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**Chapter 13: Complex Numbers
**

Sections 13.1 & 13.2

Chapter 13: Complex Numbers

Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers

Complex numbers and complex plane Complex conjugate Modulus of a complex number

1. Complex numbers

Complex numbers are of the form z = x + iy , x , y ∈ R, i 2 = −1.

In the above deﬁnition, x is the real part of z and y is the imaginary part of z . y The complex number z = x + iy may be represented in the complex plane as the point with cartesian coordinates (x , y ).

z=3+2i

1

0

1

x

Chapter 13: Complex Numbers

(2) Chapter 13: Complex Numbers Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Complex numbers and complex plane Complex conjugate Modulus of a complex number Modulus of a complex number The absolute value or modulus of z = x + iy is √ ¯ = x 2 + y 2. Examples: Evaluate the following |i | |2 − 3i | Chapter 13: Complex Numbers .Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Complex numbers and complex plane Complex conjugate Modulus of a complex number Complex conjugate The complex conjugate of z = x + iy is deﬁned as z ¯ = x − iy . (1) If z1 and z2 are two complex numbers. then z1 + z2 = z1 + z2 . z1 z2 = z1 z2 . 2i zz ¯ = x 2 + y 2 . As a consequence of the above deﬁnition. 2 m(z ) = z −z ¯ . |z | = z z It is a positive number. we have e (z ) = z +z ¯ .

z2 z1 Find . Algebra of complex numbers You should use the same rules of algebra as for real numbers. Chapter 13: Complex Numbers Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Algebra of complex numbers (continued) Remember that multiplying a complex number by its complex conjugate gives a real number.2. Calculate z1 z2 and (z1 + z2 )2 .Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers 2.1: Find powers of i and 1/i . Get used to writing a complex number in the form z = (real part) + i (imaginary part). z2 Find Find m 1 z1 3 .27: Solve z 2 − (8 − 5i )z + 40 − 20i = 0. no matter how complicated this expression might be. but remember that i 2 = −1. z1 . Chapter 13: Complex Numbers . Examples: Assume z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = −1 − 7i . # 13.1. Assume z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = −1 − 7i . Examples: # 13.

in order to have a single-valued function. x = r cos(θ). Arg(z ). and is given by y if x arctan x y arctan x + π if x arg(z ) = θ = arctan y x − π if x z . where r= x 2 + y 2 = |z |. y y θ 0 x z=x+iy x The angle θ is called the argument of z = 0. < 0 and y < 0 Chapter 13: Complex Numbers Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Euler’s formula Integer powers of a complex number Product and ratio of two complex numbers Roots of a complex number Triangle inequality Principal value Arg(z ) Because arg(z ) is multi-valued. y Arg(z)=π 1 0 1 Arg(z)–> . is such that tan (Arg(z )) = Note that Arg(z ) jumps by −2π when one crosses the negative real axis from above. it is convenient to agree on a particular choice of arg(z ). y = r sin(θ). The principal value of arg(z ).π x Chapter 13: Complex Numbers . y .Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Euler’s formula Integer powers of a complex number Product and ratio of two complex numbers Roots of a complex number Triangle inequality 3. It is deﬁned for all ≥0 < 0 and y ≥ 0 ± 2nπ. Polar coordinates form of complex numbers In polar coordinates. x with − π < Arg(z ) ≤ π.

6 6 What is the cartesian form of the complex number such that |z | = 3 and Arg(z ) = π/4? Chapter 13: Complex Numbers . Find the principal value of the argument of z = −10. Convert cos π π + i sin to cartesian coordinates. z = x + iy = |z | cos(θ) + i |z | sin(θ). y 1 0 1 x Chapter 13: Complex Numbers Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Euler’s formula Integer powers of a complex number Product and ratio of two complex numbers Roots of a complex number Triangle inequality Polar and cartesian forms of a complex number You need to be able to go back and forth between the polar and cartesian representations of a complex number. In particular. you need to know the values of the sine and cosine of multiples of π/6 and π/4.Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Euler’s formula Integer powers of a complex number Product and ratio of two complex numbers Roots of a complex number Triangle inequality Principal value Arg(z ) (continued) Examples: Find the principal value of the argument of z = 1 − i .

