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Abaqus

Verification Manual

Legal Notices

CAUTION: This documentation is intended for qualiﬁed users who will exercise sound engineering judgment and expertise in the use of the Abaqus Software. The Abaqus Software is inherently complex, and the examples and procedures in this documentation are not intended to be exhaustive or to apply to any particular situation. Users are cautioned to satisfy themselves as to the accuracy and results of their analyses. Dassault Systèmes and its subsidiaries, including Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corp., shall not be responsible for the accuracy or usefulness of any analysis performed using the Abaqus Software or the procedures, examples, or explanations in this documentation. Dassault Systèmes and its subsidiaries shall not be responsible for the consequences of any errors or omissions that may appear in this documentation. The Abaqus Software is available only under license from Dassault Systèmes or its subsidiary and may be used or reproduced only in accordance with the terms of such license. This documentation is subject to the terms and conditions of either the software license agreement signed by the parties, or, absent such an agreement, the then current software license agreement to which the documentation relates. This documentation and the software described in this documentation are subject to change without prior notice. No part of this documentation may be reproduced or distributed in any form without prior written permission of Dassault Systèmes or its subsidiary. The Abaqus Software is a product of Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corp., Providence, RI, USA. © Dassault Systèmes, 2010 Abaqus, the 3DS logo, SIMULIA, CATIA, and Uniﬁed FEA are trademarks or registered trademarks of Dassault Systèmes or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries. Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of their respective owners. For additional information concerning trademarks, copyrights, and licenses, see the Legal Notices in the Abaqus 6.10 Release Notes and the notices at: http://www.simulia.com/products/products_legal.html.

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Preface

This section lists various resources that are available for help with using Abaqus Uniﬁed FEA software.

Support

Both technical engineering support (for problems with creating a model or performing an analysis) and systems support (for installation, licensing, and hardware-related problems) for Abaqus are offered through a network of local support ofﬁces. Regional contact information is listed in the front of each Abaqus manual and is accessible from the Locations page at www.simulia.com.

SIMULIA Online Support System

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Training

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Feedback

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CONTENTS

Contents

1. Element Verification

**Element veriﬁcation tests: overview
**

Eigenvalue tests

1.1.1 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.3.6 1.3.7 1.3.8 1.3.9 1.3.10 1.3.11 1.3.12 1.3.13 1.3.14 1.3.15 1.3.16 1.3.17 1.3.18 1.3.19 1.3.20 1.3.21 1.3.22 1.3.23 1.3.24 1.3.25 1.3.26 1.3.27 1.3.28 1.3.29

Eigenvalue extraction for single unconstrained elements Eigenvalue extraction for unconstrained patches of elements Acoustic modes

Simple load tests

Membrane loading of plane stress, plane strain, membrane, and shell elements Generalized plane strain elements with relative motion of bounding planes Three-dimensional solid elements Axisymmetric solid elements Axisymmetric solid elements with twist Cylindrical elements Loading of piezoelectric elements Love-Kirchhoff beams and shells Shear ﬂexible beams and shells: I Shear ﬂexible beams and shells: II Initial curvature of beams and shells Normal deﬁnitions of beams and shells Constant curvature test for shells Veriﬁcation of section forces for shells Composite shell sections Cantilever sandwich beam: shear ﬂexible shells Thermal stress in a cylindrical shell Variable thickness shells and membranes Shell offset Axisymmetric membrane elements Cylindrical membrane elements Veriﬁcation of beam elements and section types Beam added inertia Beam ﬂuid inertia Beam with end moment Flexure of a deep beam Simple tests of beam kinematics Tensile test Simple shear

v

CONTENTS

Veriﬁcation of the elastic behavior of frame elements Veriﬁcation of the plastic behavior of frame elements Three-bar truss Pure bending of a cylinder: CAXA elements Cylinder subjected to an asymmetric temperature ﬁeld: CAXA elements Cylinder subjected to asymmetric pressure loads: CAXA elements Cylinder subjected to an asymmetric pore pressure ﬁeld: CAXA elements Modal dynamic and transient dynamic analysis with CAXA and SAXA elements Simple load tests for thermal-electrical elements Hydrostatic ﬂuid elements Fluid link element Temperature-dependent ﬁlm condition Surface-based pressure penetration Gasket behavior veriﬁcation Gasket element assembly Cohesive elements Coriolis loading for direct-solution steady-state dynamic analysis Pipe-soil interaction elements

Element loading options

1.3.30 1.3.31 1.3.32 1.3.33 1.3.34 1.3.35 1.3.36 1.3.37 1.3.38 1.3.39 1.3.40 1.3.41 1.3.42 1.3.43 1.3.44 1.3.45 1.3.46 1.3.47

Continuum stress/displacement elements Beam stress/displacement elements Pipe stress/displacement elements Shell, membrane, and truss stress/displacement elements Cohesive element load veriﬁcation ELBOW elements Continuum pore pressure elements Continuum and shell heat transfer elements Coupled temperature-displacement elements Piezoelectric elements Continuum mass diffusion elements Thermal-electrical elements Rigid elements Mass and rotary inertia elements Abaqus/Explicit element loading veriﬁcation Incident wave loading Distributed traction and edge loads

Patch tests

1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5 1.4.6 1.4.7 1.4.8 1.4.9 1.4.10 1.4.11 1.4.12 1.4.13 1.4.14 1.4.15 1.4.16 1.4.17

Membrane patch test Patch test for three-dimensional solid elements Patch test for cylindrical elements Patch test for axisymmetric elements

1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4

vi

CONTENTS

Patch test for axisymmetric elements with twist Patch test for plate bending Patch test for beam elements Patch test for heat transfer elements Patch test for thermal-electrical elements Patch test for acoustic elements

Contact tests

1.5.5 1.5.6 1.5.7 1.5.8 1.5.9 1.5.10

Small-sliding contact between stress/displacement elements Small-sliding contact between coupled temperature-displacement surfaces Small-sliding contact between coupled pore pressure-displacement elements Finite-sliding contact between stress/displacement elements Finite-sliding contact between a deformable body and a rigid surface Finite-sliding contact between a deformable body and a meshed rigid surface Finite-sliding contact between coupled temperature-displacement elements Finite-sliding contact between coupled pore pressure-displacement elements Rolling of steel plate Beam impact on cylinder Contact with time-dependent prescribed interference values Contact between discrete points Finite sliding between concentric cylinders—axisymmetric and CAXA models Automatic element conversion for surface contact Contact with initial overclosure of curved surfaces Small-sliding contact with speciﬁed clearance or overclosure values Automatic surface deﬁnition and surface trimming Self-contact of ﬁnite-sliding deformable surfaces Contact surface extensions Adjusting contact surface normals at symmetry planes Contact controls Contact searching for analytical rigid surfaces Multiple surface contact with penalty method Automated contact patch algorithm for ﬁnite-sliding deformable surfaces Surface-to-surface approach for ﬁnite-sliding contact Surface smoothing for surface-to-surface contact General contact in Abaqus/Standard

Interface tests

1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.6.4 1.6.5 1.6.6 1.6.7 1.6.8 1.6.9 1.6.10 1.6.11 1.6.12 1.6.13 1.6.14 1.6.15 1.6.16 1.6.17 1.6.18 1.6.19 1.6.20 1.6.21 1.6.22 1.6.23 1.6.24 1.6.25 1.6.26 1.6.27

Thermal surface interaction Coupling of acoustic and structural elements Coupled thermal-electrical surface interaction Friction models in Abaqus/Standard Friction models in Abaqus/Explicit Cohesive surface interaction

1.7.1 1.7.2 1.7.3 1.7.4 1.7.5 1.7.6

vii

CONTENTS

Rigid body verification

Rigid body mass properties Tie and pin node sets Rigid body as an MPC Rigid body constraint Including deformable element types in a rigid body

Connector element verification

1.8.1 1.8.2 1.8.3 1.8.4 1.8.5 1.9.1 1.9.2 1.9.3 1.9.4 1.9.5 1.9.6 1.10.1 1.10.2 1.10.3 1.10.4 1.11.1 1.11.2 1.11.3 1.11.4 1.11.5 1.11.6 1.11.7 1.11.8 1.11.9

Damped free vibration with initial conditions Sinusoidal excitation of a damped spring-mass system Multiple instances of connector elements Individual connector option tests Connector elements in perturbation analyses Tests for special-purpose connectors

Special-purpose stress/displacement elements

**Flexible joint element Line spring elements Distributing coupling elements Drag chain elements
**

Miscellaneous tests

Rebar in Abaqus/Standard Rebar in Abaqus/Explicit Convection elements: transport of a temperature pulse Continuum shells: basic element modes Transverse shear for shear-ﬂexible shells Linear dynamic analysis with ﬂuid link Rigid bodies with temperature DOFs, heat capacitance, and nodal-based thermal loads Analysis of unbounded acoustic regions Nonstructural mass veriﬁcation

2. Material Verification

**Material veriﬁcation: overview
**

Mechanical properties

2.1.1 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7

Elastic materials Viscoelastic materials Mullins effect and permanent set Hysteretic materials Temperature-dependent elastic materials Field-variable-dependent elastic materials Large-strain viscoelasticity with hyperelasticity

viii

CONTENTS

Transient internal pressure loading of a viscoelastic cylinder Rate-independent plasticity Rate-dependent plasticity in Abaqus/Standard Rate-dependent plasticity in Abaqus/Explicit Annealing temperature Temperature-dependent inelastic materials Field-variable-dependent inelastic materials Johnson-Cook plasticity Porous metal plasticity Drucker-Prager plasticity Drucker-Prager/Cap plasticity model Equation of state material Progressive damage and failure of ductile metals Progressive damage and failure in ﬁber-reinforced materials Creep Concrete smeared cracking Concrete damaged plasticity Two-layer viscoplasticity Brittle cracking constitutive model Cracking model: tension shear test Hydrostatic ﬂuid Composite, mass proportional, and rotary inertia proportional damping in Abaqus/Standard Material damping in Abaqus/Explicit Mass proportional damping in Abaqus/Explicit Thermal expansion test

Thermal properties

2.2.8 2.2.9 2.2.10 2.2.11 2.2.12 2.2.13 2.2.14 2.2.15 2.2.16 2.2.17 2.2.18 2.2.19 2.2.20 2.2.21 2.2.22 2.2.23 2.2.24 2.2.25 2.2.26 2.2.27 2.2.28 2.2.29 2.2.30 2.2.31 2.2.32 2.3.1

Thermal properties

3. Analysis Procedures and Techniques

**Procedures options: overview
**

Dynamic analysis

3.1.1 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7

Modal dynamic analysis with baseline correction Steady-state dynamic analysis for two-dimensional elements Steady-state dynamic analysis for inﬁnite elements Random response analysis Single degree of freedom spring-mass systems Linear kinematics element tests Mass scaling

ix

CONTENTS

Crack propagation

**Crack propagation analysis Propagation of hydraulically driven fracture
**

Substructuring

3.3.1 3.3.2

Substructure rotation, mirroring, transformation, and constraints Substructure recovery with *TRANSFORM Degenerated elements within a substructure *SUBSTRUCTURE LOAD CASE with centrifugal loads Thermal-stress analysis with substructures Substructure preload history Substructure removal Substructure library utilities Substructure damping Substructures with rebar Frequency extraction for substructures Substructures with large rotations Coupled structural-acoustic analysis with substructures

Piezoelectric analysis

3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.4.5 3.4.6 3.4.7 3.4.8 3.4.9 3.4.10 3.4.11 3.4.12 3.4.13

Static analysis for piezoelectric materials Frequency extraction analysis for piezoelectric materials General analysis procedures for piezoelectric materials

Submodeling

3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3

Submodeling: overview Two-dimensional continuum stress/displacement submodeling Three-dimensional continuum stress/displacement submodeling Cylindrical continuum stress/displacement submodeling Axisymmetric continuum stress/displacement submodeling Axisymmetric stress/displacement submodeling with twist Membrane submodeling Shell submodeling Surface element submodeling Heat transfer submodeling Coupled temperature-displacement submodeling Pore pressure submodeling Piezoelectric submodeling Acoustic submodeling Shell-to-solid submodeling Gasket submodeling Miscellaneous submodeling tests

3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.6.4 3.6.5 3.6.6 3.6.7 3.6.8 3.6.9 3.6.10 3.6.11 3.6.12 3.6.13 3.6.14 3.6.15 3.6.16 3.6.17

x

CONTENTS

Acoustic and shock analyses

Volumetric drag Impedance boundary conditions Transient acoustic wave propagation Adaptive meshing applied to coupled structural-acoustic problems CONWEP blast loading pressures Blast loading of a circular plate using the CONWEP model

Model change

3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3 3.7.4 3.7.5 3.7.6 3.8.1 3.8.2 3.8.3 3.8.4 3.8.5 3.8.6 3.8.7 3.8.8 3.8.9 3.9.1 3.9.2 3.10.1 3.10.2 3.10.3 3.11.1 3.12.1 3.12.2 3.12.3 3.12.4 3.12.5 3.12.6 3.12.7 3.12.8 3.12.9 3.12.10

Model change: overview Stress/displacement model change: static Stress/displacement model change: dynamic Stress/displacement model change: general tests Heat transfer model change: steady state Coupled temperature-displacement model change: steady state Contact model change Acoustic model change: steady state Pore-thermal model change

Symmetric model generation and analysis of cyclic symmetry models

**Symmetric model generation and results transfer Analysis of cyclic symmetric models
**

Abaqus/Aqua analysis

**Aqua load cases Jack-up foundation analysis Elastic-plastic joint elements
**

Design sensitivity analysis

**Design sensitivity analysis
**

Transferring results between Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

Transferring results between Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard Transferring results from one Abaqus/Standard analysis to another Abaqus/Standard analysis Transferring results from one Abaqus/Explicit analysis to another Abaqus/Explicit analysis Transferring results with *BEAM GENERAL SECTION Transferring results with *SHELL GENERAL SECTION Adding and removing elements during results transfer Transferring rigid elements Transferring connector elements into Abaqus/Explicit Transferring hourglass forces Changing the material deﬁnition during import

xi

CONTENTS

Transferring results with plasticity Transferring results with damage Transferring results with hyperelasticity Transferring results with viscoelasticity Transferring results for a hyperelastic sheet with a circular hole Transferring results with hyperfoam Transferring results with orientation Miscellaneous results transfer tests

Transferring results between dissimilar meshes

3.12.11 3.12.12 3.12.13 3.12.14 3.12.15 3.12.16 3.12.17 3.12.18 3.13.1 3.14.1 3.15.1 3.15.2 3.15.3 3.16.1 3.17.1 3.18.1 3.18.2 3.19.1 3.19.2 3.20.1 3.21.1

**Transferring results between dissimilar meshes in Abaqus/Standard
**

Direct cyclic analysis

**Direct cyclic and low-cycle fatigue analyses
**

Meshed beam cross-sections

Meshed beam cross-sections: overview Meshing and analyzing a two-dimensional model of a beam cross-section Using generated cross-section properties in a beam analysis

Complex eigenvalue extraction

**Complex eigenvalue extraction
**

Eulerian analysis

**CEL analysis of a rotating water disk
**

Co-simulation

**Fluid-structure interaction of a cantilever beam inside a channel Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit co-simulation
**

Adaptive remeshing

**Pressurized thick-walled cylinder Error indicators
**

Frequency extraction using the AMS eigensolver

**Frequency extraction using the AMS eigensolver
**

Steady-state dynamics with nondiagonal damping using the AMS eigensolver

**Steady-state dynamics with nondiagonal damping using the AMS eigensolver
**

4. User Subroutines

DFLUX DISP DLOAD FRIC

4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4

xii

CONTENTS

FRIC_COEF GAPCON GAPELECTR HARDINI HETVAL RSURFU SDVINI UAMP UANISOHYPER_INV and VUANISOHYPER_INV UEL UELMAT UEXPAN UFLUID UGENS UHARD UINTER UMAT and UHYPER UMATHT URDFIL USDFLD UTEMP, UFIELD, UMASFL, and UPRESS UVARM UWAVE and UEXTERNALDB VDISP VDLOAD: nonuniform loads VFRIC, VFRIC_COEF, and VFRICTION VUAMP VUEL VUFIELD VUHARD VUINTER VUINTERACTION VUMAT: rotating cylinder VUSDFLD VUVISCOSITY

5. Miscellaneous Options Miscellaneous modeling options

4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.1.9 4.1.10 4.1.11 4.1.12 4.1.13 4.1.14 4.1.15 4.1.16 4.1.17 4.1.18 4.1.19 4.1.20 4.1.21 4.1.22 4.1.23 4.1.24 4.1.25 4.1.26 4.1.27 4.1.28 4.1.29 4.1.30 4.1.31 4.1.32 4.1.33 4.1.34 4.1.35 4.1.36 4.1.37 4.1.38 4.1.39

Adaptive mesh for solid elements in Abaqus/Standard *AMPLITUDE Spatially varying element properties

5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3

xiii

CONTENTS

*BOUNDARY *CONSTRAINT CONTROLS *COUPLING *DISPLAY BODY *EMBEDDED ELEMENT *GEOSTATIC, UTOL *IMPERFECTION and *PARAMETER SHAPE VARIATION *INERTIA RELIEF *SURFACE, TYPE=CUTTING SURFACE *KINEMATIC COUPLING *MATRIX INPUT Mesh-independent spot welds *MPC *ORIENTATION *PRE-TENSION SECTION *RADIATION VIEWFACTOR: symmetries and blocking *RELEASE *SHELL TO SOLID COUPLING *STEP, EXTRAPOLATION Surface-based ﬂuid cavities *SURFACE BEHAVIOR *TEMPERATURE, *FIELD, and *PRESSURE STRESS *TIE Coupled pore-thermal elements

Miscellaneous output options

5.1.4 5.1.5 5.1.6 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 5.1.11 5.1.12 5.1.13 5.1.14 5.1.15 5.1.16 5.1.17 5.1.18 5.1.19 5.1.20 5.1.21 5.1.22 5.1.23 5.1.24 5.1.25 5.1.26 5.1.27 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5

*ELEMENT MATRIX OUTPUT *SUBSTRUCTURE MATRIX OUTPUT Integrated output variables Rigid body motion output variables Element nodal forces in beam section orientation

xiv

INTRODUCTION

1.0.1

INTRODUCTION

This is the Veriﬁcation Manual for Abaqus. It contains a large number of test cases that serve as basic veriﬁcation of these programs. Each test case veriﬁes one or several well-deﬁned options in the code. The test cases are sufﬁciently small that, in most cases, the correct results can be calculated by hand. This manual is divided into chapters based on the type of capability that is tested. The problems in the element veriﬁcation chapter test the element library extensively. Other chapters document tests of materials, procedures, user subroutines, miscellaneous options, and importing results from Abaqus/Explicit into Abaqus/Standard. In addition to the Veriﬁcation Manual, there are two other manuals that contain worked problems. The Abaqus Benchmarks Manual contains benchmark problems (including the NAFEMS suite of test problems) and standard analyses used to evaluate the performance of Abaqus. The tests in this manual are multiple element tests of simple geometries or simpliﬁed versions of real problems. The Abaqus Example Problems Manual contains many solved examples that test the code with the type of problems that users are likely to solve. Many of these problems are quite difﬁcult and test a combination of capabilities in the code. The qualiﬁcation process for new Abaqus releases includes running and verifying results for all problems in the Abaqus Example Problems Manual, the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual, and the Abaqus Veriﬁcation Manual. It is important that a user become familiar with the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual, the Abaqus Example Problems Manual, and the Abaqus Veriﬁcation Manual before any analysis is done to determine the level of veriﬁcation that has been done of the capabilities that will be used. The user should then decide whether any additional veriﬁcation is necessary before starting the analysis. All input ﬁles referred to in the manuals are included with the Abaqus release in compressed archive ﬁles. The abaqus fetch utility is used to extract these input ﬁles for use. For example, to fetch input ﬁle ec12afe1.inp for “Eigenvalue extraction for single unconstrained elements,” Section 1.2.1, type abaqus fetch job=ec12afe1.inp Parametric study script (.psf) and user subroutine (.f) ﬁles can be fetched in the same manner. All ﬁles for a particular problem can be obtained by leaving off the ﬁle extension. The abaqus fetch utility is explained in detail in “Fetching sample input ﬁles,” Section 3.2.12 of the Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual. It is sometimes useful to search the input ﬁles. The ﬁndkeyword utility is used to locate input ﬁles that contain user-speciﬁed input. This utility is deﬁned in “Querying the keyword/problem database,” Section 3.2.11 of the Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual.

