September 1998 Ref.

: 1998-514-0002

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Statistical data on the performance of fossil-fuelled power plants General report (1990-1997)
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Network of Experts for Statistics
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Accessibility : Public

As of 1st January 1998, UNIPEDE and EURELECTRIC have formed a Joint Secretariat situated in Brussels. UNIPEDE and EURELECTRIC are organisations with a separate identity, co-operating closely to provide effective and coherent assistance to their Members, in order to ensure and develop the Industry's competitiveness and in order to offer and develop competitive and environmentally sound products, in the interest of its customers. In doing so, UNIPEDE and EURELECTRIC will pay due respect to the specific missions and responsibilities of other international organisations of the European Electricity Supply Industry. UNIPEDE is the association of the European Electricity Industry and of world wide affiliates and associates that operates as a centre of strategic expertise and that acts as a liaison with other international associations and organisations with the aim to identify and respect the common interests of its Members and to assist the Members in deciding on the solutions to be implemented and in co-ordinating and carrying out the necessary action. EURELECTRIC is the association of the European Union Electricity Industry representing it in public affairs, in particular in relation to the EU institutions, in order to promote its interests at the political level. The reports published by UNIPEDE/EURELECTRIC are the result of the work of its structure of expertise: they represent one of the most direct methods of circulating knowledge and information throughout the sector, on subjects of common interest. They are intended for wide circulation both within the electricity supply industry and outside it. Ä Please do not hesitate to ask for the latest available printed UNIPEDE/EURELECTRIC publications catalogue (with summaries of UNIPEDE/EURELECTRIC reports) from:

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INDUSTRY OBSERVATORY NETWORK OF EXPERTS (U) STATISTICS
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Specialist Network of Experts for Statistics: Thermal Performance
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Statistical data on the performance of fossil-fuelled power stations General report (1990-1997)
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Coordinator: Daniel GLORIAN (EDF, France) Members: Johann PRECHT (Österreichische Draukraftwerke AG, Austria); JeanLouis LAMS (ELECTRABEL, Belgium) ; Pierre DESPONDS (EOS, Switzerland); Jaromir HAJNY (CEZ a.s., Czech Republic); O. NITSCH (VGB, Germany); Jorgen OLSEN (ELKRAFT, Denmark); Antonio LOPEZ DE SEBASTIAN (UNESA, Spain); Michel BRUAUX (EDF, France); Àgota KÓBOR (MVM Rt., Hungary); Shane STANLY (ESB, Ireland); Arie PEER (Israel Electric Corp., Israel); Vittorio DE MARIA (ENEL, Italy); Johannes G. A. BUSSER (N.V Sep, Netherlands); Luis DA SILVA CARRILHO (CPPE S.A., Portugal); Bhongo MDUNGE (ESKOM, South Africa). Editors: Daniel GLORIAN Patrick BLIN

Copyright © UNIPEDE/EURELECTRIC, 1998 All rights reserved Printed at UNIPEDE/EURELECTRIC, Brussels (Belgium)

UNIPEDE - THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE - 1998-514-0002

CONTENTS
Page SUMMARY ................................ ................................ .......................... 1. 2. INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIVE PERFORMANCE INDICATORS MONITORED ................................ ............................... BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INSTALLATION FAMILIES MONITORED ................................ ................................ ...................... LIST OF GRAPHS, RESULTS IN GRAPH FORM .............................. GRAPHS ................................ ................................ ............................. i 1

3

3.

4 5 7 to 28

4. 5.

