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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
Remote controlled
adjustable electrical
downtilt
UMTS / WCDMA
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
Downtilting of the vertical pattern reduces the radiated power towards the
horizon and concentrates it into the cell to be covered
UMTS / WCDMA Downtilt in GSM Systems
mechanical downtilt
easy handling, adjustable, but downtilt angle not constant across the azimuth
electrical downtilt
constant downtilt angle over azimuth but not adjustable
adjustable electrical downtilt
combines the electrical benefits with the mechanical flexibility
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
UMTS / WCDMA Downtilt in GSM Systems
Control unit
BTS
Locally remote controlled adjustable
electrical downtilt
so far only rarely used, but importance will grow :
- access to hardly reachable antenna sites is
made much easier (top of high tension line
masts, chimneys)
- ground access means lower
costs regarding number of
riggers involved and safety
equipment required
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
Big difference of mobile networks of 3rd generation (WCDMA) :
Comparison GSM UMTS
Access TDMA
(Time Division Multiple
Access)
Separation of the subscribers
by time slots
WCDMA
(Wideband Code Division Multiple
Access)
Separation of the subscribers
by codes
Frequency plan certain frequencies per cell the same full bandwidth in each cell
Hand over registration only in one cell
(hard hand over)
registration in two or more cells
(soft hand over)
Cell size fixed variable
Different networkplanning compared to GSM
WCDMA is a dynamic network with variable cell sizes !
UMTS / WCDMA Network
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Power control and cell breathing
Complex relation between capacity, coverage and interference;
a growing load in the cell (quantity of subscibers, transferred data rate) is
increasing the noise and the required power; communication quality is effected
base station reduces the cell size
UMTS / WCDMA Network
Quelle: HU Berlin
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The network planners aimat a continuous coverage but with a minimum
overlapping between the cells to avoid additional interferences
The cell breathing changes the situation permanently frombig overlapping to
reduced coverage
--> the cells have to be adjusted carefully by means of the vertical downtilt
considering the average required capacity
UMTS / WCDMA Network
Big overlapping
Reduced coverage
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
Remote electrical tilt enables a continuing optimisation to achieve the best balance
between interference and coverage also with respect to :
Soft handover
Due to the low uplink power levels the subscriber signals may be received by
two or three cells and added up by the system improvement of the uplink
path but eating up of capacity; 30-40% of the subscribers may be in this
situation
UMTS / WCDMA Network
Soft handover
BTS
BTS
BTS
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
Due to the complexity of the system an automatic dynamic ‚in time‘ compensation
by means of a RET system will not be possible the next years
network operators fear an ‚oscillating‘ network and want to keep the control
but already nowthe RET system can adapt the network to the current status
on the basis of pre-measured and pre-optimised scenarios; the downtilts are
adjusted according to the following situations:
rush hour coverage (specific high traffic spots)
working time (main traffic in offices)
evening coverage (main traffic at home or in restaurants/bars)
special coverage for irregular events (sport, games, music festivals, fairs).
UMTS / WCDMA Network
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
Benefits :
Up to 20% of WCDMA equipment can be saved
Lower bit failure rate
Smaller amount of drop calls
Cell corrections due to network extensions can be carried out without
sending installation teams to the base stations.
UMTS / WCDMA RET Benefits
Conclusion :
For the network optimisation due to changing cell sizes with WCDMA an
adaption of the coverage by adjustment of the downtilt angle is required
Local control directly at the base station does not provide the required quick
and permanent access
Central control for a complete network section, e.g. via the common OMC
(Operational Maintenance Center) is needed
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
UMTS / WCDMA Remote Electrical Tilt (RET)
Concept :
Each manually adjustable Kathrein
antenna with appropiate mechanical
interface can be upgraded to provide
remote electrical tilt by means of a
separate unit (RCU)
upgrading can be carried out also with
already mounted antennas
decision for appliance can be postponed
according to experience
further reduced number of versions
Remote control
unit (RCU)
attached
Antenna with
mechanical
RET interface
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
Mechanical interface
UMTS / WCDMA Mechanical Interface
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
UMTS / WCDMA Remote Control Unit
RCU features:
Easy attachment via a robust 42 mm thread
Excellent lightning and EMC protection:
- screened control cable
- grounded aluminum housing
- each wire control cable wire individually lightning protected
Integrated electronic for safe operation :
- easy calibration
- last position EPROM stored
- no position loss with power loss
Powerfull motor with lowpower consumption :
- high torque for low temp. Application (-40 ° C)
- motor rotation detection integrated
J ust one RCU version for all antenna types
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Central remote controlling
UMTS / WCDMA Central Remote Controlling
RCU
Antenna
Connection between the Operational Maintenance Center (OMC) and the
RCU via a Central Control Unit (CCU)
Two link circles : OMC - CCU / CCU - RCU
OMC
CCU
Link
OMC - CCU
Link
CCU - RCU
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Central remote controlling
UMTS / WCDMA Link CCU - RCU
BTS
RCU
Antenna
Additional
control cable
Feeder lines
RCU controlling via an additional cable and splitter
Configuration of the system via Laptop (antenna
type, calibration)
CCU
Splitter
RCU controlling via an additional cable and daisy chain
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
UMTS / WCDMA Link CCU - RCU
For Daisy chain possibilities, the RCU has two connectors
Protection cap
with integrated
resistor
For daisy chain:
Leave cap on
the last RCU
Signal
input
Signal
output
Drain hole
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
Alternative for the additional cable
BTS
RCU
Antenna
Feeder lines
RCU controlling via the feeder line by means of
two Smart-BIAS-T‘s)
Smart
BIAS-T
TMA
RCU controlling via the feeder line by means of
TMA + Smart-BIAS-T
Smart-BIAS-T
CCU
UMTS / WCDMA Link CCU - RCU
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NODE B
UMTS / WCDMA Link CCU - RCU
Summary of applications
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The RET system is working according to the AISG standard (Antenna interface
standards group)
The AISG is a standardisation group with the mission statement to include the RET
control into the UMTS standard and to define the interfaces and protocols between
the RCU and the CCU
currently 42 members
22 antenna manufacturers (incl. Kathrein)
TMA manufacturer, network operators
OEM‘s
The link between the OMC and the CCU is
not standardized !
