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Managing Human Resources
Case Study – HRD Intervention
Group 08 - Aditi Rathi 13P187 | Apratim Maitra 13P197 | Ishaan Gupta 13P208 | Niket Gupta 13P217 | Prateek Hampiholi 13P207 | Rajesh A Nair 13P227

be theoretically sound. and to sustain momentum)  Cultural Context (intervention design must account for the cultural values and assumptions held by organization members)  Capabilities of Change Agent (expertise. and further be the driver and the support while implementing best practices of the industry within the organization. where the employees are facing problems such accepting the established hierarchy owing to the merit-cum-availability promotions of few. If yes. Situational factors  Readiness for Change  Capability to Change (knowledge and skills including the ability to motivate change. The course should also cater to the problem of people’s feeling of being uncomfortable in hierarchy established by the merit-cum-availability promotions and the process of cross training via transfer of jobs. what should be the objectives. actions and events intended to help the organization improve its performance and effectiveness. low educational background and inadequate technical knowledge. lack of communication skills. Designing an effective human resource intervention is contingent upon following factors : 1. 2. organizational factors. Individual differences among organizational members. An organization development intervention is a sequence of planned activities. to develop political support. inputs. experience and talents of the consultant) OBJECTIVE The main purpose for the course should be to inculcate in the employees enthusiasm to learn more about banking industry. INPUTS One-to-One / Face-to-Face interviews from top to bottom of the organizational hierarchy are suggested to record the responses from the employees regarding their pain points in the current organization environment. and dimensions of the change process itself. to lead change.Comment whether a three day course should be conducted. it can assertively concluded that there indeed is a need for three day course to be conducted for the employees. The course should also be able to make the employees especially senior officers understand the importance of objectivity and impartiality during performance appraisals. methodology and approach ? In the light of the case of International Bank. A . to manage transition.

objectivity and ethics : 1. the deepest type of intervention is intrapersonal analysis – analysis within an individual – eg: getting a CEO to reexamine his or her leadership style. Neutral. Large-group Interventions: These interventions involve getting abroad variety of stakeholders into a large meeting to clarify important values. or to solve pressing organizational problems. Very Bad. 4. 3. Process Consultation: This intervention focuses on interpersonal relations and social dynamics occurring in work groups. 3. T Groups: The basic T Group brings ten to fifteen strangers together with a professional trainer to examine the social dynamics that emerge from their interactions. 2. assumptions and belief system.questionnaire based likert scale of 5 can be put in place to capture the emotions of the people over various policies of the organization (for e.g. 2. to articulate a new vision for the organization. APPROACH The following interventions deal with interpersonal relationships and group dynamics and thus would help balancing out the current discomfort of the people regarding hierarchy : 1. Team Building: This intervention helps work groups become more effective in accomplishing tasks. Analyzing the responses recorded would lead to meaningful insights of employee perception towards the management and organization’s practices. Third Party Interventions: This change method is a form of process consultation aimed at dysfunctional interpersonal relations in organizations. and begin working on problems. Bad. and Very Good) METHODOLOGY Statistical tools such as regression can be adopted to measure the effectiveness of various existing policies and the productivity of the employees in various spheres. values. Intergroup Relations: These interventions are designed to improve interactions among different groups or departments in organizations. The following Interventions deal with human processes that are more system wide than individualistic oriented and shall be aimed at increasing the zeal in the employees towards learning. . set action targets. 4. Good. Grid Organization Development: This normative intervention specifies a particular way to manage an organization. to develop new ways of working. According to Harrison. Organization Confrontation Meeting: This change method mobilizes organization members to identify problems.

In many organizations. 5. (Hall. but often it takes many prototypes and revisions before the product is superior in quality. the critical role of managers is to understand the TQM . According to Cartin (1993). 4. Institute a vigorous program of education: This means that the company must educate all people involved in the implementation of the program as to the purposes. quotas and numerical goals force employees into an out-put frame of mind. If TQM is to be successful employees must have a sense of accomplishment and pride in the product they are producing. 1981). 6. Eliminate quotas and numerical goals: According to Deming. In order to foster this sense of pride the organization must empower the employees. This education may involve training managers and employees to work together to achieve quality. The idea that one can learn to make a product right the first time is great in theory.Literature Review How is the intervention conducted ? o According to Deming (1994) to succeed in implementing a quality program a company must adopt a 14-point system at all levels of the organization. In order for TQM to succeed management must instil a sense of pride in their employees. If the leadership is not fully committed to quality. Often management must be educated in the workings of team based production systems. Eliminate inspection. the ultimate goal of the program. Learn to build products right the first time: According to Creech. leaving little chance of quality thinking. organizations often fail to recognize employee contributions to the bottom line. (1994). including short term and long-term goals. Break down all barriers between departments: In most centralized organizations there are definite lines of communications that must be followed and a division of labour according to departments. 3. If the program is to be totally accepted management must communicate to the employees their vision for the future. In addition to the need to design and try the products for production. employees and managers alike are likely to sabotage the entire program before it is fully implemented. and employees must be educated on how to work effectively in teams. and benefits of the program. These points are: 1. Drive out Fear: The organization must communicate the plan of action to every employee. In Deming’s program. this meant the creation of work teams and quality circles in which each employee’s inputs were actively sought and followed up on. Remove barriers that rob workers of their right to pride of workmanship: According to Deming. supplier. Only when the product is quality can inspection be eliminated. Institute leadership: The aim of leadership should be to help people do a better job: Leadership serves as the role model for the rest of the organization. 1987). 1989). the program will fail (Juran. Without education as to the purpose. Performance appraisals should be used to measure product performance not individual employees. performance appraisal systems are inappropriate measures of employee contributions. In order to implement a TQM program requires that the organization move toward a de-centralized system in which communication between departments is frequent and ongoing. 2. improvements may be needed and the easiest way to measure if the improvements are effective is to inspect the product before releasing it to market. and the anticipated benefits for everyone involved with the organization. inspection of products is necessary until that point in time when the processes and the product are at the highest possible quality. Empowerment means that each individual employee has the knowledge and training to inspect his or her own contributions and make necessary improvements (Blake & Mouton. 7. This sense of pride can be realized by creating a vision of the future to which employees can strive. Management’s job is to recognize each employee’s unique contributions to the process and to recognize employees for their contributions to the overall quality of the product.