Appendix 1.- Statistical Terminology Employed in the Electricity Supply Industry (UNIPEDE Ref.: 91fr80/s.1) Appendix 2.- Fossil Fuel and Nuclear Power Plants Performance Indicators (UNIPEDE Ref.: 02011Ren91 - Addenda) Appendix 3.- Detailed Descriptions of International Performance Indicators for Fossil-Fired Power Pant (UNIPEDE Ref.: 02011Ren91) Appendix 4.- Data Form Appendix 5.- ASPIC (V1.1)- User’ s Manual (UNIPEDE Ref.: 02011Ren9541) Appendix 6.- Availability and Unavailability Factors of Thermal Generating Plants - Definitions and methods of calculation Joint UNIPEDE/WEC Committee on the Performance of Thermal Generating Plant: (UNIPEDE Ref.: 02011Ren91WEC1) Appendix 7.- UNIPEDE Performance Indicator Program - Implementation Guidelines (Fossil-fuel plants) (03/05/93 - 5 pages) Appendix 8.- Thermal generating plant (100 MW+) availability and unavailability factors" (data 1991-1993) - Triennal Report - Joint UNIPEDE/WEC Committee on the Availability of Thermal Generating Plant Sample Groups (UNIPEDE Ref.: 02011Ren9510WEC1) 1995 - 80 p. The documents, for which the first page only is in the appendices, can be obtained from the UNIPEDE Documentation.

UNIPEDE - THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE - 1998-514-0002

remaining completely anonymous. This report contains graphs which show the statistical results submitted for the five performance indicators. A second report. UNIPEDE . with more detailed analysis and therefore distributed only to participating countries. This program should permit valuable international comparisons and make it possible to exchange experience so as to monitor and to improve the overall performance of power plants. covering the years 1990 to 1997. UNIPEDE proposes extending participation to all its member countries and publishing an annual report. is edited seperatly.THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .1998-514-0002 - i . for all of the countries which agreed to participate in the launching of the UNIPEDE database.SUMMARY Based on UNIPEDE definitions [Appendix 2] and terminology [Appendix 1]. These results are supplied as a set of statistics. This is the general report. the Statistical Experts Group: Thermal Performance has organized the collection of data covering the following five Technical Performance Indicators for Conventional Fossil-Fuel Plant: o o o o o Unit capability factor Unplanned capability loss factor Unplanned automatic grid separations per 7 000 hours of operation Successful start-up rate Industrial safety accident rate The corresponding database is currently held within the Industry Observatory of UNIPEDE. With regard to the future.

ASPIC User's Manual). 2 and 3).Industrial safety accident rate Using precise terminology and definitions (Appendices 1. for the different areas in which operators must ensure a high degree of vigilance in order to achieve a satisfactory quality of service: . A consolidation program. for international application.THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE . A more comprehensive report. Each year. power rating. to complete the overall picture (in particular. INTRODUCTION Pursuing the program undertaken by WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) for nuclear power plant performance monitoring. .Unit capability factor .1998-514-0002 . Depending on the case.Appendix 5. thus enabling the definition of installation families (type. The following five performance indicators have thus been defined. geographic location. . known as Picador P (erformance Indicators data Consolidation and Data Optimum Reporting). UNIPEDE has developed a program for collecting. capability and capability loss).Unplanned capability loss factor . fuel used.Page 1 . known as ASPIC A ( Software for Performance Indicators data Collection . in particular in the form of histograms.Median values (which divides the sample into two equal groups) and the best quartile (the quarter of the sample.Unplanned automatic grid separations per 7 000 hours of operation. etc. intended only for those countries which contribute statistics. is also drawn up. processing and publishing statistics relating to the performance of conventional fossil-fuelled power plants. UNIPEDE . in number of events. the results can be any of the following: . the program has been launched by the THERPERF group of correspondents. which shows the "best" results).). This general report covers the years 1990 to 1997.Values weighted by the power rating(or by associated weighting elements). The corresponding information (description in Appendix 4) is submitted to UNIPEDE on diskettes using the data collection software. year of construction.Average (mean) values (the simple arithmetic mean) for unit capability and capability loss. and to generate the corresponding graphs. is used to integrate the different results. . both reports are compiled and distributed by the UNIPEDE/EURELECTRIC secretariat.1.Successful startup rate .