1.0.1–1

ELEMENT VERIFICATION

1. • • • • • • • • • • •

Element Verification

“Overview,” Section 1.1 “Eigenvalue tests,” Section 1.2 “Simple load tests,” Section 1.3 “Element loading options,” Section 1.4 “Patch tests,” Section 1.5 “Contact tests,” Section 1.6 “Interface tests,” Section 1.7 “Rigid body veriﬁcation,” Section 1.8 “Connector element veriﬁcation,” Section 1.9 “Special-purpose stress/displacement elements,” Section 1.10 “Miscellaneous tests,” Section 1.11

OVERVIEW

1.1

Overview

•

“Element veriﬁcation tests: overview,” Section 1.1.1

1.1–1

ELEMENT VERIFICATION

1.1.1

ELEMENT VERIFICATION TESTS: OVERVIEW

This chapter deﬁnes the basic tests used to verify the correct behavior of the elements in the Abaqus library and documents the results of the tests. Veriﬁcation of various print and ﬁle output options is also provided in these tests. The test set is divided into categories as described below.

“Eigenvalue tests,” Section 1.2

This set includes two tests for most element types. In the ﬁrst of these tests all the modes and frequencies of a single, unrestrained element are extracted. The second test extracts the modes and frequencies of a patch of unrestrained elements. These tests verify the correct representation of rigid body modes and the correctness of each element’s stiffness and mass. The tests also reveal any singular “hourglass” modes that may be present in reduced-integration elements. A third test is performed to extract the natural modes of vibration of an organ pipe modeled with acoustic elements. Only the number of zero-energy modes has been veriﬁed for the tests. The ﬁrst nonzero eigenvalue is shown only for purposes of comparison. These tests are not performed for heat transfer elements and some other nonstructural elements.

“Simple load tests,” Section 1.3

In these tests a simple domain, such as a rectangle in two dimensions or a rectangular prism in three dimensions, is discretized with the minimum number of elements. Sufﬁcient kinematic boundary conditions are imposed to remove rigid body motion only. The loadings that are applied are ones for which the element being tested is capable of representing the solution exactly; for example, ﬁrst-order elements are loaded so as to cause a constant stress state, while second-order elements are loaded into a linearly varying stress state. The results are checked against exact calculations. Several such tests are necessary for structural elements (beams and shells) because of their complexity, and different tests are used for the elements that are based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis and for those that provide shear ﬂexibility. The tests also include discontinuous structures (plates joined at an angle and frames) to test the discontinuous *NORMAL deﬁnition option, and they include shells and membranes with variable thickness. The *TRANSFORM and *ORIENTATION options are veriﬁed in some tests. The problem descriptions contain the solution with which the results are compared. Where analytical solutions are not available, alternative numerical solutions are used.

“Element loading options,” Section 1.4

In these tests the distributed loadings provided for each element are veriﬁed by checking the equivalent nodal forces, ﬂuxes, or charges that are calculated for each load type. All degrees of freedom are suppressed, and the various distributed loadings offered for the element type are applied in a series of

1.1.1–1

ELEMENT VERIFICATION

steps. The reactions are veriﬁed against exact calculation for the interpolation function. The values of the output variables presented are “exact” in the ﬁnite element sense and, unless noted otherwise, are also exact in the analytical sense. To check thermal loading, free and constrained thermal expansions of elements are also tested. Thermal loads are deﬁned by giving the temperature, , along with a nonzero thermal expansion coefﬁcient. Generalized plane strain elements have an additional reference node associated with the generalized plane strain condition. Depending on the particular test, degrees of freedom , , and of the generalized plane strain reference node are constrained or left free.

“Patch tests,” Section 1.5

The patch test requires that, for an arbitrary “patch” of elements, when a solution corresponding to a state of constant strain throughout the patch is prescribed on the boundary of the patch, the constant strain state must be obtained as the solution at all strain calculation points throughout the patch. For heat transfer elements the patch test requires that constant temperature gradients are calculated throughout the patch when the temperatures corresponding to the constant gradient solution are prescribed on the boundary. The acoustic elements are similarly tested for constant pressure gradients, and the thermalelectrical elements are tested for constant potential gradients. The patch test is generally considered to be a necessary and sufﬁcient condition for convergence of the solution as the element size is reduced, except for shell elements of the type used in Abaqus, for which the test is not rigorously required, but for which it is commonly accepted as a valuable indicator of the element’s quality. Thus, this test plays a key role in the veriﬁcation process. In the patch tests done in Abaqus a patch is deﬁned as a mesh with at least one interior element and several interior nodes. The elements in the patch are nonrectangular, although element edges are kept straight. (Second-order elements do not always pass the patch test if their edges are not straight.) The shell elements are tested for plate and cylindrical patches only. Basic veriﬁcation of the geometric nonlinearity capability is included in these tests by prescribing large rigid body rotations of the models under states of constant strain and verifying the invariance of the solution with respect to the rotation.

“Contact tests,” Section 1.6

**This section contains tests of the various contact capabilities available in Abaqus.
**

“Interface tests,” Section 1.7

This section contains tests of the various interface capabilities available in Abaqus. This category currently consists of modeling surface interface conditions in heat transfer problems, coupled acoustic-structural problems, coupled thermal-electrical problems, and friction.

“Rigid body verification,” Section 1.8

This section contains tests of the rigid body elements available in Abaqus/Explicit.

1.1.1–2

ELEMENT VERIFICATION

“Connector element verification,” Section 1.9

**This section contains tests of the connector elements available in Abaqus.
**

“Special-purpose stress/displacement elements,” Section 1.10

This section describes tests of some of the special-purpose stress/displacement elements available in Abaqus that are not tested in other sections of this manual. SPRING- and MASS-type elements are tested with the eigenvalue frequency analyses of “Eigenvalue extraction for single unconstrained elements,” Section 1.2.1. ELBOW-type elements are also tested in “Eigenvalue extraction for single unconstrained elements,” Section 1.2.1, as well as in the simple load test described in “Veriﬁcation of beam elements and section types,” Section 1.3.22, and the distributed load test described in “ELBOW elements,” Section 1.4.6. GAP-type elements are tested with the contact elements, as described in “Contact between discrete points,” Section 1.6.12.

“Miscellaneous tests,” Section 1.11

This category contains tests of the rebar options, transport of a temperature pulse in convection elements, transverse shear for shear-ﬂexible shells, and linear dynamic analyses with ﬂuid link elements.

1.1.1–3

EIGENVALUE TESTS

1.2

Eigenvalue tests

• • •

“Eigenvalue extraction for single unconstrained elements,” Section 1.2.1 “Eigenvalue extraction for unconstrained patches of elements,” Section 1.2.2 “Acoustic modes,” Section 1.2.3

1.2–1

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

1.2.1

EIGENVALUE EXTRACTION FOR SINGLE UNCONSTRAINED ELEMENTS

Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested

Acoustic elements, beams, cohesive elements, elbows, membranes, pipes, shells, trusses, continuum elements (except coupled pore pressure-displacement and coupled temperature-displacement elements), piezoelectric elements, springs, and masses.

Problem description

The models consist of a single element. There are no boundary conditions, except as required in springmass (see ““SPRING, MASS, and JOINT2D elements”) and piezoelectric tests. For the piezoelectric element tests one electric potential degree of freedom is constrained to remove singularities from the dielectric portion of the structural stiffness. Note: There are no mass terms associated with potential degrees of freedom.

Results and discussion

The results presented in Table 1.2.1–1 through Table 1.2.1–7 show the number of zero-energy modes and the ﬁrst nonzero eigenvalue. Some elements have nonrigid-body zero-energy modes. Where two values are given in the zero-energy modes column, the ﬁrst is the number of zero-energy modes and the second is the number of rigid-body zero-energy modes. When an assembly of elements is tested, as in “Eigenvalue extraction for unconstrained patches of elements,” Section 1.2.2, the nonrigid-body zero-energy modes disappear. The eigenvalue is shown only for purposes of comparison. Elements with quadrilateral geometry can be degenerated to triangular shape; these results are denoted by “(triangle)” in the tables. Results for the piezoelectric elements are reported for Step 2. Table 1.2.1–1 Element type AC1D2 AC1D3 AC2D3 AC2D4 (triangle) AC2D4 AC2D6 Acoustic elements. First nonzero eigenvalue 1.509 4.527 1.122 1.122 9.971 4.116 × × × × × × 108 108 108 108 107 108

Number of zeroenergy modes 1 1 1 1 1 1

1.2.1–1

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Element type AC2D8 (triangle) AC2D8 AC3D4 AC3D6 AC3D8 AC3D10 AC3D15 AC3D20 ACAX3 ACAX4 (triangle) ACAX4 ACAX6 ACAX8 (triangle) ACAX8

Number of zeroenergy modes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

First nonzero eigenvalue 4.077 4.447 1.482 4.447 3.743 5.775 4.447 1.132 1.218 1.218 9.331 4.887 4.870 4.527 × × × × × × × × × × × × × × 108 108 108 108 107 108 108 108 108 108 107 108 108 108

Table 1.2.1–2 Element type B21 B21H B22 B22H B23 B23H B31 B31H B31OS B31OSH B32 B32H B32OS

Beam elements. First nonzero eigenvalue 1.675 × 109 1.675 × 109 4.621 × 109 4.621 × 109 1.379 × 1010 1.379 × 1010 3.127 × 109 3.127 × 109 8.534 × 107 8.534 × 107 7.170 × 109 7.170 × 109 2.050 × 108

Number of zeroenergy modes 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

1.2.1–2

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Element type B32OSH B33 B33H

Number of zeroenergy modes 6 6 6

First nonzero eigenvalue 2.050 × 108 1.714 × 1010 1.714 × 1010

Table 1.2.1–3 Element type COH2D4 COHAX4 COH3D6 COH3D8

Cohesive elements. First nonzero eigenvalue 1.0256 1.0256 1.2820 5.1282 × × × × 106 106 105 105

Number of zeroEnergy modes 5/3 5/1 12/6 16/6

Table 1.2.1–4 Element type ELBOW31 ELBOW31B ELBOW31C ELBOW32 PIPE21 PIPE21H PIPE22 PIPE22H PIPE31 PIPE31H PIPE32 PIPE32H

Elbow and pipe elements. First nonzero eigenvalue 5.481 3.230 3.230 1.065 1.675 1.675 4.621 4.621 3.127 3.127 9.321 9.321 × × × × × × × × × × × × 107 105 105 108 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109

Number of zeroenergy modes 6 6 6 6 3 3 3 3 6 6 6 6

The membrane elements have no bending stiffness, which accounts for the high number of nonrigidbody zero-energy modes.

1.2.1–3

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Table 1.2.1–5 Element type M3D3 M3D4 M3D4R M3D6 M3D8 M3D8R M3D9 M3D9R MAX1 MAX2 MCL6 MCL9

Membrane elements. First nonzero eigenvalue 2.350 1.615 3.140 3.622 7.274 7.274 7.274 5.225 1.231 1.535 7.582 6.313 × × × × × × × × × × × × 108 108 105 108 108 108 108 108 109 109 109 108

Number of zeroenergy modes 6 7 7 9 11 12 12 13 2 2 9 9

Table 1.2.1–6 Element type S3/S3R S4 S4R S4R5 S8R S8R5 S9R5 STRI3 STRI65 SAXA11 SAXA12 SAXA13 SAXA14

Shell elements. First nonzero eigenvalue 1.985 3.071 3.071 3.074 3.073 1.165 1.165 7.189 3.049 1.228 1.229 1.229 1.229 × × × × × × × × × × × × × 106 106 106 106 105 104 104 107 105 105 105 105 105

Number of zeroenergy modes 6 6 6 6 8/6 7/6 7/6 6 6 4/3 5/3 6/3 7/3

1.2.1–4

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Element type SAXA21 SAXA22 SAXA23 SAXA24 SAX1 SAX2 SC6R SC8R

Number of zeroenergy modes 3 3 3 3 2/1 1 6 6 Table 1.2.1–7

First nonzero eigenvalue 2.636 4.075 4.075 4.075 1.231 2.636 1.942 1.942 × × × × × × × × 106 105 105 105 109 106 108 108

Truss elements. First nonzero eigenvalue 1.143 1.143 3.429 3.429 1.143 1.143 3.429 3.429 × × × × × × × × 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010

Element type T2D2 T2D2H T2D3 T2D3H T3D2 T3D2H T3D3 T3D3H

Number of zeroenergy modes 3 3 4/3 4/3 5 5 7/6 7/6

Table 1.2.1–8 Element type CPE3 CPE3H CPE4 CPE4H CPE4I CPE4IH CPE4R

Two-dimensional continuum elements. Number of zeroenergy modes 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 First nonzero eigenvalue 2.488 2.488 8.373 8.373 1.196 1.196 3.140 × × × × × × × 108 108 107 107 108 108 105

1.2.1–5

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Element type CPE4RH CPE6 CPE6H CPE6M CPE6MH CPE8 CPE8H CPE8R CPE8RH CPEG3 CPEG3H CPEG4 CPEG4H CPEG4I CPEG4IH CPEG4R CPEG4RH CPEG6 CPEG6H CPEG8 CPEG8H CPEG8R CPEG8RH CPS3 CPS4 CPS4I CPS4R CPS6 CPS6M CPS8 CPS8R

Number of zeroenergy modes 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4/3 4/3 5/3 5/3 5/3 5/3 3 3 5/3 5/3 3 3 3 3 4/3 4/3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4/3

First nonzero eigenvalue 3.140 3.868 3.868 1.289 1.289 7.535 5.024 7.535 7.535 4.662 4.662 8.373 8.373 1.086 1.086 3.140 3.140 3.599 3.599 7.168 5.024 7.168 7.168 2.350 × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × 105 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 107 107 108 108 105 105 108 108 108 108 108 108 108

1.615 × 108 1.088 × 108 3.140 × 105 3.622 × 108 1.206 × 108 7.274 × 108 7.274 × 108

1.2.1–6

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Table 1.2.1–9 Element type CAXA41 CAXA42 CAXA43 CAXA44 CAXA4H1 CAXA4H2 CAXA4H3 CAXA4H4 CAXA4R1 CAXA4R2 CAXA4R3 CAXA4R4 CAXA4RH1 CAXA4RH2 CAXA4RH3 CAXA4RH4 CAXA81 CAXA82 CAXA83 CAXA84 CAXA8H1 CAXA8H2 CAXA8H3 CAXA8H4 CAXA8R1 CAXA8R2 CAXA8R3

Axisymmetric continuum elements. Number of zeroenergy modes 4/3 4/3 4/3 4/3 4/3 4/3 4/3 4/3 5/3 8/3 11/3 14/3 5/3 8/3 11/3 14/3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5/3 6/3 7/3 First nonzero eigenvalue 2.015 4.887 4.887 4.887 2.015 4.887 4.887 4.887 × × × × × × × × 108 107 107 107 108 107 107 107

9.615 × 106 9.615 × 106 9.615 × 106 9.615 × 106 9.615 × 106 9.615 × 106 9.615 × 106 9.615 × 106 2.437 × 108 8.526 × 107 8.526 × 107 8.526 × 107 2.156 × 108 8.461 × 107 8.461 × 107 8.461 × 107 2.405 × 108 8.457 × 107 8.457 × 107

1.2.1–7

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Element type CAXA8R4 CAXA8RH1 CAXA8RH2 CAXA8RH3 CAXA8RH4 CAX3 CAX3H CAX4 CAX4H CAX4R CAX4RH CAX4I CAX4IH CAX6 CAX6H CAX6M CAX6MH CAX8 CAX8H CAX8R CAX8RH Table 1.2.1–10 Element type C3D10 C3D10H C3D10I C3D10M

Number of zeroenergy modes 8/3 5/3 6/3 7/3 8/3 2/1 2/1 2/1 2/1 2/1 2/1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2/1 2/1

First nonzero eigenvalue 8.457 × 107 2.099 × 108 8.384 × 107 8.384 × 107 8.348 × 107 7.402 × 108 7.402 × 108 1.022 × 109 1.022 × 109 1.011 × 107 1.011 × 107 7.711 × 107 7.456 × 107 1.448 × 108 1.448 × 108 8.949 × 107 8.949 × 107 2.437 2.156 2.405 2.099 × × × × 108 108 108 108

Three-dimensional continuum elements. Number of zeroenergy modes 6 6 6 6 First nonzero eigenvalue 4.500 4.500 4.500 7.486 × × × × 109 109 109 107

1.2.1–8

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Element type C3D10MH C3D15 C3D15H C3D15V C3D15VH C3D20 C3D20H C3D20R C3D20RH C3D27 (21 nodes) C3D27 (22 nodes) C3D27 (23 nodes) C3D27 (24 nodes) C3D27 (25 nodes) C3D27 (26 nodes) C3D27 (27 nodes) C3D27H (21 nodes) C3D27H (22 nodes) C3D27H (23 nodes) C3D27H (24 nodes) C3D27H (25 nodes) C3D27H (26 nodes) C3D27H (27 nodes) C3D27R (21 nodes) C3D27R (22 nodes) C3D27R (23 nodes) C3D27R (24 nodes) C3D27R (25 nodes) C3D27R (26 nodes) C3D27R (27 nodes) C3D27RH (21 nodes) C3D27RH (22 nodes) C3D27RH (23 nodes)

Number of zeroenergy modes 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 12/6 12/6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 9/6 6 6 6

First nonzero eigenvalue 7.486 1.695 1.967 1.084 1.379 3.436 2.213 3.768 4.082 3.768 3.768 3.768 3.768 3.768 3.768 3.768 2.213 2.213 2.213 2.213 2.213 2.213 2.213 3.768 3.768 3.768 3.128 1.558 1.236 2.007 2.213 2.032 1.467 × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × 107 109 109 109 108 108 108 108 103 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108

1.2.1–9

767 × 109 3.214 × 109 Table 1.089 × 1010 4.1502 × 108 3.1–11 Element type C3D10E C3D15E C3D20E Piezoelectric elements.509 × 107 3.1502 × 108 1.186 × 107 4.184 × 106 1.846 × 108 3.472 × 108 4.0572 3.069 × 107 3.825 × 109 1.449 × 108 3.768 × 108 Number of zeroenergy modes 6 6 6 1.695 × 109 3.2.184 × 106 1.ELEMENT EIGENMODES Element type C3D27RH (24 nodes) C3D27RH (25 nodes) C3D27RH (26 nodes) C3D27RH (27 nodes) C3D4 C3D4H C3D6 C3D6H C3D8 C3D8H C3D8I C3D8IH C3D8R C3D8RH CCL9 CCL9H CCL12 CCL12H CCL18 CCL18H CCL24 CCL24R CCL24H CCL24RH Number of zeroenergy modes 6 6 6 9/6 6 6 7/6 7/6 6 6 6 6 6 6 9/6 9/6 6 6 6 6 6 9/6 6 9/6 First nonzero eigenvalue 1.623 × 109 3. First nonzero eigenvalue 4.022 × 108 2.2.1–10 .767 × 107 2.410 × 105 1.623 × 109 3.213 × 109 1.186 × 107 1.394 × 109 2.186 × 107 4.186 × 107 4.

