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The Origin of the Etruscans

koninklijke nederlandse akademie van wetenschappen
Mededelingen van de Afdeling Letterkunde, Nieuwe Reeks, Deel 66 no. i Deze Mededeling werd in verkorte vorm uitgesproken in de vergadering van de Afdeling Letterkunde, gehouden op ii februari 2002.

r.s.p. beekes

The Origin of the Etruscans

Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, 2003

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The Origin of the Etruscans

‘dass jene Polemik ... jetzt praktisch ... an einem toten Punkt gelangt ist.’ F. Falchetti - Antonella Romualdi, Die Etrusker (Stuttgart 200i), p. i2.

contents Introduction 7 i. The prehistory of the Lydians i0 i.i. Me ·iones i0 i.2 Ma · sas i0 i.3 Ancient testimonies i3 i.4 Other evidence i7 i.5 The linguistic position of Lydian 20 i.6 Historical considerations 2i i.7 Conclusion 23 2. The origin of the Etruscans 24 2.i The Etruscans came from the East 24 2.2 The Tyrse Œ noi in classical times 37 2.3 Ancient testimonies 4i 2.4 Historical considerations 44 3. Troy 44 3.i The language of the Trojans 44 3.2 Taruisas 45 3.3 The Trojan War 46 4. Aeneas 46 5. Conclusions 47 Appendix i Etruscans in Homer 49 Appendix ii The Pelasgians 50 Appendix iii The date of the eastern Tyrse Œ noi 52 i Addenda 53

I am indebted for comments and information to dr. M.P. Cuypers, drs. W.F.H. Henkelman, prof. Ph.H.J. Houwink ten Cate, prof. F.H.H. Kortlandt, drs. W.G. Kuijper, prof. A. Lubotsky, dr. L.B. van der Meer, dr. M. de Vaan. The theory will also be presented in Bibliotheca Orientalis 2002.



to Starke. Beekes The Homeland of the Etruscans MASA acc.P. Skylake Œ Lydian places/Lydians north of Lydia 6 .S.R. = MAIONIA ? = the homeland of the Etruscans Œ noi lived in classical times à Places where Tyrse i. Plakie Œ 2.

I shall make a few preliminary remarks. the indications we have seem not to point to the area called Lydia in antiquity (2. I found the solution. The eastern origin seems certain to me. The Latin name for the Etruscans derives from this Greek name: the root of *Turs-a · noi (> Tyrse Œnoi) is found in Tusci < *Turs-ci (from where Toscana) and. On the contrary.the old name of the Lydians.i). Nowadays most scholars are convinced that they came from Asia Minor (Turkey). the prehistory of the Lydians. prof. the Greeks called the Etruscans Tyrse Œnoi. an important part of the problem has not been solved: where exactly in Asia Minor did they come from.2 As the matter has a rather complicated background. and was this in Lydian territory. i. what this tells us about the origin of the Etruscans. Kuiper. for reasons that I will present below (2. 2. The question is whether this is correct. However. I was interested in this question because my field is comparative IndoEuropean linguistics. as Herodotus says? Until now we had no arguments pointing especially to Lydia. then. without the need of further assumptions.B. I had looked into the problem of Etruscan origins earlier (Beekes i993). but without reaching any new insight. My answer is: yes. This has always been an important argument for the eastern origin of the Etruscans. but the Lydians lived at that time (also) in another area. My solution. is that the Lydians lived originally in a different area than in Herodotus’ time (at least partly. F. Therefore our story falls into two parts.2). but at present nobody doubts this any longer. The question of the origin of the Etruscans is one of the most debated problems of antiquity. this matter cannot now be decided). As may be known. with the variant *trus-.The Origin of the Etruscans introduction Herodotus says that the Etruscans came from Lydia.J. a name they also used for people in the north-west of Asia Minor. only in Italy does a large number of scholars deny or doubt this. This time. (On these My promotor. by chance. reacted: ‘Of course you find such a thing only by chance!’ 2 7 . It has been denied by the opponents that there were Tyrse Œ noi in Asia Minor. I arrived at this idea via a linguistic question . We shall see that after establishing the older habitat of the Lydians the question of the origin of the Etruscans is solved. Etruscus < *e-trus-cus and Etruria < *e-trus-ia.

ii . Izmir) and Ephesos. dating from i700 to i200. an Assyrian source states that Cyrus had him killed. Salihli). that Cyrus spared his life. in cuneiform writing.S.) A Greek variant of Tyrse Œnoi. told by Herodotus (i.C. In Herodotus’ time. 5 There is now a fine introduction to the world of the Hittites in the catalogue of the exhibition in Bonn. 4 For a survey of the Indo-European languages see Beekes i995. Lydia became a mighty kingdom after the Phrygian power had declined around 700 B. east of Ankara. and Carian from the same time as Lycian (written in its own alphabet. the Attic formTyrrhe Œnoi. in 546 B. this is the language of which we understand least. 8 . Lydia ruled the whole of western Asia Minor. The Hittite kings in their campaigns reached the Aegean: Wilusa (= Ilios. The capital was Sardes (mod. (And there are a few remains of still other languages. Its relation to the other languages is still debated. west of the river Halys (mod. 86). In this language we have some 25.) Lydian is known from some fifty inscriptions. of which the relation to the other languages is not yet clear. He was defeated by the Persians under Cyrus.C. Only in the Hittite texts (so from before i200) we find the west sometimes mentioned.4 It belongs to the Anatolian group. However. Its best known king is the last one. However. Beekes forms see 3. We understand the language quite well.2. famous for his wealth. The Lydians spoke an Indo-European language. Lycian from the fifth and fourth centuries (in an alphabet related to that of Greek). Croesus.000 clay tablets. of which Hittite is best known. is found in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Lydia was the land east of Smyrna (mod. also in an alphabetic script. Troy) was a tributary of the Hitte empire. Hieroglyphic Luwian in the south-east (from i500 to 700). Luwian consists of a number of closely related languages: Cuneiform Luwian at the time of the Hittites.P. at least in the centuries before i200. from the seventh to fourth centuries. The Indo-European languages must at one time have arrived in Asia 3 Famous is the story. The capital was Hattusas (mod.3 Since then the Persians ruled Asia Minor till Alexander the Great. when the Hittite Empire disappears. which is very little indeed. One was Palaic (which must now be called Bla-ic) spoken in an area to the north of the Hittites.R. Bogazkale). An excellent history of the Hittites is Bryce i998.30. Die Hethiter und ihr Reich 2002. What is relevant here is that from western Asia Minor we have no written sources dating from before 800. Kizil Irmak). which strongly deviates from the other alphabets).5 There were several other languages in the Anatolian group.

Korinh. As I said. This substratum is recognizable in numerous words taken over in Greek. A date around 2000 B. but most probably the speakers of these languages came from the north-west.Anatolian substratum. In Greece the same thing happened: the speakers of Greek found another language. which is badly known. but Etruscan does not show many of the typical o characteristics of the Greek substratum. Still later.The Origin of the Etruscans Minor. The arrival of the Phrygians will appear essential to our story. immigrated along the same way.C. but it brings us to the problem of the earlier history (the prehistory) of the Lydians. which we shall now discuss. I started out with an etymological question. A language that is used in a certain area where another language arrives later. Place names were taken over as well: Athens. which provides the answer to the question of the origin of the Etruscans. or languages.and the matter cannot be settled.what follows. They too settled in central Anatolia. puia ‘wife’). When the Indo-European speaking peoples entered Asia Minor. a Celtic people. Greek has one or two loanwords that are found in Etruscan (the best is ’ pui Łw ’to marry’ . Often the substratum language disappears. We have a very few texts in Hattic. therefore. We are not sure about the route they took. is quite difficult. of which little is known. passing the Caucasus. They too spoke an Indo-European language (but one quite different from the Anatolian languages.6 The ‘Anatolians’ were not the last to invade Asia Minor. is easier . around i200. We have old (8th to 4th centuries bc ) and later inscriptions (2nd and 3rd centuries ad : New Phrygian). came the Phrygians.Etr. cf. near the least partly . the Galatians. which disappeared. Much in them is unclear. Mycene.identical with that in (western) Asia Minor. 6 9 . they found other languages there. After them. it is more similar to Greek). It appears that the Greek substratum was . Thebes are all non-Greek names. It is rather technical . but this is not evident. One might expect that Etruscan belonged to the Greek . Thebes in Greece and Thebe near Adramyttion. This is what happened in western Asia Minor. but the situation is slightly better than with Lydian. in 277 bc . the north-east route. for their arrival in Asia Minor seems probable. They settled just across the water. It is probable that one of these languages was preserved: Etruscan. as we know that the Indo-European languages originated in Ukraine. Gordion became their capital (known from the knot which Alexander the Great ‘solved’). but their main force went to the south-east. is called a substratum language.

Traum und Wirklichkeit 200i. It occurs in Homer in K 43i. Łonev. If one looks. It must be noted that scholars situated this land earlier quite differently.5). in Hittite times. Starke suggested that Lydian came from the northeast (i997a n. may be the younger to Mz · +ionev . parallel Ł onev from *Ma Łh. the form we find. Beekes i. i992. -Ł iv ‘Lydian Łhn S 29i . may have been form. Del Monte . (We might expect *Tr{h from Trw+ih. As yet there is no agreement on the position of Ma south (see e. The younger form.Tischler i978. Thus. The a in this form shows that the Homeric h vowel (cf.. This raises the question. the prehistory of the lydians Ł onev i. -onov of a personal name E 43. in the south. 34f.g. Mu Ł gdonev.P.S. Troi Łonev. note that it makes no difference for the metre. but nothing is known of the *Ma · iones might be compared with Pai formation of this name. with -o-. In recent years a conviction has grown that in western Asia Minor. where the speakers of Lydian. 304f.g. 264f. cf. We also find -ion-. with this in mind. at Starke’s map (ibid.i Mz Ł onev)7 (the name is The Homeric name for the Lydians is Me ·iones (Mz ºones. which is linguistically rather deviant (see below i. Starke i997a passim).R. lived. I cannot discuss this issue extensively and will start from Starke’s position: we shall see below that everything confirms his view. cf. Lydians.) Greek Łkonev. i0i). near later Lycia (in Hittite called Lukka · sas. Later the woman’ D i42. with shortening of the Greek form of the word is Maiones (Mai Łh from Trw-).2 The land Ma · sas Ł onev is derived from the name of the It was suggested long ago that Mz land Ma · sas. This means that the oldest form was *Ma · iones. gen. mentioned in Hittite texts. it seems obvious to derive the Maiones from Ma · sas. Homer does not have the word Lydoi (Ludoi i0 . As an s disappears in Greek in many positions. the derivation seems 7 Ł). Ki Łonev (south of Kyzikos! the long i metri causa). but in Homer the z is always sometimes transcribed as Mei monosyllabic). Luwian was spoken (e. has a suffix -on. comparable to Mai generalized later. B 866. 29f. in Doli i. also Troia. inside front and back cover). north or · ). -i Łonev). 306f. Latacz indicate peoples. i02f). 23). -osi B 864. of course. Die Hethiter 2002. we find there the land of Ma · sas. The idea originated from Goetze (i924. Troi continues a long a · .. the form with a must be of Aeolic origin (a Dorian origin is improbable). Hawkins i984. 449 . Makedo Ł nev.

Amnisos (Myc. 360b. But this is uncertain. so it would not have a suffix -sa-. whom some call Masdes (Ma ’Łnioi Ma Ł sdhn kale Ł ousin). -isa-s being a variant of -sa-s.was a suffix and that the Greeks learned the forms without this suffix. Then Tru. all manuscripts of Ł snhv . (F)i ì -(ev). see Jin Jie (i994.o by Plutarch. names as Rwndav. the s could no longer have participated in the Greek development and would have remained. M. e. The situation seems most clear in the case of Truisas : I think that it must be analyzed as Tru-isa-s . This Manes is well-known. However. there is no evidence for it in Lydian or Luwian.corresponds ì -ev and in Troi Łh (from Trw. son of Zeus and Ge · (which means that this is the oldest man). there is a problem. Hdt. Runt. so when the Greeks learned the name Ma · sas. Luw. Hephaistion (cap.The Origin of the Etruscans unproblematic. Note that all three forms end in -sa-. as e. However. the form without s is a conjecture). Von Wilamowitz added that it is understandable that a first ancestor was called after a river (cf.g. probably in Proto-Greek. Houwink i96i.g. However. Gusmani does not discuss the point). Von Wilamowitz Dionysius have Masnes (Ma i899. 9 That -u. 94. with the Hittite names Łliov resp. ’Apaiso Ł v/Paiso Ł v (in harbour of Knossos. s. adj. There is a case where s disappeared in Lydian.g. 24 says that the oldest ancestor of he Lydians was Manes. this will be an instance of assimilation of s. Rwnderbemiv etc. i937. the Ł v ‘gold’.. Wilusas and T(a)ruisas. cruso the Troas). i56-8. Wilusas is often considered as derived from *Wilus. et Osir. as Hattusas is from Hattus . Troi Łh). which would be river-names (the names have not been identified. which has: Manes. da Ł snhv) and Masnes (Mclusters of Lydian from Xanthos the Lydian the names Pasnes (Pa Ł snhv). however. as the s had already become h very early. Robert. i30f. The form is furthermore confirmed ’Ł n Ł nhn.. which is found in Trw above on the shortening of the long -o-). now generally identified with Ilios. has shown that the oldest form of the e Ł sdnhv). Kark-isa-s. while Lycian knew such a rule. However. e.was rendered by w is no problem.8 Another possibility seems that -sa. Lydian inscriptions have no trace of this s : the name is Masdnes (Ma name is manes Ł. cf. 9i .v. 222f pointed out that the manuscript reading is correct. note 49). 8 ii . i) and Ł sklhra) mention as examples of the unusual consonantHerodianos (Etym. cf. I think. i. see with Trw-9. It would be easiest to assume a local sound law s > h in this northern region. which is very frequent in Anatolian geographical names. This Troy (Trw problem has not yet been solved. where there is no trace of the first s either. Myc. However. maneli.. aminiso). as the a Barrington Atlas does not give them). Dionysius of Halicarnassus i. in Ephesos from Abasas (mentioned in Hittite).93). i63 .+ -ih .(Gusmani i964. kuruso . but. de Is. Lyc. For the suffix (to be distinguished from -ssa-).g. We have a comparable problem. which may have nothing to do with s between vowels. further e. L. cf.

Geographical names are linguistic facts that are of historical interest. with assimilation of the u to the preceding i. 7i2.may have been the land of Ma · . combined with the phonetic resemblance.Maion. of which nine are neuters. This interpretation was already given by Kretschmer in i927. 254ff) that single -a · in that function only ’ rw Ł kh. Pala ·. -a · nus : -ia · nus.Troie · the geographical and historical evidence. Blaene (Blah Whatever the explanation. parallel to Ma · sa-.P.S. which is derived from the word for the people. ii Names of countries were formed in Greek with -ia · . cf. as also the decision to give when possible the latinized version of names instead of the original form. the forms are mostly very unusual. As in the case of Wilusas . -hnoi : -ihnoi. with one more on p. Ma the Mother goddess who was venerated in these lands.i3 What follows confirms the idea so clearly that This development may have been helped by the fact that -uov is rare in Greek.i0 In the same way Ma · -sa. which became Wilios. Foini Łkh. Krh Ł ph must Ł th.of the Greek form may be explained as follows. So we might expect *Ma Alternatively. note 3i. ’ rida Ł kruov .) i3 It is a pity that the Barrington Atlas does not indicate the length of vowels. Ma · iones indicates the people. But then Mai Łonev is difficult Meister i92i. · ia. (The form has been explained as Boeotian. Kretschmer-Locker give 34 forms. ì : gai ìa. with long a · . The -i. with -h. it seems to me that Wilusas was adapted as *Wiluos. Cf.from the name of a god.highly probable. based on Gr. of course. (Cf. ii It was demonstrated long ago (Sommer i937. the land is called in Greek Ma · ion-ia ·. except a few compound adjectives. we could assume an Anatolian variant with -iya-. like a -iov is. i0 i2 . for the forms gh ìa : po Ł liv ‘Ellhsponti Ła (‘a city on the Byzantium. i2 Ł onev. is so strong that I think we can consider the equation Ma · sas . for a derivation with -s(s)a. cf. Lat. without i. Lastly compare Stephanus of Tes íubassa-). It is therefore obvious to ask whether there was an earlier name for the country.) Kretschmer (l. the new reading of Hitt. Ma · was the name of · sa. Tarhuntassa-.c. extremely frequent.R. · Wilus-iya-. Beekes Anyhow.may have come into Greek without the suffix -sa-. Libu Łh . It is quite improbable that in the same area two large countries existed of which the name began with Ma · . The name of the land may well have been *Ma · . and the same may have happened to Ma · sas.i2 (For the lengthening of suffixes cf. Mai Hellespont’).) assumes a Greek derivation from Ma · . a mistake that seriously diminishes its value. Ł nh). who notes s. i50f argued for original Mh to explain.v. for the structure P/Bla · . is much less frequent than forms with short a).Ilios and Truisas . Ilios and Troy ‘lost’ an s. to which Eu occurs in a few very old names (Qrz be added).from -ai-.(Ma · -. As is well known.