Denmark . This report contains data submitted by representatives of the following countries: AT BE CH CZ DE DK ES . the international exchanges which will be facilitated by UNIPEDE will help foster a commitment to emulate the best practices. In order to present a significant sample. This program was developped to be consistent with both the program implemented by WANO for nuclear power plants and with similar work carried out within the Joint UNIPEDE/WEC Committee on the performance of thermal plants (fossil-fuel and nuclear). if a country is not included.Italy NL .South Africa The results given in this document correspond to all the results submitted by these countries.Netherlands PT .fax = +33 1 43 69 21 44 It is hoped that as many operators as possible will participate in this program. The aim of the program is to create a high-quality management tool.Spain FR . Daniel GLORIAN Chef de l’ Observatoire Statistique du Système Electrique.Austria . The country symbols shown at the top of each graph indicate the geographic field. These indicators are intended principally for use by operators to monitor their own performance and progress. a minimum of 50 unit-years is required for the graph to be printed.The volume of samples.Portugal ZA .Ireland IL .Hungary IE . Integration within the UNIPEDE system makes it possible to contribute to the activities of the UNIPEDE/WEC Committee without requiring the collection of additional data (see Appendix 6). to set their own challenging goals for improvement. and to gain an additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants.1998-514-0002 . this indicates that the corresponding data was not submitted or was unable to be used according to current regulations. = +33 1 43 69 43 13 Int.Belgium .93282 SAINT-DENIS CEDEX FRANCE Int.France HU .THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .UNIPEDE . Thus. Please write to: Mr.Tel. Page 2 .Germany . place Pleyel FR . thereby maintaining the satisfactory level of performance observed. is always given in unit-years.Czech Republic . Electricité de France Cap Ampère 1.Switzerland . for each group shown.Israel IT . Any comments regarding this general report will be most welcome.

per 1 000 000 man-hours worked. (III) Unplanned automatic grid separations per 7 000 operating hours This indicator expresses how often a generator is separated from the external grid. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIVE PERFORMANCE INDICATORS MONITORED (Detailed description: Appendix 3) Unit Capability Factor Unit capability factor is the percentage of maximum energy generation that a plant is capable of supplying to the electrical grid. at the moment requested.2. (V) Industrial Safety Accident Rate Progress in improving industrial safety performance is monitored by the number of accidents that result in days away from work. UNIPEDE .THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE . A high unit capability factor indicates effective plant programs and practices to minimise unplanned energy losses and to optimise planned outages. days of restricted work or fatalities. it is given as a rate per 7 000 operating hours. for all start-ups requested on the previous day (immediate start-up for peaking gas turbines). maximising available electrical generation. limited only by factors within control of plant management. A low value for this indicator indicates that important plant equipment is reliably operated and well maintained. thereby taking into account the wide variety of operating regimes. This indicator expresses the level of success in achieving a presence on the grid.is the promptness with which a unit is connected to the external grid. in line with the grid operator’ s request.Page 3 . (I) (II) Unplanned Capability Loss Factor Unplanned capability loss factor is the percentage of maximum energy generation that a plant is not capable of supplying to the electrical grid because of unplanned energy losses (such as unplanned shutdowns. outage extensions or load reductions).1998-514-0002 . in both an unplanned and automatic (manual actions are excluded) manner. (IV) Successful start-up rate One of the ways to measure quality of service rendered to an electrical grid among other indicators . Energy losses are considered unplanned if they are not scheduled at least four weeks in advance.

Three categories of conventional thermal installations are monitored: A . for combined cycles & cogeneration plants. For the years 1990 to 1997. provided UCF and UCLF.THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .1998-514-0002 . To ensure complete confidentiality (no data can be used for commercial purposes).UNIPEDE .Combined cycle. for combustion turbines. The power rating categories are those recommended by the Joint UNIPEDE/WEC Committee.3.Combustion turbines.Coal (excluding lignite and others) 2 .Gaseous fuels. which is known only by the operator who supplies the data. cogeneration C .Liquid fuels 4 . starting from the first full year of commercial service. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INSTALLATION FAMILIES MONITORED The five performance indicators are monitored on a unit-by-unit basis.Lignite and others 3 . Four types of fuel are monitored: 1 . provided UAGS7 provided ISAR provided SSR. certain procedures have been defined for the exchange of this information (Appendix 7). for steam turbines. a total of a) of which 4515 3996 280 239 4275 2675 1585 996 unit-years of data have been provided by participating countries for at least one indicator. Data is submitted anonymously using a unit "code". b) and of which Page 4 . These power ratings are shown for each installation category in Appendix 8.Steam turbines B .