Put everyone to work to accomplish this transformation: As mentioned earlier. He or She must set the objectives but solicit the employees on the best methods of reaching the objectives. 1999). and communication throughout the entire system (Hill & Collins. 2000). Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service: This is perhaps the heart of any successful TQM program. Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service to become competitive and to stay in business and to provide jobs: Although the implementation of TQM programs often means the loss of jobs. including improving technology. The implementation of a successful TQM program hinges on the willingness of all involved parties to actively pursue quality. According to Deming organizations must end the practice of selecting suppliers based on price. If an organization is to remain competitive they must implement improvements in the entire production system. tools. 10. Deming and others argue that in successful TQM programs the production will surpass any possible production targets the leadership might set. 1989). This new philosophy should provide the vision and direction of the company and its employees. production targets shift employees’ attention away from quality and toward out-puts thus reducing the overall quality of the product. 1984). 14. exhortations and production targets: In order to do this the leadership must be willing to let the quality process take hold regardless of the time constraints. The idea that quality is worth the wait is central to the success of the program. without which the entire system falls to ruin” (Creech. the implementation of a TQM program involves every person in the organization. the key success is to communicate the purposes of the lay-offs and to emphasize that layoffs may be a necessary part of the program. and abandon those suppliers whose products are sub-standard (Burt. 8. This dependence on others for the necessary parts or services means that organizations must actively seek out suppliers who are willing to meet the quality standards required. This willingness to lead instead of manage is key to the success of the program. and communicating your philosophy and visions to them. Failure to make quality a philosophy of business means that the whole system will crumble upon itself. 12. Improving the quality of the product or service is key to remaining successful. 1999). the organization must adopt a new philosophy. This is a crucial step in insuring that the implementation of a quality program succeeds. 11. Quality must encompass all phases of production. and regularly participate in their application at every level of the organization. 9. processes. The old analogy of a company leader being the captain of the ship is no longer appropriate. Base this long-term relationship on loyalty and trust: One of the keys to successful implementation of TQM programs is identifying your suppliers. Leaders must work to ensure that every person is contributing to the success of the program. and techniques. The structure of organizations is such that often completion of a single product may involve the utilizing the products of several different organizations. If the employees (union members or not) are not . The leader of an organization cannot just set the course and bark orders when corrections are needed. from the janitor to the CEO (Savolainen. Adopt a new philosophy: According to Deming. The organization must seek out suppliers that share their vision of quality and build a relationship with these suppliers built on loyalty and trust. “The philosophy of the organization is the centre pillar on which the TQM program is built upon. Move toward a single supplier for any one item.philosophies. which has quality at its core. The implementation of quality programs means that the processes and products are constantly measured against the products of competitors. The ultimate goal of TQM is to increase the quality of the product in the hopes of remaining in business and to become competitive in the market. End the practice of awarding business based on the price tag. Often the failure of TQM programs can be traced back to poor quality parts of services from suppliers (Gurnani. 13. Eliminate slogans. machinery. Resistance to change: Employees generally resist TQM programs for two major reasons-they believe that is will cause job loss and that management would refuse to share the fruits of such programs.

and continuous improvement at the core of the program. Taughchi systems. maintaining change is relatively simple. 15. management must facilitate feedback from within the organizations and create opportunities for customers to provide feedback to the company. or both. to one of quality. follow up must also be implemented to ensure that the change leads to improvement of the product. . however.consulted or involved. TQM principles are applied to the processes and product. it will likely reinforce the same perception-that TQM is a threat to their well being. examples of which include ISO-9000. To implement follow up on the effectiveness of TQM programs. Special Considerations/Critique: Although many organizations utilize TQM programs. During the reorganization phase of the program. 1990). TQM programs become the way things are done at the organization. Following the product throughout the entire production process is crucial to maintaining the quality of the product. 17. therefore maintaining change is not difficult to achieve. Given this fact. they are often modified versions of Deming’s original concept. This resistance to change may be minimized by empowering the employees to act independently or in groups to implement changes needed to insure the success of the program. the organization has either dismissed or retrained employees who insisted on the old way of doing business. It is only through greater level of employee involvement and commitment that management can ensure the success of TQM. Follow-up: TQM programs by nature dependent on constant follow up. If changes are implemented in the process. with this new mindset. In most organizations. successful TQM programs change the entire organizational culture. Maintaining Change: As previously noted TQM programs are not quick fixes that disappear after the organization has regained its original standing. 16. Failure to follow up on product changes can lead to substandard products and less customer satisfaction. but not the employees. Many spin-offs of Deming’s original principles abound in organizations worldwide. Sigma-Six. through which they actively seek follow up information from their customers (Reid. Harley Davidson sponsors Bike Weeks. few organizations embrace the philosophies of TQM fully. or the union organization. Since it conception Total Quality Management has become the buzzword in business.