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Proper Bolt Axial Tightening Force and Proper Tightening Torque

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**Proper Bolt Axial Tightening Force and Proper Tightening Torque
**

A bolt is tightened by torque, torque inclination, rotational angle, stretch measurement and other methods. The torque method is widely used due to its simplicity and convenience.

’Technical Data»

**Strength of Bolts, Screw Plugs and Dowel Pins
**

1)Tensile Load Bolt Pt=‰tMAsEE (1) =Qd2‰t/4E (2) Pt : Tensile Load in the Axial Direction[kgf] ‰b : Yield Stress of the Bolt[kgf/mm2] ‰t : Allowable Stress of the Bolt[kgf/mm2] (‰t=‰b/safety factorÅ) As : Effective Sectional Area of the Bolt[mm2] As=Qd2/4 d : Effective Dia. of the Bolt(Core Dia.) [mm]

**IAxial tightening force for bolt and fatigue limit
**

CThe proper axial tightening force for a bolt should be calculated within an elasticity range up to 70% of the rated yield strength when the torque method is used. CThe fatigue strength of a bolt under repeated load should not exceed the specified tolerance. CDo not let the seat of a bolt or nut dent the contact area. CDo not break the tightened piece by tightening.

IStrength of Bolt

**ISafety factor of Unwin based on tensile strengthÅ Material Steel Cast Iron Copper, Soft Metal
**

Stress = Reference Strength SafetyÅ

Static Load

3 4 5

Repeated Load Pulsating Reversed 5 8 6 10 5 9

Impact Load

12 15 15

**ICalculation of Axial Tightening Force and Tightening Torque
**

The relation between the axial tightening force and Ff is represented by Equation (1) below:

Ff=0.7M‰yMAsEE (1) Tightening Torque, TfA, can be calculated using the equation (2) below: TfA=0.35k (1+1/Q) ‰yCAsCdEE (2) k : Torque Coefficient [cm] d : Nominal Diameter of Bolt Q : Tightening Coefficient

Reference Strength:Yield Stress for Ductile Material Stress for Fragile Material

(Ex.)The proper size of a bolt with a hexagonal hole, which is to bear a repeated tensile load (pulsating) at P = 200 kgf, should be determined. (Bolt with a hexagonal hole, made of SCM435, 38 to 43 HRC, strength code 12.9) Using Equation (1)

As=Pt/‰t =200/22.4 =8.9[mm2] ∴ A larger effective sectional area should

(112kgf/mm2 when the strength class is 12.9) ‰y : Proof Stress [mm2] As : Effective Sectional Area of the Bolt

The Yield Stress, Strength Code 12.9, is‰b=112[kgf/mm2] Allowable Stress ‰t= ‰b/Safety Factor(5 in the above table) =112/5 =22.4 [kgf/mm2] IFatigue Strength of Bolt (Thread: Fatigue strength 2 million times) Strength Code Effective 12.9 10.9 Nominal Sectional Area of Thread As Fatigue Strength* Allowable Load Fatigue Strength* Allowable Load mm2 kgf/mm2 kgf kgf kgf/mm2

M 4 M 5 M 6 M 8 M10 M12 M14 M16 M20 M24 8.78 14.2 20.1 36.6 58 84.3 115 157 245 353 13.1 11.3 10.6 8.9 7.4 6.7 6.1 5.8 5.2 4.7 114 160 213 326 429 565 702 911 1274 1659 9.1 7.8 7.4 8.7 7.3 6.5 6 5.7 5.1 4.7 79 111 149 318 423 548 690 895 1250 1659

ICalculations Example

Proper torque and axial force for soft steel pieces tightened together by means of a bolt with a hexagonal hole, M6 (strength bracket 12.9), with the pieces lubricated with oil can be calculated. CProper Torque, by using Equation (2): CAxial Force, by using Equation (1):

TfA=0.35k (1+1/Q) ‰yCAsCd TfA=0.35C0.17 (1+1/1.4) 112C20.1C0.6 TfA=138 [kgfCcm] I Surface treatment for bolt and torque coefficient dependent on the combination

of material for area to be fastened and material of female thread

CFf=0.7M‰yMAs ==Ff=0.7M112M20.1 ==Ff=1576 [kgf] I Standard value of tightening coefficient Q Tightening Surface Condition Coeffient Tightening Method Q Bolt Nut Manganese Phosphate 1.25 Torque Wrench Torque Wrench Not treated or treated Not treated or treated 1.4 Limited-Torque Wrench with phosphate. with phosphate. 1.6 Impact Wrench Torque Wrench Not treated or treated Not Treated 1.8 Limited-Torque Wrench with phosphate.

be found in the table at the right, and M5, 14.2 [mm2], should be selected. M6, tolerable load of 213 kgf, should be selected from the column for strength code 12.9, with the fatigue strength taken into account.