30f.) The story is told at some length by Strabo (i2. Classical Maeonia. in the north. in the south it runs to the (east-west course of the) river Makestos. Jones in the Loeb edition. ‘buti4a others say that they [the Mysians] were Lydians. Ł): ‘These are colonists of the where he says about the Mysians (Musoi Lydians. Geographically the assumption of an ‘old Maeonia’. (by) saying that the oxua-tree is so named by the Lydians [this means that this tree has a name in Lydian which strongly resembles the word Mysoi]. i4a I give the translation by H.) (ou Ł ontai ’Olumpihnoi Ł.P. and that some say that they are Thracians. but they are also mentioned near Lampsakos. from the mouth of the river Aise Œ pos. They lived in (later) Bithynia. where a Lydian colony was established] and that their descendants were the Mysians of later times. (they add.The Origin of the Etruscans there can be little doubt about the etymology (but.i4 i. 8. and that their language too bears witness to this. west of Kyzikos. who at the same time explain the origin of the name of the Mysians. a ’Łreov ìn a Ł ei Ł mpou de Øo in Mysia is meant. thus concurring with an ancient explanation given by Xanthos the Lydian and Menekrates of Elaia.L. east of the Bosporus. (which probably was the border of the Troas). (The Olympos ï toi de ’ ’si Ludw ’ p’ ’Olu ’Ł poikoi. near Ephesos. a mixture of the Lydian and the Phrygian languages. Olympus. between the Black Sea and the Kian Gulf. he excludes the peninsula east of the Bosporus. the distance is some 225 km. 74). Starke indicates that Ma · sas comprised the territory of eastern Phrygia Hellespontica and western Bithynia. where they say that the decimated persons were put out [i. He says that there is uncertainty in the authors he consulted about the Mysians. lies due south of Ma · sas/old Maeonia. for. i3 . It is very shortly referred to by Herodotus (7. after the mountain Olympos called Olympie Œ noi’. i4 Dr. I add some explanations in square brackets. in a way. Cuypers i997. then. it is not essential for my thesis). with a few slight changes. fits very well. so named after the oxua-tree. Cuypers draws my attention to the fact that the Bebrykes lived in the territory designated by Starke as Ma · sas. to Heraklea. as we shall see. Olympus for a time. and this area lies south of (Starke’s) Ma · sas. And the oxua-tree abounds in the neighbourhood of Mt. east of the mouth of the Sangarios.) their language is. kale 3). They are even found in Lydia.e.3 Ancient testimonies That the Lydians came from the north is in my view confirmed by a story given by Greek authors. for they lived round Mt. Classical Maeonia is notably the area north-east of Sardes (where there is also a town Maionia). M.

The story may be summarized as follows. (This etymology of the name ‘Mysian’ is improbable: peoples’ names are not ’rh ’ti ’Øn Xa ì ntev h Ø Ludou Ø v ei Ł kasi. Olympos). exactly in the area where the land of Ma · sas is situated. tou Ø v tou Łkou phga Ø v plhsi Łon Ludw Øn e Ø v de Ø Musou Ø v uper ta me ’ nelo ’Łlonto to Ł ntwn is a conjecture for ei Ł n ‘they took (There is a problem with the text: a the’. There was a tradition that the Mysians originated from the Lydians.Strabo knows that the Phrygians came from Europe. ì Kai ì ha oi ì sai. whereas the Mysians took up their abode above the sources of the [river] Kaikos near Lydia [i. e Łnwn de Øa Ł nouv ei u tou ï ’nai kai ’Łtw prosagoreuhe ìn de Ł ntav. i7 The Phrygians in Homer are an anachronism.e. the country which I assume to be ‘old Maionia’. The Mysians were pushed southward by the Phrygians and so came in the position where they are found in historical times.) i6 A discussion of the story is given by Briquel (i99i. He also states. e Ø to Øo Ø tw Øn o Ł hn Ø Menekra Ł thv o ’Elai kai ‘o ’ noma ’ xu ’ ktehh ’Łtwv o ’Ł pou e ì nai Ł zousin oi Ludoi Ł. a Ø th Ł hv Ø v dekateuhe Ł ntav. which would be Lydian. but the general meaning is clear. 55ff).e.S. but the story is about the country east of it (round Mt. those people [the Phrygians] took up their abode there. of course.P. Their descendants became the Mysians. o ì ntev kai Łthv. as one might expect. to select the people that will found a colony. just north of (classical) Lydia. marturei Ø kai Ø th Ø n dia Ł lekton. went to the places where they lived in classical times]. from a traditional point of view. i5 i4 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ . e Ł ntwn.i6 ‘To decimate’ is a means of deciding who has to leave the country and find a living elsewhere. for there was a Lydian colony established around the Olympos. o Ł fasi ou ïnai tou ’ po ’ xu ’ kei ’ pogo ’ ìv o Øv ’ Łsteron Musou Ł v. i. te Ł wv me Ø n ga Ø r oi Ø v peri Ø to Ø n ’ŁOlumpon. Beekes but when the Phrygians crossed over from Thrace and slew the ruler of Troy and of the country near it. a Ł ntwn[?] te th Łav a Ø th Łon gh Łnouv khv peraiwhe ’ ntau ’kh ì n. .R. It might be to the south of it. pollh Ø d’ h Ł h kata Ø to Ø n ’ŁOlumpon. kat’ ai Łan palaia Ø n istorou Ł nhov o Ludo Ø v gra Ł fei oi de ’ tumologou ’Łnoma to ’ xu ’Ł ti th ì n Musw ì n. mixolu Ł dion ga Ł r pwv ei Ø ou Ł ’kei ’ tou ’ k th ì n de ìn e ìn au ì v Qra Ł gion. This cannot be to the west of the Troas.Mt Olympus is the Olympos in Mysia. and who according to Strabo became the Mysians) is a mixture of Lydian and Phrygian. It is a pity that Strabo and his sources do not mention who lived there: it will be clear that I think that the (forefathers of) the Lydians lived there.’i5 It may be useful to give a few explanations. That this story is correct is shown by the fact that the language of these people (who Herodotos calls Olympie Œ noi. that their arrival was accompanied by violence: they overthrew Troy [perhaps rather than the Greeks as they claim in their story of the Trojan Wari7] and the land lying near it. It would also appear from the name of the tree. where you have the sea. . tw Ø Frugw mixofru ˜’ nelo ’Ł rconta kai ’ kei ì v Troi ì v plhsi ì v.

there is a tradition which remembers Lydians living in old Maeonia. oi to Ł te subject to Telephus. then called Maeonians. (and by the survivors of the Mysians who had formerly been ’ p{ Ł kisan] Ludoi Ø de Ø Qh Ł bhv pedi Łon [e Ł. but all kinds of changes followed later.. this ’ poiki Ła) of Lydians. .. As the Lydians lived in (classical) Lydia.The Origin of the Etruscans derived from the name of a tree. That they lived in the mountains. That the must (they thought) have been a colony (a Lydians might have come from there was no longer known. we are dealing with dim recollections of a distant past. where he says (in Jones’ translation. Secondly. There are good arguments for this view. and it is also easy to see how the colony-version arose. 4). 8). The tree argument is not strong. (to ì n oi perigeno ì n upo Ł onev. It is assumed that the Phrygians invaded the country after i200. i. kai Ø Musw Ł menoi tw Ø Thle Ł f{ pro Ł teron). It is just a usual feature of colonization. it is a ‘Ru º ckzugsgebiet’. for the ’ ’ ’ i5 . the colony would have been established before i200.)’. This Mz statement is important for two reasons. and probably by pressure of the Phrygians. It is next to impossible that there was a tradition about such an uneventful occurrence so long ago. and the plain of Thebe [Thebe near Adramyttion] by the Lydians. while the surrounding country is so fertile as is the case in this area (Strabo i2. for the part round Cyzicus as far as the [river] Practius was colonized by the Phrygians.e. First. and did not occur to them. on the other hand. suggests that this is an instance of a people driven to the mountains by invaders. What people observed was that there is evidence for Lydians around Olympos. the movements mentioned must have been roughly from north to south (or from west to east. This interpretation is confirmed by another passage in Strabo (i3. see n. To begin with the latter. Then. (The invasion of the Phrygians. But it may be true that in this area the word for this tree was Lydian. The people in Strabo’s story lived on the Olympos. it shows that the Maeonians were pushed on in the time when the Phrygians came. I see the following indications for my view. and those round Abydus by the Thracians.. i. That is 700 years before classical Greek times (Xanthos wrote in the early fifth century bc ).) Thus. was such a disaster that there remained a tradition about it. i4a): ‘Now such were the conditions at the time of the Trojan War.) My view is that the Lydians mentioned were not a colony. 8. they lived in the mountains. Also the precise term Ł w must be sheer phantasy: such minor details cannot be dekateu remembered over so long a time. but were the original inhabitants of the area..

).i8 It may be noted here that Hanfmann. i. i6 ’ . How and Wells. Beekes Phrygians. ’ kaleu ’ pi ì nto to Ø Ludoi Ø Mhi Łonev e Ø pa Ł lai. e Ø changing their name. mod.. That they were named after the prince is very doubtful: it is much probable that the name of the prince was coined to have an eponymous hero to explain the name ‘Lydian’. Manyas Go í Go º lu º lu º or Kus º ).). Thus. Both places are exactly in the country which I suppose old Maeonia to be. under the king’s son Lydos changing their name (from ‘Maeonians’) into ‘Lydians’. That there were in earlier times Lydians in the north has long since been assumed. Hdt. The latter point requires explanation. in old Maeonia. It may be a further indication that (the) Lydians once lived in the north. Xanthos the Lydian.4). the other. already commented that this name reminds one of Daskyleion (older Daskylion. metabalo Ł ntev to Ø ou Łnoma). cf. See Malay i999 nr. how a noble Lydian family could have originated so far in the north. 7. 6). There was another town so called further east on the seashore (east of Skylake). Herodotus (i. however. cf. 74 : ‘The Lydians were earlier called Maeonians. like the Galatians later. This fact is repeated several times.. Another consideration is that in the tradition on the origin of the Etruscans it is stated that the Lydian people were divided in two parts. in his history of Lydia (which is lost). says that an early king Meles had profited from the violent death of a prince Daskylos. 74).g. i05 and i80 (three times). Ø Ludou tou ŁAtuov e de also Hdt. where later a Persian satrap resided.’ The question is not put.P. But the story contains something remarkable. and this is exactly where I propose that they were.’ (oi de ’ ’ ’ ’ ì ì Łscon th Ø n epwnumi Łhn. the founder of the Lydian Mermnad dynasty (see below i. but after Lydos the son of Atys they got their [present] name. 374. was the son of Daskylos. the excavator of Sardes. in their commentary on Herodotus (ad loc. In an appendix How and Wells (i. section 8) write: ‘It is tempting to conjecture that some immigration of fighting men from the North (was the cause.R. also reckoned with ‘immigrant Maeonians’ (i958. moved to the south-east). e. It lies to the south of the westernmost of two lakes south of the Propontis (called Aphnitis. one being that of the later Etruscans. 7. as happened so often in the Greek world.S. which gives evidence that the Maeonians earlier lived north (or east) of Thebe. below i. 8) states that Gyges. So it seems as if the same event that caused the i8 The name Deskylos [sic] is found on inscriptions east of Sardis around i50 ad . Why did the other half of the population change its name? This would have happened at the same time when the Etruscans left the country.

It is found in Mursi tyrant of Mytilene on Lesbos and of a historian from Lesbos. This name is known in Hittite as Taskuili-. 8) and of a king of the Mariandyni and his grandson (schol. so Maeonia Łh kai Ø Mzoni Łh (in K is classical Lydia. This may imply that Maeonia is also a land in the north. Phrygia and Lydia..’ Names connected to Troy do not show typical Luwian Łlov. Trwi name of a son of Priamos. e. 2. the name of a Lyd. on Ap. as my hypothesis supposes.4 Other evidence When I had nearly completed this article..The Origin of the Etruscans Etruscans to leave the country. or the idea.g. the elements. -li. of roughly the same importance as Phrygia. The place name Daskyl(e)ion. 724 and 752). Maeonia would then be just the traditional name for Lydia. i. dates from a (very recent) time when Phrygia had become less strong and when Lydia was growing in strength. was also the cause for (the event leading to) the change of the name of the other half of the population. heading south. the change of name suggests that they went to another country. den Nordwesten Anatoliens nicht ausgespart haben. Now in classical times this would be unthinkable: Phrygia is a large and mighty country. has a suffix -il-. which is found several times in the northwest of Asia Minor. Thus. I saw Neumann’s important article on the language of Troy (i999). which is the name of the father of Gyges (Hdt. they were of course called ‘Lydians’. To put it briefly. Also Phrygia in the Iliad seems to be only the land in the north (the Sangarios is mentioned. but some evidence points to Lydian. But in G 402 and S 29i we find Frugi 43i Phrygians and Maeonians are mentioned side by side as well). In B 866 the mountains Tmo Œ los is mentioned as located in Lydia.(mane-li. nothing else): its southern extension is simply not in view. the name of a Lydian king and of the son of (the derivation from Mu Lydian king) Gyges. ein unu berwindliches Hindernis º gab es da nicht. I wonder whether Homer gives evidence for Maeonia in the north. whereas Maeonia is small and insignificant. which finds its closest parallel in Łlov.‘(son) of Manes’). and settling elsewhere (i. i. So the collocation must date from a time when the two were comparable. which may mean ‘son of (the i7 . This is well explained by my assumption that the other half also left the country.e. He remarks that the peoples speaking (Indo-European) Anatolian languages ‘mu º ssen . But it cannot be excluded that the expression. In this way the statement about the change of name can be accounted for. so that both were comparable. Rh. If they settled in a country called Lydia. in classical Lydia). is derived from a personal name Daskylos. it is a Ł rsov.

