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Tensile Properties

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Introduction Introduction Ge ne ral C lassifications Me tals C e ram ics Polym e rs C om posite s Structure of Materials Atom ic Bonds Solid State Structure Me tallic C rystalline Structure Solidification Anisotropy and Isotropy C rystal De fe cts Elastic/Plastic De form ation Fatigue C rack Initiation Diffusion Prope rty Modification C e ram ic Structure s Polym e r Structure C om posite Structure s

Tensile Properties

Tensile properties indicate how the material will react to forces being applied in tension. A tensile test is a fundamental mechanical test where a carefully prepared specimen is loaded in a very controlled manner while measuring the applied load and the elongation of the specimen over some distance. Tensile tests are used to determine the modulus of elasticity, elastic limit, elongation, proportional limit, reduction in area, tensile strength, yield point, yield strength and other tensile properties.

The main product of a tensile test is a load versus elongation curve which is then converted into a stress versus strain curve. Since both the engineering stress and the engineering strain are obtained by dividing the load and elongation by constant values (specimen geometry information), the load-elongation curve will have the same shape as the engineering stress-strain curve. The stress-strain curve relates the applied stress to the resulting strain and each material and Chemical has its own unique stress-strain curve. A typical engineering stress-strain curve is shown below. Physical Properties If the true stress, based on the actual cross-sectional area of the specimen, is used, it is found Phase Transform ation Te m p that the stress-strain curve increases continuously up to fracture. De nsity

Spe cific Gravity The rm al C onductivity The rm al Ex pansion Ele ctrical C onductivity Magne tic Prope rtie s O x idation and C orrosion Mechanical Properties -Loading -Stre ss & Strain Te nsile C om pre ssion, Be aring, & She ar Hardne ss C re e p & Stre ss R upture Toughne ss -Im pact Toughne ss -Notch Toughne ss -Fracture Toughne ss Fatigue -S-N Fatigue -Fatigue C rack Growth R ate Selection of Materials Spe cific Me tals Me tal O re s Iron and Ste e l De carburization Alum inum /Alum inum Alloys Nick e l and Nick e l Alloys Titanium and Titanium Alloys

Linear-Elastic Region and Elastic Constants As can be seen in the figure, the stress and strain initially increase with a linear relationship. This is the linear-elastic portion of the curve and it indicates that no plastic deformation has occurred. In this region of the curve, when the stress is reduced, the material will return to its original shape. In this linear region, the line obeys the relationship defined as Hooke's Law where the ratio of stress to strain is a constant.

www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Mechanical/Tensile.htm

General Manufacturing Processes Me tallic C om pone nts C e ram ic and Glass C om pone nts Polym e rs/Plastic C om pone nts C om posite s Manufacturing Defects Me tals Polym e rs

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like strain. For stresses within the elastic range. Strains that result from an increase in length are designated as positive (+) and those that result in a decrease in length are designated as negative (-). Axial strain is always accompanied by lateral strains of opposite sign in the two directions mutually perpendicular to the axial strain. The bulk modulus is used describe the situation where a piece of material is subjected to a pressure increase on all sides. there will be 0. It is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. The modulus of elasticity (E) defines the properties of a material as it undergoes stress. The relationship between the change in pressure and the resulting strain produced is the bulk modulus.25. deforms. for instance. Performance and NDE Stre ngth Durability Fracture Me chanics Nonde structive Evaluation The slope of the line in this region where stress is proportional to strain and is called the modulus of elasticity or Young's modulus. Since strain is unitless. some permanent deformation occurs in the specimen and the material is said to react plastically to any further increase in load or stress. is unitless since both strains are unitless. at some point. From this point on in the tensile test. Yield Point In ductile materials. The modulus of elasticity applies specifically to the situation of a component being stretched with a tensile force.htm 2/5 .3. This modulus is of interest when it is necessary to compute how much a rod or wire stretches under a tensile load. and Lame's constants (m and l). and then returns to its original shape after the stress is removed. Poisson's Ratio is 0. There are several different kinds of moduli depending on the way the material is being stretched. a cylindrical bar under torsion. In brittle materials. This means that if there is one inch per inch of deformation in the direction that stress is applied. bent. the shear modulus describes the linear-elastic stress-strain relationship. The material will not return to its original. Lame's constants are derived from modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio.3 inches per inch of deformation perpendicular to the direction that force is applied. simply divide the stress by the strain in the material. the third can be calculated using the following formula: E = 2 (1 + n) G. Where: E = modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) n = Poisson's ratio G = modulus of rigidity (shear modulus). A couple of additional elastic constants that may be encountered include the bulk modulus (K). Poisson’s ratio will have a value of approximately 0. Poisson's ratio is defined as the negative of the ratio of the lateral strain to the axial strain for a uniaxial stress state. the stress-strain curve deviates from the straight-line relationship and Law no longer applies as the strain increases faster than the stress. Only two of the elastic constants are independent so if two constants are known. Poisson's ratio is sometimes also defined as the ratio of the absolute values of lateral and axial strain.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Mechanical/Tensile. This ratio.11/25/13 Tensile Properties Polym e rs C om posite s Service Induced Damage Me tals Polym e rs C om posite s Mate rial Spe cifications Component Design. or otherwise distorted. To compute the modulus of elastic . but for most materials the value lies in the range of 0. such as kpi or MPa. this ratio is approximately constant. the modulus will have the same units as the stress. When a component is subjected to pure shear. Generally for steels. For a perfectly isotropic elastic material. little or no plastic www.28 to 0.33. unstressed condition when the load is removed.ndt-ed.