.. ..THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .... cogeneration ........... p.... 17 ..............Gaseous...... all sizes.......All fuels.............. p.... all sizes... .... median (by year) ................ 100/199 MW (distribution) ... Val.All fuels............ (by country) . median (by year) .........Lignite & others...Liquid..... median (by year) .................Lignite & others... all sizes.. & others).............................................. all sizes........ 25 25 26 26 * Combined cycle.All fuels.......Coal (excl....................... all countries (distribution) ...... & others).................. ..........All fuels..All fuels.All fuels... p...... LIST OF GRAPHS.........All fuels.. Lign. RESULTS IN GRAPH FORM l Unit Capability Factor.......... all sizes............. .... p.. Lign.All fuels.... cogeneration .Coal (excl. 19 p....... .......... p. ......All fuels....... all sizes....... all sizes.. median by age (distribution) .......... p.. Lign... all sizes..All fuels.All fuels.... all sizes........ 22 p.. p....Coal (excl.All fuels. p..... median (by year) ..... 1990 to 1997 .............. 16 ........ by Pow.. ........... ............. 21 p.All fuels........ ... p.......... all sizes........1998-514-0002 ................ p........... all sizes.... p....All fuels..... all sizes....4....... .. median by age (distribution) ... 23 * Combined cycle...... all countries (distribution) . p. ...... ...... p......... 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... Aver.... Bal.....Liquid... median (by country) ................... 200/399 MW (distribution) .. p...................... all sizes....... & others).. all sizes. p....... all countries (distribution) ... all countries (distribut ion)........ all countries (distribution) ..... Unplanned Capability Loss Factor * Steam turbines... all countries (distribution) .... 20 p....... p...All fuels. all sizes.. p. .... p.. ..... all sizes.. p... median (by year 1990-1995) . all countries (d istribution)..Page 5 ............. all sizes............... P >= 600 MW (distribution)... 24 l Unplanned automatic grid separations per 7 000 operating hours * Steam turbines .. best quartile (by year) ........ all countries (distribution) .... all sizes........... median (by country) ........ 27 UNIPEDE . all sizes.. ...... 400/599 MW (distribution) . 18 .......

...... p..................All fuels. 28 Page 6 .........THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE . all sizes....1998-514-0002 . all countries (distribution) . p....l Successful start-up rate * Steam turbines ...All fuels......All fuels.. 27 l Industrial Safety Accident Rate * All installations .................... all sizes....... all sizes... p..UNIPEDE ........ 28 * Steam turbines . all countries (di stribution) ....... all countries (distribution) ..

87 700 654 Best Quartile 92.(1990 to 1997) Distribution Best Quartile 1.67 1985 2000 1500 number of units 3242 Unit.(1990 to 1997) Distribution Median 86.02 1000 705 500 286 124 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 52 34 17 13 8 5 1 6 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 2 UNIPEDE .All Fuels .Page 7 .82 656 600 541 500 number of units 422 400 3242 Unit.Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .Years Arith.THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE . Mean=82.1998-514-0002 .67 Median 3.Years Arith. Mean=6.54 296 300 173 134 103 100 12 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 6 5 11 5 10 15 23 23 42 56 55 200 Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .All Fuels .

64 3.42 87.7 3.Years Page 8 .UNIPEDE .1998-514-0002 .3 85 85.47 4.79 Year/Unit.All Fuels .All Fuels .THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .99 percent 85.5 3.8 80 75 70 1990 412 1991 441 1992 438 1993 400 1994 379 1995 388 1996 411 1997 373 Year/Unit.(1990 to 1997) Median Values 10 9 8 7 percent 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1990 412 1991 441 1992 438 1993 400 1994 379 1995 388 1996 411 1997 373 4.6 86.(1990 to 1997) Median Values 100 95 89.25 88.Years Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .87 2.6 90 86.87 4.4 85.Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .11 2.