i.Further I recall Kadmi note 49). Now Palmus is a Lydian name. In B 863 Askanios is called a leader of the Phrygians (together with Phorkus). as having come from Askania. such seals were also found in Mycene and Thebes in Greece.’ Finally Neumann points out that the evidence adduced for Luwian in the Troas is not reliable.’ He then goes on to refer to an article by Starke (i997b). dass durch das auch Mysien erfassende Ausgreifen der Phryger das dort vorher herrschende Idiom [= Lydian.3 Phrygian’ (mixolu above. Starke concluded that (the name of) one of these languages. beeintra º chtigt worden ist.i). in Mysien und dann wohl auch in der Troas das Lydische .P.vor dem Eindringen der Phryger und anderer aus dem Balkan heru º bergekommener Ethnien. So Neumann differs from Starke. together with Askanios and Morus. which will be ‘son of Kadmos’ (on Kadmos cf.20 Askania is in the center of old Maeonia/Ma · sas (the most eastern of the three lakes there is called Askanie · ). We shall return to the question in i. i9). I add a few small observations. we have the word qa km ku.-anatolische Sprache . who thinks that the whole north-west of Asia Minor was Luwian. we discussed this text in i. Ła). who discussed the Hieroglyphic Luwian inscription of Yariri from 8th century Karkamis (in the far east of Asia Minor). haldŁ dion and mixofru Ł gion). About the seal with hieroglyphic Luwian text recently found in Troy he remarks that it has ‘nicht den geringsten Zeugniswert’ for the (local) language of Troy. Note that here the i is long.oder eine ihm nahverwandte idg. Neumann: ‘Das darf man wohl so interpretieren. i79. He then connects this term with Mysia (Musi finds the equation confirmed by the statement of Xanthos the Lydian (FGrH 765 F i5) that the language of the Mysians was ‘half-Lydian. Beekes god) Tasku’ (the god is known to us).7. dass auch no º rdlich von Lydien. Foini long i followed by a consonant. i8 . like Salami 20 Note that names in -us are typical of Lydian.S. . The problem is how a Lydian can come from Askania i9 Note morinail ‘from [the city of] Myrina’ on the inscription from Lemnos (on which ìlov. and referred to Lydian. musu/azza.geherrscht hat . Neumann concludes ‘Insgesammt machen diese Einzelbeobachtungen wahrscheinlich. as appears from the context] beeinflusst. He is mentioned by One is the name of the Trojan warrior Pa Homer N 792. which may be relevant for our problem.R. (One might compare other suffixes consisting of ìn-.) Muri ìk-ev.i9 Further the town Gergitha in the Troad is reported to have been founded by the Lydians from Gergithes (Strabo i3. who claimed to speak many languages. below in 2.) Łnh. (Hom. 276). Ł lmuv.‘king’ in the Lydian texts (Gusmani i964.

as these words are abstracts. much like those known from the Etruscans. i4) discusses Surga Phrygian (Dd-i02. both languages may have it from a substratum. which is not probable here. 753. and from there it may have come not only in Lydian. In the first place. Hesychius calls it an o Greek name’). That the s. He also mentions Surgastos in Old Neumann (i988. He assumes that it is a parallel formation in Greek and Phrygian. i.Lydian name taken over in Greek. sarku. (His comparison with the type dalugasti. But Gusmani remarks that the name ‘im Lydischen. It is further remarked that the oldest mention of the name comes from Kyzikos.2i If the name is typically Lydian.‘high. it might prove the Ł sthv. der fu º r seine Schu º tzlinge sorgt’ resp. powerful’. Gusmani (i980/8i) considers connection with Hitt.) Surgastoj. (Homer probably lived near Lydia.e. probably the text mentions that his grandfather was also called Manes (gen. ‘a non-Greek name’.‘length’ seems not viable to me. In the present context it would confirm that the Lydians originated from this area. the Propontis area and Phrygia and Lydia. We do not know whether it went from Phrygian to Lydian or vice versa . im Phrygischen aber bisher nur eine schwache Spur hinterlassen hat’ (it is found on a seal-inscription). Further. iv i c. Polat (i50) states that this represents ‘eine tief verwurzelte Tradition .‘to care for’). is in Phrygian.v.mehrmals vorkommt. (The stela has a relief of a banquetscene.. 967 s. without respect of historical fact. which may be Ł sthv. as ’Łnoma barbariko Ł n.. word su ï 2i i9 . it may have occurred not only in Lydian.. Its meaning is unknown.) We should also keep in mind the strange Greek Ł rgastrov.) Interesting is the inscription recently found in Daskyleion which mentions a man called Manes (Gusmani .The Origin of the Etruscans (which is far north of classical Lydia). a verbal adjective (‘ dieser Region’. But there is no Indo-European etymology. But the conclusion is not certain. on which see the etymological dictionaries. dating from the first quarter of the fifth century. ‘der Betreute. 2). manitos). -twr. The inscription. i. and derived it from a verb *surgad-yo · (root *suerg. Beschu º tzte’). mentioned on coins of that town (see re 2. This seems improbable to me. related to the epithet of Zeus in the city of Tios/n in Bithynia. so he must have known many Lydian names.. ’Łnoma barbariko Ł n (‘a nonCook i9i4. an inscription identified as Phrygian by Neumann). eminent. as a nomen actoris resp. the Greek form is not Greek: it is written in Greek letters. If the word is of Indo-European origin. but it is a name.) We have in the Lydian inscriptions a name Srkastu-. i. A present in -ad-yo · is unknown in other Inso-European languages and is probably a typical Greek formation.e. This may imply that the man is of Lydian descent. So it will be a loan from a substratum language in Asia Minor. Surgasteus . Homer may just have used an interesting name. The word is also found in Phrygian (dat. Surga -hiov.Polat i999).was preserved in ‘Greek’ is because it was a loanword. The distribution too Hesych states an o suggests a Phrygian .

70). well known in Anatolian onomastics: Mamastiv.S. -alu.P. In Starke’s diagram (i997a.i. Beekes presence of Lydians in Bithynia (which is supposed if Maeonia was Lydian and if Starke’s identification of Ma · sas is correct). Gusmani (i980/8i) pointed out that -st. Atras Łtali.). Gusmani i964. see also the comment on atras Łali. Da · ma · thr. i.) Sergestus. Zenobius Paroim. Our reconstruction may help explain this fact. Oettinger (i978) argues that Lydian belonged to the Palaic-Luwian group (which remained after Hittite had left the group). 85 (LochnerHu º ttenbach 6i). 20 ’ ’ . Cuypers suggests to me that it wil be continued by (Lat.65).P.< *Serge/ast-. Dr. 486) Lydian is at the farthest end of the Anatolian languages. Taking all pieces of evidence together it seems probable that. I would add the possibility that it is found in the Etruscan name Seks Łtalus. bch 59. recalls the Lydian personal name Atras Łt[a] (with adj.(Gusmani i964) is a Lydian name. the companion of Aeneas (see below.22 But if this was the son of Alyattes or Sadyattes. the monster Agdistis.. before the arrival of the Phrygians about i200. From the proposed position of the Lydians in old Maeonia/Ma · sas it follows that they lived in the north. see L. i82). From this group Lydian would have branched off first. section 4. and their contact with the other 22 Note that ŁErmwn is also the name of a king of the Pelasgians (= Tyrse Œ noi) who handed over Lemnos to Miltiades. But the situation could be explained differently. 22) says that Abydos too was Lydian. 455. But Melchert (i994. Then we may have Seks Łt.) Lame ìtru. which may be a variant. Damatrus (probably the same word) the name of a mountain in Bithynia. Nenestov . 3. the whole area north of Lydia to the coast spoke Lydian. i935. But the word is derived from Gr.< *Serkst. Stephanus of Byzantium says it was founded by the Lydian king ŁErmwn or ’ŁAdramuv. Then there is the tradition that Adramyttion was founded by Lydians (Strabo i3. Eremastov (Haas i966. Pedley (i968.5 The linguistic position of Lydian Linguistically Lydian is the most deviating of the Anatolian languages. Robert. 98). 4) thinks that ideas about subgrouping are an Etruscan suffix of gentilicia (Rix i965.R. so it is too late to be relevant here. Note that the town Adrasteia. (There is a form Turgasthv found on Chios. it would be in the time of the last dynasty. north of Troy. but I have not found his source. Hence they were in the farthest corner of Anatolia.

Perhaps. Among them were the Phrygians. We pointed out above that classical Maeonia is due south of old Maeonia/Ma · sas. there was a small zone with another dialect north of it. (This is more probable than that they were an enclave in Luwian territory. writing about the colonisation of Ionia. particularly that of the seabord. then. on account of which attacks were made against it from numerous places and continually by peoples from the opposite mainland. Sakellariou (i958. He says (i2. It may be mentioned that Strabo already remarked that the region under discussion had a very turbulent history. 430) also saw a connection with these events. (It is improbable that. he concluded that they did not live in the coastal areas. if Lydians lived in Mysia. 4) that the history of the peoples in this area is very complicated. It is more probable that the Phrygians.) If the Anatolians entered Asia Minor from the west. from Europe. pushed other peoples southwards. the Maiones are mentioned immediately after the Phrygians. coming from the north.4 above). 23 2i . they pushed the Lydians also westwards.) This is probably one reason why Starke assumed that the Lydians lived somewhere in the north. as it presupposes that the Lydians originally lived further east (than in classical times) and that the Phrygians came to the east of them and pushed them westwards. which would explain the deviating form of Lydian. It is generally supposed that around i200 peoples from Europe crossed the straits. The Phrygians lived also east of classical Maeonia. as we saw (i. because of ‘the fertility of the country this side of the Halys river. He therefore assumed that the Phrygians pushed the Lydians to the west into their later positions. Only the Turks and the Mongols came from the east. never mentioned the Lydians. This means that the Lydians came from the north.6 Historical considerations Historically the situation seems also clear. 8. but they came through Iran. Now it was particularly in the There is no passage from the north-east. So it is very probable that the Lydians were pushed to the south by the Phrygians.) The connection with the invasion of the Phrygians was also made by Neumann.The Origin of the Etruscans Anatolian languages may have been limited. The connection with the arrival of the Phrygians is mentioned by Strabo. (In Homer. This is geographically less probable. After observing that the Greeks.23 i. to Turkey. or else the people nearby would attack one another. one might think that the Lydians were the last to enter Asia Minor. passing the Caucasus.

7) tells us that two dynasties ruled Lydia: the Mermnads (the last dynasty. Archaeologists have found that Sardes.’ This hypothesis is confirmed by archaeology and by a remark of Herodotus. later (?) it was known that the Mermnads reigned i70 years. was violently destroyed around i200. these were preceded by a few earlier kings sometimes called the Atyades (one of them Atys.The explanation of the 505 years had 24 22 .e. and before them the Heraclids. The argument is simple.) Drews (i969) found how the chronology arose.. This gives a date of ii85 for the moment when the Heraclids took power in Sardes.R. that we do not know how far south the Lydians lived before i200. is irrelevant for the Lydian chronology. forgetting his own. .) Herodotus (i. ‘What is significant is the notice of a change of dynasty around i200. The Herodotean sons of Heracles may have been responsible. but that in this case we have to do with the the first arrival of the Lydians in their later land. however. and after i200 Sardes was continuously in the hands of the Lydians. ending with Kroisos).24 To reckon with 25 year per king is reasonable. but at a time of great population disturbances and political upset. so if there were 22 kings. Pedley (i968. the Assyrians and the Medes. 4 says generations but seems to imply kings) and 5 Mermnad kings. before i200 the Lydians lived in my view in old Maeonia. the population movements of about i200. There would have been 22 Heraclid kings (Herodotus i. a fact substantiated by the archaeological material. whose sons Lydos and Tyrse Œ nos led the people when the Lydians split in two groups because of a famine. It is based on i king = i generation = 25 years. one group leaving for Italy). this gives some 500 years (550). Pedley gives the year i22i. Beekes time of the Trojan War and after that time that invasions and migrations took place. more exact. (It must be admitted. just as similar legend records the damaging activities of the Heraclids in Greece and elsewhere at this time. The Mermnads seized power under Gyges. the capital of classical Lydia. estimate. 7. then the Heraclids must have reigned 675 . it is difficult to assess the responsibility accurately.’ In my view it is probable that this were indeed the ‘Heraclids’. 5).P. 30 .i70 = 505 years. which is based on the old assumption that Gyges came to power in 7i6. 25): ‘Sardis was destroyed by a fierce and uncompromising foe at the end of the Bronze Age. so they must have arrived around i200. . Drews’ comparison with the rulers of eastern Asia (Minor). i. The number of 505 years must have arisen as follows: 27 kings x 25 years = 675 years.’ (Pedley i968. Herodotus states that the Heraclid dynasty reigned 505 years.S. This is supposed to have happened around 680 bc (Pedley i968.

so he must have consciously ignored it. king of Lydia and Phrygia. However.7 Conclusion We started from the etymology deriving Ma · iones from Ma · sas. we do not know how real the 22 kings (generations) are. notably on the (east)coast of the been found much earlier. As the Phrygians and the Mysians arrived much later.35) that the Lycians originally lived in western Caria.4) that this is not certain. only Me Œ iones.which may have been based partly on his assumption that the whole of western Asia Minor was Luwian. we saw above (i. The story refers to very ancient times (speaking of the birth of the goddess Kybele). There are however two problems. Their territory may have been (much) larger at that time. east of Miletus. or in general the Greek expeditions against Asia Minor. One wonders whence the name Ludoi Homer does not have the name Lydians. Ł comes. Bryce argued (i986. the other the fact that there is no agreement on the position of Ma · sas. there was a time (before i200. 8 says that Gutschmid had proposed this explanation in a lecture. Schubert i884. 23 . and were pushed south to (classical) Lycia after i200. was father of (3. Most probably Homer knew the term Lydians. 23 . who tells us that Mz Kybele by Dindyme Œ ne Œ . However. 58). i. we found several indications for the essential point. Perhaps we have a reminiscence of this situation in Diodorus Siculus Ł wn. in i992 Bryce seems to be less certain about this reconstruction. you get ii80 (i230). that the Lydians once lived (also) further north. however. one is the formal difficulties. and the fact that he is presented as king of both Lydia and Phrygia is remarkable.The Origin of the Etruscans Starting from 680. with Gyges. This would be a fine parallel to the proposed history of the Lydians. the fall of Troy) when in the north of western Asia Minor we only have the name of the Lydians (of course the names of other peoples may have been lost). But why were they not mentioned as allies of Troy. One wonders how this is to be explained. However. like the Lycians? He also ignored the presence of the Greeks along the coast of Lydia. We started from Starke’s idea of the position of Ma · sas . and that the north was more probably Lydian. the name Me Œ io Œ n refers to the Maeonians. The general idea is that the Ludoi lived to the south and at a later date became more important. As mentioned above. which may be because Homer knew (or better thought) that there were no Greeks in Asia Minor at the time of the story about Troy. Starting from there.

which at the same time confirms all that we knew about the question. I realized that this provided the answer to the problem of the origin of the Etruscans. Th. from the i3th and i5th century. because there are several stories in antiquity about movements of peoples that are a Greek suffix. from which the Greek form was taken. up to the coast.i The Etruscans came from the East Herodotus’ story (i. the author kindly sent me the manuscript.already in the i5th century. immediately becomes a problem. notably that of the Phrygians. and notably Neumann’s analysis of the linguistic situation around Troy. Thus the Greek name. The further developments leading to the classical situation are perfectly accounted for by the events around i200 : destabilization of the world and large scale migrations. I consider this at present as Prof. Maduwata. But this is mere hypothesis. the author must assume a third unkown language.S.) But short vowel (B 869).was represented by double writing is not very probable. there is no evidence for Lydians here.) ï ï 25 24 . He assumes that names like Maddunassa. as opposed to Mz as these forms had -d. south of the Propontis. i] The conclusion is strongly confirmed by the fact that it solves the origin of the Etruscans in an unexpected way.from *Mai-un. the Sea of Marmara.(with a known Lydian sound change). van den Hout read a paper on the early history of Lydian at the congress on prehellenistic Lycia and Lydia in Rome. And rightly so.25 [Add. There is nothing that confirms these hypotheses. (It would also be cognate with Maiandros. 2. which would be Ł onev. I shall argue that their homeland was in ‘old Maeonia’. i999 . (The idea that a fricative -d. and the position of Lydian among the Anatolian languages) and a few minor indications. These indications were both historical (data from Greek writers) and linguistic (the view that Luwian has not been ascertained for north-west Asia Minor. however. 94) of the Lydian origin of the Etruscans met with much scepticism in the scholarly world. In our case. rather shows that this root is unrelated. Beekes Propontis. Also -(i)on. the results of very many years of research leave no doubt that the story is correct. from which the idea started. so it is less probable that it is an Anatolian element. which rather weakens the proposal.R. Thus part of the prehistory of the area can be accounted for. the origin of the etruscans When I had reached the above conclusion that the Lydians earlier lived (also) more north. 2. which kept the original -i-. related to Mz but this is a Carian river.P. have Madun. and the Greek form with Ł onev.

also Beekes 200i). This is also clear from the following consideration. Mostly they are mentioned just once. However. (2) a movement from the East to the West. there is no evidence that there was a language covering Italy and (the west of) Asia Minor. they are never mentioned as (active) trading posts. cf. but in some cases he confesses that he himself is very sceptical about the oriental origin. (3) both peoples are remains of a general non-Indo-European substratum.The Origin of the Etruscans proven. like most other scholars. He wants to discuss the tradition without giving an opinion on the matter and he largely succeeds in doing so.] The last theory (of the three mentioned by Briquel). because of the identity of their names. defended e. Would Etruscans have settled in all these places? And all these places are found in one contiguous area. but this was generally rejected (Steinbauer i999 shows that it is linguistically impossible. in any case we would have to assume that this trade became a failure. This is further confirmed by the fact that these people disappear without trace. and because of the Lemnos inscription. [See also App. the archaeologist Beschi objected that there is no sign that there were Etruscans (from Italy) on Lemnos. by Pallottino. but there is not the slightest evidence for trading activities of these eastern settlements. Why would the Etruscans from Italy have come to these places? One might suggest for trade. 273) three possibilities: (i) a movement from the West to the East. For the explanation Briquel sees (79 n. which seems unlikely if it concerns trading posts. and give here just a short presentation of the most important arguments I take as a starting point a few remarks by Briquel in his thorough study on the tradition (i99i). First. It was soon recognized that the language of the inscription was closely related to Etruscan. A glance at the map (in this article) shows that the eastern Tyrse Πnoi are the remnant of a population that tried to survive at the fringes of the mainland and on the islands. opponents of the oriental theory have tried to escape the inevitable conclusion.) Also. He admits (79). and this has never been contested. whereas there is ample evidence for one language (or language group) in 25 . found on Lemnos in i884. iii . has always been the most important testimony for the oriental origin of the Etruscans. (Let alone the question whether the Greeks would have tolerated them in their country. is quite improbable. This inscription. The first theory was recently defended by De Simone (i996). On the contrary. that there is a connection between the Etruscans and the Tyrse Πnoi of the East.g. and often it is only stated that they once lived (past tense) there.

