos(θ) + i sin(θ). As a consequence. This formula is extremely useful for calculating powers and roots of complex numbers.

Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Integer powers of a complex number Integer powers of a complex number To ﬁnd the n-th power of a complex number z = 0. proceed as follows () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 12 / 19 .

() Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 12 / 19 .Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Integer powers of a complex number Integer powers of a complex number To ﬁnd the n-th power of a complex number z = 0. proceed as follows 1 Write z in exponential form. z = |z | exp (i θ) .

2 Then take the n-th power of each side of the above equation z n = |z |n exp (inθ) = |z |n (cos(nθ) + i sin(nθ)) . z = |z | exp (i θ) . proceed as follows 1 Write z in exponential form. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 12 / 19 .Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Integer powers of a complex number Integer powers of a complex number To ﬁnd the n-th power of a complex number z = 0.

Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Integer powers of a complex number Integer powers of a complex number To ﬁnd the n-th power of a complex number z = 0. z = |z | exp (i θ) . This is De Moivre’s formula. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 12 / 19 . proceed as follows 1 Write z in exponential form. 3 In particular. we have (cos(θ) + i sin(θ))n = cos(nθ) + i sin(nθ). 2 Then take the n-th power of each side of the above equation z n = |z |n exp (inθ) = |z |n (cos(nθ) + i sin(nθ)) . if z is on the unit circle (|z | = 1).

(3) () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 13 / 19 .  sin(2θ) = 2 sin(θ) cos(θ).Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Integer powers of a complex number Integer powers of a complex number (continued) Examples of application: Trigonometric formulas   cos(2θ) = cos2 (θ) − sin2 (θ).

(3) Find cos(3θ) and sin(3θ) in terms of cos(θ) and sin(θ).  sin(2θ) = 2 sin(θ) cos(θ). () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 13 / 19 .Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Integer powers of a complex number Integer powers of a complex number (continued) Examples of application: Trigonometric formulas   cos(2θ) = cos2 (θ) − sin2 (θ).

Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Product and ratio of two complex numbers Product of two complex numbers The product of z1 = r1 exp (i θ1 ) and z2 = r2 exp (i θ2 ) is z1 z2 = (r1 exp (i θ1 )) (r2 exp (i θ2 )) = r1 r2 exp (i (θ1 + θ2 )) . (4) () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 14 / 19 .

As a consequence. arg(z1 z2 ) = arg(z1 ) + arg(z2 ). (4) () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 14 / 19 .Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Product and ratio of two complex numbers Product of two complex numbers The product of z1 = r1 exp (i θ1 ) and z2 = r2 exp (i θ2 ) is z1 z2 = (r1 exp (i θ1 )) (r2 exp (i θ2 )) = r1 r2 exp (i (θ1 + θ2 )) . |z1 z2 | = |z1 | |z2 |.

(5) sin (θ1 + θ2 ) = sin (θ1 ) cos (θ2 ) + cos (θ1 ) sin (θ2 ) . arg(z1 z2 ) = arg(z1 ) + arg(z2 ).Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Product and ratio of two complex numbers Product of two complex numbers The product of z1 = r1 exp (i θ1 ) and z2 = r2 exp (i θ2 ) is z1 z2 = (r1 exp (i θ1 )) (r2 exp (i θ2 )) = r1 r2 exp (i (θ1 + θ2 )) . As a consequence. We can use Equation (4) to show that cos (θ1 + θ2 ) = cos (θ1 ) cos (θ2 ) − sin (θ1 ) sin (θ2 ) . |z1 z2 | = |z1 | |z2 |. (4) () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 14 / 19 .

the ratio z1 r1 exp (i θ1 ) r1 = = exp (i (θ1 − θ2 )) .Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Product and ratio of two complex numbers Ratio of two complex numbers z1 is given by z2 Similarly. z2 r2 exp (i θ2 ) r2 () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 15 / 19 .