97 1.43 94.(1990 to 1997) Best Quartile Values 100 94.98 95 91.Page 9 .82 92.07 1.26 91.32 1.All Fuels .All Fuels .(1990 to 1997) Best Quartile Values 10 9 8 7 percent 6 5 4 3 2.Years Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .12 2 1 0 1990 412 1991 441 1992 438 1993 400 1994 379 1995 388 1996 411 1997 373 2.Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .27 90 percent 91.Years UNIPEDE .1998-514-0002 .7 1.23 92.42 93.66 1.42 Year/Unit.29 85 80 75 70 1990 412 1991 441 1992 438 1993 400 1994 379 1995 388 1996 411 1997 373 Year/Unit.4 1.THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .

99 7.45 84.(1990 to 1997) Average Values Balanced by Power 100 90.07 7.Years Page 10 .5 4.19 4.Years Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .84 6.83 Country/Unit.19 82.91 89.42 5.89 84.UNIPEDE .1998-514-0002 .49 5.55 74.03 73.41 81.07 84.02 6.83 3.09 0.81 68.22 3.67 90 80 70 percent 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 X 244 X 174 X 74 X 105 X 67 X 933 X 105 X 422 X 681 X 19 X 256 X 14 X 63 X 82 X 3 Set 3242 44.24 82.(1990 to 1997) Average Values Balanced by Power 100 90 80 70 percent 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 X 82 X 105 X 256 X 422 X 67 X 63 X 681 X 933 X 74 X 105 X 174 X 244 X 14 X 19 X 3 Set 3242 15.All Fuels .THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .13 Country/Unit.66 84.All Fuels .18 2.Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .07 79.76 67.71 9.85 87.36 5.27 4.

53 88.2 85.04 3.72 3 4.All Fuels .68 2.12 3.13 88.7 4.3 85.79 85.89 3.33 3.58 3.586.75 87.5 1 28 2 35 3 49 4 55 5 67 6 78 7 83 8 90 9 92 10 100 11 101 12 101 13 93 14 99 15 108 16 112 17 114 18 109 19 127 20 134 21 136 22 126 23 120 24 118 25 118 26 123 27 107 28 98 29 88 30 86 31 80 32 70 33 58 Year old/Unit.Page 11 .5 86.99 85.58 3.35 88 88.74 85.22 4.7 4.64 3.41 89.68 4.(1990 to 1997) Median Values 10 9 8 7 6 percent 5.7 4 3 2 1 0 3.All Fuels .44 86.04 5 4.94 85.8 2.05 4.(1990 to 1997) Median Values 100 90 80 70 60 percent 50 40 30 20 10 0 89.64 85.4287.52 1 28 2 35 3 49 4 55 5 67 6 78 7 83 8 90 9 92 10 100 11 101 12 101 13 93 14 99 15 108 16 112 17 114 18 109 19 127 20 134 21 136 22 126 23 120 24 118 25 118 26 123 27 107 28 98 29 88 30 86 31 80 32 70 33 58 Year old/Unit.84 88.63 3.51 85.5 86.THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .78 2.12 86.15 86.98 3.93 86.96 4.59 86.43 4.22 4 3.33 86.75 86.7 3.7 3.Years Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .1 88.37 86.04 2.988.3885.Years UNIPEDE .1998-514-0002 .14 3.36 3.96 86.1 4.4 4.57 87.Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .

1998-514-0002 number of units . Mean=5.Years Arith.82 95 127 100 51 50 21 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 2 0 4 0 0 8 8 8 10 17 33 51 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .89 673 Median 3.UNIPEDE .All Fuels .7 Page 12 .All Fuels .100/199 MW .16 250 230 220 200 Best Quartile 93. Mean=82.(1990 to 1997) Distribution Best Quartile 1.(1990 to 1997) Distribution Median 87.THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .7 700 600 500 400 300 233 200 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 85 36 13 8 7 4 2 3 1 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1070 Unit.03 180 number of units 150 1070 Unit.Years Arith.100/199 MW .