3GPP will be the next standard after AISG 2.0!!
UMTS / WCDMA Standardisation
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BTS
CCU
Ethernet
RCU
Antenna
The link between the OMC and the BTS is based on supplier specific protocols
and interfaces and cannot be used for the CCU control
Ethernet
solution
RS485
UMTS / WCDMA Link OMC - CCU
OMC
CCU-Control BTS-Control
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BTS
CCU
Ethernet
RCU
Antenna
RS485
UMTS / WCDMA Link OMC - CCU
FixedLine
solution
RS 232
Modem
OMC
CCU-Control BTS-Control
Modem
Fixed line
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
BTS
CCU
Ethernet
RCU
Antenna
UMTS / WCDMA Link OMC - CCU
Wireless
solution
OMC
CCU-Control BTS-Control
GSM / UMTS
Modem
GSM / UMTS
Modem
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Summary of access lines :
UMTS / WCDMA Link OMC - CCU
Connector
‚RS 232‘ (serial)
Connector
‚Ethernet‘
Connector
‚Ethernet‘
LAN
Crosslink cable
Null-Modem cable
Connector
‚RS 232‘ (serial)
GSM/UMTS- or Analog-Modem (Browser)
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
CCU handles
power supply for RCU and TMA
downtilt signal processing
alarmsignals for RCU and TMA
The CCU acts as a web server with
its own IP address
The appearing website contains all
required control elements for normal
service and installation
no separate software is required,
just a standard browser
Access to one CCU at the same
time
UMTS / WCDMA Central Control Unit Software
CCU website
HTML solution
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UMTS / WCDMA CCU Administration
OMC
CCU
CCU
CCU
CCU
CCU
The OMC is controlling hundreds of sites, but the IP / Browser solution is relatively
slow and complicate :
access to the various CCU‘s only one after the other (especially with modem)
no reference to site names
with HTML the whole page has to be transferred even if only one value changes
Browser application
HTML
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
The Antenna System Manager is a SNMP based software on the OMC computer
The number of controllable CCU‘s and the following AISG devices is unlimited
The actual data are stored in the computer not in the CCU (access is only required
for a newadjustment)
fast transfer due to reduced data quantity (specially in modemmode)
Explorer enables tree architecture with regions and site names
UMTS / WCDMA Antenna System Manager
OMC
CCU
CCU
CCU
CCU
CCU
ASM
SNMP
Alternative solution : Antenna System Manager
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
Many operators use an optimiser tool for their network planning
According to measurements and calculations certain scenarios are stored
With these scenarios (individual downtilt angles) the network is adapted to the
current situation : rush hour, working time, evening, special events, emergencies
UMTS / WCDMA Antenna System Manager
OMC
CCU
CCU
CCU
CCU
CCU
ASM
SNMP
Optimiser
Planing tool
Combination with optimiser tool
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©Kathrein/Scholz 02/07
Components of the RET system :
RCU (Remote Control Unit) 860 10025, 860 10118
CCU (Central Control Unit)
AC/DC power 860 10006
DC power 860 10026
Layer-one Converter 860 10068
Outdoor 860 10113
PCA (Portable Control Adapter) 860 10046
Connection cables 860 10007, …
Lightning protection / earthing clamps 860 10030
Splitter for DC-power and signal 860 10002
Earthing Clamp 860 10031
Optional
TMA (Tower Mounted Amplifier) 782 10147, …
Smart-Bias-Tees 782 10253 - 10256
Bias-Tees 782 10429
Product Presentation RET Components
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Roll-Out of RET-System in Taipei/Taiwan
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UMTS UMTS UMTS
To alarm I/O Ports
at Node B
OMC
CCU
X
X
X
X
X
X
R
C
U
R
C
U
R
C
U
Node B
Sector A Sector B Sector C
Power Supply and Alarm handling
of TMAs and RCUs are controlled
via Smart Bias Tee and CCU
TMA TMA TMA
UMTS / WCDMA Package solution
Smart Bias
Tee
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UMTS / WCDMA Antenna system
Already sold:
> 550.000 RCU´s
(end of 2008)