P. Further. but we know nothing about them! Xanthos said that Atys’ sons were Lydos and Torrhe Œ bos. It is even improbable that peoples with the same language but living so far apart would keep the same name. Briquel gives himself parallels for this motif. Beekes Greece and Asia Minor (the Greek substratum language). but this cannot be said of Tuscany: this is not a relic area. Briquel also makes a point of the fact that Tyrse Œ nos (who is of course fictitious) would be a son of the Lydian king Atys and brother of Lydos. Briquel too finds this solution less probable (i999. On the contrary. but except that a Torrhe Œ bian 26 . the time depth between Etruscan and Lemnian would be some 2500 years in this view (if we assume 3000 as the end of the common language). that might easily have spread secondarily). while there is at the same time the tradition that they come from one area.c. This simply settles the question. Briquel then requires (70) that adherents of the eastern theory explain the form of the tradition. but it is natural enough (even though it can be fictitious).) Then. Essential is: ‘Pourquoi et comment une telle tradition se serait-elle e Ł labore Ł e sous la forme sous laquelle nous la percevons?’ Earlier he called the tradition very elaborate. it is a most fertile and desirable country. 72 . in Asia Minor. and one might ask whether so long a time distance is linguistically possible for these languages (De Simone called Lemnian a dialect of Etruscan. The theory is a desperate attempt to avoid the evident conclusion from the Lemnian inscription: the Etruscans came from the East. this remark is not found in the Italian version in Torelli 2000). Also. Then. though I think there is no basis for this qualification). it is almost impossible that the names of these peoples (i.R. The story about the plays invented during the famine (to forget their sorrows) is not worth serious discussion. it would be very curious if only these two languages would have been preserved from such a widespread language group. (Whereas the eastern Tyrse Œ noi were a remnant. Tyrse Œ noi) remained the same over so long a period. they would have taken Tuscany just like the whole rest of Italy.S.26 It would point to a close 26 Briquel uses the Torrhe Œ bians as an argument. old languages may hold out in places that are of difficult access. there is no evidence that this language also existed in Italy (apart perhaps from a few words. I think that the tradition is very simple: it says that people were forced by hunger to leave their country: this is what Herodotus says. Tuscany was an area to settle. If the Etruscans were there already when the Indo-Europeans entered Italy. and the Lemnos inscription was made by one of the small groups that remained in or near their country of origin.

Smyrna dates from the end of the eleventh century). 27 . but nothing is known about their language. because they were peoples speaking quite different languages. But Briquel doubts himself whether this was enough to invent the story. while the adherents of the oriental theory have no problem at all. was a standard element in these stories.who here in fact rejects the oriental origin . the Lydians and the Tyrse “ noi would have lived side by side for 800 years. So Briquel . it is also an anachronism. Briquel goes on stressing that they had the same language as the Lydians. where the element is also fictitious. (Smyrna is only mentioned by Herodotus. But if the Indo-European peoples entered Asia Minor around 2000 (a date which is certainly not too early). and if the Etruscans left about i200 (see i.The Origin of the Etruscans association between the two peoples.3 below. He suggests. agrees with the Lydian tradition in that it assumes that the Etruscans came from overseas. in mythological terms. is completely fantastic. 47i . I rather think that a few ships found a good place to live. Next year more people came over. The way of selecting half of the population. In the course of time a considerable number of people came to the new country. see 2. from the east.) So I see not the slightest difficulty in the form of the tradition. Briquel thinks that Tyrse Œ nos was made a son of the Lydian king in the time of the Lydian Empire. as is used for people in the north-west of Anatolia. not in the anonymous version in Dionysius of Halikarnassos. as stated by Herodotus. This is all shere speculation. etc. Homer. as Sakellariou remarked (i958. It probably testifies to a completely unhistorical view of the matter: it is most improbable that the departure was a large-scale operation from a great harbour. absolutely nothing is known about the figure or the people.6). that the Lydian kings wanted to have a good relation with the Tyrse Œ noi. Above we saw this in the story of the supposed Lydian colonists (who became the Mysians) given by Strabo. which has not been identified. It may be noted that the Pelasgian story. Also it uses the same name for Etruscans. as Herodotus says. with much hesitation. They settled there and next year some went home and brought family and friends in a few ships. which is more reliable. the variant that the Etruscans originated from Pelasgians in Greece. B 840-3.has a problem. This may be enough for calling them. because they had the islands of Lesbos and Lemnos. mentions Pelasgoi as allies of lake is mentioned. far away. whereas the Lydians did not have a fleet. Pelasgoi. That they left from Smyrna. and is then at a loss to find why this was done. is an element that everybody might have imagined. ‘brothers’. but a story about the selection of who would take part in a colonisation.

6ii). For the idea. This was evident to everybody. Endres-Schinmmel 240. and with influence from the peoples and cultures of Italy. B i34 e ’ niautoi ’ nne ’Łpefnen.i. however.) Consider also the fact that there is a tradition of the coming of the Phrygians. The fact that Xanthos the Lydian seems not to have mentioned the tradition can easily be explained. Etruscans/Tyrse Œ noi (cf. as a result of a long process. One need only think of Homer. in Herodotus’ time. they are mostly thought to have lived in the Troas. following Pallottino i947. it is just a footnote to his telling that the Lydians invented several games. as they spoke a completely different language. cf.P. p. Only later the Greeks learned their real name. 2. That is correct. called Pelasgoi. even though they lived side by side for a long time. and the Tyrse Œ noi were no Lydians. i9. is given by Drews i992. very near my ‘old Maeonia’. came from Asia Minor. It is frequent in Homer. see 2. Germain i954. He refutes the idea that Herodotus story can be ancient. It was necessary to stress this. Beekes Troy. But why would a Lydian scholar be interested in the Etruscans? As to the drought. Eighteen is 2 x 9. After all. So Xanthos needs no excuse for not mentioning their departure. (That the drought lasted eighteen years seems to me a genuine folk-tale element. and P 785 tri Øv d’ e Ł a fw Dio eighteen one cites that Haldan had eighteen sons. None of his arguments can stand.e. For ì tav e Ø v mega Ł lou e Ø.2 with n. Drews suggests that a Lydian scholar made up the theory. nr. and assumed that they brought an 27 A useful statement of the rejection of the eastern theory. much like ’ nne Ł a dh Ø beba Ł asi seven. No wonder that Xanthos ‘forgot’ about the Tyrse Œ noi. This is also the view of Hencken (i968. were meant. but does not think that it is original (except that it may contain details that are historical). 4i : i8ff. Herodotus too does not pay much attention to the story. He wrote about the Lydians. is a typical folk-tale number.27 It is often said that the question of the ‘Origin of the Etruscans’ is wrongly put. ii ). and his mention of objects that had long since disappeared. It may well be asked whether the departure of the Tyrse Œ noi had much impact on the Lydians. An extensive discussion of this version is given in Briquel i984. He does not discuss the origin of this variant. for it seems most probable that around the same time the Lydians were forced to go south.S. I think that the story originally was a variant of the Lydian tradition: the Etruscans. i68. but there are exceptions. 3i and App. He stressed that the Etruscans only became what they are in the times we know them. notably Thessaly. as adherents of the eastern origin earlier thought of a much more recent date (like 800). compare the seven fat and the seven meagre cows/ years of farao’s dream in Gen. Later the Greeks thought that the Pelasgians in Greece. as oral tradition does not normally reach that far back (in our case 700 years). and nine.R. that Odin knew eighteen things. i. Cf. 28 .

Pfiffig (i975. people who also brought other things with them’. And a language can only come with its speakers. brought by the Etruscan people are an essential element of their civilization). I shall now give a list of the most important arguments for the origin in Asia Minor and the immigration into Italy. Though one may object to the formulation of the question. and i5. 5. to avoid misunderstandings. Pallottino’s objection would hold against a formulation: ‘the origin of the Etruscan civilization’ (and even then one can object that the religion and traditions.) So to be precise. and these bring also other things. Luw. notably ideas and traditions.The Origin of the Etruscans advanced civilization with them. much as we know it. ‘Den ‘Tyrrhener’. the question concerns: ‘the origin of the people who brought the (predecessor of the) Etruscan language’. The tradition as given by Herodotus and Dionysius of Halikarnassos (on which see 2. du º rfte das Wesentliche der Sprache. (The first four. tuwarsa. that the great scholar was always very sceptical about the eastern origin. while there are so many. in the ‘ho º here materielle Kultur’. For ‘das Wesentliche der Sprache’ I would say ‘die Sprache’. recapitulate arguments mentioned above. The use of the term ‘Tyrse Œnoi’ for both Etruscans and a people in north-western Asia Minor. for the problem remains where the Etruscan language came from. 3. It is a pity. Hier. which probably came from Asia Greek words of Indo-European origin) recurs in hu Minor (cf.) i. To the testimony of Lemnos must now be added that Herodotus says 28 Dr. not to speak of genes. 29 .3 below).28 4.g. however. Cuypers points out that the rare sequence -urs. Thus e. der Religion und der ho º heren materiellen Kultur zuzuschreiben sein. den Tra º gern einer hochstehenden Stadtkultur.’ (Note that here we find a trace of the view which Pallottino rightly refuted. as has been done all too often and too easily. 2) recognizes: ‘ein aus dem Osten eingewanderter Bestandteil’ to be called ‘Tyrrhener’. there are no ‘mixed’ languages.‘vine’). Opponents often mention just one or two of the arguments. The story that the Etruscans were Pelasgians. this does not mean that there is no question of origins. The Lemnos inscription. So the remarks about the wrong question cannot be used to brush away or forget the question of Etruscan origins. This means that the Tyrse Œ noi/Etruscans came from this the name (it is hardly possible in Ł rsov. 2. Above we argued that the eastern Tyrse Œ noi are the remnant of a population.

P. who said that Tyrrhenians are attested near lake Askania. Ł v. Steinbauer (i999. unless it was just Limnai). Loanwords. 8. We shall see that the fact fits excellently into the theory proposed here. 22i). Beekes that the people of Plakie Œ and Skylake Œ spoke the same language as the Etruscans. the highest god of the Luwians and Hittites. This is just over the border of classical Lydia. 389): ‘Unbezweifelbar steht somit wenigstens die kleinasiatische Herkunft der etruskischen Sprache fest. 68. It mentions three people as Tyrse Œ noi (67.) One might assume that these Tyrrhenians went south from the coast with the Maeonians. (And nobody will argue that these were Etruscans from Italy.29 7. Kumdanl|?). i9i2) to Sittig (i929). The Kumdanl| inscription. cf. (see Chantraine i933. 206 . This proves that the name Tyrse Œ noi originated in the north-west of Asia Minor. Tarchon. 30 A desperate but unconvincing attempt to refute the argument was made by De Simone in i996. Schwyzer 490 (6). as it seemed not to fit in with the tradition of the Lydian origin. Sardihnov . i02). The suffix -a Œ noi (with Œ e from a · nos. on the border of Pisidia. c. as it is the only time that we have inscriptional evidence for Tyrse Œ noi in Asia Minor. It has long since been recognized that this suffix for ethnic names is at home in north-west Asia Minor. Though very late. The form is of extreme importance. The inscription dates from the second century ad and is given by Ramsay (i883). at the north-western top of mod. The suffix -a · nos in the name Tyrse ·) points to the north-west of Asia Minor. In fact the inscription was found west of Antiochia in Pisidia. He is clearly the Stormgod Tarhun(t)-. the inscription is of great interest.2. 29 30 . De Simone i993. Sittig meant modern lake Burdur. 367) observes that Etruscan shows most connections (loanwords) with Lydian and concludes (p. lake Egridir (of which the old name is unknown. As to the language. This fact has not been given much weight.). some think that it is of non-Greek origin. There should be one. in the village of Gondane (mod. ’Olumpihno Ł v. ’Abudhno Ł Ł Pergamhnov. 2] 9.S. the same inscription is cited by Sundwall (i9i3.30. see 2. as it represents an element which the I have not seen a photograph of the inscription.R. because of the unique character of the text. and later went further east from (classical) Maeonia. 88ff. The definite proof of the oriental origin of the Etruscans is that a ‘hero’ of great significance is Tarchon (Briquel i99i). 6. Brandenstein refers (i942.’ [Add.

2. This identification is strongly confirmed by the story that the Etruscans were Pelasgians who came from Greece under Nanas (Nanos). takes it as a fact.’ And on p. I found it in Schachermeyr i929. ii. Compare the town of Tarhuntassa in the Hittite world. ‘un he Ł ros religieux’ (p. the Etruscans Tinia (or by an Italic name Voltumna).’ i2. the triumph as the festival of the victory. Horsfall i987. He has the power to ward off lightnings. mentioned by Hellanikos.357. Kretschmer i896. He is ‘une des figures les plus importantes de la fable e Ł trusque. Tarchon is ‘le he Ł ros fondateur par excellence. a Phrygian king). Still Briquel thinks that he is in origin the eponyme of the city of Tarquinia (p.. 353 . carried as symbol of sacred power by Lydian kings. But his properties are much easier explained if we assume that he was in origin the Anatolian god of lightning. 299): ‘When this bipennis [‘double axe’]. In his study of the Roman triumphus Versnel has shown that (i970. Nanas. On a smaller issue Versnel concludes (p. see e. the identification of the Roman victorious general and of the magistrate leading the games with the god Iuppiter.. 293): ‘the Etruscans brought the New Year festival with them from Asia Minor. introduced via Etruria. Lyc. a figure of the ‘dying and rising’ type. 3i .g. a god whom the Greeks called Dionysos. i0.who is no adherent of the Lydian origin. is encountered again as the symbol of 3i It should be noted that this fact was realized long ago. 300 : ‘The Etruscans brought the New Year festival with them from Asia Minor and gave Rome two ceremonies: the ludi Romani as the festival of the New Year. nani. Nannav.g. 96 e. nannaya-. i58 n. the typological and historic relation between the ludi Romani and the triumph. the Anatolian Tarhunt was the god of lightning. Hitt.and the kinship-terms Luw. 238). 3. The triumphus complex.3i I cite a few remarks on him by Briquel (i99i) .In Etruria the city of Tarquinia was called after him. 242). as the leaders of the Etruscans on their voyage to Italy (see n.g. 25). sons of Telephos. Only along this way is it possible to explain the data: i. property of ‘Zeus Bakchos’. Nani.i2. together with the god who formed the centre of it. who was invoked by the cry *thriambe and who on New Year’s Day was represented by the king. i53). 38). This name was long ago recognized as an Anatolian ‘Lallname’.The Origin of the Etruscans Etruscans brought with them from Asia Minor. the Dionysiac call to epiphany triumpe. .’ (p. . i0. His importance is shown clearly by Lykophron (i245 i249) who mentions Tarchon and Tyrse Œ nos. ne ìni (also (N)annakos. We have Lydian (!) Nannas. He is also the specialist in the etrusca disciplina. dont l’activite Ł concerne l’ensemble des cite Łs e Ł trusques’. The double axe. In Virgil he is the leader of the Etruscans (e.