Mean=82.1998-514-0002 .(1990 to 1997) Distribution Median 87.04 300 292 Best Quartile 92.Years Arith.43 150 124 231 200 100 45 78 38 7 3 10 4 15 3 20 4 25 5 30 7 35 13 13 20 20 25 50 0 5 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .6 289 250 number of units 192 1413 Unit. Mean=5.Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 UNIPEDE .All Fuels .(1990 to 1997) Distribution Best Quartile 1.61 865 Median 3.200/399 MW .5 900 800 700 number of units 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 130 46 16 14 4 4 1 1 2 1 2 327 1413 Unit.Years Arith.Page 13 .200/399 MW .All Fuels .

6 Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .61 89 100 50 44 32 12 6 30 4 35 5 40 4 45 0 50 0 55 0 60 0 65 0 70 2 75 0 80 0 85 0 90 0 95 0 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 percent Page 14 .400 to 599 MW .(1990 to 1997) Distribution Median 85. Mean=7.UNIPEDE .1 200 number of units 150 446 Unit.Years Arith.400 to 599 MW .THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE . Mean=80.25 90 80 70 61 number of units 60 50 40 30 21 20 11 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 1 1 4 5 1 0 1 0 7 11 25 27 446 Unit.All Fuels .29 248 250 Median 4.1998-514-0002 .Years Arith.Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .77 43 85 76 66 Best Quartile 91.All Fuels .(1990 to 1997) Distribution Best Quartile 2.

P>=600 MW .1998-514-0002 .Years Arith.(1990 to 1997) Distribution Best Quartile 1.Years Arith.06 100 56 50 27 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 11 6 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 UNIPEDE .65 199 200 Median 3.Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .45 number of units 150 313 Unit.All Fuels .Page 15 .All Fuels .59 42 34 47 64 Best Quartile 93.P>=600 MW .(1990 to 1997) Distribution Median 87.9 Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE . Mean=84.6 80 71 70 60 number of units 50 40 30 20 11 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 5 4 2 13 17 313 Unit. Mean=6.

(1990 to 1997) Distribution Best Quartile 1.UNIPEDE .1998-514-0002 .26 156 373 354 Best Quartile 92.Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .53 367 400 200 156 72 39 22 30 11 35 8 40 5 45 4 50 1 55 2 60 0 65 0 70 2 75 0 80 0 85 0 90 0 95 1 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 percent Page 16 .91 800 number of units 600 1686 Unit.9 996 1000 Median 3.13 400 350 300 number of units 250 200 150 100 59 50 3 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 2 2 6 1 5 6 10 7 22 23 25 66 84 1686 Unit.THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE . Mean=83. Mean=6.Years Arith.6 266 216 Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .(1990 to 1997) Distribution Median 87.Years Arith.Coal .Coal .

Years UNIPEDE .Coal .4 85.78 3.91 90.11 Year/Unit.THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .7 3.2 3 2.39 4.Years Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .93 5.Coal .41 85 85.62 88.89 80 75 70 1990 222 1991 243 1992 230 1993 202 1994 190 1995 193 1996 217 1997 189 Year/Unit.84 5.Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .1 86.(1990 to 1997) Median Values 10 9 8 7 percent 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1990 222 1991 243 1992 230 1993 202 1994 190 1995 193 1996 217 1997 189 3.Page 17 .1 percent 85.(1990 to 1997) Median Values 100 95 89.63 90 87.1998-514-0002 .

1 91.1 10 0 X 65 X 63 X 32 X 422 X 123 X 24 X 497 X 104 X 149 X 159 X 28 X 6 X 14 X 0 X 0 Set 1686 6.91 0 0 Country/Unit.Years Page 18 .Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .13 81.UNIPEDE .74 92.53 1.6 73.THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .9 89 87 86.7 87.(1990 to 1997) Median Values 100 90 80 70 percent 60 50 40 30 20 10 94.89 86.63 2.2 0 0 X 159 X 28 X 149 X 63 X 104 X 32 X 497 X 422 X 24 X 6 X 123 X 14 X 65 X 0 0 X 0 Set 1686 Country/Unit.4 84.Years Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .9 4.1998-514-0002 .26 1.06 3.79 82.Coal .25 4.61 86.25 82.15 3.9 4.74 4.5 4.Coal .(1990 to 1997) Median Values 100 90 80 70 percent 60 50 40 30 20 11.3 3 2.