In brittle materials.htm 3/5 .002. unstressed condition when the load is removed. This line will intersect the stress-strain referred to as the proof line slightly after it begins to curve. the on the strain axis (x-axis) of 0.1% or 0.2% offset. For these materials the usual practice is to define the yield strength as the stress required to produce some total amount of strain. A good way of looking at is either 0. Tensile Properties www. more simply.2% elongation is considered to be a tolerable amount of sacrifice for the ease it creates in defining the yield strength. the point is found In Great Britain. Even though the yield strength is meant to represent the exact point at which the material becomes permanently deformed. To determine the yield strength using this offset. the value of the elastic limit decreases until it eventually equals the true elastic limit determined from micro strain measurements. amount of plastic deformation. Elastic limit is the greatest stress the material can withstand without any measurable permanent strain remaining on the complete release of load. the elastic limit is greater than the proportional limit.11/25/13 its original. little or no plastic deformation occurs and the material fractures near the end of the linear-elastic portion of the curve. In ductile materials. (See Table) For most engineering design and specification applications. Micro strain measurements are required to detect strain on order of 2 x 10 -6 in/in. The strength of a material is its ability to withstand external forces without breaking.2 percent longer than before the test. Ultimate Tensile Strength The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) or. With most materials there is a gradual transition from elastic to plastic behavior. the yield strength is used. 0.2 percent offset yield strength and then unloaded it will be 0. With the sensitivity of strain measurements usually employed in engineering studies (10 -4in/in).5% offset yield strength is that after a specimen has been loaded to its 0.ndt-ed. is the maximum engineering stress level reached in a tension test. In brittle materials. Proportional limit is the highest stress at which stress is directly proportional to strain. and then a line parallel to the yield strength is often stress-strain line is drawn. The yield strength is defined as the stress required to produce a small. Therefore. the tensile strength. The offset value as the yield strength with a 0. various criteria for the initiation of yielding are used depending on the sensitivity of the strain measurements and the intended use of the data. It is obtained by observing the deviation from the straight-line portion of the stress-strain curve. The yield strength obtained by an offset method is commonly used for engineering purposes because it avoids the practical difficulties of measuring the elastic limit or proportional limit. Some materials such as gray cast iron or soft copper exhibit essentially no linear-elastic behavior. It is determined using a tedious incremental loading-unloading test procedure. With increasing sensitivity of strain measurement.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Mechanical/Tensile. the UTS will at the end of the linear-elastic portion of the stress-strain curve or close to the elastic limit. and the exact point at which plastic deformation begins to occur is hard to determine.2% for metals and 2% for plastics). True elastic limit is a very low value and is related to the motion of a few hundred dislocations. the UTS will be well outside of the elastic portion into the plastic portion of the stress-strain curve. and that intersection is defined stress. The offset yield strength is the stress corresponding to the intersection of the stress-strain curve and a line parallel to the elastic part of the curve offset by a specified strain (in the US the offset is typically 0. Yield strength is the stress required to produce a small-specified amount of plastic deformation.

tension is just one of the way that a material can be loaded. but the engineering stress-strain curve may show a decline in the stress level before fracture occurs. it is often not the same as the breaking strength. Reduction of area is the change in cross-sectional area divided by the original cross-sectional area. It also provides an indication of how visible overload damage to a component might become before the component fractures.ndt-ed. Like elongation. it is usually expressed as a percentage. the value of elongation will depend on the gage length over which the measurement is taken. the UTS is the highest point where the line is momentarily flat. Elongation is the change in axial length divided by the original length of the specimen or portion of the specimen. shear and torsion. Because an appreciable fraction of the plastic deformation will be concentrated in the necked region of the tensile specimen. This works well at times but some engineering stress-strain curve are often quite flat in the vicinity of maximum loading and it is difficult to precisely establish the strain when necking starts to occur. This change is measured in the necked down region of the specimen. As previously discussed.htm 4/5 . Both of these properties are obtained by fitting the specimen back together after fracture and measuring the change in length and cross-sectional area. The conventional measures of ductility are the engineering strain at fracture (usually called the elongation ) and the reduction of area at fracture. when reporting values of elongation . but the value is not typically used in the design of components anyway. In ductile materials strain hardening occurs and the stress will continue to increase until fracture occurs. The smaller the gage length the greater the large localized strain in the necked region will factor into the calculation. it is useful for the purposes of specifying a material and for quality control purposes. since the UTS is easy to determine and quite reproducible. Therefore. bending. Since the UTS is based on the engineering stress. and there are a number of standard tests that have been established to characterize how a material performs under these other loading conditions. Other ways of loading a material include compression. On the other hand. For ductile metals the current design practice is to use the yield strength for sizing static components. Ductility is also used a quality control measure to assess the level of impurities and proper processing of a material. This is the result of engineering stress being based on the original crosssection area and not accounting for the necking that commonly occurs in the test specimen. The amount of ductility is an important factor when considering forming operations such as rolling and extrusion. www.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Mechanical/Tensile.11/25/13 Tensile Properties On the stress-strain curve above. However. It is expressed as a percentage. The UTS may not be completely representative of the highest level of stress that a material can support. Measures of Ductility (Elongation and Reduction of Area) The ductility of a material is a measure of the extent to which a material will deform before fracture. One way to avoid the complication from necking is to base the elongation measurement on the uniform strain out to the point at which necking begins. A very cursory introduction to some of these other material properties will be provided on the next page. the gage length should be given. for brittle materials the design of a component may be based on the tensile strength of the material.

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