It seems quite probable to me that the lituus. such as the much discussed hepatoscopy. The first handbook states that the initial stress confirms this. i3. Tarchon. from which Daskyleion was derived: Neumann in i. and cf.4 above).. Varro derived the word from Kadmilos/Kasmilos who is one of the Kab(e)iroi. which means a young boy of noble birth who assists with ritual actions. Kadmilos e.S. Apollo and the Kabeiroi tithes of all their future increase’. One might also recall the Latin word camillus. That is. 5) relates: ‘For the Pelasgians [ =Etruscans] in a time of general scarcity in the land had vowed to Zeus. 2. this fact in itself shows that the Tyrse Œ noi/Etruscans came from there.g. which is found in languages of Asia Minor (cf. ‘And all the functions which among the Tyrrhenians .’ These conclusions are of primary importance. and of the ceremony of investiture in which the bipennis played a part. Beekes the royal authority of the Etruscan kings. 32 . who is no doubt the god of lightning.. Cf. from Kadm-. 32 The connection with Semitic names is wrong. but the cult arose among them. The word is stated to be of Etruscan origin.R. Which means that they lived there (for a very long time).32 The subject is of great importance. is Anatolian (see e. 2. Probably more evidence can be found in the field of religion. which is a geographical name in Caria and in Greece. 2 . 22. But Herodotus. take it over. as they concern a deeprooted complex of religious views that cannot have been taken over from elsewhere. Dionysius (i. 52. who is also probably originating from Asia Minor. mentioned in the treaty of Alaksandus of Wilusas with the Hittite king (e.g. Taskuili-.v. but beside Zeus. Dion. Latacz 200i. Hal. and Apollo. Again. The Kabeiroi. says very clearly that the cult of Samothrake was a Pelasgian cult (and he makes it very clear that he means with Pelasgians the Tyrse Œ noi). is derived with -il-.’ Again. were performed in the same manner by those attendants called by the Romans camilli. at a later stage. a group of gods originating from northwestern Asia Minor. We saw that the Etruscans kept the connection with the Kabeiroi. This shows not only that they honoured the Kabeiroi. they did not. the crosier used by the Roman priests. this may be considered an important indication of the Asia Minor origin of the entire underlying ideology. particularly of the supreme king of the federation of cities.g. Apaliunas. 23. See note i3. see Ernout-Meillet and Walde Hoffmann s. i38).P. (Note that he is the defender of Troy. were performed by those they called kadmiloi in the rites of the Kouretes and the Great Gods.

Hortensius 95M). dass man so gern bereit war. which may have been lost relatively quickly. (But it went the other way: the Etruscans came long after the IndoEuropeans and settled there/conquered the country. concerning cruelty.33 i4. Many scholars would like to see archaeological evidence. Mezentius would tie prisoners to dead bodies. Still. alles mo º gliche von ihnen zu glauben. it is a desirable area which the IndoEuropean peoples. where an ancient people may hold out when the country is invaded.The reproaches resemble very much ideas of ‘the East’ in the western world which persisted until recently.The Origin of the Etruscans Wainwright i959.e. the position of women was much different).’ ’Łte omo ’Łte Ł glwsson ou Dionysius of Halikarnassos said that they were ou Łaiton with any other people. ‘wrong’. but I think that it is quite possible that we shall never find any. cf. One might compare the arrival of the Greeks in Greece for which archaeological evidence is so difficult that it brought a scholar like Renfrew to assume quite a different period (and way of spread) than most Indo-Europeanists do (who almost generally reject Renfrew’s proposal). they stoned the prisoners to death (Hdt. and the behaviour of women. We have seen above that Tuscany is not a ‘withdrawal area’. after the Etruscans defeated the Phocaeans near Alalia in 540. i. 33 ’ ’ 33 . as often seen on representations of Hittites. would certainly have occupied.) i6. 2i0 . ‘Etwas muss doch an den Etruskern gewesen sein. People came slowly. On the contrary. 2i6f) has said essential things about it. Vergil will have it from Cicero (fr. 8. had they come later. which Pfiffig translated: ‘nicht nur in omodi der Sprache. No withdrawal area. 483ff. But I think Pfiffig (i975. sondern in der ganze Mentalita º t verschieden’. i. in small groups and brought few material objects with them. at one time the speakers of the I wonder whether the cothurnes worn by the Stormgod. 75. There was in antiquity much criticism on Etruscan customs.’ Dionysius concluded from the fact that they were so strange that they had always lived in Italy. are an Anatolian heritage. Abb. who said that Aristotle mentioned the practice of Tyrrhenian pirates. whereas it is of course much more natural to explain it by assuming that they were strangers. Aen. Verg. The Etruscan way of life. the Stormgod standing on an animal with his lituus over his shoulder). in the eyes of the Roman and Greek observers they were different. Much of it may be exaggerated or simply wrong. with all the usual stereotypes. i67). 34 Thus. Pfiffig then continues: ‘Es war die letzte Blu te der grossen vorindoeuropa º ischen º Kulturen’ (where e. and often worn also by the Etruscans. Haas i99i.34sexual behaviour. i5.g. . Archaeology. ‘In ihrer so wenig indoeuropa º ischen Mentalita º t mussten die Etrusker den Griechen und Ro º mer als etwas fremdartiges erscheinen.

Proto-Villanova appears in Tuscany. dans cette partie de la pe Ł ninsule. and second that archaeologists tended to give most attention to Troy and later to Greek remains. not a ‘century’) ended in 88 bc . the Mycenaean and Hittite worlds. de groupes humains venus de l’exte Ł rieur.S. it has been argued that the Etruscans thought that their world would last ten saecula (Briquel i999. but that between Proto-Villanova and the preceding Bronze Age Apennine culture.P. º r uns na 35 34 . If one assumes ii9 also for the eigth saeculum we arrive ate 568 for the end of the fourth. 53b. Further.5i. So. 36 Pfiffig’s alternative (‘wa º re es fu º herliegend’) is without value. not from the north. from Etruria agreeing with their homeland. . 43 .’ (Briquel i999. 37a.) Elsewhere the Apennine culture continued (now called Sub-Apennine and later Tombe a fossa).). The 1200 crisis. These are exactly the territories which later are Etruscan! (see the maps in Briquel i999. 6] i7. 59 . the fifth i23. Pfiffig i975. i59ff. The archaeological aspect has now entered a new phase. and i200 is exactly the time I propose for the departure of the Tyrse Œ noi to Italy. que l’on est enclin a Ø interpre Ł ter par l’arrive Ł e. perhaps we should be content with other indications. 58 . ‘De fait. however. The eighth saeculum (‘lifetime’. between which the Tyrse Œ noi lived. Beekes later Greek language did arrive in the country. So the movement of the Etruscans fits very well in the general picture. shows a serious break. Mountjoy i998. disappeared. l’apparition de cette nouvelle culture en Toscane vers i200 semble bien marquer une rupture importante. That this was the setting of the migration of the Etruscans has been assumed by many earlier scholars. 60. So what we still would like to have is material objects. it should be noted that until now we did not know where in Asia Minor we should look for the Etruscans. The transition between Proto-Villanova and Villanova appears to be a continuous one. but also in small areas round Bologna and in Campania. cf. this treatment appears slightly shortened in Torelli 2000. ii26. i8. from the Urnfield culture (which are mostly Indo-European peoples). This is indeed found often in Asia Minor. [Add. about i200. in spite of the lack of archaeological evidence.)35. the ninth in 44 bc The sixth and seventh would have lasted ii9 years. The ten saecula. or art traditions etc. In i200 the whole Mediterranean was in commotion. it seems.ProtoVillanova is characterized by the transition to cremation.36 The first four would have been hundred years A glance at the map makes it probable that these people came by sea.R. Jansen i995.. The way of counting provides several problems. As to the time. and in what time.

e. which would take us to ii68 bc . Herodotus states that the reason for the departure of the Tyrse Œ noi was a long famine.i204) the Hittite empire suffered from a serious famine. however. but he has to admit that the pharao sent grain to help the Hittites. from 900 bc on. If we accept it. The journey. I have nothing to say about the possibility that the Tyrse Œ noi are mentioned among the Sea-peoples. and that only peoples near Egypt were concerned. But when pharao says that Hatti and Arzawa (= western Asia Minor) were affected. it remains remarkable that they stravelled over such a distance and with such a considerable number of people. It could well be that this was some 200 years after the arrival of the Etruscans. I think: people don’t migrate without a compelling cause.g. 20.’ But that was evident. Now we do not know from when one started counting. So the question is whether the T(w)r(w)s Œ noi. The first comparable movement is that of the Phoenician colonies.The Origin of the Etruscans each. A. 2i. This is clearly a guess because there was no accurate memory. It is clear. Drews (i992. The sea-peoples. which seems convincing evidence.. as the Lukka are mentioned (which were very probably the Lycians). man occupied Crete at least 35 . it seems. Kuhrt (i995. the date of 968 could be a hundred years later. the problem is the details: which peoples took part in which movements? In our case. This has been identified as the famine about i200. i4ff) denies that there was a famine at this time. for further movements and destructions.393) thinks that the concept has been greatly overestimated. and it was 300 years later. but these were smaller. but not its cause. Not much value can therefore be attached to this argument. On the other hand. the Tyrse Œ noi may have been involved as well. i9. Her conclusion is that the turmoil caused by the ‘Sea-peoples’ was ‘one of the signs of general collapse and disintegration. would that be just rhetoric? The phenomenon as a whole stands. that there are many uncertainties in this reckoning (if the first to fourth saecula consisted of shorter periods. She says that the inscriptions of the pharaos contain much rhetoric. we arrive at 968 bc .. that the islands were in turmoil. were the Tyrse confirmation. but then again such a movement could become itself a cause. 386 . 39i) says: ‘There is evidence that in the reign of Merneptah (i2i4 . but it seems quite possible.’ It is very obvious to identify this with the famine in Herodotus. Still. The famine. We know from the abundant finds of ceramics in the i3th century that the Mycenaeans knew the sea-route to Italy. or a kind of unification of the Etruscans. Ame Ł lie Kuhrt (i995. This might have been a decisive victory over the Umbrians. or the founding of an important city. We have no í. mentioned by Merneptah.

ii2) states that the Etruscans conquered 300 cities from the Umbrians (Trecenta eorum oppida Tusci debellasse reperiuntur. the statement that they conquered 300 Umbrian cities and the Umbro-argument. the fact that Tyrse Œ noi are still living there in classical times (the eastern Tyrse Œ noi). Samoa and Tonga in the Pacific were reached in i200 bc . This statement is confirmed by the river Umbro (mod.Etrusci).R. the triumphus-complex. the camillus -complex and the fact that the cult of the Kabeiroi was of Tyrrhenian origin). Plakie Œ and Skylake Œ . 23) Sergestus . The Umbrians. is literally true. perhaps their mention among the Sea-Peoples. so the Etruscans must have pushed the Umbrians out. The river will have given its name to the people. Ombrone). i.e.S. the possible connections with Lydian). It must be accepted that the first remarkable high civilization in Italy. and our first information dates from about 450 bc (Herodotus). the archaeological evidence that a new people arrived around i200 .) 22. their language (Lemnos. identified with that around i200 . the fact that around i200 the whole eastern Mediterranean world was in commotion.P. the fact that they were seen as strangers. Anyhow. [And Add. and in western Europe. 750 years after the migration. the river will have flowed in Umbrian territory. their religious beliefs (Tarchon. 4. I for further evidence. or vice versa.See section 4.). I. was essentially developed by an ‘oriental people’ (Piganiol). because neither Herodotus nor his informants could understand it (as Lydians in historical times no longer lived in the area). the epigraphical evidence (Tyrse Œ noi east of Lydia).000 bc . [And that the Pelasgian allies of Troy in Homer were ‘Etruscans’. the fact that Toscane is not a ‘Ru º ckzugsgebiet’. Nanas). Pliny (3. See App. on Aeneas. the names of their leaders (Tarchon. 24. The evidence is limited because we have no written texts of the people themselves (the inscriptions do not tell us much and we can hardly read them). 5 and 6] Conclusion The conclusion is that the evidence that the Etruscans came from Asia Minor is overwhelming: their name (Turse ·noi . 3.] It is no longer possible to ignore the evidence. the date that roughly agrees with the Etruscan ‘belief’ that their people would live ten saecula. the double axe. This clearly refers to the ‘Landnahme’. and that this confirms that it is an old tradition. 36 . which flows in its full length in Etruscan territory. Beekes in 6. the famine mentioned by Herodotus. App. (The islands Fiji. We shall now see that Herodotus’ statement that they came from Lydian territory.

by the famous inscription and by numerous references in the literature. 97. Thus I add Tenedos (though it may be that we should strike Lemnos in that case). So far Brandenstein.Samothrake. . also Furne Ł e i972. 73). Huth probably did not mean ‘four’ (cf. In Attica: . Steinbauer i999a. 5i) mentions Pelasgians here.Chalkidike. It is argued that the Tyrrhenians arrived here only late.Lemnos. [See App.two people called Maron are considered Tyrrhenians because of their name. of course. this may mean only that one individual arrived at Samos). As I argued earlier (200i). 7i) tells us that they came from Tenedos (see De Simone i996. which were Tyrse Œ noi. is inhabited by Tyrrhenians. in the extreme northwest of Asia Minor. the Tyrrhenians were probably pushed out of their lands. i09.the supposed mention is due to wrong interpretation. for the parallel of the Lelegians see Bryce (i986. Athens is not relevant if we look for the possible homeland of the Tyrse Œ noi. 4. On the islands : . In Macedonia: . see below on Plakie Œ and Skylake Œ. Herodotus (2. 2. again this can be just two individuals. ii . on the islands and on the continent east of the Hellespont. as has long been recognized. But they may well have come from some place nearby.2 The Tyrse Œnoi in classical times When we look at the places where Tyrrhenians are attested in classical times we find them. Thus Hellanikos (FGrH 4.i on the Kabeiroi. But there is more: . cf. Thuc. .Lesbos. and wandered along the coasts and islands to find a place to settle. but it seems that they were time and again expelled and then had to find other dwelling places. The idea that Hyttenia was equivalent to Tetrapolis and shows Etruscan huth ‘four’ is probably incorrect. (Brandenstein mentions also Samos because the brother of Pythagoras had the name Tyrse Œ nos. however.Athens. and their father came from Lemnos. . In Thrace: . i93). i9i2 -i4). I first follow the list given by Brandenstein (i943 col. the story of the Tyrrhenians being expelled to Lemnos is considered a propaganda story by many scholars. 2. 3i). Tyrrhenians on Lemnos are confirmed. the peninsula of Akte. see the map.Imbros. 430 .] 37 .The Origin of the Etruscans 2. Anyhow. see below and cf.