Lignite and Others .(1990 to 1997) Distribution Median 86.1998-514-0002 .84 UNIPEDE .Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .Page 19 .44 127 123 Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .07 450 400 350 number of units 300 250 206 200 150 100 58 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 18 2 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 721 Unit.Years Arith.Lignite and Others . Mean=82.(1990 to 1997) Distribution Best Quartile 2. Mean=5.09 433 Median 3.91 180 163 160 140 number of units 120 101 100 80 63 60 40 20 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 2 2 3 2 2 7 8 13 6 5 12 18 36 26 721 Unit.THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .Years Arith.8 Best Quartile 94.

28 percent 85 83.47 4.77 3.(1990 to 1997) Median Values 10 9 8 7 percent 6 5.THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .Lignite and Others .1 89.8 90 87.1998-514-0002 .Lignite and Others .43 3.33 87.93 80 75 70 1990 87 1991 87 1992 95 1993 92 1994 89 1995 91 1996 92 1997 88 Year/Unit.Years Page 20 .35 86.64 87.Years Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .(1990 to 1997) Median Values 100 95 89.28 83.91 3.Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .46 Year/Unit.1 3.72 3.UNIPEDE .08 5 4 3 2 1 0 1990 87 1991 87 1992 95 1993 92 1994 89 1995 91 1996 92 1997 88 4.

Mean=5.(1990 to 1997) Distribution Best Quartile 0.74 72 56 22 8 6 4 3 2 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 UNIPEDE .3 Best Quartile 91 106 100 96 number of units 80 533 Unit.1998-514-0002 .Years Arith.Page 21 .(1990 to 1997) Distribution Median 84.Years Arith.5 356 350 300 number of units 250 200 150 100 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 533 Unit.78 Median 2.46 75 60 55 58 40 30 20 6 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 1 2 2 2 2 5 8 9 15 5 18 37 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .Liquid Fuels . Mean=79.Liquid Fuels .Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .

(1990 to 1997) Median Values 100 95 90 percent 86.45 83.5 1.Liquid Fuels .Liquid Fuels .88 86.15 4.3 4 Year/Unit.2 84.4 2.1998-514-0002 .UNIPEDE .Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .95 75 70 1990 62 1991 67 1992 76 1993 70 1994 69 1995 70 1996 65 1997 54 Year/Unit.Years Page 22 .6 85.22 85 83.6 80 88.3 80.7 1.THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .(1990 to 1997) Median Values 10 9 8 7 percent 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 0 1990 62 1991 67 1992 76 1993 70 1994 69 1995 70 1996 65 1997 54 2.Years Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .84 1.

(1990 to 1997) Distribution Best Quartile 1.Years Arith.Years Arith.1998-514-0002 .32 30 58 54 Best Quartile 93.Gaseous Fuels . Mean=83.Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .36 number of units 150 302 Unit.Gaseous Fuels .THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .Page 23 . Mean=5.(1990 to 1997) Distribution Median 88.88 100 60 50 16 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 12 3 3 1 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 UNIPEDE .4 80 73 70 60 number of units 50 40 30 22 20 13 10 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 6 8 5 12 16 302 Unit.6 Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .4 200 200 Median 3.

Cycle or Cogen.6 40 number of units 30 230 Unit. Cycle or Cogen. Mean=80.(1990 to 1997) Distribution Best Quartile 1.Unit Capability Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Comb.Years Arith. Mean=6.54 100 number of units 80 71 230 Unit.93 140 125 120 Median 4.01 21 20 20 12 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 0 1 1 0 2 0 3 3 4 3 5 14 Unplanned Capability Loss Factor AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Comb.(1990 to 1997) Distribution Median 85. .07 51 50 46 39 Best Quartile 90. .All Fuels .Years Arith.UNIPEDE .THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .18 60 40 16 6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 3 6 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 Page 24 .1998-514-0002 .All Fuels .