828 × × × × × 108 109 108 107 108 1. These two nodes are used in the deﬁnition of the 1.006 8.inp.797 × 108 7.246 8.476 1. Elements of type SPRINGA and MASS are tested together in ﬁle exspame1. SPRINGA elements are deﬁned between each of the three possible pairs of nodes.567 8.522 6.768 6.inp tests element types SPRING1 and SPRING2 with a mass matrix deﬁned by a user element. Three nodes lie along a straight line. and each of the other two nodes deﬁnes a point mass.186 8.846 4.615 × 108 5.714 1.024 × × × × × × × × 108 108 108 107 108 108 108 108 1.797 × 108 1.246 5.265 × 108 7. MASS.2. Two coincident nodes are deﬁned.714 × × × × 1013 1011 1013 1011 SPRING.092 3.604 × 108 2.556 2. The springmass system acts in degree of freedom 1.373 6. One of the nodes is constrained.ELEMENT EIGENMODES Element type C3D20RE C3D4E C3D6E C3D8E CAX3E CAX4E CAX6E CAX8E CAX8RE CPE3E CPE4E CPE6E CPE8E CPE8RE CPS3E CPS4E CPS6E CPS8E CPS8RE T2D2E T2D3E T3D2E T3D3E Number of zeroenergy modes 12/6 6 7/6 6 2/1 2/1 1 1 2/1 3 3 3 3 4/3 3 3 3 3 4/3 3 4/3 5 7/6 First nonzero eigenvalue 3. File exspbue1.1–11 .476 1. and JOINT2D elements The models for the eigenvalue extraction tests for SPRING and MASS element types are slightly more complex than the tests for the other elements.169 × 109 1.

Abaqus/AMS. Abaqus/AMS.inp eca6afe1. AC2D8 elements (triangle). The spring-mass system acts in degree of freedom 1. AC3D20 elements. AC1D3 elements. AC3D8 elements. 1. File exepxme1. AC3D10 elements. ACAX4 elements (triangle). AC3D15 elements.ELEMENT EIGENMODES user element. ACAX3 elements.inp ec28afe1. One node of the JOINT2D element is fully constrained. by deﬁnition.inp ec3fafe1_ams. ACAX4 elements. and each node is also connected to a SPRING1 element. ACAX4 elements.inp ec34afe1_ams. AC2D4 elements (triangle). and the other has MASS and ROTARYI elements applied to create a spring-mass system.inp ec3kafe1. Abaqus/AMS.inp tests element type JOINT2D.inp eca4afe1_ams. AC3D4 elements. the other ends of the SPRING1 elements are connected to ground. No boundary conditions are required since.inp ec3fafe1. Results for both tests: =0.inp eca8afe1t_ams. ACAX8 elements (triangle). AC3D20 elements.inp eca4afe1. ACAX4 elements (triangle). AC3D15 elements.inp ec3aafe1.inp ec38afe1_ams. Abaqus/AMS. The natural frequencies and modes correspond to analytically calculated values.inp ec3aafe1_ams.inp ec28afe1t.inp eca3afe1_ams.inp ec38afe1. Abaqus/AMS.inp AC1D2 elements. AC2D6 elements. AC3D8 elements. AC2D4 elements.inp ec36afe1_ams. ACAX8 elements (triangle). Abaqus/AMS. ACAX3 elements.1–12 . ACAX8 elements.inp ec34afe1. Abaqus/AMS.inp ec24afe1. Abaqus/AMS. Abaqus/AMS.6340. AC3D6 elements. AC3D4 elements. Abaqus/AMS.inp eca8afe1_ams.inp ec3kafe1. AC3D10 elements.inp ec24afe1t. ACAX6 elements. A SPRING2 element connects the nodes.inp eca4afe1t. AC3D6 elements.inp ec23afe1.inp ec26afe1.inp eca4afe1t_ams. AC2D3 elements. AC2D8 elements. ACAX6 elements. Abaqus/AMS.inp eca8afe1.inp eca3afe1. ACAX8 elements.2. Input files Acoustic elements ec12afe1.inp eca8afe1t. =2.inp ec13afe1.inp eca6afe1_ams.inp ec36afe1.3660.

B21H elements.inp eb2jpxe1.inp eb3hpxe1. PIPE32 elements.inp eb2apxe1. B33H elements. B31 elements.2. PIPE21 elements.inp ebohixe1.inp ep2ipxe1.inp ep3hpxe1. B32 elements. PIPE32H elements. M3D4R elements. B32OS elements.inp eb2ipxe1.inp eb33pxe1. ELBOW32 elements. ELBOW31B elements. B33 elements. M3D4 elements.inp exelbxe1. B22H elements.inp eb32pxe1.inp em34sre1. PIPE22 elements.inp eb23pxe1.inp eb3jpxe1. B31OSH elements. COH3D6 elements. ELBOW31C elements.1–13 . exel1xe1.inp Cohesive elements B21 elements. PIPE31H elements.inp ep3ipxe1.inp eboiixe1. PIPE22H elements. B31H elements. coh2d4_eig. PIPE31 elements.inp ep23pxe1. B23H elements.inp ebo3ixe1.inp eb2hpxe1.inp em34sfe1. B31OS elements.inp Membrane elements ELBOW31 elements.inp exel2xe1.inp Elbow and pipe elements COH2D4 elements.inp ep22pxe1. B22 elements.inp ebo2ixe1.inp cohax4_eig.inp ep32pxe1. B32H elements.inp ep33pxe1. PIPE21H elements.inp coh3d8_eig.inp ep2hpxe1. COH3D8 elements.inp M3D3 elements.inp eb3apxe1. B32OSH elements. COHAX4 elements. em33sfe1. B23 elements.inp eb3ipxe1. 1.ELEMENT EIGENMODES Beam elements eb22pxe1.inp coh3d6_eig.inp exelcxe1.

MCL9 elements. S4R elements. SAXA24 elements.inp esnysxe1.inp esc6sxe1. MAX2 elements.inp esnxsxe1.inp em38sre1. T2D2H elements.inp et33sfe1.inp emc9sre1. MAX1 elements. SAXA13 elements.2. S9R5 elements.ELEMENT EIGENMODES em36sfe1.inp esnvsxe1.inp es63sxe1.inp esnusxe1. T3D3H elements. MCL6 elements.inp em39sre1. SAX2 elements.inp esa2sxe1. S4R5 elements.inp esnssxe1.inp T2D2 elements.inp es54sxe1. SC8R elements.inp et32sfe1. SAXA11 elements.inp et22she1.inp ese4sxe1. STRI3 elements. S4 elements. S8R5 elements. M3D9 elements.inp et32she1.inp em38sfe1.inp Shell elements M3D6 elements.inp emc6sre1. SC6R elements. M3D8R elements. STRI65 elements. M3D9R elements. M3D8 elements. esf3sxe1.1–14 .inp et23she1.inp es56sxe1.inp em39sfe1.inp esntsxe1. et22sfe1.inp es58sxe1.inp ema2sre1. SAX1 elements. SAXA12 elements.inp et23sfe1.inp et33she1.inp es68sxe1. 1. T3D3 elements.inp Truss elements S3/S3R elements.inp esf4sxe1. T2D3H elements. T3D2 elements. T2D3 elements.inp esa3sxe1.inp esc8sxe1. S8R elements. T3D2H elements. SAXA23 elements. SAXA14 elements. SAXA22 elements.inp es59sxe1. SAXA21 elements.inp esnzsxe1.inp esnwsxe1.inp ema3sre1.

CPE8R elements. CPE4IH elements. CPEG6H elements.inp ecg3sfe1.inp ece8she1.inp ecg8she1.inp ece8sre1. 1. CPEG4I elements.inp ecg4sje1.inp ecs6sfe1. CAXA42 elements. CPS6M elements.ELEMENT EIGENMODES Two-dimensional continuum elements ece3sfe1. CPS8R elements. CPE4I elements.inp ece6sfe1. CPS4R elements. CPE8H elements. CPEG8H elements.inp ecg6she1.inp ecg4sfe1.inp ecg6sfe1. CPE4RH elements. CPEG8RH elements.inp ece4sye1.inp ecg4she1.inp ecg4sre1.inp ece4sfe1. CPE8 elements.inp ece8sye1. CPS8 elements. CPS3 elements.inp ecs3sfe1.inp Axisymmetric continuum elements ecnssfe1. CPE6MH elements.inp CPE3 elements. CPEG4RH elements.inp ecs4sfe1.inp ece4sie1. CPEG4R elements.2.inp ece6she1. CPE6 elements. CPE3H elements. CPEG4H elements. CPE4 elements. CPS4 elements.inp ecs4sre1. CPS4I elements.inp ece8sfe1.inp ece6ske1.inp ece4sje1. CPE4H elements.1–15 . CAXA41 elements. CPEG8R elements.inp ecs6ske1.inp ecg8sre1. CPEG6 elements.inp ecs4sie1. CPE6M elements. CPE4R elements.inp ece6sle1.inp ece4she1.inp ecg3she1. CPE8RH elements.inp ecs8sre1. CPE6H elements.inp ecg4sye1.inp ecg8sye1. CPEG3 elements.inp ece3she1. CPEG3H elements. CPEG4IH elements.inp ece4sre1. CPS6 elements. CPEG8 elements. CPEG4 elements.inp ecntsfe1.inp ecg8sfe1.inp ecs8sfe1.inp ecg4sie1.

CAXA4R1 elements.inp ecnusye1. CAXA8RH4 elements. CAXA4R4 elements.inp ecnxsfe1.inp ecnxsye1. CAXA44 elements. CAXA4H4 elements.ELEMENT EIGENMODES ecnusfe1.inp ecnvsfe1.inp ecnyshe1. CAXA4RH1 elements. CAX4RH elements. CAX4 elements.inp ecnwshe1. CAXA8RH2 elements.inp eca4sje1. CAX4IH elements.inp ecnushe1. CAXA4H3 elements. 1.inp ecnusre1. CAX4R elements.1–16 .inp ecnvsye1. CAX6 elements.inp ecnwsre1.inp ecnzsye1.inp eca6sfe1.inp ecntsre1.inp eca3she1. CAX4H elements. CAXA8R1 elements. CAX3H elements.inp CAXA43 elements.2. CAXA8H4 elements.inp ecnxshe1.inp ecnysre1.inp ecnxsre1. CAXA8H1 elements. CAXA4RH3 elements.inp ecnvshe1.inp ecnysfe1. CAX3 elements.inp eca4she1.inp eca6she1.inp eca4sye1. CAX6H elements. CAX6MH elements. CAXA4H2 elements.inp ecnsshe1.inp ecnzshe1.inp eca6sle1. CAXA8RH1 elements. CAXA83 elements.inp ecnssye1.inp ecnwsfe1.inp ecnwsye1. CAXA8RH3 elements. CAXA4R3 elements.inp ecntshe1. CAXA4H1 elements. CAXA8R3 elements.inp ecnssre1.inp eca4sfe1.inp ecntsye1.inp ecnzsfe1. CAXA81 elements. CAX6M elements. CAXA8H3 elements. CAXA82 elements. CAX4I elements. CAXA8R4 elements. CAXA4RH2 elements. CAXA84 elements. CAXA4RH4 elements.inp eca3sfe1.inp ecnzsre1. CAXA8H2 elements.inp ecnvsre1.inp eca4sre1. CAXA8R2 elements.inp eca6ske1.inp ecnysye1.inp eca4sie1. CAXA4R2 elements.

C3D20 elements.inp ec3rsfeb.1–17 .inp ec3asle1. 26 nodes. C3D20R elements.inp ec3ashe1. C3D27R elements. 24 nodes. ec3asfe1.inp eca8sye1. C3D27R elements. 21 nodes.inp ec3rsfec. C3D27 elements.inp ec3rsyeb. C3D15H elements.inp eca8sre1. C3D15 elements. C3D27H elements.inp ec3rshee.inp ec3rsree.inp ec3rsheg. 25 nodes. C3D27H elements.inp ec3fsfe1.inp Three-dimensional continuum elements CAX8 elements. 27 nodes. C3D15V elements. 21 nodes.inp ec3aske1.inp ec3rsheb. 24 nodes.inp ec3ksre1. 1. C3D27R elements.inp ec3rsfed.inp ec3rshef. 22 nodes. 21 nodes.inp ec3rsfeg.inp ec3rsfee.inp ec3rsred.inp ec3ksfe1. C3D27 elements.inp ec3rsyea.inp ec3asie1.inp ec3rsfea. 21 nodes. 27 nodes.inp ec3ksye1. C3D27 elements. C3D27 elements. 23 nodes. C3D27H elements. C3D10I elements.inp ec3rsreb. 26 nodes. C3D10H elements.inp ec3rshed. C3D27H elements. 22 nodes. C3D27 elements. C3D27R elements. C3D27H elements. C3D27H elements.inp ec3fshe1.inp C3D10 elements. C3D27R elements. C3D27H elements. C3D10M elements. C3D20RH elements. 25 nodes.2. C3D27 elements. C3D20H elements. CAX8RH elements.inp ec3rshec. CAX8R elements.inp ec3rsrea. C3D27 elements. 23 nodes. 23 nodes. C3D27RH elements. 27 nodes. C3D10MH elements. 22 nodes.inp ec3isfe1. C3D15VH elements. CAX8H elements. 25 nodes.inp ec3rsfef.inp ec3ishe1. 24 nodes.inp ec3rshea.inp eca8she1. C3D27R elements. C3D27R elements.ELEMENT EIGENMODES eca8sfe1. C3D27RH elements.inp ec3rsrec. 26 nodes.inp ec3rsreg.inp ec3kshe1.inp ec3rsref. 22 nodes.

inp eca6efe1. 1. 23 nodes. CAX8E elements. CAX3E elements.inp ec34sfe1. CCL24RH elements. C3D6H elements.inp ecc9ghe1.inp eccrghe1. CPE4E elements. C3D8 elements. CCL24H elements. C3D8R elements. CCL9 elements.inp ece6efe1.inp ec38sie1.2.inp Piezoelectric elements C3D27RH elements.inp ecc9gfe1.inp ec34efe1. C3D8IH elements.inp ec36she1. C3D8I elements.inp eccrgre1.inp eccigfe1. CCL24R elements. CCL24 elements.1–18 . 27 nodes. CCL12H elements.inp ec38efe1. C3D8H elements.inp ec3rsyee.inp ec34she1.inp ec3kere1.inp eca8efe1.inp eccrgfe1. CCL18H elements. C3D27RH elements. CAX6E elements.inp eca3efe1.inp ec38sye1.inp ec36efe1. C3D20E elements. C3D8E elements.inp ec36sfe1. C3D4E elements.inp ecccgfe1.inp eccrgye1. C3D15E elements.inp ec38sje1. 25 nodes.inp ec38she1.inp ec3fefe1. C3D6 elements. C3D6E elements. CAX4E elements. 26 nodes.inp C3D10E elements. C3D8RH elements. C3D27RH elements.inp eca8ere1. CPE3E elements.inp ec3rsyeg.inp ece4efe1. C3D20RE elements.inp eca4efe1. CCL9H elements.ELEMENT EIGENMODES ec3rsyec.inp ec3rsyed. C3D4H elements. CCL18 elements. 24 nodes.inp ecccghe1.inp ece3efe1. C3D4 elements.inp eccighe1. ec3aefe1.inp ec38sfe1.inp ec38sre1. CAX8RE elements.inp ec3kefe1.inp ec3rsyef. CCL12 elements. C3D27RH elements. CPE6E elements. C3D27RH elements.

CPS8RE elements. CPS6E elements. mass.inp exspame1. SPRING1 and SPRING2 elements.inp ecs3efe1. T2D3E elements.inp JOINT2D elements.inp et22efe1. CPS3E elements. T3D2E elements.2.inp exspbue1.ELEMENT EIGENMODES ece8efe1. CPS4E elements. CPE8RE elements. T2D2E elements.inp ecs8ere1. and joint elements CPE8E elements.inp et32efe1.inp et23efe1.inp ecs6efe1. CPS8E elements. SPRINGA and MASS elements.inp Spring.inp ecs8efe1.inp ece8ere1. T3D3E elements. 1.inp ecs4efe1.inp et33efe1.1–19 . exepxme1.

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C3D15 elements. 1. Results and discussion For all elements the number of zero-energy modes for Steps 1 and 3 is the same and matches the number of rigid-body modes given in “Eigenvalue extraction for single unconstrained elements. C3D4 elements.2.inp ec3asie2.inp ec3ksye2. The ﬁrst step consists of an eigenvalue analysis of the model with no boundary conditions.inp ec3kshe2. C3D20 elements. C3D4H elements. The second step applies a uniform pressure load on all four edges and sets the NLGEOM parameter.” Section 1.inp ec3isfe2. C3D27RH elements.5. C3D15VH elements. CONTINUUM ELEMENTS Elements tested Continuum elements (excluding coupled temperature-displacement and pore pressure elements).2. C3D10I elements.inp ec3rsye2. The third step performs an eigenvalue analysis of the prestressed model with no boundary conditions. Results are printed only for the ﬁrst and third steps.inp ec3asle2. C3D20R elements.2 EIGENVALUE EXTRACTION FOR UNCONSTRAINED PATCHES OF ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard I. C3D27H elements. C3D15V elements.inp ec3ishe2.1.inp ec3rsfe2. C3D27 elements.inp ec3ksre2.inp ec3fsfe2. C3D20H elements. C3D27R elements. C3D10M elements. Input files ec3asfe2. C3D15H elements.2–1 . C3D10MH elements.inp ec3rshe2. C3D20RH elements.inp ec3ksfe2.” Section 1.inp ec3rsre2. C3D10H elements.ELEMENT EIGENMODES 1. Problem description The models consist of the same patches of elements used in the tests deﬁned in “Patch tests.inp ec3ashe2.inp ec3fshe2.inp ec3aske2.inp C3D10 elements.2.inp ec34she2.inp ec34sfe2.

inp ece6sle2. CAX8RH elements.inp ece4sfe2.inp eca8sre2. CAX8 elements. C3D8IH elements. C3D8H elements. CPE4RH elements. CAX8H elements. C3D8R elements.inp eca4sie2. CAX4 elements. CPE4IH elements.inp ecg3she2.inp eca4she2.inp ec38she2.inp ece6ske2. CAX6H elements.inp eca6sle2. CPE4 elements. CPE4I elements.inp ece4sie2.inp ec38sfe2. CPE8H elements. CAX6 elements. CPE8 elements.inp eca3sfe2. CPE6MH elements.inp ecg3sfe2. CAX3H elements.inp ec36she2.inp ece8she2.inp ece4sye2.2–2 .inp eca6ske2.inp eca6sfe2. CPE4H elements. CAX4I elements.inp ece4sre2. CAX6M elements. 1.inp ec38sre2. CPE4R elements. CAX6MH elements.inp ece4she2. CPEG3 elements.inp eca8sye2. C3D6H elements.inp eca4sje2.inp eca3she2. CPE6M elements.inp ece4sje2. CAX4RH elements. CAX3 elements. CAX4IH elements.inp ece3she2.inp ec38sye2.inp eca8sfe2.inp eca4sfe2. CPE8R elements.ELEMENT EIGENMODES ec36sfe2.inp eca4sre2. CPE8RH elements. CAX4H elements. CPE6H elements.inp eca8she2.inp ece6she2.2.inp C3D6 elements. C3D8RH elements.inp ece8sye2. CPE3 elements.inp eca4sye2. C3D8I elements. CAX4R elements. C3D8 elements. CPE3H elements.inp ec38sie2. CPEG3H elements.inp ece6sfe2.inp ece8sre2.inp ec38sje2. CPE6 elements.inp ece3sfe2. CAX8R elements.inp ece8sfe2.inp eca6she2.

inp eb2hrxe3.” Section 1. CPEG4IH elements. B22 elements.inp ecs8sre2. CPEG4H elements.inp ecg8sye2.inp eb23rxe3.inp ecg4sye2.inp ecg6she2.inp ecs6sfe2.inp ecs6ske2. SHELLS CPEG4 elements.inp eb2irxe3.1.inp ecg4sje2.ELEMENT EIGENMODES ecg4sfe2.inp eb2arxe3. CPS4I elements.inp ecs8sfe2. BEAMS. CPEG4R elements.inp ecg4sre2. CPS4R elements. CPS6 elements. B23H elements. CPEG8R elements. Results and discussion For all elements the number of zero-energy modes matches the number of rigid-body modes given in “Eigenvalue extraction for single unconstrained elements. general shells. Input files eb22rxe3. CPEG8H elements. CPS8 elements.” Section 1. Problem description The models consist of the same patches of elements used in the tests deﬁned in “Patch tests.inp ecg4sie2.inp ecg8sfe2.5.inp ecs3sfe2. CPS8R elements. CPS6M elements.2–3 . CPEG8RH elements. B21H elements.inp B21 elements. CPEG6 elements. There are no boundary conditions deﬁned in these models. CPEG4RH elements.inp ecg8sre2.2.inp ecg4she2. B23 elements. PIPES.inp ecg8she2. 1.inp ecs4sre2. B22H elements.inp ecs4sfe2. CPEG4I elements. Elements tested Beams. CPEG8 elements. CPS3 elements. CPS4 elements. CPEG6H elements.inp II.inp ecg6sfe2. pipes.2.inp eb2jrxe3.inp ecs4sie2.

inp eb33rxe3.inp es56sxe3. B33H elements.inp ep22pxe3. B31OSH elements. PIPE21 elements.inp esf4sxe3. PIPE21H elements. STRI65 elements. B32 elements.inp esf3sxe3. B32OS elements. S4 elements. B31H elements. PIPE22 elements.inp ebohixe3.inp ep32pxe3.inp ep3ipxe3.inp es68sxe3. S4R elements.inp es59sxe3.inp es54sxe3.inp ep33pxe3.ELEMENT EIGENMODES eb32rxe3. STRI3 elements. S4R5 elements. S8R5 elements.inp ep23pxe3. S9R5 elements.inp ebo3ixe3.inp eb3irxe3.2. PIPE32H elements.2–4 .inp eboiixe3. 1. B31OS elements. B32H elements.inp B31 elements.inp eb3jrxe3. PIPE31 elements. S8R elements.inp eb3hrxe3. B32OSH elements. S3/S3R elements. PIPE31H elements. PIPE32 elements.inp ep3hpxe3.inp ep2hpxe3. PIPE22H elements.inp es58sxe3.inp es63sxe3. B33 elements.inp ese4sxe3.inp ebo2ixe3.inp eb3arxe3.inp ep2ipxe3.