= z2 |z2 | () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 15 / 19 . z1 |z1 | . arg z1 z2 = arg(z1 ) − arg(z2 ). z2 r2 exp (i θ2 ) r2 As a consequence.Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Product and ratio of two complex numbers Ratio of two complex numbers z1 is given by z2 Similarly. the ratio z1 r1 exp (i θ1 ) r1 = = exp (i (θ1 − θ2 )) .

z1 |z1 | . = z2 |z2 | z1 . Find () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 15 / 19 . the ratio z1 r1 exp (i θ1 ) r1 = = exp (i (θ1 − θ2 )) . z2 Example: Assume z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = −1 − 7i . z2 r2 exp (i θ2 ) r2 As a consequence.Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Product and ratio of two complex numbers Ratio of two complex numbers z1 is given by z2 Similarly. arg z1 z2 = arg(z1 ) − arg(z2 ).

proceed as follows () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 16 / 19 .Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Roots of a complex number Roots of a complex number To ﬁnd the n-th roots of a complex number z = 0.

proceed as follows 1 Write z in exponential form. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 16 / 19 .Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Roots of a complex number Roots of a complex number To ﬁnd the n-th roots of a complex number z = 0. z = r exp (i (θ + 2p π )) . with r = |z | and p ∈ Z.

() Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 16 / 19 . z = r exp (i (θ + 2p π )) . with r = |z | and p ∈ Z.Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Roots of a complex number Roots of a complex number To ﬁnd the n-th roots of a complex number z = 0. proceed as follows 1 Write z in exponential form. 2 Then take the n-th root (or the 1/n-th power) √ n z = z 1/n = r 1/n exp i θ + 2p π n = √ n r exp i θ + 2p π n .

given by zk = √ n r cos θ + 2k π n + i sin θ + 2k π n . () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 16 / 19 . 3 There are thus n roots of z . 2 Then take the n-th root (or the 1/n-th power) √ n z = z 1/n = r 1/n exp i θ + 2p π n = √ n r exp i θ + 2p π n . z = r exp (i (θ + 2p π )) . proceed as follows 1 Write z in exponential form. n − 1. · · · .Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Roots of a complex number Roots of a complex number To ﬁnd the n-th roots of a complex number z = 0. with r = |z | and p ∈ Z. k = 0.

Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Roots of a complex number Roots of a complex number (continued) √ The principal value of n z is the n-th root of z obtained by taking θ = Arg(z ) and k = 0. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 17 / 19 .

· · · . n − 1 where ω = cos(2π/n) + i sin(2π/n). () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 17 / 19 .Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Roots of a complex number Roots of a complex number (continued) √ The principal value of n z is the n-th root of z obtained by taking θ = Arg(z ) and k = 0. The n-th roots of unity are given by √ n 1 = cos 2k π n + i sin 2k π n = ωk . k = 0.

if w1 is any n-th root of z = 0. In particular. w1 ω 2 . k = 0. · · · .Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Roots of a complex number Roots of a complex number (continued) √ The principal value of n z is the n-th root of z obtained by taking θ = Arg(z ) and k = 0. The n-th roots of unity are given by √ n 1 = cos 2k π n + i sin 2k π n = ωk . w1 ω. w1 ω n−1 . () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 17 / 19 . then the n-th roots of z are given by w1 . · · · . n − 1 where ω = cos(2π/n) + i sin(2π/n).

Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Roots of a complex number Roots of a complex number (continued) Examples: Find the three cubic roots of 1. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 18 / 19 .

√ 4 Find the four values of i.Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Roots of a complex number Roots of a complex number (continued) Examples: Find the three cubic roots of 1. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 18 / 19 .

Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Roots of a complex number Roots of a complex number (continued) Examples: Find the three cubic roots of 1. Give a representation in the complex plane of the principal value of the eighth root of z = −3 + 4i . √ 4 Find the four values of i. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 18 / 19 .

Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Triangle inequality Triangle inequality If z1 and z2 are two complex numbers. This is called the triangle inequality. it says that the length of any side of a triangle cannot be larger than the sum of the lengths of the other two sides. Geometrically. then |z1 + z2 | ≤ |z1 | + |z2 |. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 19 / 19 .

This is called the triangle inequality. Geometrically. More generally. . if z1 . . it says that the length of any side of a triangle cannot be larger than the sum of the lengths of the other two sides. () Chapter 13: Complex Numbers 19 / 19 . then |z1 + z2 + · · · + zn | ≤ |z1 | + |z2 | + · · · + |zn | . z2 . then |z1 + z2 | ≤ |z1 | + |z2 |. .Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Triangle inequality Triangle inequality If z1 and z2 are two complex numbers. . zn are n complex numbers.