2)If the bolt, like a stripper bolt, is to bear a tensile impact load, the right size should be selected from the fatigue strength column. (Under a load of 200 kgf,

**Stripper bolt made of SCM435, 33 to 38 HRC, strength code 10.9)
**

Lubrication

SurfaceTreatment Torque coefficient for Blot k Lubrication 0.145 0.155 Steel Bolt 0.165 Black Oxidized Film 0.175 Lubricated with oil 0.185 0.195 0.215 0.25 Steel Bolt 0.35 Black Oxidized Film 0.45 Not Lubricated 0.55

Combination of material for area to be fastened (a) and material for female thread (b) SCM-FC FC-FC SUS-FC S10C-FC SCM-S10C SCM-SCM FC-S10C FC-SCM SCM-SUS FC-SUS AL-FC SUS-S10C SUS-SCM SUS-SUS S10C-S10C S10C-SCM S10C-SUS AL-S10C AL-SCM SCM-AL FC-AL AL-SUS S10C-AL SUS-AL AL-AL S10C-FC SCM-FC FC-FC S10C-SCM SCM-SCM FC-S10C FC-SCM AL-FC S10C-S10C SCM-S10C AL-S10C AL-SCM SCM-AL FC-AL AL-AL

(a) (b)

Lubricated with oil or MoS2 paste. Not Lubricated

If the tolerable load is 200 kgf or more, strength code 10.9, M8, 318 [kgf], should be selected from the table at the right. Hence, MSB10 with the M8 threaded portion and an axial diameter of 10 mm should be selected. If it is to bear a shearing load, a knock pin should also be used.

**IStrength of Screw Plug
**

Allowable Load P when screw plug MSW30 is to bear an impact load should be determined. (MSW30 made of S45C, Tensile force‰b, 34 to 43 HRC:65 kgf/mm2.) If MWS is shorn at a spot within the minor diameter section and Area A=Core Diameter d1MQML is broken, allowable load P can be calculated as shown below. (Core Diameter d1—M-P) A= (M-P)QL= (30-1.5)QM12 Allowable Load P=ÍtMA =1074 [mm2] =3.9M107.4 Yield Stress—0.9MTensile Strength‰b=0.9M65=58.2 =4190 [kgf] Shearing Stress—0.8MYield Stress =46.6 Find the allowable shearing force base Allowable Shearing StressÍt=Shearing Stress/Safety Factor 12 on the core diameter of internal thread if =46.6/12=3.9 [kgf/mm2] tapping is made of soft material.

Fatigue strength* is a revision of an excerpt from¤Estimated Fatigue Limits of Machine Screws, Bolts and Metric Screws for Nuts" (Yamamoto).

**Strength Code ex. 1 2. 9 Proof Stress (Yield Stress) :90% of the minimum value of tensile strength
**

1 0. 9

M Core Diameter d1 P

Min. Tensile Strength:1220N/mm2{124kgf/mm2} Proof Stress (Yield Stress) :90% of the minimum value of tensile strength Min. Tensile Strength:1040N/mm2{106kgf/mm2}

S10C:Soft steel not thermally refined SCM:Thermally Refined Steel(35HRC) FC:Cast Iron (FC200) AL:Aluminum SUS:Stainless Steel(SUS304)

**IInitial Tightening Force and Tightening Torque
**

Nominal of Thread

M 3 M0.5 M 4 M0.7 M 5 M0.8 M 6 M1 M 8 M1.25 M10 M1.5 M12 M1.75 M14 M2 M16 M2 M18 M2.5 M20 M2.5 M22 M2.5 M24 M3

Effective Sectional Area

As mm2

5.03 8.78 14.20 20.10 36.60 58.00 84.30 115.00 157.00 192.00 245.00 303.00 353.00

Yield Load kgf 563 983 1590 2251 4099 6496 9442 12880 17584 21504 27440 33936 39536

12.9 Initial Tightening Force Tightening Torque kgf kgfCcm 394 17 688 40 1113 81 1576 138 2869 334 4547 663 6609 1160 9016 1840 12039 2870 15053 3950 19208 5600 23755 7620 27675 9680

Strength Code 10.9 Yield Load Initial Tightening Force Tightening Torque kgf kgf kgfCcm 482 338 15 842 589 34 1362 953 69 1928 1349 118 3510 2457 286 5562 3894 567 8084 5659 990 11029 7720 1580 15056 10539 2460 18413 12889 3380 23496 16447 4790 29058 20340 6520 33853 23697 8290

Yield Load kgf 328 573 927 1313 2390 3787 5505 7510 10252 12922 16489 20392 23757

8.8 Initial Tightening Force Tightening Torque kgf kgfCcm 230 10 401 23 649 47 919 80 1673 195 2651 386 3853 674 5257 1070 7176 1670 9045 2370 11542 3360 14274 4580 16630 5820

P

**IStrength of Dowel Pin
**

The proper size of a dowel pin under repeated shearing load of 800 kgf (one-way swing) should be determined. (Knock pin made of SUJ2, 58HRC or greater.)

P=AMÍ =QD2Í/4 D= (4P) / (Q Í) Yield Stress for SUJ2 ‰b =120 [kgf/mm2] Allowable Shearing StrengthÍ=‰bM0.8/Safety FactorÅ =120M0.8/5 =19.2 [kgf/mm2]

= (4M800) / (3.14M19.2) —7.3 ∴ D8 or a larger size should be selected for MS. If the dowel pins are of a large uniform size, some of the tools and part of the stock or the like will be unnecessary.

The dowel pin must not be loaded.

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(Note)CTightening Conditions:Use of a torque wrench (lubricated with oil / Torque coefficient k = 0.17/ Tightening coefficient Q = 1.4) CThe torque coefficient varies with the usage conditions. Values in this table should be used as rough referential values. CThe table is an excerpt from a catalog of Kyokuto Seisakusho Co., Ltd.

Typical strength calculations are presented here. In a real-life situation, it will be necessary to take into account hole-to-hole pitch accuracy, hole perpendicularity, surface coarseness, true-circle accuracy, plate material, parallelism, quenching or non-quenching, accuracy of the press, product output, wear of tools, etc. Hence the values in these examples are referential (but not guaranteed) values.

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