5 cycles/sec. The results deviate less than 1% from these frequencies for the ﬁrst-order elements and less than 0.293 and bulk modulus = 1. the natural boundary condition is that of a rigid surface adjacent to the ﬂuid.5 cycles/sec for the closed organ pipe.42176 × 105 .2. The ﬁrst-order element model consists of 20 acoustic elements along the length of the ﬂuid column and one through the cross-section.0 cycles/sec.2. The natural modes of vibration are extracted from the models for the case of an organ pipe with both ends open (open/open) and the case of an organ pipe with one end open and the other end closed (open/closed). Results are compared with exact solutions. The second-order element models consist of 10 elements.ACOUSTIC MODES 1.0 cycles/sec.0 cycles/sec for the open organ pipe and = 0. AC1D3 elements.inp ec13afe4. Results and discussion The geometry and material properties deﬁned for this problem result in the natural frequencies of = 1. and = 2. 1. The appropriate boundary condition at an open end is that the acoustic pressure degrees of freedom be set to zero (a free surface). More accuracy can be acquired with ﬁner meshes.inp AC1D2 elements.and three-dimensional ﬁnite elements. = 2. = 1.5 cycles/sec.8 units high with a cross-sectional area of 1. the length of the ﬂuid column is chosen considerably longer than the width of the column. The material properties used for the air are = 1. To match these frequencies with two.3 ACOUSTIC MODES Product: Abaqus/Standard I.0. Input files ec12afe4. A closed end requires no boundary condition.3–1 . ORGAN PIPE MODES Elements tested AC1D2 AC1D3 ACAX3 ACAX4 ACAX6 ACAX8 AC2D3 AC2D4 AC2D6 AC2D8 AC3D4 AC3D6 AC3D8 AC3D10 AC3D15 Features tested AC3D20 *FREQUENCY *SIMPEDANCE Problem description Each member of the family of acoustic elements is used to model an organ pipe. and = 3. The model consists of a column of air 165.1% for the second-order elements.

AC3D20 elements.inp ec3fafe4.inp ec3aafe4_ams. AC2D4 elements. AC2D8 elements.inp ec3fafe4_ams. ACAX6 elements. AC3D10 elements.inp eca8afe4. Abaqus/AMS. EXTERIOR MODES WITH NONREFLECTING IMPEDANCE Elements tested ACAX3 ACAX4 ACAX6 ACAX8 AC2D3 AC2D4 AC2D6 AC2D8 AC3D4 AC3D6 AC3D8 AC3D10 AC3D15 Problem description AC3D20 The models consist of duct-like meshes of length 0. Abaqus/AMS. AC3D6 elements.3–2 .inp ec3kafe4.inp II.inp eca6afe4_ams.inp ec36afe4_ams. 1. ACAX8 elements. AC3D4 elements.2. Abaqus/AMS. AC3D6 elements. AC3D4 elements.inp ec36afe4. AC3D8 elements. The third step performs an eigenvalue analysis of the model with the impedance conditions.inp ec24afe4.inp ec3kafe4_ams.inp eca4afe4. The second step applies a spherical nonreﬂecting impedance on all exterior ends of the ducts. Abaqus/AMS.inp ec3aafe4. AC3D10 elements. AC3D15 elements. The ﬁrst step consists of an eigenvalue analysis of the model with no boundary conditions. ACAX8 elements.inp ec23afe4. Results are printed only for the ﬁrst and third steps.inp ec38afe4. ACAX3 elements. ACAX6 elements.inp ec38afe4_ams. Abaqus/AMS.inp ec26afe4. AC3D8 elements. Abaqus/AMS. AC3D15 elements. Abaqus/AMS. AC2D6 elements. Abaqus/AMS. Abaqus/AMS.ACOUSTIC MODES eca3afe4.inp eca4afe4_ams. Results and discussion For all elements the modal analysis results agree with the expected behavior. ACAX4 elements.inp eca8afe4_ams. Abaqus/AMS. ACAX4 elements. AC2D3 elements.inp ec34afe4_ams. AC3D20 elements.inp eca6afe4.inp ec34afe4.inp eca3afe4_ams.1.inp ec28afe4. ACAX3 elements.

ACIN3D6. ACAX3.2. AC3D4. ACIN2D3. ACIN3D4.inp ACIN2D2. EXTERIOR MODES WITH ACOUSTIC INFINITE ELEMENTS Elements tested Acoustic ﬁnite elements: ACAX3 ACAX4 ACAX6 ACAX8 AC2D3 AC2D4 AC2D6 AC2D8 AC3D4 AC3D6 AC3D8 AC3D10 AC3D15 Acoustic inﬁnite elements: ACINAX2 ACINAX3 ACIN2D2 ACIN2D3 ACIN3D3 ACIN3D4 ACIN3D6 ACIN3D8 Problem description AC3D20 The models consist of duct-like meshes of length 0. and AC2D8 elements. AC3D4. ACAX4. and ACAX8 elements. ACINAX2.inp acoustic_infeig3d. The ﬁrst analysis step consists of a real eigenvalue analysis of the model. and AC2D8 elements. AC3D6. AC3D15. terminated with acoustic inﬁnite elements. 1. Input files acoustic_infeig2d. AC3D15. and ACAX8 elements.ACOUSTIC MODES Input files acoustic_exteig2d. AC3D8.inp acoustic_exteigax. ACIN3D3. AC3D10. AC2D6. The second step performs a complex eigenvalue analysis of the model.1. AC2D4. ACINAX3. ACAX6. Results and discussion For all elements the modal analysis results agree with the expected behavior. AC3D6. ACAX4.inp AC2D3. AC2D3.3–3 . and AC3D20 elements.inp acoustic_exteig3d. ACAX3. ACIN3D8. AC3D10. AC3D8. AC2D6. and AC3D20 elements. III. ACAX6. AC2D4.inp acoustic_infeigax.

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3.7 “Love-Kirchhoff beams and shells.” Section 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.3.25 “Flexure of a deep beam.” Section 1.3.” Section 1.3 Simple load tests • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • “Membrane loading of plane stress.” Section 1.” Section 1.26 “Simple tests of beam kinematics.3.” Section 1.3.” Section 1.” Section 1.3.13 “Veriﬁcation of section forces for shells. membrane.3.3.2 “Three-dimensional solid elements.3.” Section 1.” Section 1. plane strain.3.4 “Axisymmetric solid elements with twist.3.” Section 1.19 “Axisymmetric membrane elements.15 “Cantilever sandwich beam: shear ﬂexible shells.28 “Simple shear.3.3.3.11 “Normal deﬁnitions of beams and shells.3.29 “Veriﬁcation of the elastic behavior of frame elements.6 “Loading of piezoelectric elements.” Section 1.10 “Initial curvature of beams and shells.” Section 1.3.” Section 1.32 1.14 “Composite shell sections.3.22 “Beam added inertia.3.3.31 “Three-bar truss.3 “Axisymmetric solid elements.3.” Section 1.17 “Variable thickness shells and membranes.” Section 1.27 “Tensile test.3.” Section 1.3.” Section 1. and shell elements.” Section 1.3.SIMPLE LOAD TESTS 1.5 “Cylindrical elements.” Section 1.1 “Generalized plane strain elements with relative motion of bounding planes.” Section 1.3.” Section 1.3.” Section 1.24 “Beam with end moment.3.3.” Section 1.21 “Veriﬁcation of beam elements and section types.” Section 1.12 “Constant curvature test for shells.3.18 “Shell offset.9 “Shear ﬂexible beams and shells: II.” Section 1.3.” Section 1.20 “Cylindrical membrane elements.30 “Veriﬁcation of the plastic behavior of frame elements.” Section 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.8 “Shear ﬂexible beams and shells: I.3–1 .3.23 “Beam ﬂuid inertia.16 “Thermal stress in a cylindrical shell.3.3.

3.3.3.” Section 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.3.45 “Coriolis loading for direct-solution steady-state dynamic analysis.3.3.38 “Hydrostatic ﬂuid elements.3.41 “Surface-based pressure penetration.43 “Gasket element assembly.3.” Section 1.40 “Temperature-dependent ﬁlm condition.3.35 “Cylinder subjected to an asymmetric pore pressure ﬁeld: CAXA elements.42 “Gasket behavior veriﬁcation.33 “Cylinder subjected to an asymmetric temperature ﬁeld: CAXA elements.36 “Modal dynamic and transient dynamic analysis with CAXA and SAXA elements.SIMPLE LOAD TESTS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • “Pure bending of a cylinder: CAXA elements.46 “Pipe-soil interaction elements.3.3.44 “Cohesive elements.” Section 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.3.37 “Simple load tests for thermal-electrical elements.” Section 1.3–2 .” Section 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.39 “Fluid link element.” Section 1.3.34 “Cylinder subjected to asymmetric pressure loads: CAXA elements.3.3.47 1.” Section 1.

Equivalent concentrated shear forces corresponding to distributed shear loading of 1000/length are applied on each edge in the directions shown. 1.1 MEMBRANE LOADING OF PLANE STRESS.3. at all nodes.MEMBRANE LOADING 1. Young’s modulus = 30 × 106 . Poisson’s ratio = 0.1–1 . equivalent concentrated loads).3. AND SHELL ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested CPS3 CPS4 CPS4I CPS4R CPS4RT CPS6 CPS6M CPS6MT CPS8 CPS8R CPE3 CPE3H CPE4 CPE4H CPE4I CPE4IH CPE4R CPE4RH CPE4RHT CPE4RT CPE6 CPE6H CPE6M CPE6MH CPE6MHT CPE6MT CPE8 CPE8H CPE8R CPE8RH CPEG3 CPEG3H CPEG4 CPEG4H CPEG4I CPEG4IH CPEG4R CPEG4RH CPEG6 CPEG6H CPEG6M CPEG6MH CPEG8 CPEG8H CPEG8R CPEG8RH M3D3 M3D4 M3D4R M3D6 M3D8 M3D8R M3D9 M3D9R S4 S4R S4R5 S8R S8R5 S9R5 STRI3 STRI65 SC8R Problem description D C 1 A B 2 Material: Linear elastic. PLANE STRAIN. for shell elements. Boundary conditions: Step 1 and. For the coupled temperature-displacement elements dummy thermal properties are prescribed to complete the material deﬁnitions. A distributed pressure of 1000/length is applied on each edge (for shell elements. MEMBRANE.3.

6667 × 10−5 . is added to the loads already applied in Step 1. For lower-order elements the test description is complete.66667 × 10−5 . All elements yield exact solutions.333 (2 − y) + 1) × 10−5 . . Plane stress and shell elements: (−3.3) × 10−5 . Displacements −8. The results for generalized plane strain elements depend on the boundary constraints applied to the generalized plane strain reference node. and.03333) × 10−5 . −8.0333 (2 − y) + 1. Plane strain elements: (−3.7333 × 10−5 . so the results are the same as their plane stress counterparts. In these tests the reference nodes in the lower-order generalized plane strain elements are constrained such that the results are the same as their plane strain counterparts. Strains −1000. . ((2 − y) − 3. Results and discussion (1.3333 × 10−5 . for plane strain elements. For the higher-order generalized plane strain elements these nodes are unconstrained. Elements using reduced integration may have additional boundary conditions to those speciﬁed above. For higher-order elements another step deﬁnition is included.6667 × 10−5 . Plane stress and shell elements: −2. Step 2 Hydrostatic pressure loading along the two vertical faces.1–2 . .3. Response: Stresses −1000(2 − y).3(2 − y) − 3. −8.6667 × 10−5 . varying from 0 at the top to 1000/length at the bottom.3333) × 10−5 . Plane strain elements: −1. for plane strain elements.MEMBRANE LOADING Response: Stresses At every integration point Strains −1000 and. −8. −600. 1.

CPS4 elements.inp ece6tls1. CPE4H elements.inp ece8sfs1.inp ece4sis1. CPS6MT elements. CPE6MHT elements. CPE4RH elements. CPE4IH elements. CPE4R elements.inp CPS3 elements. CPEG4 elements.inp ece3shs1. CPE4 elements.inp ecg6shs1.inp ecg6sfs1.inp ecs4sis1. CPE6 elements.inp ece3sfs1.MEMBRANE LOADING Input files ecs3sfs1.inp ecg4sys1. CPEG3H elements. CPS6 elements.inp ecs8sfs1. CPS8R elements.inp ece6sls1. CPE8RH elements. CPEG4IH elements.inp ece4sys1.inp ecs6sfs1. CPE6M elements. CPE4RHT elements.inp ecs4trs1. CPE4I elements.inp ece8sys1. CPEG4R elements. CPS4R elements. CPE8H elements. CPE3H elements.inp ecg4shs1.inp ecg4sis1. CPE8R elements.inp ecs4srs1. CPEG4H elements. CPEG4RH elements.inp ecg4srs1.inp ece6shs1.inp ece6sks1. CPE6MH elements.inp ece6sfs1.inp ecs6sks1. CPE4RT elements.inp ecs4sfs1.inp ecg4sfs1.inp ecs6tks1.inp ece8shs1.inp ecg6sks1.inp ece4trs1. CPEG4I elements. CPEG6 elements.inp ece4tys1.inp ece4shs1. CPS4I elements.inp ecg3sfs1. CPEG6M elements.inp ecg3shs1. 1.inp ece8srs1. CPE6H elements. CPE8 elements.inp ecs8srs1.1–3 . CPEG6H elements. CPS8 elements.inp ece4sjs1. CPS6M elements. CPE3 elements. CPS4RT elements. CPEG3 elements.inp ecg4sjs1.3.inp ece4sfs1.inp ece4srs1.

S4R5 elements. M3D6 elements.inp em38sfs1.inp em33sfs1. SC8R elements with enhanced hourglass control.inp em34sfs1. S9R5 elements. STRI3 elements.inp em39sfs1.inp em38srs1. M3D9R elements. M3D3 elements. CPEG8R elements.inp es68sxs1. STRI65 elements.inp es58sxs1.inp ese4sxs1. S4R elements. SC8R elements.1–4 .inp es59sxs1. S4 elements.inp es56sxs1.3.inp ecg8shs1. CPEG8 elements.inp es63sxs1.inp esc8sxs1_eh. S8R5 elements. M3D8R elements.inp ecg8srs1. M3D4R elements.inp em36sfs1. CPEG8H elements.inp em34srs1. M3D9 elements.inp em39srs1.inp ecg8sfs1.MEMBRANE LOADING ecg6sls1.inp es54sxs1.inp CPEG6MH elements.inp ecg8sys1.inp esf4sxs1. 1.inp esc8sxs1. CPEG8RH elements. S8R elements. M3D4 elements. M3D8 elements.

3.3. Boundary conditions: Step 1 (Perturbation) . 1. which is the change in ﬁber length degree of freedom.2–1 .GENERALIZED PLANE STRAIN ELEMENTS 1. Young’s modulus = 30 × 106 .2 GENERALIZED PLANE STRAIN ELEMENTS WITH RELATIVE MOTION OF BOUNDING PLANES Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested CPEG3 CPEG3H CPEG3HT CPEG3T CPEG4 CPEG4H CPEG4HT CPEG4I CPEG4IH CPEG4R CPEG4RH CPEG4RHT CPEG4RT CPEG4T CPEG6 CPEG6H CPEG6M CPEG6MH CPEG6MHT CPEG6MT CPEG8 CPEG8H CPEG8HT CPEG8R CPEG8RH CPEG8RHT CPEG8T Problem description regular nodes y C D x z reference node A Material: Linear elastic. An out-of-plane displacement of 0.3.01 units (motion of one bounding plane relative to the other) is applied to degree of freedom 3 of the reference node. Poisson’s ratio = 0.

01 radians about the y-axis is applied to degree of freedom 5 of the reference node (the rotation degree of freedom of one bounding plane relative to the other). 1.167 4. Analytical solution: Stresses Maximum tensile stress Strains 1.264 × 1. Maximum tensile strain Results and discussion For Step 1.GENERALIZED PLANE STRAIN ELEMENTS Analytical solution: Stresses At every node Strains 3.264 × 1.264 × 1.0 × 105 .131 × 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 4.167 4. The results for Step 2 are given in the following table: Element type CPEG3 CPEG3H CPEG3HT CPEG3T CPEG4 CPEG4H CPEG4HT 1.167 3.750 3.750 × × × × × × × 10−3 10−3 10−3 10−3 10−3 10−3 10−3 1.131 × 1.264 × 1.167 4.131 × 1. all element types yield the exact solution. At every node Step 2 (Perturbation) A relative rotation of 0.2–2 .0 × 10−3 .750 3.0 × 10−2 . −3.5 × 105 .3. 5 × 10−3 .