That means that Tyrse Œ noi in Herodotus are always the Etruscans in Italy.).and especially those in the north . Bibl. he states that these two villages have the same language as the city of Kre Œ sto Œ n. It says: the language of Plakie Œ (and Skylake Œ ) is the same as that of Kre Œ sto Œ n. with villages). ii ). Then again. this strange situation disappears. at least partly . the statement is informative: the language of Plakie Œ is the same as that of Cortona. First. Etruscans. i. Second. whereas for Cortona it is very apt: it means ‘north of (or: beyond) the Etruscans’. see e. 57). Beekes . which were very much alive. So far the arguments Briquel provides. i. however. Third. Herodotus does not further mention Tyrse Œ noi in the Aegean area.e. i. see App. but Briquel (i984.the case of Plakie Œ and Skylake Œ is rather complicated. If we read Kroto Œ n. the statement that the ì n leads to awkward problems in the case of Kre Ø r Turshnw city is upe Œ sto Œ n. the text with Kre Œ sto Œ n makes no sense in itself. 3) cites this passage but has Kroto Œ n instead of Kre Œ sto Œ n (which is found in all manuscripts of Herodotus). barbariko of people that (still) exist and can speak. Further. And everybody knew that Ł n.Kyzikos was once Tyrrhenian. Why should Herodotus give this reference which is of no use? He could just as well have said that you have to go to Plakie Œ if you want to see that the language is not Greek. Inquiring about the Pelasgian language. ì tai is not the adjective of Kre the form Krhstwn-ih Œ sto Œ n.i40) convinced me that Kroto Œ n is the correct reading. Another argument is that there is no further evidence for Pelasgians between Thessaly and north-western Asia Minor with the islands (= the Tyrrhenian area). Lochner-Hu º ttenbach 54f. but there is more. If we read Kroto Œ n. . on the northern boundary of Etruria proper. Herodotus is talking of Pelasgians in Italy. whereas Krotwnì tai is the normal adjective from Kroto ih Œ n. Fourth. i0i . so we must read Kroto Œ n here. Herodotus is talking Etruscan was not Greek. which is Etruscan (Herodotus here says that it is Pelasgian. Konon FGrH 26 Fi (= Phot.R. Finally.e. The inevitable conclusion of this reading is that in Plakie Œ and Skylake Œ (a ’ 38 . but there is no evidence that in his time there were still Pelasgians alive in continental Greece: they were a people of the past. It refers to the Etruscan city of Cortona in Etruria. But nobody knows anything about the language of Kre Œ sto Œ n. i86. 4i).S. The problem has been hotly debated.P.g. which is only because he accepts the story that the Etruscans were. nowhere else is it mentioned that Pelasgians and Tyrrhenians live side by side (they were one and the same.were Pelasgians. However.e. there is no town Kre Œ sto Œ n (only a region Kre Œ sto Œ nike · . Dionysius of Halikarnassos (i. 29. The two small places east of Kyzikos are mentioned by Herodotus (i.

and their relation to the Tyrse Œ noi. So much is clear that there was confusion among the ancient authors. It is a second testimony of the character of the Lemnos inscription. Briquel Œt les diverses explications admits this in a footnote (i45 n. Hal. but one learns only later that a large part of the population is Berber. 29). when it became clear that they were a separate entity. 28. It seems that their name was later used simply for the old inhabitants of Greece. or at least large sections of them. .843. 28.37 Some Greek authors say that they must be kept apart (Dion. Then it becomes understandable that one can also call the Tyrse Œ noi Pelasgians. In this way the origin of the idea of the Etruscans being pro Pelasgians becomes clear. Thus Homer mentions Pelasgians as confederates of Troy in B 840 . others say that they are one and the same (Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 4 = Dion. Hal. simply because they were a part of them. 3 : tou Ł teron kaloume Ł nouv). and it is also clear that in some cases ‘Pelasgians’ refers to Tyrrhenians.’ (On p. (The term Pelasgians is much more frequent than the term Tyrse Œ noi. traces de migrations) qui ont e Ł te Ł avance Ł es pour rendre ºde a compte de la pre Ł sence d’un parler e Ł truscoi Ø Lemnos.] 37 39 . It is clear that the Pelasgoi were a non-Indo-European people which the Greeks met. [to whom Herodotus’ statement about Plakie Œ and Skylake Œ is probably due] relevait un fait paralle Ø le. i44 with note 2i Briquel argues for the reliability of the observation. of which the inhabitants are Arabs. I consider the possibility that the Pelasgians in Asia Minor were also just a non-Greek people. And it will hardly be possible to maintain that here too (beside Lemnos) Etruscans from Italy had settled: aigain these people are clearly a relic of the past. i. 3 . in Thessaly. The Pelasgians. In the next chapter. The search for the Tyrse Œ noi is hampered very much by the question of the relation between the names Tyrrhenians and Pelasgians.The Origin of the Etruscans language close to) Etruscan was spoken.) Thus the ‘confusion’ about these names is understandable. when they entered Greece. i. In the beginning the Tyrse Œ noi were simply called Ø v Turrhnou Ł v fhsi Pelasgou Øv Pelasgoi (thus Hellanikos F 4 = Dion. are still much of a puzzle. They probably lived near Larissa near Hamaxitos. 28 : ‘On connai (faits de substrat. F 99 quoting Hyginus). Philochoros of Athens FGrH 328. [See now App. with a different language and different traditions. i. a remnant of a disappearing population. Hal.The stories about Pelasgians sailing from Greece to Asia Minor may all be fantasy.) Note that the two villages are exactly in the region which I identified as the original home of the Etruscans. dans l’antiquite Ł . The more precise name Tyrse Œ noi became only known and used later. ii . especially after the Greeks got acquainted with the Etruscans.) In the foregoing I have only cited cases where the term Tyrse Œ noi is used exceptions indicated. The testimony is of essential importance: the eastern Tyse Œ noi speak Etruscan. (One might compare Morocco. whether they were related to the continental Pelasgians or not. La constatation d’He Ł cate Ł e.

no indication that this is correct. it concerns the extreme north-west of Asia Minor. [See App. and the islands west of the Hellespont. Ephoros FGrH 70 F 6i). as these regions lie past Antandros. However. 3 . Pelasgians are also mentioned for Antandros (Konon FGrH 26 F i . including Lesbos. However. There is. but this will be due to a confusion.P. it is much more probable that it refers to a woman (who was taken prisoner by pirates).] It is stated that Besbikos. returning to the Doliones. we are here already in Lelegian territory. 42 . by who they had been received hospitably. Beekes in the south of the Troas. As in Homer Leleges lived in Pe Œ dasos (a little west of Antandros). i024 the Argonauts. . in fact the Troas and the land east of it down to the Gulf of Kios (in the farthest south-east of the Sea of Marmara). otherwise one would have expected for ’mi ìov.38 In Apollonius Rhodius i. and no longer in the land of the Tyrse Œ noi. If the town Pitane is meant. see above in the main text. The only other interesting statement I found is Lochner-Hu º ttenbach (i960. this would point to battles. If Tyrrhenians are meant here. 3. It seems not probable that here too Tyrse Œ noi were found. If we admit that all Pelasgians of Asia Minor were Tyrse Œ noi (see the last note. were taken for Pelasgians. as we just saw. i . s. a small island in the east of the Propontis. which was probably Lelegian. and it was thought that the historical Tyrse Œ noi mentioned in classical sources might have come secondarily to the places mentioned. Lochner-Hu º ttenbach mentions that there is no evidence except the mention of (a) Pelasgian Hera. Zenobius V 6i.Thus it is said that Pitane (east of Lesbos. 37). which is a historically most interesting statement. it is interesting that the event took place east of Kyzikos (where Tyrse Œ noi are attested). The name then became proverbial for happiness following misfortune. however.39 It appears that in all cases where Tyrrhenians are mentioned. Ł nh ei Ł rather Pitanai Pita 39 38 40 . who cites Alkaios and Hellanikos. they could as well With Besbikos compare for its formation the Hittite land Karkisa-. Strabo i3. scholars were uncertain about the original home of the Tyrse Œ noi.v.R. As to Samos. see Lochner-Hu º ttenbach i960. Byz. we have to add (LH refers to Lochner-Hu ttenbach): Chios (LH º 40) and Samos (LH 59) and. according to Strabo Alkaios called it a city of the Leleges. 69) speaking about the Homeric Pelasgoi in the Troas: ‘the Pelasgians were annihilated by the Aeolians’. according to Menekrates of Elaia (= Strabo i3.S. It is once stated that the Doliones were Pelasgians (LH i8. see LochnerHu º ttenbach 54f). LH 28) the whole coast north of Mykale (the peninsula opposite Samos). was called after a Pelasgian (St.). north of Phokaia) was enslaved by the Pelasgians and later freed by the Erythraeans. As Herodotus’ statement that they came from Lydia gave a problem. 5 and i0if.

and could..220) shows that his view was inspired by a preconceived idea (that Rome was of Greek origin. esp. and the right interpretation could hardly have been found hitherto. is slightly more trustworthy than that of Herodotus (see e. who in his story left out the word Maeonia.4i Dionysios says: ‘They say that Tyrrhe Œ nos was the leader of this colony. What Dionysios’ text says is: ‘He was a Lydian by birth. earth’. almost inevitably. asks the essential question (about Hdt. p. i4). no doubt because he did not find it relevant. but in this interpretation the statement would have been quite superfluous: all well-educated readers of Dionysios knew that Lydia was formerly called Maeonia. which was formerly called Maeonia. wo diese Lyder [from whom the Tyrse Œ noi sailed to Italy] ansa º ssig waren. not know that it was relevant.. That this view is right. 3. i968. it has probably always been misinterpreted. for Carey did not think of a different country. this was interpreted as: he was a Lydian from the country (of Lydia). 570 n. as they knew their Homer.. ïnai to ’ ’ k th ì ton de ì v pro Ø Ludo Ø n ei Ø ge Ł nov e Ł teron Mzoni Łav kaloume Ł nhv. Briquel i99i. 94): ‘Es ist nicht klar. who propagated it for political reasons. the so-called ‘anonymous version’ of the Lydian origin. Because there was no other option. 44f. .35 and i92 . Briquel (i993. Briquel thinks that it is the Lydian version (ibid. The view was perhaps inspired by Syracusan writers. or moved to places near by. Not only would Greek have expressed this in another way (e. where he says ‘district’. This is what I suggest. from the [land] formerly called Maeonia. Dionysius of Halicarnassus i. discussed in note 8.g.The Origin of the Etruscans have stayed in their own land.’42 This means that there was a land Maeonia (which is not Lydia. the Greek ì ‘land. [See the appendices i and iii .: from Lydia/his country.’ tou (‘he was a Lydian by birth from what was formerly called Maeonia’). 4i Only Hanfmann. It would have served no purpose for the story to recall this antiquarian fact.). is confirmed by Herodotus (i. and that is because he did.40 Though always cited on this point. neither Pelasgians (from Greece) nor Lydians (which are too close to the Greek world). so the Etruscans should not be.3 Ancient testimonies A proof that my view is correct is found in one of the basic texts concerning this problem. 27. i.As to One indication is that this text has the form Ma Dionysius’ view that the Etruscans were autochtonous. This wrong interpretation was easily made.20 . 94).] 2. This is improbable. This text.’ 42 I cite the translation by Cary in the Loeb edition. as now it appears that this area was Lydian territory.g. i960. with a single alteration: I say ‘land’. (which was) formerly called Maeonia). otherwise Ł snhv. text implies gh 40 4i .

22. The tradition that the Tyrse Œ noi departed from (a land called) Maeonia is strong. Cf. who with a part of the people from Maeonia came to Italy. Dussaud (i958. fle Ł aux de la Lydie. is a consequence of his ignorance of the facts. but the Maeonians. The Mermnads repeatedly attacked the Greek cities (on the coast).i) that there is historical evidence for the famine. e. Lydia has always been a landlocked country. 89 iii) has a chapter called: ‘Se Ł cheresses et se Ł ismes. Note again that it is not stated that the Lydians went. (It may be noted that the area indicated by Starke as Ma · sas. which is apparently essential. iv. Bithynia and Mysia. which makes no sense.)44 The fact that these stories mention Maeonia implies that we have to do with an old tradition. xiv. which I suppose to have been old Maeonia. e. Dionysios repeats a few lines later that Herodotus says ‘that the migration of the Maeonians to Italy’ etc. 8.P. (while Herodotus did not use the term ‘Maeonians’). who carefully distinguishes between Lydi (who derive their name from a king Lydus) and Maeonia: Item et Tyrrhenia a Tyrrheno.R. they could not understand it. ‘Es ist nahezu unglaublich.) Our solution also solves a strange problem. Etym. For it was not clear to people at that time what it meant: if it was just a synonym for Lydia. 44 ‘Thus also ‘Tyrrhenia’ [derived] from ‘Tyrrhenus’. because the only meaning of Maeonia was an inland part of the country.g.g. the brother of Lydus. 499. qui cum populi parte de Maeonia venit ad Italiam.’ (HanfEspecially in Lydia droughts. Isidorus. has no name in the classical period: it lies in Phrygia ad Hellespontum. the former land of Ma · sas. dass die Lyder die Dardanellen in ihrem Machtbereich hatten und doch an diesem Schlu º sselpunkt keinerlei befestigte Seestu º tzpunkte anlegten.’ He then gives an example of his own time. so while writing he slips back into his own view of history. from where Tyrrhe Œ nos went to found the colony. That Dionysios says that Tyrrhe Œ nos’ brother Lydos ‘remained in the country’.’ 43 42 .’ (Pedley i968. So there was a. which cause famine. Lydi fratre.43 But we have seen (2. are well known. ‘Yet.S. The story of the hunger could be fiction: it is common knowledge that you only leave your country if there is not enough food. 47). Beekes he would have said that). In classical antiquity it was no longer known which country this was. (Vergil too uses Maeonia. country Maeonia from where (the Lydian) Tyrrhe Œ nos came. they never seem to have held a single port for their own use. but it is now obvious that it is the country which I called ‘old Maeonia’. hitherto unknown. why would they consequently use the synonym? And if Maeonia was something else.

north of it by Lelegians.45 44a I found a curious parallel summer 2002. cf. 28. The conclusion is that the Tyrse Œ noi/Etruscans are said to come from Maeonia.’ So Drews (i992. which must be old Maeonia/Ma · sas on the Propontis. differs only little from the Lydian version. The point is that the Lydians had no experience with ships. i245 . it is mentioned by Dion. Mysia was also Lydian at an early period (see i. 430). Hal. 39). Strabo i4. I got a booklet. they were not so much interested in the town. i. 27).. settled on the Lydian coast and then fled again (to Italy) because of the famine. on the other hand the Lydian cavalry was a dreaded weapon). In my view. This is a possible. so the story could contain historical elements. Alex. i37 . visiting Kroisos.’ On the argument of the Lemnos inscription he answered: ‘Lemnos is not Lydia. embarked on a thousand mile voyage to an entirely unfamiliar land. 6i2. This is confirmed by Pherekydes (ap. 3 and i.i43). where the Greek sage Bias. 7. 3 . otherwise it would either have made no sense (as classical Maeonia was not on the sea) or it would have been useless to speak of Maeonia instead of Lydia. it is given by Lycophron. oder welchem west- 43 . i (and indirectly by Plutarch. when I was in C ° andarl|.The Origin of the Etruscans mann i960. He observes that Greek writers about the Ionian colonization never mention Lydians and concludes that they did not live near the coast.’ 45 The story that the Tyrse Œ noi came from Mysia. but I did not find any argument to do so. which is ancient Pitane (cf. 5i7f. who says that the coastal areas south of Ephesos were inhabited by Carians. 6i4) suggested that the Tyrse Œ noi came from the north. edited by the Belediye.i249 .) This is confirmed by the anecdote in Herodotus (i. they were not interested in the area near the sea. 30) is right when he says: ‘More incredible <still> is that an inland people gripped by famine should have walked to the coast.’ Hencken (i968. 2). 7. 4). built a fleet. but not an attractive solution for which there is no evidence. n. This is confirmed by the fact that the remaining Tyrse Œ noi lived in this area. Schachermeyr i929 preferred the Mysian version. from king Telephos. 2). Rom.. The story is late. ‘Les traditions locales des diverses villes ioniennes ne mentionnaient donc pas les Lydiens parmi les peuples qui ont pre Ł ce Ł de Ł les Grecs dans ces lieux. i. ‘Wir ko º nnen nicht ahnen ob Timaios hier etruskische Ueberlieferung folgt. because C ° andarl| is on the seaside. Lycophron took it from Timaeus (Schur i92i. It would be as stupid as when the islanders would try to attack the Lydians with cavalry. which is not even close to that of classical Lydia. about the city.Also they thought that islands and the seaside were very dangerous places. Since the Turks were of nomadic tradition and had a culture of the plains. dissuades him to build ships to attack the islanders. where we find (p. 7 . just as the islanders had no experience with cavalry.44a The fact is also noted by Sakellariou (i958. and appropriated it. I slightly adapt the English): ‘After the Turks controlled that area.