2 Then take the n-th power of each side of the above equation z n = |z |n exp (inθ) = |z |n (cos(nθ) + i sin(nθ)) . As a consequence. This is De Moivre’s formula. This formula is extremely useful for calculating powers and roots of complex numbers. proceed as follows 1 Write z in exponential form. z = |z | exp (i θ) . if z is on the unit circle (|z | = 1). Chapter 13: Complex Numbers . Chapter 13: Complex Numbers Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Euler’s formula Integer powers of a complex number Product and ratio of two complex numbers Roots of a complex number Triangle inequality Integer powers of a complex number To ﬁnd the n-th power of a complex number z = 0. 3 In particular. we have (cos(θ) + i sin(θ))n = cos(nθ) + i sin(nθ). every complex number z = 0 can be written as z = |z | (cos(θ) + i sin(θ)) = |z | exp(i θ). or for multiplying and dividing complex numbers in polar form.Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Euler’s formula Integer powers of a complex number Product and ratio of two complex numbers Roots of a complex number Triangle inequality Euler’s formula Euler’s formula reads exp(i θ) = cos(θ) + i sin(θ). θ ∈ R.

Chapter 13: Complex Numbers Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Euler’s formula Integer powers of a complex number Product and ratio of two complex numbers Roots of a complex number Triangle inequality Product of two complex numbers The product of z1 = r1 exp (i θ1 ) and z2 = r2 exp (i θ2 ) is z1 z2 = (r1 exp (i θ1 )) (r2 exp (i θ2 )) = r1 r2 exp (i (θ1 + θ2 )) . (5) sin (θ1 + θ2 ) = sin (θ1 ) cos (θ2 ) + cos (θ1 ) sin (θ2 ) . We can use Equation (4) to show that cos (θ1 + θ2 ) = cos (θ1 ) cos (θ2 ) − sin (θ1 ) sin (θ2 ) . As a consequence. Chapter 13: Complex Numbers (4) |z1 z2 | = |z1 | |z2 |. Find cos(3θ) and sin(3θ) in terms of cos(θ) and sin(θ). . arg(z1 z2 ) = arg(z1 ) + arg(z2 ).Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Euler’s formula Integer powers of a complex number Product and ratio of two complex numbers Roots of a complex number Triangle inequality Integer powers of a complex number (continued) Examples of application: Trigonometric formulas cos(2θ) = cos2 (θ) − sin2 (θ). (3) sin(2θ) = 2 sin(θ) cos(θ).

n−1. Then take the n-th root (or the 1/n-th power) √ n z = z 1/n = r 1/n exp i θ + 2p π n = √ n r exp i θ + 2p π n . 2 with r = |z | and p ∈ Z. the ratio z1 is given by z2 z1 r1 exp (i θ1 ) r1 = exp (i (θ1 − θ2 )) .Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Euler’s formula Integer powers of a complex number Product and ratio of two complex numbers Roots of a complex number Triangle inequality Ratio of two complex numbers Similarly. proceed as follows 1 Write z in exponential form. Find Chapter 13: Complex Numbers Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Euler’s formula Integer powers of a complex number Product and ratio of two complex numbers Roots of a complex number Triangle inequality Roots of a complex number To ﬁnd the n-th roots of a complex number z = 0. k = 0. z = r exp (i (θ + 2p π )) . z1 |z1 | . = z2 r2 exp (i θ2 ) r2 As a consequence. z2 Example: Assume z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = −1 − 7i . = z2 |z2 | z1 . arg z1 z2 = arg(z1 ) − arg(z2 ). 3 There are thus n roots of z . · · · . given by zk = √ n r cos θ + 2k π n + i sin θ + 2k π n . Chapter 13: Complex Numbers .

· · · . The n-th roots of unity are given by √ n 1 = cos 2k π n + i sin 2k π n = ωk . Chapter 13: Complex Numbers Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Euler’s formula Integer powers of a complex number Product and ratio of two complex numbers Roots of a complex number Triangle inequality Roots of a complex number (continued) Examples: Find the three cubic roots of 1. w1 ω n−1 . n − 1 where ω = cos(2π/n) + i sin(2π/n). then the n-th roots of z are given by w1 . w1 ω. if w1 is any n-th root of z = 0. √ 4 Find the four values of i. Give a representation in the complex plane of the principal value of the eighth root of z = −3 + 4i . In particular.Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Euler’s formula Integer powers of a complex number Product and ratio of two complex numbers Roots of a complex number Triangle inequality Roots of a complex number (continued) √ The principal value of n z is the n-th root of z obtained by taking θ = Arg(z ) and k = 0. k = 0. · · · . w1 ω 2 . Chapter 13: Complex Numbers .

then |z1 + z2 + · · · + zn | ≤ |z1 | + |z2 | + · · · + |zn | . . then |z1 + z2 | ≤ |z1 | + |z2 |. z2 . . . More generally. .Deﬁnitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Deﬁnitions Euler’s formula Integer powers of a complex number Product and ratio of two complex numbers Roots of a complex number Triangle inequality Triangle inequality If z1 and z2 are two complex numbers. Chapter 13: Complex Numbers . Geometrically. if z1 . zn are n complex numbers. This is called the triangle inequality. it says that the length of any side of a triangle cannot be larger than the sum of the lengths of the other two sides.

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