ﬁrst-order incompatible mode elements.000 × 10−3 Second-order quadrilateral elements. Input files ecg3sas2.504× 105 1.500 × 105 1.inp ecg3tas2.750 × 10−2 3. CPEG8H.750 × 10−3 3.000 × 10−3 5.500 × 105 1.504 × 105 1. CPEG4.131 × 105 1. CPEG8R.500 × 105 1. CPEG3HT and CPEG3T elements.500 × 105 1. and CPEG4RH elements.125 × 105 1.inp ecg6sas2.000 × 10−3 3.000× 10−3 5.504 × 105 1.2–3 .inp CPEG3 and CPEG3H elements.500 × 105 1. CPEG4RHT. CPEG4I. CPEG8.500 × 105 1.500× 105 1. 1.GENERALIZED PLANE STRAIN ELEMENTS Element type CPEG4I CPEG4IH CPEG4R CPEG4RH CPEG4RHT CPEG4RT CPEG4T CPEG6 CPEG6H CPEG6M CPEG6MH CPEG6MHT CPEG6MT CPEG8 CPEG8H CPEG8HT CPEG8R CPEG8RH CPEG8RHT CPEG8T 1.750 × 10−2 3. CPEG6M. CPEG4HT.500 × 105 1.125 × 105 1. CPEG4H. and CPEG4T elements. and CPEG6MH elements.000× 10−3 5.000 × 10−3 5.inp ecg8sas2.125 × 105 1. CPEG4R.000 × 10−3 5. CPEG4IH.inp ecg4sas2.125 × 105 1.000 × 10−3 5.000 × 10−3 5. CPEG6H.000 × 10−3 5.750 × 10−3 3.504 × 105 1.500 × 105 5.000× 10−3 5.3. Other element types exhibit stiff response. CPEG4RT.inp ecg4tas2.750 × 10−3 5.000 × 10−3 5.000 × 10−3 5.500 × 105 1. Modiﬁed triangles yield nearly exact solutions.000× 10−3 5.000× 10−3 5. and quadratic triangles yield the exact solutions. CPEG6.500× 105 1. and CPEG8RH elements.

and CPEG6MHT elements. CPEG8RHT. and CPEG8T elements.inp CPEG6.3.2–4 . CPEG6H. CPEG8HT.inp ecg8tas2. 1.GENERALIZED PLANE STRAIN ELEMENTS ecg6tas2. CPEG6MT.

3. A distributed pressure of 1000/area is applied on each face. = 0. and equivalent concentrated forces for shear loading.3. Response: Stresses −1000 at every integration point.3. Young’s modulus = 30 × 106 .3 THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLID ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested C3D4 C3D4H C3D6 C3D6H C3D8 C3D8H C3D8I C3D8IH C3D8R C3D8RH C3D10 C3D10H C3D10I C3D10M C3D10MH C3D15 C3D15H C3D15V C3D15VH C3D20 C3D20H C3D20R C3D20RH C3D27 C3D27H C3D27R C3D27RH Problem description H G E D F C 1 2 z A y x 2 B Material: Linear elastic. 1.3-D SOLIDS 1. = 0.3–1 . Boundary conditions: Step 1 = = = 0. = 0. deﬁned such that all three shear stresses are of magnitude −1000. Poisson’s ratio = 0.

inp C3D4 elements. The accumulated force is reported in a coordinate system that is local to the section.333 × 10−5 (0. Step 2 Hydrostatic pressure loading is applied to the four vertical faces. For higher-order elements another step deﬁnition is included. since no contact elements are present. 3.6667 × 10−5 .66667 × 10−5 . C3D6H elements. In Step 2 the total force component in the local 1-direction (normal to the face) changes to 3000. All elements except C3D20RH yield exact solutions. varying from 0 at top to 1000/area at bottom. Response: Stresses −1000(2 − z).3. Displacements −8.inp ec34shs2. C3D4H elements.333 × 10−5 (0.2 − 0.3333 × 10−5 .0 in both steps. Results and discussion Elements using reduced integration may have additional boundary conditions to those speciﬁed above. 3. The *SECTION FILE and *SECTION PRINT output requests are used in some of the input ﬁles to output accumulated quantities on the face in the y-z plane.3–2 .inp ec36sfs2. For lower-order elements the test description is complete. Input files ec34sfs2. . in addition to the Step 1 loads.3-D SOLIDS Strains −1. In Step 1 the force is 2000 in each local direction. C3D8 elements.inp ec38sfs2. Elements C3D27R and C3D27RH employ 21 nodes in this test to produce the exact solutions. C3D6 elements. The area of the face is 2. −8. The stresses calculated for this element are correct.7z − 1.1). 1. The lack of midface nodes is consistent with the elements’ intended use.6z). Strains −1000.inp ec36shs2. −1000.

C3D27RH elements.inp ec3kshs2. C3D27 elements. C3D20H elements. C3D15H elements.inp ec3asis2.3. C3D20R elements. C3D8I elements. C3D15V elements. C3D10MH elements.3-D SOLIDS ec38shs2. C3D20 elements.inp ec38srs2.inp ec38sjs2.inp ec38sys2.inp ec3ashs2.inp ec3ksfs2. 1.inp ec3asks2. C3D15 elements. C3D10H elements.inp ec3fsfs2.inp ec3rshs2.inp ec3fshs2. C3D8IH elements. C3D8RH elements.inp ec3isfs2.inp ec3rsfs2. C3D10I elements.inp ec3asfs2.inp ec3ksys2.inp C3D8H elements. C3D10 elements.inp ec3rsys2. C3D27H elements.inp ec3asls2.inp ec3rsrs2.3–3 .inp ec3ksrs2. C3D8R elements. C3D20RH elements.inp ec3ishs2. C3D15VH elements.inp ec38sis2. C3D10M elements. C3D27R elements.

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0.3333 × 10−5 . −1. Poisson’s ratio = 0. −1. Response: Stresses At every integration point. Displacements 0.AXISYMMETRIC SOLIDS 1.33 × 10−5 z.3. For coupled temperature-displacement elements dummy thermal properties are prescribed to complete the material deﬁnition. Step 1 A distributed pressure loading of 1000/area is applied on each face. another step deﬁnition is included. −1. Young’s modulus = 30 × 106 . For higher-order elements.33 × 10−2 along 1000.4–1 .4 AXISYMMETRIC SOLID ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested CAX3 CAX3H CAX4 CAX4H CAX4I CAX4IH CAX4R CAX4RH CAX4RT CAX6 CAX6H CAX6M CAX6MH CAX6MHT CAX6MT CAX8 CAX8H CAX8R CAX8RH Problem description CAX4RHT C z D 1 r 1000 A 2 B Material: Linear elastic.3. For lower-order elements the test description is complete. Boundary conditions: . 1.3. Strains −1000.

inp eca6sfs3. CAX4RHT elements.inp eca8sys3.inp eca4srs3. Stresses −1500.inp eca4tys3.inp eca6tks3. CAX8R elements. 0.inp CAX3 elements. CAX6M elements.inp eca4sjs3. Results and discussion −3. varying from 0 at the top to 1000/area at the bottom. in addition to the loads of Step 1.inp eca8srs3. CAX6MT elements. CAX6MH elements.33 × 10−6 .inp eca4sys3. Strains −1000.inp eca6sks3. CAX6 elements. CAX8RH elements. CAX4IH elements.inp eca6tls3.inp eca4shs3.inp eca6shs3. Elements using reduced integration may have additional boundary conditions to those speciﬁed above.inp eca4trs3. asymmetric deformation (input ﬁle eref84s3. CAX4 elements. CAX4RH elements. All elements yield exact solutions.AXISYMMETRIC SOLIDS Step 2 Hydrostatic pressure loading is applied along the two vertical faces. The *SECTION FILE and *SECTION PRINT output requests are used in some of the input ﬁles to output accumulated quantities on the face CD. CAX8H elements. 0. CAX6H elements.3.inp eca4sis3. −2. CAX4RT elements. CAX6MHT elements.5. The quantities are reported in a system that is local to the section. CAX4H elements. CAX4R elements.inp eca6sls3.inp eca8shs3. CAX4I elements. −2. −1500.inp eca4sfs3.5 × 10−5 . The following reference solution is obtained for Step 2 using CAXA84 axisymmetric solid elements with nonlinear. CAX8 elements.inp eca8sfs3. Input files eca3sfs3. 1.4–2 .inp eca3shs3.5 × 10−5 . CAX3H elements.inp) and is given at 0.

5–1 .3. . Young’s modulus = 106 . Analytical solution: Twist = 0. A concentrated moment loading equivalent to a distributed moment loading M of 6402 is applied on top face CD. Poisson’s ratio = 0.AXISYMMETRIC SOLIDS WITH TWIST 1.3.01 (on top face CD). Step 1 .3. 1.5 AXISYMMETRIC SOLID ELEMENTS WITH TWIST Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested CGAX3 CGAX3H CGAX3HT CGAX3T CGAX4 CGAX4H CGAX4HT CGAX4R CGAX4RH CGAX4RHT CGAX4RT CGAX4T CGAX6 CGAX6H CGAX6M CGAX6MH CGAX6MHT CGAX6MT CGAX8 CGAX8H CGAX8HT CGAX8R CGAX8RH CGAX8RHT CGAX8RT CGAX8T Problem description axis of symmetry C D z r 1 A a=1 B Material: Linear elastic. Boundary conditions: .

Input files eca3gfs3. Results and discussion All elements yield the analytical solution.inp eca3hhs3. CGAX4H elements. The area of the face is 3.inp eca3hfs3.inp eca4ghs3. CGAX4RH elements. The *SECTION FILE and *SECTION PRINT output requests are used in some of the input ﬁles to output accumulated quantities on the face CD. CGAX6MH elements.inp eca4gfs3.5–2 . CGAX8RH elements. CGAX4HT elements.inp eca4grs3. CGAX4R elements. CGAX3T elements.inp eca6gks3.inp eca4hys3.inp eca8ghs3.inp eca8hhs3. CGAX3HT elements. CGAX3H elements.inp eca4hhs3. CGAX8RT elements. CGAX8 elements.inp eca8gys3.3. CGAX8H elements.inp eca3ghs3.inp eca8hfs3.inp eca4hrs3. CGAX6 elements.inp eca8hrs3.inp eca8gfs3. 1.inp eca6gls3. CGAX6MHT elements. CGAX4 elements. CGAX4RT elements. CGAX6MT elements.142.inp eca6ghs3. CGAX6H elements. CGAX4RHT elements. CGAX4T elements. CGAX6M elements.inp eca6hls3. CGAX8T elements.inp eca8grs3.inp eca8hys3.inp eca6hks3.inp eca4hfs3.inp eca4gys3. CGAX8RHT elements.inp CGAX3 elements. CGAX8HT elements.AXISYMMETRIC SOLIDS WITH TWIST Stresses . CGAX8R elements.inp eca6gfs3.

polynomial strain energy potential. = 1 × 10 . = 0. N=2. Different types of analyses (linear and nonlinear) are studied.3.6 CYLINDRICAL ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested CCL9 CCL9H CCL18 CCL18H CCL12 CCL24 CCL24R CCL24H CCL24RH Features tested CCL12H Elements are tested for different load cases using the *CLOAD.8 × 10 . *DLOAD. Both elastic and hyperelastic material models are used. = 0. = 1 × 10−7 .3. and *DSLOAD options. Poisson’s ratio = 0.5 × 10 .5 × 105 . The axis of symmetry is the z-axis. Young’s modulus = 30 × 106 .6–1 . = 0. Problem description Mesh: The mesh presented above is used for elements with a rectangular cross-section. 5 5 5 −7 = 0. Hyperelasticity: Hyperelastic. Material: Linear elasticity: Linear elastic.3. two elements are used for each element represented above. = 1 × 105 .CYLINDRICAL ELEMENTS 1. For elements with a triangular cross-section.75 × 10 . 1.

Axisymmetric boundary conditions are enforced.3. Axisymmetric boundary conditions are enforced. 1. CASE 2 z D C r A B Segment AD is ﬁxed.6–2 .CYLINDRICAL ELEMENTS Boundary conditions: CASE 1 z D C r A B Segment AD is ﬁxed.

3. A B 1. Axisymmetric boundary conditions are enforced. CCL24 and CCL18: Segment AB is ﬁxed.6–3 . CASE 4 z D C r Segment AB is ﬁxed. Axisymmetric boundary conditions are enforced.CYLINDRICAL ELEMENTS CASE 3 z D C r A B CCL12 and CCL9: Segment AD is ﬁxed.

inp ecc9gfs1b. elastic material.inp ecc9ghs2d.inp ecc9gfs3a. load and boundary conditions of Case 2. assumed nonlinear geometry. elastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. hyperelastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. CCL9 elements.inp ecc9ghs1d. CCL9H elements. elastic material. assumed nonlinear geometry. CCL9 elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. perturbation step. CCL9 elements. CCL9 elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. when appropriate). CCL9 elements.inp ecc9gfs3b. hyperelastic material. elastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. assumed nonlinear geometry. hyperelastic material. CCL9 elements are compared to CAX3 (and CGAX3. CCL12 elements are compared to CAX4 (and CGAX4. general step.inp ecc9gfs2a. CCL9 elements. general step. when appropriate). load and boundary conditions of Case 3.inp ecc9gfs1c. elastic material.inp ecc9gfs3c. 1. load and boundary conditions of Case 2.6–4 . CCL9 elements.CYLINDRICAL ELEMENTS Loading: CASE 1: *CLOAD CASE 2: *DLOAD CASE 3: *DSLOAD CASE 4: *CLOAD (See previous ﬁgures) Results and discussion The results are compared to the results obtained using axisymmetric elements. CCL18 elements are compared to CAX6 (and CGAX6. Cylindrical elements and axisymmetric elements yield the same results with differences less than 2%. and CCL24 are compared to CAX8 (and CGAX8. perturbation step.inp ecc9gfs2c. load and boundary conditions of Case 2. elastic material. CCL9 elements. assumed nonlinear geometry. Input files ecc9gfs1a. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. assumed nonlinear geometry. when appropriate). elastic material. CCL9H elements. assumed nonlinear geometry.inp CCL9 elements. elastic material. perturbation step. elastic material. general step.inp ecc9gfs2b.inp ecc9ghs3d. CCL9H elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 2.3. when appropriate).

CCL12 elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. load and boundary conditions of Case 4.inp ecccghs3d. hyperelastic material. assumed nonlinear geometry. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. general step. elastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 2. CCL12 elements. elastic material. assumed nonlinear geometry. elastic material. elastic material. elastic material. CCL12 elements. elastic material.6–5 . CCL12 elements. CCL12 elements. general step. assumed nonlinear geometry. hyperelastic material. CCL12 elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 4.inp ecccgfs1c.inp CCL9 elements. perturbation step. load and boundary conditions of Case 2. CCL12 elements.inp ecccgfs1a. hyperelastic material.inp ecc9gfs4c. elastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 3.inp ecccghs2d. CCL12 elements. CCL12H elements. elastic material. CCL9 elements. elastic material. CCL12 elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 2.inp ecccgfs1b. general step. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. CCL12 elements.inp ecccgfs3c. assumed nonlinear geometry. elastic material. CCL9 elements. 1. perturbation step.inp ecccgfs3a. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. assumed nonlinear geometry. general step. assumed nonlinear geometry. load and boundary conditions of Case 4.3. CCL9H elements. CCL12 elements. perturbation step. CCL12H elements.inp ecccgfs4a. assumed nonlinear geometry.inp ecccgfs4b. load and boundary conditions of Case 4. load and boundary conditions of Case 4. hyperelastic material. general step.inp ecccgfs3b. load and boundary conditions of Case 4. assumed nonlinear geometry. elastic material. elastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 2.inp ecccghs1d.inp ecccgfs2c. perturbation step.CYLINDRICAL ELEMENTS ecc9gfs4a. additional linear perturbation step with *LOAD CASE. elastic material.inp ecccgfs2b. load and boundary conditions of Case 1.inp ecc9gfs4b. CCL12H elements.inp ecc9ghs4d. elastic material.inp ecccgfs2a.

CCL12H elements. elastic material. elastic material. general step.3. hyperelastic material. CCL18H elements.inp eccigfs2a.CYLINDRICAL ELEMENTS ecccgfs4c.inp ecccghs4d. perturbation step. assumed nonlinear geometry. hyperelastic material.inp eccigfs4a. assumed nonlinear geometry. assumed nonlinear geometry. assumed nonlinear geometry. elastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 2.inp eccigfs4c. load and boundary conditions of Case 4. elastic material. CCL18 elements. elastic material.inp eccighs2d. CCL18 elements. elastic material. 1.inp eccigfs1a. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. CCL18 elements. elastic material. assumed nonlinear geometry. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. elastic material. CCL18 elements.inp eccigfs3b. CCL18H elements.inp CCL12 elements.inp eccigfs4b. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. CCL18 elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 2. hyperelastic material. general step. assumed nonlinear geometry. load and boundary conditions of Case 4. perturbation step. CCL18 elements.inp eccigfs2c.inp eccighs1d. hyperelastic material.inp eccigfs1b. CCL18H elements. CCL18 elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 4. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. assumed nonlinear geometry. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. general step. assumed nonlinear geometry. CCL18H elements. elastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. perturbation step. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. general step.inp eccighs3d. load and boundary conditions of Case 4. load and boundary conditions of Case 2. hyperelastic material. elastic material. elastic material. elastic material. CCL18 elements.inp eccighs4d. CCL18 elements. assumed nonlinear geometry. perturbation step.6–6 . load and boundary conditions of Case 4. assumed nonlinear geometry.inp eccigfs1c. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. CCL18 elements.inp eccigfs2b. CCL18 elements. CCL18 elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 4.inp eccigfs3a. elastic material.inp eccigfs3c. load and boundary conditions of Case 2.

elastic material. CCL24R elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 2. CCL24 elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. general step. CCL24 elements. hyperelastic material. elastic material. hyperelastic material. hyperelastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 2. elastic material.inp eccrgrs1c. perturbation step.inp CCL24 elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 1.3. load and boundary conditions of Case 1.inp eccrgfs2b. assumed nonlinear geometry.CYLINDRICAL ELEMENTS eccrgfs1a. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. assumed nonlinear geometry. CCL24H elements.inp eccrgfs1c. CCL24H elements. general step. hyperelastic material. CCL24 elements. perturbation step. elastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. load and boundary conditions of Case 2.inp eccrgfs3c.inp eccrgfs1b.inp eccrgfs3a.inp eccrgfs2c. elastic material.inp eccrgrs1a. elastic material.inp eccrgfs2a. assumed nonlinear geometry. general step. assumed nonlinear geometry.6–7 .inp eccrghs1d. elastic material.inp eccrgfs3b. perturbation step. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. assumed nonlinear geometry. load and boundary conditions of Case 4. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. load and boundary conditions of Case 2. CCL24 elements. CCL24H elements. CCL24R elements.inp eccrgfs4a. assumed nonlinear geometry. CCL24R elements. perturbation step. CCL24H elements. elastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 4. CCL24 elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. CCL24 elements. CCL24 elements. assumed nonlinear geometry. CCL24 elements. elastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. elastic material. 1.inp eccrghs3d. assumed nonlinear geometry. general step. assumed nonlinear geometry.inp eccrghs2d.inp eccrgfs4c. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. CCL24 elements. general step. elastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 4. elastic material. elastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. CCL24 elements. elastic material. perturbation step.inp eccrghs4d.inp eccrgrs1b. load and boundary conditions of Case 4. CCL24 elements.inp eccrgfs4b. elastic material.

assumed nonlinear geometry.inp eccrgys2d. CCL24R elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 4. assumed nonlinear geometry. assumed nonlinear geometry. general step.6–8 . load and boundary conditions of Case 3. 1.inp eccrgrs2c.CYLINDRICAL ELEMENTS eccrgys1d. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. elastic material. hyperelastic material. CCL24R elements. elastic material.inp eccrgrs2b. CCL24R elements. hyperelastic material. CCL24R elements. perturbation step. CCL24R elements. general step.3. load and boundary conditions of Case 4. load and boundary conditions of Case 2. general step. load and boundary conditions of Case 1. elastic material.inp eccrgrs4c. load and boundary conditions of Case 4. load and boundary conditions of Case 4.inp eccrgys4d.inp eccrgrs4a.inp eccrgrs2a. CCL24R elements.inp eccrgrs3a. hyperelastic material. CCL24RH elements. perturbation step. hyperelastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 3. elastic material. CCL24RH elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 2. elastic material.inp CCL24RH elements. assumed nonlinear geometry. assumed nonlinear geometry.inp eccrgrs4b.inp eccrgys3d. assumed nonlinear geometry. elastic material. CCL24R elements. CCL24R elements. load and boundary conditions of Case 2. CCL24R elements. elastic material. load and boundary conditions of Case 2. CCL24RH elements. assumed nonlinear geometry. load and boundary conditions of Case 3.inp eccrgrs3c. elastic material. elastic material.inp eccrgrs3b. perturbation step.