P. in any case Anatolian (Watkins i986). les navigateurs en provenance du bassin oriental de la Me Ł diterrane Ł e auraient fre Ł quente Ł les co Œ tes e Ł trusques [better: of Tuscany] a Ø la recherche de ces matie Ø res premie Ø res.4).’ (Briquel i999. They may have participated in the movements of the Sea-peoples. The sea route to Italy was already known to the Mycenaeans. 44 . we saw that Lycophron stated that Tyrrhe Œ nos was accompanied by Tarchon. This is the normal process with colonies: you go to lands which are known to you or your fellow men. troy 3. like the Phrygians later. Cf. and with the recent find of the Luwian seal in the city of Troy. brought Telephos and Mysia into the story. And some survived in their homeland or moved to places nearby (the islands). They may already have been traders. the arrival of the Phrygians (and others?) will have been the more direct cause. daughter of Telephos. (For the variation Troas/Mysia one is reminded of Troy/Teuthrania). but she is not always his daughter. however. warned that it is not yet certain that this was the native language of the population. perhaps they were after the minerals of Elba. which must be an old element. The new perspective makes another answer possible. i09f). perhaps as a diplomatic language. i4i). One might think that the name Ro Œ me Œ . perhaps moving on more than once. 3. Both would be sons of Telephos.i42). The seal only proves that Luwian was used in the highest levels. 7i . It seems more probable that the story is secondary. from the Aegean coast to the east. On the other hand. it is quite probable that they.R. ‘de Ø s l’age du bronze. after or in the time of the great troubles.S. thus also Neumann (above i. Scheer i993. The Etruscans may already have had one or more bases in Italy.i The language of the Trojans After the names of Priamos and Paris had been interpreted as Luwian. occupied the whole area. Latacz (200i. as W.i52 on the secondary character of myths about Telephos. before larger numbers of them moved there. When the Lydians crossed the straits to enter those fertile lands. it was believed that the Trojans spoke Luwian. Henkelman suggests to me. As has been supposed by several scholars. In that case the inhabitants of the Troas might have been speakers of the (later) Lydian language.4 Historical considerations We can be short on the historical aspects. Beekes 2. We have griechischen Autor er diese interessante Nachricht entnommen hat’ (p. The famine will have been one of the causes. it was around i200 that the Tyrse Œ noi emigrated.

However. there is still another possibility that might be considered. 63). they were Łh is the name of the country.46 (Latacz 200i.= Trw-. I). But I cannot suggest where it was. as I will explain Turse ·noi. had also reached the conclusion that the whole north-west possibly spoke Lydian. I). Lampsakos? Against the new background that the Tyrse Œ noi lived (in any case) directly east of the Troas (but also to the south: Add. when one comes from the south. Rhys Carpenter i946. Now the geography makes the suggestion more likely. that they were Tyrse Œ noi.2 and App. but earlier there was no geographical evidence (for the homeland of the Tyre Œ noi) in favour of it.g.has to be analyzed as indicated. this means that Truisas must have been located further. The cases where it is used for the town In unknown. However.e. This is an old idea (e. the origin of the e. 3. Later this town disappeared . and the analysis forbids the equation. on linguistic grounds. whereas in the Hittite text Truisas is on the same level as Wilusas. As the interchange Trus-/Turshas not been explained with certainty. that the Trojans were themselves Tyrse Œ noi (and spoke Tyrrhenian). where the metathesis may have been caused by the prefixed e-. i24f too thinks in this vein. (probably) a town with its country. Truisas was mentioned directly after Wilusas. with Tru. e. In the Hittite text. I proposed that Tru-isa. E-trur-ia. 46 45 .g. The Greeks understood it in this way that Truisas was the name of the country of Wilusas. a is no longer mentioned in the later Hittite texts. the idea that Truisas (if it must be thus read) was the town of the Tyrse Œ noi becomes very attractive. and consequently limited Wilusas to the city alone. I suggest the following course of events. It seems not probable. We have -trusin E-trus-ci.but the name remained and was used for the land only (as the town had disappeared). This differs from the element Turs. i. There was beside Wilusas a town/city-state Truisas.e. then. I). and as west is excluded because of the sea. We have seen that the Tyrse Œ noi lived on both sides of Troy. it must have been to the east.The Origin of the Etruscans seen that Neumann. Troi are clearly secondary (if one studies the formulaic technique). if Homer’s Pelasgians were Tyrse Œ noi (see 2. However.) Of course the two towns must have been close to each other. east and south (for the latter see App. i. Near Abydos. the Alaksandus-treaty .2 Taruisas It remains unclear how the name ‘Troy’ came to be used for the country of Ilios. one might think of an original Trs-. Thus the resemblance (with Tru-isas) is only superficial.

Of course. We know that around i200 peoples from Europe entered Asia Minor (Phrygians. in which expedition Achilles and Patroklos had similar roles as in the Iliad. On the other hand we have the strange story that the Greeks. The Phrygians are found afterwards in the whole area of the Troas (Phrygia hellespontica) and the lands east of it. It is improbable that after the Iliad a second story was made which largely imitates it.) 4. Note that the 46 . though some of them may have come at a later date). This agrees with the fact that Achilles took (in the Iliad.P. a much greater undertaking.3 The Trojan War. this undertaking seems unconnected with Troy.g. See e. Archaeology shows that Troy was destroyed and afterwards occupied by people from Europe. because Ilios was much more considerable. and was presented as an error! An obvious conclusion is that in the oldest story the Greeks went to whatever date. Kullmann i960. The earliest information is from Hellanikos (FGrH 4 F 3i). There is no archaeological evidence that Greeks took part in these events. conquered by the invading Anatolians . aeneas My proposal may be relevant to the origin of the Aeneas legend. further e. it is now agreed that this island (in Hittite Lazpas) was the first Greek position in the north. Achilles probably operated from Lesbos.g. The Trojan War.65 (cf. A good modern survey of the problems is given by Bryce i998. (It is a pity that these doubts are not discussed by Latacz 200i.g. 50 . the western peninsula of Chalkidike. Der Kleine Pauly s. in any case they did not settle there at the relevant times. who says that Aeneas went to Pallene. remains a historical problem. and that this expedition was only later transferred to Ilios. which is near Teuthrania. 3. made a mistake [sic!] and went to Teuthrania (near Pergamon).203). I 328) 23 cities. giving much more fame. Strabo mentions that the Phrygians ‘took’ (or ‘killed’) a Trojan king. Troia.v. where he would have died. It has long since been considered that the legend was based on a story about Etruscans coming to Italy. Beekes distinguished from the Trojans . then. Of course they also took the city. the Trojans may still have been closely related to the Tyrse Œ noi. see also Jansen i995. going to Troy.R. least by Homer. i89 . 392 404 . But it is also possible that Wilusas was Lydian. Thus e. Thyni and Bithyni. all in the extreme south of the Troas.S. Rhys Carpenter i946.

7] 5. but it is easier to assume that they always lived in this area. cf. This has never led to any solution. whose name is that of Amykos in Apollonius Rhodius. from a source that was acqainted with Etruscan traditions. Cuypers reminds me of the Trojan Amycus. so it must refer to an older situation. One might think that this fact made it easier to assume that Aeneas too went to Italy. The other fact is that the name Sergestus. There are several indications in classical sources that Lydians lived earlier in more northern regions than in classical times. i.47 Above I proposed that it lives on in Etr. But it is excluded that he got it from Lydia or Phrygia. Maeonia lay east of Sardes. the remnants of this people .lived in the farthest north-west of Asia we have always known . completely land-locked.The Origin of the Etruscans Tyrse Œ noi also settled in Chalkidike. In classical times (from Homer on). but it can also be presented in the following way. This means that the name was known to the Etruscans (or those who studied their traditions).48 So we should be aware that the Aeneis may contain more old elements. however. So he must have got it at home. who went to Italy. The Tyrse Œ noi. a people in Lybia.e. as dr. 4. but who will come from another tradition. This story is so unexpected that you would think that it must be true. because it seemed so far from 47 There may be more in the Aeneid. M. who would have come from Troy. Wainwright i959. Where can this area have been? We need a territory where both Tyrse Œ noi and Lydians lived. 4). Cuypers suggested to me (see i. not Lydia. [Add. This absurdity cannot date from classical times. Sekst-alu-. conclusions In the foregoing I have presented my idea as it gradually developed. 47 . they could have lived originally elsewhere. of a prominent friend of Aeneas. The major new element is that the hero would have come from an area surrounded by Tyrse Œ noi. On the question see the recent article by Horsfall (i987b). We need a ‘Maeonia-on-Sea’. or Asa Minor in general. It is evident that he used it because it fitted in the story. The tradition about the Etruscans says that they sailed away from Maeonia. Thus dr. that is in the middle of a big continent. 48 Mention may be made of the Maxues. i9i . Of course. 207. as Amykos is presented by Apollonius as an unsympathetic figure.and Phrygian Surkastos. The point is how Vergil got this name. seems identical with Lydian Srkastu. on the sea-shore. This is in itself a strong argument in favour of the tradition. Hdt.P.

we must look for the Etruscan homeland. the Lydians were pushed away soutwards and settled east of Sardes. one did not really consider the possibility of Lydians elsewhere than in classical Lydia. It was ‘evidently’ understood as Lydia. that he meant classical Lydia is shown by the fact that he names Smyrna as the harbour from where the Etruscans sailed. the arguments in favour of it have become so much stronger that the conclusion can no longer be avoided. Note that until now we have not invoked the etymology of the name Maeonians. It is also clear why this solution was not found earlier. on the shores of the Troad or in Phrygia Hellespontica. If Ma · sas must be located. at this stage we assume that Maeonia lay near the shore of the Troas or east of it. But most of all perhaps one did not realize the meaning of Maeonia. In the first place. If we accept the northern position. or peoples. in classical Maeonia. and part of them sailed to Italy. i. beside or among the Lydians. it would fit into our reconstruction. So 48 . then. Beekes (classical) Lydia. classical Lydia. Now we bring up the point that Ma · sas is placed either in the north or in the south of western Asia Minor. who lived there? It is natural to consider the possibility that it were Lydians who lived there. as Starke thinks. however. fled to the islands and other places nearby. nor a theory about the position of Ma · sas. Already Herodotus did so. This is all the more probable when we consider that the Mysians were half-Lydians.e.with Greek Ma · -iones becomes very attractive.a. Here.Bithynia (the borders/ frontiers of these countries were quite unclear as Strabo says). However. and it seems never to have occurred to scholars that the Lydians may have lived earlier (also) in other places (or it was not connected with the Etruscan problem). the whole idea can be presented as follows: we know that in i200 the Phrygians crossed over to Asia Minor and settled there. The tradition has now been confirmed since we have found a way to locate a region on the sea where both Lydians and Tyrse Œ noi lived. Again. there was the opposition to the idea of oriental origin of the Etruscans. the Tyrse Œ noi.Mysia . If we imagine the situation before their arrival. In the course of time. in Phrygia Hellespontica . on the Hellespont. that lived near the coast. Further.R. the old etymological connection of this country Ma · -sa. The two meet. When the Phrygians crossed the water. There may always have been an unknown people.S. east of the Troas. as he does not mention Maeonia but speaks only of the Lydians. then.P. i. The (other) people that lived there. This appears indeed to have been the case: the Etruscans. But not only Lydians may have lived in that area.

and in the Troas. index. Pylaios. see App. too is Tyrrhenian. i963.The Origin of the Etruscans Herodotus put us on the wrong track. and that Hellanikos states that this term was earlier used for the Tyrse Œ noi.) Ł nhv It seems possible. in n. his identification of Pelasgian as Illyrian. One is reminded of Etr. The last name is much discussed (Lh (see e. ii . Note that Pulaime is found three times (beside three other instances) in Paphlagonia.g. who became the Etruscans of Italy. In antiquity one supposed that the mountain was called after this leader (Strabo i3. *pule. son of Teutamos ì Teutami Ł hoio Pelasgou Łdao . 3. B 843). and for several other reasons.2 above I argued that the Pelasgians mentioned in Homer could well be Tyrse Œ noi. 8. however.843. like rivers. that the Tyrse Œ noi. For a mountain we have the parallel of Kadmos. lived on the south coast of the Sea of Marmara and the Hellespont. and for the inhabitants of Pylos). river of the Œthos the connection with Le However. We know that the term ‘Pelasgians’ is sometimes used for Tyrse Œ noi. Only two names are mentioned. three times: B 840 . [Now this view is definitely confirmed by the fact that Homer mentions Pelasgians in the Troas who spoke (a form of) Etruscan. Lochner-Hu º ttenbach. But there is a mountain called Pylaion on Lesbos. Homer mentions Pelasgians in Asia Minor. which is supposed by pulia (Rix. See on this question App. In Asia Minor personal names are often identical with the names of geographical entities. We can consider it certain. K 429 and P 288. Archaeological research can now be more concentrated and study possible connections with the Proto-Villanova culture. then. 27i . (Therefore. I hope that now the gate has been opened which gives a view on the background of the Etruscans. On *teuta · as a non-Indo-European word see Beekes i998). 352). that this name. 24i. then. And we now know that the Tyrse “ noi lived in the area near Troy. Kadmos is a local figure. 49 49 . fighting on the Trojan side.] appendix i etruscans in homer In 2. which has nothing to do with Phoenicia. 3). which will be relevant for both the history of the Etruscans and that of western Asia Minor. Pylaios occurs only here (and as epithet of Hermes. see Sundwall i9i3. must be rejected. perhaps also the second.49 We get two further names when it is stated that they are sons of Le Œ thos the Pelasgian. above. i . But especially in the field of religion the study of Hittite texts and what we know of western Asia Minor may give new insights. the brothers Hippothoos and Pylaios. but we can hardly blame him for that. For Le Œ the Œ . but it is rather the other way round. we saw an example of this. The first name is clearly Greek.