9 10 8 6.All Fuels .4 4.2 800 number of units 600 484 400 259 200 140 45 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 33 17 8 11 1960 Unit.Unplanned Automatic Grid Separation per 7000 hr (TOH >=1000) AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .Years Arith.1998-514-0002 . Mean=7.5 7.All Fuels .3 4.(1990 to 1997) Distribution Best Quartile 2.5 6 4 2 0 1990 237 1991 286 1992 279 1993 211 1994 237 1995 228 1996 258 1997 227 5.Page 25 .THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .3 1000 955 Median 5.Years UNIPEDE .(1990 to 1997) Median Values number of grid separations per 7000 hours 14 12 9.7 Year/Unit.35 3.53 6 50 1 55 1 60 number of grid separations per 7000 hours Unplanned Automatic Grid Separation per 7000 hr AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .7 3.

(1990 to 1997) Average Values number of grid separations per 7000 hours 14 12.8 5.55 5 4.55 5.95 4.5 6 4 2 0 1 15 2 17 3 28 4 36 5 43 6 53 7 55 8 57 9 57 10 68 11 72 12 72 13 66 14 64 15 70 16 74 17 82 18 80 19 80 20 83 21 77 22 79 23 85 24 73 25 72 26 71 27 61 28 47 29 46 30 42 31 35 Year old/Unit.22 7.15 5.8 4.95 5.1 5.5 5.Unplanned Automatic Grid Separation per 7000 hr AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .4 5.3 4.All Fuels .8 4.55 5.(1990 to 1997) Median Values 14 number of grid separations per 7000 hours 12 10 8 7 6.7 4.6 6.Years Page 26 .7 4.7 5.7 5.UNIPEDE .Years Unplanned Automatic Grid Separation per 7000 hr AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .1 4.5 5.1998-514-0002 .8 4.6 5.9 4.28 12 10.7 4.15 2 0 0 X 74 X 255 X 671 X 1 X 37 X 33 X 106 X 67 X 189 X 423 X 91 X 0 X 16 X 0 X 0 Set 1963 0 0 0 5.All Fuels .94 5.45 4.35 4.38 6 4 2.7 8.02 9 8.63 9.THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .9 5.63 Country/Unit.99 10 8 6.3 6.7 4.

THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .Page 27 .5 100 50 50 23 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 percent 0 7 6 8 16 1 10 1 39 20 5 6 7 27 28 17 UNIPEDE .All Fuels . Mean=7.(1990 to 1997) Distribution Best Quartile 0 45 40 35 number of units 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 number of grid separations per 7000 hours 14 15 82 Unit.(1990 to 1997) Distribution Median 94.1998-514-0002 . Mean=80. .Years Arith.Years Arith.All Fuels . Cycle or Cogen.74 256 250 Best Quartile 100 200 number of units 150 527 Unit.75 39 Median 6 6 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Successful Startup Rate AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .Unplanned Automatic Grid Separation per 7000 hr (TOH >=1000) AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Comb.

(1990 to 1997) Distribution Best Quartile 5.Years Arith.9 267 Industrial Safety Accident Rate AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA Steam Turbine .All Fuels .Industrial Safety Accident Rate AT/BE/CH/CZ/DE/DK/ES/FR/HU/IE/IL/IT/NL/PT/ZA All installations . Mean=11.96 Page 28 . Mean=12.UNIPEDE .Years Arith.3 225 223 1100 Unit.All Fuels .(1990 to 1997) Distribution Best Quartile 5.1998-514-0002 .THERMAL PERFORMANCE NWE .48 400 362 350 300 number of units 250 200 150 100 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Industrial Safety Accident Rate 42 23 31 33 12 10 3 0 136 Median 9.6 400 350 300 number of units 250 200 149 150 100 52 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Industrial Safety Accident Rate 30 39 36 15 11 5 0 242 1237 Unit.31 391 Median 9.

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