0.3. −1000.3.0 × 10−3 .LOADING OF PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS 1. no piezoelectric coupling. except for the distributed charge of 1000/length on the top surface.3.7–1 . Distributed charges of 1000/length on each edge. Loading: Distributed pressure of 1000/length on each edge. Poisson’s ratio = 0. Boundary conditions: 0. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS Elements tested CPS3E CPS4E CPS6E CPS8E CPS8RE CPE3E CPE4E CPE6E CPE8E CPE8RE Problem description D C 1 A B 2 Material: Linear elastic. −600. isotropic dielectric constant 1.7 LOADING OF PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard I. Concentrated charges at each node to negate the distributed charges. Young’s modulus = 30 × 106 . 1. Reference solution Stresses Both plane stress and plane strain elements. Equivalent concentrated shear forces corresponding to distributed shear loading of 1000/length on each edge in the directions shown. and for plane strain elements.

CPS8RE elements. Both plane stress and plane strain elements. All elements yield exact solutions. CPE6E elements. Potentials .inp II. THREE-DIMENSIONAL PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS Elements tested C3D4E C3D6E C3D8E C3D10E C3D15E C3D20E C3D20RE 1.7333 × 10−5 . Electrical potential gradients 0. CPE8RE elements. Plane stress elements.3.inp ecs6efs1.7–2 . Displacements 0. −1000. Results and discussion Elements using reduced integration may have additional boundary conditions to those speciﬁed above.inp ece8efs1.inp ece6efs1.inp ecs8ers1. . Both plane stress and plane strain elements. The *SECTION FILE and *SECTION PRINT output requests are used in some of the input ﬁles to output accumulated quantities on the face in the x–y plane. CPE4E elements.0 × 106 .6667 × 10−5 .LOADING OF PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS Strains Plane strain elements.6667 × 10−5 . CPS3E elements.inp ece4efs1.inp ece8ers1. .inp ecs8efs1. CPS8E elements. CPS4E elements. Input files ecs3efs1. CPS6E elements. −8. −1. Electrical fluxes −8. −1.3333 × 10−5 . −2.inp ecs4efs1. CPE8E elements.inp ece3efs1. CPE3E elements.

Loading: Distributed pressure of 1000/area on each face. . Distributed charges of 1000/area on each face. Strains −1.LOADING OF PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS Problem description H G E D F C 1 2 z A y x 2 B Material: Linear elastic. Electrical potential gradients 0. Displacements 0. except for the distributed charge of 1000/area on the top surface.6667 × 10−5 . . Poisson’s ratio 0. Electrical fluxes −8. deﬁned such that all three shear stresses are of magnitude −1000. no piezoelectric coupling.3333 × 10−5 . 0. isotropic dielectric constant 1. 0. Reference solution Stresses −1000. .3. Concentrated charges at each node to negate the distributed charges. Boundary conditions: .3.0 × 106 . . . −1000. 1. and equivalent concentrated forces for shear loading.7–3 . Young’s modulus 30 × 106 .0 × 10−3 . −1.

The *SECTION FILE and *SECTION PRINT output requests are used in some of the input ﬁles to output accumulated quantities on the face in the x–y plane.0 × 10−3 . isotropic dielectric constant 1. C3D20RE elements.inp ec36efs2.inp ec3aefs2.LOADING OF PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS Potentials .inp ec3kers2. Poisson’s ratio 0.7–4 . Young’s modulus 30 × 106 . C3D6E elements.inp ec3kefs2. AXISYMMETRIC PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS Elements tested CAX3E CAX4E CAX6E CAX8E CAX8RE Problem description C z D 1 r 1000 A 2 B Material: Linear elastic.3. C3D20E elements. C3D8E elements. Input files ec34efs2.3. no piezoelectric coupling. C3D15E elements. Concentrated charges at each node to negate the distributed charges. Boundary conditions: . 1. Distributed charges of 1000/area on each face. except for the distributed charge of 1000/area on the top surface.inp III. C3D10E elements.inp ec38efs2. Results and discussion Elements using reduced integration may have additional boundary conditions to those speciﬁed above. Loading: Distributed pressure of 1000/area on each face.inp ec3fefs2. C3D4E elements. All elements yield exact solutions.

−1000.0 × 106 . 1.33 × 10−5 z.inp eca8ers3. −1.3.inp CAX3E elements. Input files eca3efs3. The *SECTION FILE and *SECTION PRINT output requests are used in some of the input ﬁles to output accumulated quantities on the face in the x–y plane. Electrical potential gradients 0.inp eca8efs3. Results and discussion Elements using reduced integration may have additional boundary conditions to those speciﬁed above. 0.7–5 . CAX4E elements. CAX6E elements. Displacements = −1. −1. . All elements yield exact solutions.LOADING OF PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS Reference solution Stresses −1000.inp eca4efs3.33 × 10−2 along Potentials 1000. −1. Electrical fluxes 0.inp eca6efs3.3333 × 10−5 . CAX8RE elements. CAX8E elements. Strains 0.

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3.333 × 10−3 .0 at end B. = 0.LOVE-KIRCHHOFF BEAMS AND SHELLS 1. = −1.667 × 10−5 .2 × 10−3 . . Displacements in shell elements 0. Young’s modulus = 30 × 106 .0 at end A. It may be particularized for two-dimensional beam elements.0.0.2 × 10−3 at node . 100.5 A B 5.3.667 × 10−5 .3. 1. Gauss integration is used for the shell cross-section for element STRI3. Boundary conditions: at end A. Reference solution Displacements in beam elements = 1.0 0. Stress resultants in beam elements −25. and are applied for shell models. 25(1 − x). Only . Material: Linear elastic. 1. at end B.01467 at node A. 5. = 1.5 x A three-dimensional problem is shown here. Loading: 25. 100.2 × 10−3 at node B. 100 + 25(5 − ). = 5.01467 at node A.8 LOVE-KIRCHHOFF BEAMS AND SHELLS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested B23 B23H B33 B33H STRI3 STRI65 Problem description z y 0. Poisson’s ratio = 0.92 × 10−3 . = 4.8–1 .

inp eb3jrxs4. 3-node shell elements yield exact solutions for and but yield a value of 0.inp es63sxs4. 1.inp es56sxs4.inp eb2jrxs4. B33H elements.8–2 .3. STRI3 elements. B23H elements. B33 elements.inp eb3arxs4.LOVE-KIRCHHOFF BEAMS AND SHELLS Results and discussion Beam elements yield exact solutions.inp B23 elements. 6-node shell elements yield exact solutions for and but yield a value of 0.01464 for . Input files eb2arxs4. STRI65 elements.01412 for .

Section properties: 0. For pipe elements a circular cross-section of outer radius 0. The bending inertias have intentionally been chosen as very large values in order to test the shear-only modes. at end B. 1 × 106 .5 and wall thickness 0. Only and are applied for shell models.SHEAR BEAMS AND SHELLS: I 1.3. Analogous problems are modeled in Abaqus/Explicit using linear beam and pipe elements. Poisson’s ratio = 0. Material: Linear elastic.0 at end A. 1. Loading: 25. For this case a different analytical solution based upon Timoshenko theory is used for comparison.3.0104167. Unit density is prescribed for the material. The results using pipe elements are consistent to that using beam elements. both of which match the static analysis. similar to that from static analysis.05 is used. 0.25. which can be particularized for two-dimensional beam elements. Young’s modulus = 30 × 106 . Reference solution Displacements in beam elements at node A. and the solution is computed for unit time.3. Boundary conditions: at end A.0 x A three-dimensional problem is shown here. Loads are applied smoothly for a quasi-static solution.9–1 .9 SHEAR FLEXIBLE BEAMS AND SHELLS: I Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit B21 B21H B22 B22H B31 B31H B31OS B31OSH B32 B32H B32OS PIPE21 PIPE21H PIPE22 PIPE22H PIPE31 PIPE31H PIPE32 PIPE32H S4 S4R S4R5 S8R S8R5 S9R5 Problem description B32OSH z y A B 5.

Table 1.093 × 10−3 2.106 × 10−3 eb22gxs5.0.inp ep23pxs5.inp eboigxs5.inp eb23gxs5. B31OSH elements.333 × 10−5 . B32OSH elements. B21H elements.792 × 10−5 2.inp ebo3gxs5. 25.667 × 10−5 .3. B32OS elements. B31 elements.inp eb2igxs5.inp ebo2gxs5. Pipe element solutions are given in Table 1.SHEAR BEAMS AND SHELLS: I Regular and open section elements 1.194 × 10−3 2. 25(5 − x).9–1 Pipe element solutions.792 × 10−5 2.inp ep2hpxs5. PIPE22 elements. B32H elements. All beam and shell elements yield exact solutions.0.194 × 10−3 . 2.0.inp B21 elements.9–1. PIPE21H elements. Displacements in shell elements 4.792 × 10−5 . PIPE21 elements.333 × 10−5 at node A.3.inp eb2hgxs5.792 × 10−5 2. B22H elements.inp eb32gxs5.inp eb3hgxs5. Transverse shear: 1. Results and discussion 25(5 − x).inp ebohgxs5. Stress resultants in beam and pipe elements −25. B31H elements.9–2 . B32 elements. B31OS elements.inp eb33gxs5. Analytical solution Linear pipe elements Quadratic pipe elements Input files 2. Pipe elements 4. 2. −25. B22 elements.667 × 10−5 .3.inp ep22pxs5. 1.inp eb3igxs5.

inp es54sgs5.inp es56sgs5. PIPE31 elements. B31 elements in Abaqus/Explicit. S8R elements.inp esf4sgs5. PIPE31H elements. S9R5 elements. PIPE21 elements in Abaqus/Explicit.inp ese4sgs5.inp force_shearﬂex_beam2d_xpl. S4R elements.inp ep32pxs5. S8R5 elements.3. S4R5 elements. 1. B21 elements in Abaqus/Explicit.inp ep3ipxs5.inp force_shearﬂex_beam3d_xpl.inp PIPE22H elements. PIPE32 elements.SHEAR BEAMS AND SHELLS: I ep2ipxs5.inp ep33pxs5. S4 elements.9–3 .inp es59sgs5. PIPE31 elements in Abaqus/Explicit. PIPE32H elements.inp es68sgs5.inp force_shearﬂex_pipe2d_xpl.inp force_shearﬂex_pipe3d_xpl.inp es58sgs5.inp ep3hpxs5. STRI65 elements.

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at end B. 8.92 × 10−3 .3.0 at end B. Reference solution Displacements in regular beam elements −8 × 10−3 .0 x A three-dimensional problem is shown here. Young’s modulus = 30 × 106 .2 × 10−3 at end B.2 at end A. Poisson’s ratio = 0. both of which match the static analysis. Only is applied for shell models. which can be particularized for two-dimensional beam elements.SHEAR BEAMS AND SHELLS: II 1. similar to that from static analysis. Material: Linear elastic.0 × 10−2 . 3. 8 × 10−3 at end 3.2 × 10−3 . 2. Unit density is prescribed for the material. Displacements in open section beam elements .10–1 .3. 1. Loading: 100. Boundary conditions: at end A. Analogous problems are modeled in Abaqus/Explicit using linear beam and pipe elements. −6. .02 × 10−2 . Loads are applied smoothly for a quasi-static solution.10 SHEAR FLEXIBLE BEAMS AND SHELLS: II Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit B21 B21H B22 B22H B31 B31H B31OS B31OSH B32 B32H B32OS PIPE21 PIPE21H PIPE22 PIPE22H PIPE31 PIPE31H PIPE32 PIPE32H S4 S4R S4R5 S8R S8R5 S9R5 STRI65 Problem description B32OSH z y A B 5.3. and the solution is computed for unit time.41 × 10−2 at end . The results using pipe elements are consistent to that using beam elements. 4.

PIPE31 elements. 9. 9. PIPE31H elements.inp eboiixs6. B22 elements.475 × 10−3 at end . 1. PIPE21H elements.475 × 10−3 . 9.2 × 10−3 at node B.90 × 10−4 at end B.47 × 10−3 at end A.SHEAR BEAMS AND SHELLS: II Displacements in pipe elements −2.inp eb33rxs6. PIPE21 elements.inp ebo3ixs6. B21H elements.90 × 10−4 .inp eb3hrxs6.inp ep3hpxs6. −100.87 × 10−4 at end B. Transverse shear = 0.inp eb32rxs8.inp ep32pxs6. B31 elements with an internally calculated slenderness compensation factor.87 × 10−4 . PIPE22 elements. 100.0.inp ep2ipxs6.inp ep23pxs6.3.inp ep2hpxs6. B31OS elements. Results and discussion 3.inp eb2hrxs6.inp B21 elements.inp eb23rxs6. PIPE32 elements. B22H elements.47 × 10−3 . B31OSH elements.inp eb32rxs6. 100.10–2 .inp ebo2ixs6.inp ep22pxs6. Pipe elements yield the following solutions: −2. B31 elements with a nondefault value of slenderness compensation factor.28 × 10−3 .287 × 10 .0. Displacements in shell elements 8 × 10−3 at node A. −3 1. B32OSH elements. B32OS elements. 9. All beam and shell elements yield exact solutions. 2. B31H elements. Stress resultants in beam and pipe elements 0. PIPE22H elements. Input files eb22rxs6. 2.inp ep3ipxs6. B32H elements.inp eb2irxs6.inp eb3irxs6.inp ebohixs6.inp eb32rxs7. PIPE32H elements.inp ep33pxs6. 1. B32 elements. B31 elements.

inp es54sxs6. PIPE21 elements in Abaqus/Explicit.inp moment_shearﬂex_pipe3d_xpl. 1.3.inp esf4sxs6. STRI65 elements. B31 elements in Abaqus/Explicit. S9R5 elements. PIPE31 elements in Abaqus/Explicit. S4R elements.10–3 .inp es58sxs6.inp es68sxs6. B21 elements in Abaqus/Explicit.SHEAR BEAMS AND SHELLS: II ese4sxs6.inp es59sxs6.inp moment_shearﬂex_beam3d_xpl.inp moment_shearﬂex_beam2d_xpl.inp es56sxs6. S8R5 elements. S4R5 elements.inp S4 elements.inp moment_shearﬂex_pipe2d_xpl. S8R elements.

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INITIAL CURVATURE 1.0.4570 × 10−4 .0 x 10˚ B Material: Linear elastic. (Since only one element is used for modeling. Poisson’s ratio = 0. 25.1735 × 10−5 .0 at end B.6667 × 10−5 . Displacements.3. Boundary conditions: End A is clamped. SECTION=I.11–1 . 1. or SECTION=PIPE.inp): Displacements. Young’s modulus = 30 × 106 . and pipes. the solution will correspond to straight beam theory. if the direction cosines of the normals are not used. Loading: Reference solution Reference results are generated from models consisting of 20 B33 cubic beam elements. respectively. open section beams. Initial curvature is deﬁned by specifying the direction cosines of the normals at the two ends.11 INITIAL CURVATURE OF BEAMS AND SHELLS Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit B21 B21H B22 B22H B23 B23H B31 B31H B31OS B31OSH B32 B32OS B32OSH B33 B33H PIPE21 PIPE21H PIPE22 PIPE22H PIPE31 PIPE31H PIPE32 PIPE32H S4 S4R S4R5 S8R S8R5 S9R5 STRI3 STRI65 SC6R SC8R Problem description B32H y A 5.3.3.) The reference tests use SECTION=RECT. 1. Regular beams and shells (see erefrrs7. curved beam solution 2. These sections correspond to regular beams and shells. Only pipe elements are veriﬁed in Abaqus/Explicit. Gauss integration is used for the shell cross-section for the S4R elements. 1. straight beam solution 0.

11–1 Element Type B21 (1-element mesh) B21 (Reﬁned mesh) B21H (1-element mesh) B21H (Reﬁned mesh) B22 B22H B23 B23H B31 (1-element mesh) B31 (Reﬁned mesh) B31H (1-element mesh) B31H (Reﬁned mesh) B32 B32H B33 B33H Regular beams and shells. curved beam solution 2.4343 × 10 −4 −4 Straight* Curved Straight* Curved Curved Curved Curved Curved Straight* −4 2.4686 × 10−4 1.0 1.1084 × 10 −5 −5 −5 1.1715 × 10 1.6667 × 10−5 2.4686 × 10 1.9461 × 10−5 .7922 × 10−5 .0 1.0.1084 × 10−5 2. Displacements. Pipe elements (see erefpps7.4686 × 10−4 1. straight beam solution 0.6667 × 10−5 2.4549 × 10 1.0962 × 10−3 .1665 × 10 −5 −5 −5 0.1715 × 10 1.4343 × 10 0. 2.8153 × 10−4 .4343 × 10 0.6667 × 10 2. Displacements. Displacements.11–2 .0873 × 10 1.0873 × 10 1.0873 × 10 2.4549 × 10 0. curved beam solution 3.inp): 1.1085 × 10 −5 −5 −5 1.5078 × 10−5 . straight beam solution 0.0 1.6667 × 10 2.INITIAL CURVATURE Open section beam elements (see erefois7.inp): Displacements.1085 × 10−5 2.1715 × 10 −5 −5 −5 Curved Straight Curved Curved Curved Curved Curved 2. 2.0873 × 10 2.0 1.3. Results and discussion 4. Remarks 1.4686 × 10 1.3.4548 × 10 1.0.4343 × 10 −4 −4 −4 −4 2.4548 × 10 −4 −4 −4 2.1946 × 10−4 . Table 1.

6666 × 10 −5 −5 Remarks 0.1661 × 10−5 1.0 1.6276 × 10−5 2.3.1001 × 10−5 2.8153 × 10 3.1048 × 10 −3 −3 −3 Straight* Curved Straight* Curved Curved Curved 3.3.11–2 Element Type B31OS (1-element mesh) B31OS (Reﬁned mesh) B31OSH (1-element mesh) B31OSH (Reﬁned mesh) B32OS (1-element mesh) B32OSH (Reﬁned mesh) Open section beam elements.1667 × 10 2.4314 × 10 0.0 1.4175 × 10 −4 −4 −4 −4 2.1607 × 10 1.1787 × 10 3.6666 × 10 −5 −5 −5 2.0 1.0 1.4344 × 10 1.425 × 10−4 1.4638 × 10−4 1.1787 × 10 −4 −4 1.4508 × 10 −4 −4 −4 Straight* Curved Straight* Curved Straight* Curved Curved Curved Curved Straight −4 2.0790 × 10−3 1.INITIAL CURVATURE Element Type S4 (1-element mesh) S4 (Reﬁned mesh) S4R (1-element mesh) S4R (Reﬁned mesh) S4R5 (1-element mesh) S4R5 (Reﬁned mesh) S8R S8R5 S9R5 STRI3 STRI65 SC6R SC8R SC8R SC8R** SC8R** 1.1673 × 10−5 2.2287 × 10 2.6667 × 10 −5 −5 −5 1.0790 × 10 0.0 1.1001 × 10 1.6608 × 10 2.4340 × 10−4 0.0750 × 10 Curved Curved Curved Straight Curved Straight 2.4331 × 10 1.1048 × 10 1.4271 × 10−4 Table 1.1036 × 10 2.0 1. Remarks 2.1491 × 10 1.4638 × 10 0.8153 × 10 −4 −4 −4 0.2402 × 10 2.6292 × 10−5 2.2287 × 10−4 3.156 × 10 −5 −5 −5 1.11–3 .5028 × 10 1.