One of the derivations occurs in an archaic inscription. Beekes Underworld (see Wathelet i988) is just a guess. that the name is found in Etruscan. near Larisa in the Troad (see above 2.R. -us (cf. 50 . is unambiguous. Daidalos . av(e)le). It dates at least back to the time of Homer. It has not been observed. The possibility that Pelasgians here means another minor population like the Leleges (see 2. Aulus . the eighth century.P. 3i) and Add.e. The Etruscan name was studied by Rix (i965 . but it may well be a fact preserved by the tradition from much older times. together with its derivations lehi. i. as he plays a part in the death of Patroklos (P 2i9ff). near Troy. where we find lehe. however. Gr. I think. Taitle . The term Tyrse Œ noi used of inhabitants of Italy means Etruscans. appendix ii the pelasgians The vexed question of the Pelasgians. The term Tyrse Œ noi. I. where the Pelasgians are mentioned beside Carians. 2. in Asia Minor.2) is refuted by K 429. and their relation to the Tyrse Œ noi. In principle it may go back to the i4th century. i52a). 37) has solved many problems. that Tyrse Œ noi are mentioned in the eighth century bc . The term Pelasgoi used for continental Greece originally indicated a non-Greek population which the Greeks found in the north of Greece. -os. and Kauko Œ nes.2 with n. when used of Asia Minor and the adjacent area’s. -e is the equivalent of Gr.2). Lat.S. Lat. 3a. lehia. lehiunia it is discussed 23 times). when they first arrived there. The view that in Hdt.Etr. It may be unnecessary to stress that this fact in itself definitely proves that the Etruscans came from Asia Minor. that the Tyrse Œ noi are Etruscans. 57 Kroto Œ n must be read (see 2. Hippothoos may be part of an old tradition. It is not clear to what time it refers. It confirms that ‘Pelasgians’ can stand for Tyrse Œ noi. that they lived near Troy: they are mentioned directly after the (five groups of) Trojans in the Catalogue of Trojans. a story which may have a long tradition. The name occurs only here.2 above (with n. which means that they lived next to them.Etr. has now become largely clear. The consequences of this identification are considerable. and the origin of the name is unknown (Rix 349 n. Etruscan has no long vowels. Paeonians. probably to the south.) Cf. lehiu. (The conclusions of LochnerHu º ttenbach cannot be maintained. Leleges. see the index. lehai/e. 2. and may therefore be of interest. The fit is complete: Etr. The main points may be summarized as follows: i. notably Thessaly. i.

this was very frequent. All designations of the Greeks in origin indicated non-Greek peoples: Achaioi.) The confusion led to such statements as that which says that Kyzikos was first Pelasgian and later Tyrrhenian (Konon FGrH 26 F i . The situation in Attica is very complicated. So the term came to indicate the opposite of what it was in origin. not as strange as it seems.the two peoples may be closely related. 3f. At that time ‘Tyrse Œ noi’ meant the Etruscans of Italy. that these Etruscans came from continental Greece (again this is historically wrong. but soon it was no longer clear to the Greek writers (who found in older writers different uses of the terms) whether they were one and the same people or different peoples. because of the term ‘Pelasgians’. (Eteokre Œ tes seems the term for them. Helle Œ nes. s. Ninoe speaks of Pelasgian Leleges in Caria. 3d. (St. wrong i23). 3e. for which no name was known. Danaoi. In Lemnos there were only Tyrse Œ noi. of which the Greeks learned the specific name.The Origin of the Etruscans 3b. e. In any case the Tyrse Œ noi were seen as a particular group within the concept of ‘Pelasgians’.g. Tyrse Œ noi. The term will have been extended to all non-Greek populations in Ø n ’ŁArgov will have played a Greece. (In fact. but some writers thought so). ‘Pelasgians’ in Crete will be the designation of the original inhabitants of the island (the Minoans).v. Thus Homer and Herodotus use ‘Pelasgians’ for the Tyrse Œ noi in Asia Minor. but it seems that much that is said about it by ancient authors is fantasy (for the greater part inspired by Athenians interests). This is however. Also it was thought. e. the term ‘Pelasgians’ also came to be used for Etruscans. Byz. but this seems only used of a small 5i . but they can as well have nothing to do with each other. see Lochner-Hu º ttenbach 55 . Vergil. In a late stage ‘Pelasgians’ was used for the Greeks! In Latin writers. 3g. only later. Later the Greeks thought that they were a people different from the other Etruscans (which is historically wrong. Later authors still do the same incidentally. 3h. 4.g. The term was extended to the non-Greek inhabitants of northwestern Asia Minor.) So apparently the term was extended to other minor peoples living along the coast (of more important peoples the appropriate name was known earlier. as in the case of the Me Œ iones). in which process the term Pelasgiko role. this question has not yet been decided . 3c We have seen that sometimes Pelasgians in Asia Minor rather refers to Leleges. but some authors had this concept). Because the term ‘Pelasgians’ was also used of the Tyrse Œ noi.

i09.. In the first place they are in the beginning called Pelasgians. The Greeks were discussing the history of the Pelasgians and they are mentioned very often. 5i) on this point. it is most improbable that we would have no mention of their arrival. 5. [i. This most improbable idea must be given up if the Tyrse Œ noi can be attested in the east at an early date. those in Asia Minor. a name which is usually associated with very old. If one part of them. i.) The stories about Pelasgians sailing to Crete may well be fantasy (though it is historically quite possible that Pelasgians fled from Greece before the Greeks). and he is the first to do so.e. und zwar jenen vormals auf Lemnos und in Athen heimischen Tyrsenern besteht. but he uses also the specific name Tyrse Œ noi. The text says: to ’khsa ì n oi ì mno Ø Lh Ł n pote kai Ø ’Ahh Ł nav Turshnw Ł ntwn. is perfectly clear. 4. It may be well to cite Herodotus (2. Discussing the Pelasgian origin of the ithyphallic statues of Hermes. The last two terms are found in t i77. as did Herodotus. we would certainly have notes about it.P..’ (‘mostly Pelasgian(s). i) Above we already mentioned the cult of the Kabeiroi (2. where he talks about Akte Œ . i3). in der Hauptsache [aber] aus Pelasgern. where one read Krhstwn-. It would be very strange if this name was used for people who had arrived in historical times. I think there are various indications that the Tyrse Œ noi lived in the east since very long. That is. Against this background Thucydides 4. if not always. he says: ‘Anyone will know what I mean if he is familiar with the mysteries of the Cabiri - 52 .. 57. appendix iii the date of the eastern tyrse The suggestion that the eastern Tyrse Œ noi were Etruscans from Italy is still used to discredit the eastern origin of the Etruscans. he still calls them Pelasgians. It should be realized that in historical times there were no (real) Pelasgians (in continental Greece) alive anymore. A problem was that one wanted to connect it with Hdt.. The same is clearly true of ‘Kydo Œ nes’. The date suggested for the arrival of Etruscans (from Italy in Asia Minor) is mostly 700. who. i. tw this can now be forgotten. would have arrived after Homer. ìn ìston Pelasgiko Ø de Ø plei Ø n. Œ noi. Then. a passage which is much discussed. Beekes group.R. Tyrse Œ noi were still alive in Plakie Œ and Skylake Œ and in Akte Œ. nr. people] of the Tyrse Œ noi.S. There are at least three positive indications that they lived there for a very long time.’) So Thucydides speaks of Tyrse Œ noi as a part of the Pelasgians. authochtonous inhabitants. An exact translakai tion is that of Braun: ‘das.

then. who lived in that island before they moved to Attica. 20 .The Origin of the Etruscans rites which the men of Samothrace learned from the Pelasgians [ = Tyrse Œ noi]. Starke. Herodotus (7. and communicated the mysteries to the Athenians. if the Tyrse Œ noi arrived there after Homer. If this is correct. the race of the Pelasgians. east of the Kibyratis. 2 Here may be added e. It contains the towns Oinoanda. which hardly points to (a small number of) recent. ’Łchma. 54). When the Argonauts came he was (accidentally?) killed. i7. it too moved southward. p. king of Pelasgians in Thessaly. 77) says that the people are Maiones. i. of course. Balbura and Bubon. 7 . Homer tells about the fall of Troy around i200. the Tyrse Œ noi) in Hesychius. Note also that Homer. 3) There are the Etruscans in Homer (App. Here again there is discussion on the position of Hapalla. the nature of which is made clear in the Samothracian mysteries. on his map. amongst other things that Kyzikos. Strabo (i3. but it shows that one thought of these events as terribly early. p.who explained it by a certain religious doctrine. The Argonauts are supposed to have sailed before the fall of Troy. nr i3) was driven away by the Thessalians [I think that the Thessalian origin is later fiction] and founded Kyzikos. This will show that the Athenians were the first Greeks to make statues with the erect phallus. and that they learned the practice from the Pelasgians . Note that the authors from Kyzikos would certainly have been aware of recent events. They say. a region in north-west Lycia. and Konon (of Kyzikos). i. puts it in the north. Hittite texts mention a land Hapalla. is utterly improbable (see also 2. directly south of Ma Œ sa. I). i) that it was dominated by the Lydian Kibyrates. This cannot. and it would be a good parallel to what I supposed happened to Ma Œ sa. a son of Apollo (for Apollo in Asia Minor see above 2. commercial settlers. from Dei(l)ochos. This has been identified with classical Kabalis.’ Such a religious doctrine is not taken over from people who just arrived. p. 2) There are legends around Kyzikos (easily found in LochnerHu º ttenbach. The ‘theory’ of Etruscans from Italy settled in Asia Minor. The word has been 53 . ì la Pelasgw not from after 800. B 840. but his data can be both older and younger. almost as early as a thing can be in the Greek world. be taken simply as historical fact. but ì n. the gloss ga (gapos : ‘carriage’. from Agathokles (of Kyzikos). talks of fu the tribes. Turshnoi Ł povç o Ł Add.i beginning).g. addenda Add.

Further may be mentioned e.(e. they date from the nineteenth century. but I rather think that the h was lost (at least in the Greek loan) after the t. in the east of Turkey. see the text). e. 39). village that became a part of Sparta (Pitana). Add. 322 .S. 36ff). from whom the town in Asia Minor would have its name. we are also entitled to compare the names. related to Anatolian. which is probably a substratum connected with Greek kapa word. Hitt. Mastarna. i4ff.P.5i Another western cognate of a Cappadocian name gives Furne Ł e (Die wichtigsten konsonantischen Erscheinungen des Vorgriechischen. we find this name in the place name Pitane (Pita north of Phokaia and east of Lesbos.R. So this is the same name as that of the town. when he assumes ‘bewegliche Dentale’. even in Cappadocia: Lipurna. 50 Zgusta (Kleinasiatischen Ortsnamen. Perperna. die verschiedenen Personen in der griechischen Mythologie. It occurs also as a woman’s name (cf. one being an Amazone. to connect the name with Hitt.. Cappadocian is the name we give to a further unknown. Piha. Bryce. lamniya. the Cappadocian personal name Tunumna with the pre-Greek -umn. There are only two such figures. Kronasser (Etymologie der hethitischen Sprache. the city on Lesbos) and Etruscan Tolumnius. The t may have been lost before the h. Anatolian Tunumna (for the dissimilation n-mn to l-mn cf. This would mean that the name belongs to the substratum language in Greece and Anatolia. near Kayseri. i998. That this language had cognates in the west may appear from the following. Now if we are allowed to compare the suffixes. Pithanas. and more probably the Amazone was created to explain the town’s name. who conquered Nesa (and who’s son Anittas founded an empire that was the predecessor of the Hittite empire . 5i]. Tulumne (a king of Veii. cf.‘to name’ from *namn-. on the west coast. nomen. which is no doubt the same name as that of the Spartan village mentioned in the text. I suggest that Ł nh). the -rnsuffix which is found in Etruscan (e. 498) thinks that the name was brought by the Greeks: ‘s.’ This is improbable. i974. 5i I do not believe that Furne Ł e is right (i972. die diesen Namen tragen. on Cappadocian cf. i30 n. Goth. 48 [cf. north of Rome). or derived from. ii3) compares the suffix -umn.g. The other is a figure in Laconia. 3). 3i9.g. i. Der Anitta-Text. Pihanu.we have his account in Hittite) has a name for which Indo-European origin has not beem demonstrated (Neu. 54 . Lat. n. See Furne Ł e i972. Add.50 The name recurs as the name of a town. Plosurnius) and Anatolia (Idarne. in Me ·thumna.g. Beekes Ł na ’wagon’. which provided so many place names.g. non-Indo-European language from which we have personal names. i984. n. found in the texts of the Assyrian merchants in Nesa. namnjan). i966. Etr. 3.e. king of Kussara. cf. So I suggest that Tolumnius is cognate with. Tikurna .

whose sons are Tarchon and Tyrse Œ nos.A. 56 (i985) Spalte i . who became the adoptive father of Telephos. -us (stem Gortu · n-. R. Add.It is clear that. The Etruscans must have brought the name from Greece/Asia Minor to Italy.The Origin of the Etruscans i972. on which see for the Greek substratum (Furne Ł e i972.und 52 Lochner-Hu º ttenbach (i960.are due to influence Ł ktwn . 5 The origin of the name (of the Etruscan city) Corythus in Virgil (Horsfall thinks it is only a city. we can be sure that it occurred there too. Horsfall (Jour. the -f. in Lycia. 32i). I think that this is quite improbable.52 . cf. of Roman Studies 63. i52) thinks that the forms with Tekt. This Beekes. the king of Mysia. the name Ła in occurs several times in Greece: Go Łrtus.48. kamur . Pre· · Greek Speech on Crete. so they do not provide a direct argument for the origin of the Etruscans. But Elfriede Paschinger (Jahresheft des Oesterreichischen archa º ologischen Institutes in Wien. ge Ł rkafov. 6 In i969 paintings have been found in a tomb in Kizilbel.79) thinks it comes from a king of Argos. 6) suggests with due caution ‘dass es in dieser Fru º hzeit vielleicht noch eine direkte Verbindung zwischen Ku º nstlern aus dem tyrrhenischen Element im etruskischen Volk. if the origin of Tolumnius proposed here is correct. Ko Łrtus in Arcadia. and though we do not have it from Asia Minor. Glotta.. who derives the (Greek) name Tektaphos from Capp. to appear). The name of the city of Cortona is in Greek. beside Kro Łto · n. Both cases.and Teut-. this is in itself enough to prove the Anatolian origin of the Etruscans.may be confirmed by the variant Ke variation testifies to the originality of these forms. give Gortuns) in Crete. It may just have been a usual name in that region. 68 . 4. refer to the area from where the Etruscans came in my view. which is the father of the Pelasgian Lethos in Homer. º hnlichkeit which strongly resemble the Etruscan paintings (‘ist die A tatsa º chlich verblu º ffend’). I don’t think that this is the solution. Gurto · in Boeotia (cf.Arm. 222ff. as the substratum of Greece and (western) Asia Minor was the same. i48ff. I do not know what the relation is between Tekt. inscrr. Kurto Ł ne Macedonia. We know that Korythos was the name of a son of Paris. then. this refers to Troy. The variation Tektamos/Tektaphos is typical of te Ł fura . whom we identified as Etruscan in App. 55 . Add. also Ła. Now they date from the sixth century bc . Add. Valerius Flaccus (iii 99) mentions a man from Kyzikos with this name. This name is no doubt identical with that of Ł nios or Gortuni Kurto · Gortun... not a peron) has not been traced. Tatkapu/ Tatkipus í. for which phenomenon I know no parallel. Gorduni Ł n in Thessaly. I). (The name may be directly relevant here because the variant Tektamos is also given as Teutamos. Brown. i985. esp.) This is clearly a name from the pre-Greek substratum.

200i. Les Tyrrhe Ønes. peuple des tours. so it will be an Etruscan story.R. Paris. W.. C. 3ii . The position of Etruscan. T.i30. esp. Cuypers. Carruba Meid. Leiden [to be published shortly] Del Monte. i978. Thukydides.B. Beekes. des E Briquel.R.’ So more direct evidence may still be found. Zeus. 359 .i940. The origin of Lat. Beekes. La formation des noms en grec ancien. Bonn/ Stuttgart. Rome. R.60. Histoire de la doctrine dans l’antiquite Ł. Briquel.S. 1 . edd. Cambridge. Tyrrhener in RE ii 7.S. i9i4 .und Gewa º ssernamen der hethitischen Texte. A Study in Ancient Religion. A. I tirreni a Lemnos. Chantraine. La civilisation e Łtrusque. Die Orts.364. G. Brandenstein. The Lycians I.. Beekes.) Wiesbaden. . 56 . Add. Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. 459 .Tischler. Oxford. The Kingdom of the Hittites. 6 (Suppl. C. i2i . De Simone. Palmucci (in Anatolisch und Indogermanisch.R. M.310.353.R. Die Hethiter und ihr Reich. i998. Cook. i997. T. i99i. it is of great importance: the Romans will not have made such a story. Bryce. (sine loco) Bryce.S. i943. 353) argues that there is evidence that the story of Aeneas in Italy was preceded by a version where the journey from Troy went to Etruria. i995. Th. Rix. Meiser. Amsterdam. i993. Rome. P. R. 7 A. Leipzig. bibliography Beekes. Beekes den Malern aus der Landschaft Milyas [the area of Kizilbel in Asia Minor] gegeben haben ko º nnte.S.P.P. R. Apollonius Rhodius Argonautica 2.P.P. i986. and of *teuta · ‘people’.P. Das Volk der 1000 Go ºtter. Innsbruck. i993. Denys d’Halicarnasse et l’autochtonie Ł trusques. D. 6/2 1992. Geschichte des Peloponnesischen Krieges.466. i993. Diss. i998. i999. A Commentary. 46 . aqua. (Re Łpertoire Geographique des textes cune Łiformes. T. ed.S.P. D. An Introduction. Journal of IndoEuropean Studies 26. i992. Bryce. L’origine lydienne des Etrusques. Lukka revisited. i933. Atti Taranto. Review of De Simone i996. Copenhagen. If this is correct. telling that they came from Troy. Les Pe Łlasges en Italie. R.F. Mnemosyne 54. De Simone. D. Firenze. Briquel. Ausstellungskatalog. i996. D. Indogermanica et Italica. Rome. 200i. T. Braun. Briquel. FS H. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 5i. G. i984.

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