4373 × 10 4. The maximum values are documented here. B23H elements. Remarks 2. a reﬁned mesh for these elements yields very good results. However.7922 × 10 −5 −5 −5 0.inp eb3hrms7. B22 elements. B31 elements.7922 × 10−5 2.5435 × 10−5 4.inp eb2arms7.7922 × 10 −5 −5 −5 4.inp eb2hrms7. B31H elements.0 4.inp ebo2ims7. Due to the lack of symmetry for triangular meshes. B32 elements.7922 × 10−5 2. B21H elements.0 4.3.inp eb33rms7. the displacements at the nodes that are at point B may differ slightly.9768 × 10 2.0 4.3. B23 elements. Input files Coarse mesh tests: eb22rms7.inp B21 elements. B31OS elements.9768 × 10 Curved Straight* Curved Curved Curved 2.5435 × 10 4.11–4 .inp eb2jrms7.inp eb2irms7.inp ebohims7. B22H elements.9572 × 10 −5 −5 −5 * These are ﬁrst-order elements and are unable to capture initial curvature with a one-element mesh.5435 × 10 −5 −5 −5 −5 2.9768 × 10 2.9572 × 10 2.9572 × 10 2. B32H elements.inp eb3irms7.11–3 Element Type PIPE21 (1-element mesh) PIPE21 (Reﬁned mesh) PIPE21H (1-element mesh) PIPE21H (Reﬁned mesh) PIPE22 (1-element mesh) PIPE22H (1-element mesh) PIPE31 (1-element mesh) PIPE31 (Reﬁned mesh) PIPE31H (1-element mesh) PIPE31H (Reﬁned mesh) PIPE32 (1-element mesh) PIPE32H (1-element mesh) Pipe elements.inp eb32rms7. ** These results are obtained using enhanced hourglass control.inp eb23rms7. 1.0 4.5435 × 10 0.4373 × 10 −5 −5 Straight* Curved Straight* Curved Curved Curved Straight* −5 2.9572 × 10−5 2.INITIAL CURVATURE Table 1.4373 × 10 0. B31OSH elements.4373 × 10 0.9768 × 10 2.

PIPE21H elements. PIPE21H elements.inp ep3ipms7. SC8R elements.inp ep2hpfs7.inp es56sms7. S4 elements.inp es68sms7.inp ep2ipms7. PIPE21 elements. PIPE22 elements. S8R elements.inp eb3arms7.inp esc8sfs7.inp inicurv_pipe2d_xpl. B33H elements.inp B32OS elements.inp ep3hpfs7. PIPE31 elements in Abaqus/Explicit. PIPE21 elements. S9R5 elements.inp Fine mesh tests: eb22rfs7. SC8R elements.inp inicurv_pipe3d_xpl. B31 elements.inp ep2hpms7. SC8R elements with enhanced hourglass control.inp ebohifs7. 1.inp ese4sms7.inp eb2hrfs7.inp esf4sfs7. B31OSH elements. B21H elements.INITIAL CURVATURE ebo3ims7. B33 elements.inp esc6sfs7.inp es63sms7. B31OS elements. S4R elements.inp esc8sfs7_eh.inp eb3jrms7. SC6R elements.inp ep32pms7.inp ep23pms7.inp ep33pms7.inp esc8sms7. S4R5 elements.inp ep22pms7.11–5 . B32OSH elements. PIPE32 elements.inp eb32rfs7. STRI65 elements. PIPE21 elements in Abaqus/Explicit.inp ep3hpms7.inp es58sms7.inp es59sms7. PIPE31H elements. PIPE31 elements. PIPE32H elements. SC8R elements with enhanced hourglass control. S4R elements. S4 elements.inp es54sms7. B21 elements.inp ep22pfs7.inp es54sfs7.inp eboiims7.inp ebo2ifs7.inp esc8sms7_eh.inp ese4sfs7. S8R5 elements.inp eb3hrfs7.inp ep32pfs7. B31H elements.3. PIPE31H elements.inp esf4sms7. PIPE31 elements. PIPE22H elements. S4R5 elements. STRI3 elements.

.

different values of are used: vertical members. Young’s modulus = 30 × 106 .0 at end C. Loading: at end C. B33. B23H. A single linear beam element is used along BC with section properties as deﬁned above. 0. In Abaqus/Explicit the loading is applied using a smooth step amplitude to achieve a nearly static response at steady state. For pipe elements a circular cross-section of outer radius 0. and STRI3 elements.12 NORMAL DEFINITIONS OF BEAMS AND SHELLS Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit B21 B21H B22 B22H B23 B23H B31 B31H B31OS B31OSH B32 B32H B32OS B32OSH B33 B33H PIPE21 PIPE21H PIPE22 PIPE22H PIPE31 PIPE31H PIPE32 S4 S4R S4R5 S8R S8R5 S9R5 STRI3 STRI65 Problem description PIPE32H 3 B C 5 y x A Material: Linear elastic. horizontal members. similar to that in Abaqus/Standard. Section properties: 0. 1. For B23.3. 25.01041667.3. Boundary conditions: End A is clamped.NORMAL DEFINITION 1.05 is used. B33H.0 × 106 . 1. 0. 1.12–1 .208 × 10−3 . 5. Five pipe elements are used along segment AB.5 and wall thickness 0.0 × 10−6 .25.

098 × 10−5 5.098 × 10−5 5.098 × 10−5 5.662 × 10−3 5.662 × 10−3 2.098 × 10−5 5.098 × 10−5 5.098 × 10−5 5.098 × 10−5 5.3.098 × 10−5 5.199 × 10−3 2.098 × 10−5 5. For shear ﬂexible elements properties have been deﬁned such that the ﬁrst term is negligible.098 × 10−5 6.667 × 10−3 5.341 × 10 −3 3.098 × 10−5 2.098 × 10−5 5.098 × 10−5 5.098 × 10−5 5.166 × 10−3 2.098 × 10−5 6.098 × 10−5 5. For Love-Kirchhoff (cubic) elements the second term does not apply.199 × 10−3 2.NORMAL DEFINITION Remarks Normal deﬁnitions written to the output ﬁle by the analysis input ﬁle processor are all correct.098 × 10−5 5.167 × 10−3 2.098 × 10−5 5.098 × 10−5 5.199 × 10−3 5.098 × 10−5 6.098 × 10−5 6.199 ×10−3 2.166 × 10 −3 (Analytical) 5.12–2 .098 × 10−5 6.098 × 10−5 5. Results and discussion Element Type B21(H) B22(H) B23(H) B31(H) B31OS(H) B32(H) B32OS(H) B33(H) PIPE21(H) PIPE22(H) PIPE31(H) PIPE32(H) S4 S4R S4R5 S8R S8R5 S9R5 STRI3 STRI65 (Abaqus) 5.098 × 10−5 5.667 × 10−3 5.098 × 10−5 6.991 × 10−5 1.167 × 10−3 5.667 × 10−3 2. Reference solution Displacements: .

inp ebohgxs8.inp eb2igxs8.inp normdef_pipe3d_xpl.12–3 . B23 elements. S8R elements.inp eb33gxs8. S4 elements.3.inp ebo3gxs8. PIPE21 elements.inp ep23pxs8. the small differences can be attributed to steady-state oscillations.inp B21 elements.inp eboigxs8. PIPE31 elements in Abaqus/Explicit. B32OSH elements. B31OSH elements.inp ese4sgs8.inp eb3agxs8.inp ep3ipxs8. B33H elements.inp eb23gxs8.inp ep22pxs8.inp eb2agxs8.inp eb3jgxs8. PIPE22H elements. Input files eb22gxs8.inp eb32gxs8. S8R5 elements. B22H elements. PIPE22 elements. S9R5 elements. 1.inp eb3hgxs8.inp es63sgs8.inp ep33pxs8. PIPE31 elements. the displacements at the nodes that are at point B differ slightly.inp normdef_pipe2d_xpl.inp eb2hgxs8. PIPE32H elements. B32H elements.inp ep3hpxs8.inp es56sgs8. S4R5 elements. For pipe elements in Abaqus/Explicit the results are very close to those obtained with Abaqus/Standard.inp esf4sgs8. B31H elements. B23H elements.inp ebo2gxs8.NORMAL DEFINITION Due to the lack of symmetry for triangular meshes.inp eb3igxs8.inp es68sgs8. PIPE21H elements. S4R elements.inp ep32pxs8.inp es54sgs8. B31OS elements.inp eb2jgxs8. The maximum values are documented here. B22 elements. B32 elements. PIPE32 elements.inp ep2ipxs8. B33 elements.inp es58sgs8.inp ep2hpxs8.inp es59sgs8. B32OS elements. STRI3 elements. PIPE31H elements. PIPE21 elements in Abaqus/Explicit. STRI65 elements. B21H elements. B31 elements.

.

−20.3. Boundary conditions: Reference solution at all nodes along the perimeter.13 CONSTANT CURVATURE TEST FOR SHELLS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested S3 S3R S4 S4R S4R5 S8R S8R5 S9R5 STRI3 STRI65 Problem description D y H G C F 20 E 40 B x A Material: Linear elastic.13–1 . at nodes B and C. 20.54 −12. and D.555 −12.0 at nodes C and D.CURVATURE TESTS FOR SHELLS 1. Loading: −2.0 at nodes A and D. Young’s modulus = 1 × 103 . −10. Element type S3/S3R S4R S4 S4R5 S8R* S8R5 −12. at nodes A.0 at node C.48.3. B.3.527 1. 10.0 Displacements: Results and discussion −12. Poisson’s ratio = 0.54 −12.0 at nodes A and B.496 −12.51 −12.

STRI65 elements. S4 elements.480 −12.inp es68sxs9. S8R5 elements.3. STRI3 elements. S9R5 elements.inp es63sxs9.inp es56sxs9.CURVATURE TESTS FOR SHELLS Element type S9R5 STRI3 STRI65 −12.inp es58sxs9.inp es54sxs9. S4R5 elements.inp S3/S3R elements. 1.545 *A reﬁned mesh consisting of two elements is used for the S8R model since hourglassing occurs in a one-element mesh.527 −12. Input files esf3sxs9.13–2 . S4R elements.inp esf4sxs9. S8R elements.inp ese4sxs9.inp es59sxs9.

Orientations: 90° in the ﬁrst layer and 0° in the second layer. The ﬁrst element is deﬁned via SHELL SECTION.25296 × 105 . 1. and is equivalent to the two-layer model presented above. 0. rotated about the z-axis. The second element is deﬁned * by *SHELL GENERAL SECTION. Loading: 5 2.5 × 10 .3. 0.00783 × 105 .14 VERIFICATION OF SECTION FORCES FOR SHELLS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested S4 S4R S4R5 S8R S8R5 S9R5 STRI3 STRI65 Problem description z D 0. 0.5 × 10 .1 y C A 10 x B 1 Material: Linear elastic.00313 × 107 . 1.SHELL SECTION FORCES 1.3. Boundary conditions: Nodes along edge are clamped. COMPOSITE and uses *ORIENTATION options. There are two elements with identical geometries in the model. with the section stiffness matrix input directly. 5 5.1 0. with respect to the x-axis.14–1 .5 at nodes B and C.

inp es56s2sc.inp). STRI65 elements.0(10.inp es68s2sc. S9R5 elements. S8R elements.3. STRI3 elements. S4R5 elements. Results and discussion All elements yield acceptable solutions.inp es59s2sc.14–2 . DIRECTIONS=YES option is used in the input ﬁle with element type S8R5 (es58s2sc.inp es63s2sc.inp esf4s2sc. S4R elements.0 − x). Input files ese4s2sc. 1.SHELL SECTION FORCES The section stiffness is: Symmetric Reference solution Stress resultants: Moment = −1.inp S4 elements. S8R5 elements.inp es58s2sc.inp es54s2sc. The *EL FILE.

orientation. With this option the user deﬁnes the number of layers. c.15–1 .3. and the orientation in each layer. COMPOSITE. COMPOSITE). Two sets of analyses are performed: one in which the beams are modeled with S4R elements and the other in which the beams are modeled with S4RS elements. The material properties for this case may be nonlinear (e. composite laminate.3. A shell general section in which the user supplies the (constant) stiffness coefﬁcients for the shell section in matrix form (*SHELL GENERAL SECTION). Six cases are studied for each element type: 1. COMPOSITE). The test consists of six identical simply supported beams under uniform pressure loading. The shell section deﬁnition for this case is basically the same as for option (b) above: the user deﬁnes the number of layers.15 COMPOSITE SHELL SECTIONS Product: Abaqus/Explicit Elements tested S4 S4R S4RS S4RSW Features tested Shell general section.. the orientation in each layer. b. it is more efﬁcient to use the *SHELL GENERAL SECTION option as in option (b) above. and the number of integration points through the thickness of each layer. Each layer has three material points through the thickness.g.COMPOSITE SHELL SECTIONS 1. 2. for which Abaqus/Explicit calculates a pre-integrated effective shell stiffness matrix (*SHELL GENERAL SECTION. the material properties for each layer. A sandwich beam modeled with the numerically integrated *SHELL SECTION option. A numerically integrated shell section (*SHELL SECTION. The same sandwich beam as Case 1. Due to symmetry only one-half of each beam is considered. plasticity may be used). A layered. This option will print the matrix of effective stiffness coefﬁcients that are calculated from the layered shell section. elastic shell section. The material deﬁnition must be elastic to pre-integrate the shell stiffnesses. Problem description There are three different options for deﬁning a composite shell section within Abaqus/Explicit: a. 1. the material properties for each layer. The purpose of this veriﬁcation problem is to ensure that each of the different options for generating a shell section gives the same results for the same physical shell model. There are three linear elastic layers consisting of an aluminum layer (thickness 8 mm) sandwiched between two steel layers (thickness 6 mm). modeled with *SHELL GENERAL SECTION. If only elastic properties are used with *SHELL SECTION.

Input files shellsect. Results and discussion Figure 1. The same as Case 1 except that an in-plane orientation angle of 90° is applied to each layer.15–2 shows the histories of the central deﬂection of the beam for all six cases. Figure 1.15–1 shows the contour plots of section moment SM1 on the deformed geometry for Cases 1 through 5 and section moment SM2 for Case 6 when the analysis is performed using the S4R element. S4RS model with the *SHELL SECTION option.3. 6. where the stiffness matrix (21 coefﬁcients) of the shell section is given with values corresponding to the preintegrated Case 2. S4RS model with the *SHELL GENERAL SECTION option.3. the orientation should not affect the ﬁnal results.inp S4R model with the *SHELL SECTION option.inp shellgensect_s4rs. The directions of the local coordinate system for these quantities are automatically written to the results ﬁle. The stresses and strains are output to the selected results ﬁle in the local material coordinate system. The same as Case 3 except that an orientation is applied to the whole section.15–6 show the analogous results for the analysis performed using S4RS elements. S4RSW model with the *SHELL GENERAL SECTION option included for the purpose of testing performance only. Figure 1.3. 4.COMPOSITE SHELL SECTIONS 3.3. The same as Case 2 except that an in-plane orientation angle of 90° is applied to each layer. 1.inp shellsect_s4. The in-plane orientation is deﬁned with the *ORIENTATION. DEFINITION=OFFSET TO NODES option. modeled with *SHELL GENERAL SECTION. S4R model with the *SHELL GENERAL SECTION option.15–3 shows the histories of the section force SF1 (membrane force) at the center of the beams. Note that in Abaqus/Explicit any orientation option will not affect the output of section forces as they will always be in the default shell system.inp shellgensect_s4. Figure 1. The same sandwich beam as Case 1.15–4 through Figure 1.inp shellgensect.15–2 .3. Since the material is isotropic.3. S4 model with the *SHELL SECTION option included for the purpose of testing performance only.inp shellgensect_s4rsw. 5.inp shellsect_s4rs. S4 model with the *SHELL GENERAL SECTION option included for the purpose of testing performance only.

40E+04 -3.13E+05 -1.09E+04 -7.5: shell general section 2 1 3 SM2 VALUE -1.02E+05 -9. 1.4: shell section 1 2.90E+04 -6.89E+04 -6.COMPOSITE SHELL SECTIONS SM1 VALUE -1.33E+04 -3.52E+04 -4.15–1 Contours of bending moment at 12 milliseconds (S4R model).14E+05 -1.3.24E+04 6 6: shell general section with orientation Figure 1.02E+05 -9.3.05E+04 -7.71E+04 -5.14E+04 5 4 3 2 1.15–3 .26E+05 -1.56E+04 -4.3.25E+05 -1.73E+04 -5.

80. 0.601E-02 YMAX 0. 6. SF1_101 SF1_601 SF1_1101 SF1_1601 SF1_11101 SF2_11601 [ x10 ] 6 60.06 -0. -3 ] Figure 1.000E+00 -0.000E+00 XMAX 1.15–3 Histories of the membrane forces (S4R model).COMPOSITE SHELL SECTIONS 0.5 SF2 at center of beam 6 0.519E+02 YMAX 8. TOTAL TIME 8. 10. XMIN XMAX 3.3.2.04 -0.00 Vertical Displacement U2_101 U2_601 U2_1101 U2_1601 U2_11101 U2_11601 -0.598E+07 2.10 0. 4.15–2 Histories of the central deﬂections (S4R model).010 0.000 0.4.005 TOTAL TIME 0.02 -0.3. 20.200E-02 YMIN -8.15–4 . SF1 at center of beams 1.3.200E-02 YMIN -3. Section Force 40.015 Figure 1. [ x10 12.3. 1.08 XMIN 0.337E-06 1.

02E+04 -7.30E+04 -3.84E+04 -6.3.14E+05 -1.26E+05 -1. 1.12E+04 5 4 3 2 1.13E+05 -1.84E+04 -6.01E+05 -8.24E+05 -1.66E+04 -5.98E+04 -7.COMPOSITE SHELL SECTIONS SM1 VALUE -1.02E+05 -9.4: shell section 1 2.5: shell general section 2 1 3 SM2 VALUE -1.42E+04 -3.48E+04 -4.15–5 .15–4 Contours of bending moment at 12 milliseconds (S4RS model).3.56E+04 -4.28E+04 6 2 1 3 6: shell general section with orientation Figure 1.3.70E+04 -5.

10.631E-02 YMAX .15–6 .703E-12 YMAX 8. 20. XMIN .554E+07 SF1 at center of beams 1.3. 6. 0.5 SF2 at center of beam 6 0.4. TOTAL TIME 8.08 0.3. TOTAL TIME 8.000E+00 XMAX 1.3.02 -. Section Force 40.3. 1. [ x10 -3 ] Figure 1. 4. 4. [ x10 -3 ] Figure 1. SF1_101 SF1_601 SF1_1101 SF1_1601 SF1_11101 SF2_11601 [ x10 ] 6 60. 2. 10. 6.2.15–6 Histories of the membrane forces (S4RS model).200E-02 YMIN -2. 80. 2. 12.200E-02 YMIN -8.00 Vertical Displacement U2_101 U2_601 U2_1101 U2_1601 U2_11101 U2_11601 -.000E+00 XMAX 1.000E+00 -. 12.15–5 Histories of the central deﬂections (S4RS model).04 -.COMPOSITE SHELL SECTIONS .06 XMIN .

5 10 1 x Material: For the face a linear elastic material with Young’s modulus = 1. 1. Loading: 750.16–1 .SANDWICH BEAM 1. For the core the transverse shear moduli are given as 1. Reference solution Displacement at the free end (Plantema. S4RT. Inc.0 × 107 and Poisson’s ratio = 0 is modeled. and S8RT elements. Gauss integration is used for the shell cross-section for the S4. S4T.3. S4R. Maximum bending stress at the top of the clamped end.7275 × 105 . 1966): = 5.3. and S8R elements.0 distributed consistently to the nodes at the free end. Simpson integration is used for the shell cross-section for the S4T. using the LAMINA deﬁnition. Sandwich Construction. John Wiley and Sons.0 × 104 and all other properties in the plane are set to negligible values. Boundary conditions: All nodes are clamped at one end.04 0. for the case of warping prevention as enforced here: = 3.5684.16 CANTILEVER SANDWICH BEAM: SHEAR FLEXIBLE SHELLS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested S4 S4R S8R S4T S4RT S8RT Problem description z y 0..

55 5. S4RT elements.inp S4 elements.inp es4rtcsi.inp es68scsi. S4R elements.6439 × 105 3.SANDWICH BEAM Results and discussion Element Type S4 S4R S8R S4T S4RT S8RT Input files 5.inp es34tcsi.inp esf4scsi.55 5.3.5136 × 105 3.537 × 105 3.537 × 105 3.inp es38tcsi.5136 × 105 3. S8RT elements.6439 × 105 ese4scsi.56 3.16–2 .56 5. 1. S4T elements.55 5.55 5. S8R elements.

A transient simulation is performed in Abaqus/Explicit. Mass scaling is used for the solid element analyses to reduce the computational cost of the Abaqus/Explicit analyses.06 seconds for the analysis using a shell element.4 seconds for the analyses using solid elements. For the nonaxisymmetric elements the element subtends an angle of 11. and 0. which is equivalent to 32 elements around the circumference.17 THERMAL STRESS IN A CYLINDRICAL SHELL Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit DSAX1 DSAX2 DS3 DS4 DS6 DS8 DCAX8 DC3D20 SAX1 SAX2 SAX2T STRI65 S4R5 S8R5 S4RT S8RT CAX3T CAX4RT CAX4RHT CAX8R CAX8RT CGAX4RT CGAX8RT CGAX4RHT C3D4T C3D6T C3D8T C3D8RT C3D20R C3D20RT Problem description 100 C 200 C R t R = 0. two elements are used in the radial direction. Steady-state conditions are assumed in the Abaqus/Standard simulation. In the Abaqus/Explicit analyses that use solid elements.THERMAL STRESS IN A CYLINDRICAL SHELL 1.3.1 m t = 0.17–1 . This provides enough time for the transient solution to reach steady-state conditions in this problem.001 m The cylindrical shell is shown above. The total simulation time is 0.3. A single element is used in the Abaqus/Standard analyses and in the Abaqus/Explicit analysis using the coupled thermal shell element.25° at the center. Material: Density 7800 kg/m3 Conductivity 52 J/ms °C Speciﬁc heat 586 J/kg °C 1.

CAX4RT. CGAX8RT. and is the inside temperature. is the inner radius. but the cylinder is free to expand axially. This gives a theoretical stress of 171. by Timoshenko and Woinowsky-Krieger. the analyses are run in pairs: a thermal analysis followed by its corresponding stress analysis. CAX4RHT.THERMAL STRESS IN A CYLINDRICAL SHELL Thermal expansion coefﬁcient Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio 1. C3D8RT.17–2 . In the Abaqus/Explicit simulations the temperatures are applied gradually to ensure a quasi-static response.43 MPa.3. indicating that a tensile stress will act on this surface if . Results and discussion The axisymmetric and second-order shell elements agree exactly with the theory. is the coefﬁcient of thermal expansion. The analytical solution for the stresses is given in Chapter 15 of “Theory of Plates and Shells. C3D4T. CGAX4RT. The continuum elements show small discrepancies (< 1%) from the reference solution. CGAX4RHT. and is Poisson’s ratio. is the outside temperature. respectively. For all of the analyses except those using the coupled temperature-displacement elements (SAX2T. For the nonaxisymmetric cases symmetrical constraints are applied in the circumferential direction to model the complete cylinder. CAX4RT.” second edition. Gauss integration is used for the shell cross-section for input ﬁle es54sxsj.1%. CAX3T. C3D6T.3 Boundary conditions: For the thermal analyses the temperatures of the inside and outside surfaces are prescribed to be 200°C and 100°C. and C3D20RT in Abaqus/Standard and S4RT. The stresses at the outer and inner surfaces are given by where E is Young’s modulus. The ﬁrst-order threedimensional shells (S4R5) show an error of −5. For the stress analyses the rotation vector in the circumferential direction is constrained. CAX8RT. and C3D8T in Abaqus/Explicit).inp. S8RT. The upper sign refers to the outer surface. 1. For the continuum element meshes equations are used to provide the rotational constraints. Reference solution The temperature distribution through the thickness of the cylinder is given by where is the outer radius.2 × 10−5 200 × 103 MPa 0.

inp esa2sxsj.inp thermstresscyl_std_c3d4t. C3D4T elements.inp ec3ktrsj. CAX8RT elements. SAX2 elements. S8RT elements.inp eca8trsj. DCAX8 elements. C3D4T elements.inp es33dxsj.3.THERMAL STRESS IN A CYLINDRICAL SHELL The results obtained with Abaqus/Explicit are in close agreement with the analytical solution and with those obtained with Abaqus/Standard.inp esa3txsj.inp thermstresscyl_xpl_c3d4t. S4T elements. DS4 elements.inp es58sxsj. CAX4RT elements.inp eca8dfsj. CAX8R elements.17–3 . STRI65 elements.inp CAX3T elements.inp es54sxsj.inp eca8hrsj.inp thermstresscyl_std_c3d6t. DC3D20 elements. C3D8RT elements. C3D20R elements.inp ecax3tsj. thermstresscyl_xpl_cax3t.inp es4rtxsj. S4R5 elements. CAX3T elements. S4RT elements. S8R5 elements. CGAX8RT elements.inp eca4tysj.inp es36dxsj.inp ec3kdfsj.inp es38txsj.inp eca8srsj. SAX1 elements.inp es56sxsj.inp es38dxsj.inp esa3dxsj.inp thermstresscyl_xpl_c3d6t. CGAX4RHT elements.inp es34dxsj.inp eca4hysj.inp thermstresscyl_xpl_c3d8rt. CAX4RT elements.inp esa3sxsj. DS8 elements. DS6 elements.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files DSAX1 elements. C3D6T elements. CAX4RHT elements.inp ec3ksrsj. C3D20RT elements.inp es34txsj. CGAX4RT elements. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files esa2dxsj.inp eca4hrsj. SAX2T elements. 1. DSAX2 elements.inp eca4trsj.inp thermstresscyl_xpl_cax4rt. C3D6T elements. DS3 elements.

S4RT elements.17–4 .3.inp C3D8T elements. 1.inp thermstresscyl_xpl_s4rt.THERMAL STRESS IN A CYLINDRICAL SHELL thermstresscyl_xpl_c3d8t.

1 3 z y x 20 100 For the axisymmetric elements and the cylindrical membrane elements. The cylinder is clamped at one end. the model consists of a tapered plate of length 100 and width 20.18–1 .18 VARIABLE THICKNESS SHELLS AND MEMBRANES Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested S4 S4R S4R5 S8R S8R5 S9R5 STRI3 STRI65 SAX1 SAX2 SAXA1n SAXA2n S4T S4RT S8RT SAX2T DS3 DS4 DS6 DS8 DSAX1 DSAX2 M3D3 M3D4 M3D4R M3D6 M3D8 M3D8R M3D9 MAX1 MAX2 MGAX1 MGAX2 MCL6 MCL9 Problem description M3D9R For the three-dimensional shell and membrane elements (except the cylindrical membrane elements).3. The plate is clamped at one end. and the thickness varies linearly along the length of the cylinder from 3 at the clamped end to 1 at the free end.VARIABLE THICKNESS 1. 1.3. The cylinder is meshed with ten ﬁrst-order elements or ﬁve second-order elements. the model consists of a tapered cylinder with a radius of 1 × 106 and a length of 100. and the thickness varies linearly across the plate from 3 at the clamped end to 1 at the free end. The radius is chosen to be very large to ensure that the effects of circumferential stresses are negligible. the second-order models consist of ﬁve elements along the length and one across the width. The ﬁrst-order models consist of 10 elements along the length and two across the width.

Cylindrical membrane tension model In-plane force of 50 per unit length at the thin end of the membrane. Membrane tension model In-plane force of 50 per unit length at the thin end of the membrane. Boundary conditions: Clamped at the end with thickness 3. 1. A beam type multi-point constraint is used to tie all nodes at the thin end of the membrane to a master node. Poisson’s ratio = 0. This problem is set up using the symmetric model generation capability (*SYMMETRIC MODEL GENERATION). Young’s modulus = 1000. Axisymmetric membrane tension model In-plane force of 50 per unit length at the thin end of the membrane. with the corresponding axisymmetric problem as the base model.VARIABLE THICKNESS 1 z 100 r = 10 6 r 3 Material: For stress analysis: linear elastic.18–2 . Loading: Shell bending model Bending moment of 3 per unit length at the thin end of the shell. The load is then applied to the master node. for heat transfer: conductivity = 1.3.

SAX1 elements.inp esnwsnsq. S4R5 elements. SAXA21 elements.03.inp S3R elements. STRI3 elements.inp ese4snsq.inp esntsnsq.inp es63snsq. 1. SAXA13 elements. DIRECTIONS=YES option is used in input ﬁles es34dnsq.7465. Cylindrical membrane tension model Tip displacement Heat transfer shell model 2. Input files esf3snsq.inp es58snsq. Temperatures (20) = 13. S8R5 elements. The maximum error is about 1%.inp esa2snsq.37.inp es54snsq. S8R elements.inp esnssnsq. (80) = 69. Results and discussion All numerical solutions agree closely with the analytical solutions.inp esf4snsq. S9R5 elements.inp es68snsq.inp es56snsq.0.inp es59snsq.VARIABLE THICKNESS Heat transfer shell model Prescribed temperature = 0 at the thick end. prescribed temperature = 100 at the thin end. S4R elements. (60) = 46. The *EL FILE.50.8.inp. S4 elements.inp esnvsnsq. STRI65 elements. SAXA12 elements.3. (40) = 28. tip rotation 0.23. SAXA14 elements.7465.18–3 .inp esnusnsq. Tip displacement 2. Axisymmetric membrane tension model Tip displacement 2.inp and em34sfsq. SAXA11 elements. Reference solution Shell bending model Tip displacement Membrane tension model 20.7465. SAX2 elements.inp esa3snsq.

inp esa3dnsq.inp esa2dnsq. MGAX1 elements.inp em39sfsq. DS8 elements.inp em38sfsq. M3D8 elements. DS6 elements.inp em36sfsq.inp emc6srsq.inp em38srsq.inp es34tnsq. DSAX1 elements. SAX2T elements.inp ema3srsq.18–4 .inp es36dnsq.inp emg3srsq.inp es4rtnsq. MAX2 elements.inp SAXA22 elements. M3D9R elements. M3D4 elements. M3D8R elements.inp esa3tnsq.inp es34dnsq. MAX1 elements. SAXA23 elements. M3D6 elements.inp em34srsq. 1.inp em34sfsq. M3D3 elements.3. MGAX2 elements. DS4 elements. MCL6 elements.inp emc9srsq.inp emg2srsq.VARIABLE THICKNESS esnxsnsq. S8RT elements.inp es33dnsq. S4RT elements. DS3 elements.inp esnysnsq.inp es68tnsq. M3D4R elements.inp es38dnsq.inp ema2srsq. M3D9 elements.inp em33sfsq. DSAX2 elements.inp em39srsq. SAXA24 elements. MCL9 elements. S4T elements.inp esnzsnsq.

One end is completely constrained.25 in all cases.inp and esf4sgsb. The offset is deﬁned with the *SHELL SECTION. and all degrees of freedom except the rotation about the -axis are constrained at 10. OFFSET option. a width of 1.inp) test the bending of a cantilevered halfcylinder with the *SHELL SECTION. and a thickness of 0.1 is applied at 10 for the static analyses.3.0 × 106 and 0. and a uniform upward pressure is applied to all the elements. 1. and a thickness of 0.2. The model has a radius of 5. OFFSET option or the *SHELL GENERAL SECTION. A single shell element with an offset of half the shell’s thickness from the midsurface is used to model the plate.0. nonlinear static procedure using NLGEOM is included. The end at 0 is ﬁxed. Two additional input ﬁles (esf4sxsd. The *ELASTIC option is used to deﬁne a material with 3. OFFSET option. Simpson’s rule is used for the shell cross-section for all the elements. Problem description z y 0.0. A general.1 0.SHELL OFFSET 1.1 10 x 1 The model consists of a plate with a length of 10.3. A rotation −0.19 SHELL OFFSET Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested S4R S8R S8RT Features tested Shell offset used with the *SHELL SECTION and *SHELL GENERAL SECTION options. OFFSET option or the *SHELL GENERAL SECTION. a length of 20.2.19–1 .

This equivalent model is deﬁned using the *SHELL SECTION. and response spectrum steps with rebars. and response spectrum steps. Input files *SHELL SECTION. static steps using NLGEOM. frequency. S8R elements. OFFSET: esf4sxsc. S8R elements. S8RT elements.inp es68sgsa. modal dynamic.8 of the Abaqus Theory Manual. S8R elements. coupled temperature-displacement steps with static loading. S4R elements. modal dynamic.19–2 . static steps with rebars. static steps with thermal expansion.inp es68sxxb.inp esf4sgsb. OFFSET: esf4sgsa. S8R elements.inp es68sxsc. static steps. 1. frequency.” Section 3. COMPOSITE or *SHELL GENERAL SECTION. S4R elements. S4R elements. S8R elements. static steps.inp es68sxxa.inp S4R elements. frequency. modal dynamic.inp es68sgsb. static steps. COMPOSITE option.3. and response spectrum steps. The results are veriﬁed by comparing them to the results obtained from an equivalent model without offset. S8R elements. steady-state dynamics.inp es68sxrb.6.SHELL OFFSET Results and discussion The veriﬁcation of the shell offset results is based on the formulation described in “Transverse shear stiffness in composite shells and offsets from the midsurface.inp esf4sxsd.inp *SHELL GENERAL SECTION. steady-state dynamics. static steps.inp es68sxra. where an extra layer that has a negligible material modulus is added to the model. S8R elements. steady-state dynamics.inp es68sxsd. static steps using NLGEOM.

Initial conditions: For tests without orientation an initial stress ﬁeld of 102 . 1. The temperature of all nodes is set to 0 initially.001 is applied to all elements.3.20–1 .05. Poisson’s ratio = 0.20 AXISYMMETRIC MEMBRANE ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested MAX1 MAX2 MGAX1 MGAX2 Problem description axis of symmetry 5 z r r=1 Model: Thickness of membrane is 0. TYPE=ENGINEERING CONSTANTS with 108 .001 and 0. In addition. Boundary conditions: Degree of freedom 2 is ﬁxed for the bottom node.3. Young’s modulus = 105 .3. Material: For tests without orientation: linear elastic. thermal expansion coefﬁcient = 10−7 . For tests using orientation: linear elastic. and 102 . 0. 102 . degree of 0.AXISYMMETRIC MEMBRANES 1. freedom 5 is ﬁxed for the bottom node for elements supporting twist.

Analytical solution: Shear stress = 636. Analytical solution: 0.3. History definition III (for element types MGAX1 and MGAX2 using *ORIENTATION) Step 1 (uses NLGEOM): Loading: A concentrated load of magnitude 2 is applied to the top node. Step 2 (uses NLGEOM): Loading: A concentrated moment of magnitude 2 is applied to the top node.22.04998. Step 3 (PERTURBATION): Loading: Internal pressure of magnitude 500. Step 4 (PERTURBATION): Loading: The temperature at all nodes is increased to 5000.0005. Analytical solution: Hoop stress = 10000. History definition II (for element types MGAX1 and MGAX2) Step 1 (uses NLGEOM): Loading: All degrees of freedom at all nodes are constrained. This step is recommended to apply the initial stresses.20–2 . 1. In subsequent steps the *BOUNDARY option can be used with the parameter OP=NEW to apply all the necessary boundary conditions. Analytical solution: at top node = 0.AXISYMMETRIC MEMBRANES History definition I (for all element types) Step 1 (uses NLGEOM): Loading: All degrees of freedom at all nodes are constrained. This step is recommended to apply the initial stresses. Step 2 (PERTURBATION): Loading: A concentrated moment (in degree of freedom 5) of magnitude 200 is applied to the top node. In subsequent steps the *BOUNDARY option can be used with the parameter OP=NEW to apply all the necessary boundary conditions. Results and discussion History definition I: All elements yield exact solutions. Step 2 (PERTURBATION): Loading: A concentrated force (in direction 2) of magnitude 314 is applied to the top node.

MGAX1 elements with twist. MGAX1 elements with *ORIENTATION.inp emg2srs3. MGAX2 elements with twist.inp MAX1 elements.inp emg2srt3.inp emg2sro3.20–3 . MGAX2 elements with *ORIENTATION. History definition III: The results are compared with those from a similar well-reﬁned model using CGAX4R (axisymmetric continuum elements that support twist) elements.inp emg3srt3.3. The results match very well.inp emg3srs3. Input files ema2srs3.inp ema3srs3.06%. MGAX1 elements without twist. Since the strain in the thickness direction is very small in the continuum model.AXISYMMETRIC MEMBRANES History definition II: The deviation from the analytical solution is approximately 0. the section Poisson’s ratio is set to 0 for the membrane model. 1.inp emg3sro3. MAX2 elements. MGAX2 elements without twist.

.

For tests using orientation: linear elastic. with each element spanning a 90° segment. development of shear strains. Initial conditions: For all the tests an initial stress ﬁeld of 0. This step is recommended to apply the initial stresses.1823. In subsequent steps the *BOUNDARY.3. thermal expansion coefﬁcient = 10−7 . For tests that include thermal expansion the temperature of all nodes is set to 0 initially.05. Analytical solution: The axial strain remains unchanged. 1. OP=NEW option can be used to apply all the necessary boundary conditions. Step 3 (uses NLGEOM): Boundary conditions: Same as in Step 2 except that the radial motion of all nodes is unconstrained. The current membrane thickness is 0.001 is applied to all elements.3. With this setup. Material: For tests without orientation: linear elastic. The orientation is deﬁned such that the ﬁbers line up at an angle of 4° relative to the axial direction.3. The radius and the thickness of the cylinder change in a manner such that the total volume is preserved.21–1 . 0. History definition 1 (for all element types) Step 1 (uses NLGEOM): Loading: All degrees of freedom at all nodes are constrained. and axial directions. Analytical solution: = 0.04167. circumferential. and 10 . Boundary conditions: The boundary conditions are different in the different steps and are described in the history deﬁnition subsection. Step 2 (uses NLGEOM): Boundary conditions: All nodes are ﬁxed in the radial and circumferential directions. an axial force results in twist and. TYPE=ENGINEERING CONSTANTS with 102 . 10 . hence. Poisson’s ratio = 0. Cylindrical transformation is used at all the nodes such that the boundary conditions and loads can be conveniently deﬁned in the local radial.001 and 0. The top nodes are moved axially by 0. The initial thickness is 0.21 CYLINDRICAL MEMBRANE ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested MCL6 MCL9 Problem description Model: The model consists of a cylinder with initial radius and height both equal to 1. 8 2 2 10 . The cylinder is modeled using four cylindrical membrane elements.2.CYLINDRICAL MEMBRANES 1. Young’s modulus = 105 .

History definition 3 (for all element types) Step 1 (uses NLGEOM): Loading: All degrees of freedom at all nodes are constrained. This step is recommended to apply the initial stresses. all nodes at the bottom of the cylinder are ﬁxed in the axial direction. which were obtained as reaction forces (at the bottom nodes of the cylinder) for the deformation state in Step 1. A distributed pressure load of magnitude 500 is applied to the inner surface. In addition.2. thereby expanding the cylinder uniformly. In subsequent steps the *BOUNDARY. Step 2 (uses NLGEOM): Loading and boundary conditions: All nodes are ﬁxed in the circumferential direction. This step is recommended to apply the initial stresses. The radial motion of all nodes are left unconstrained.2 is applied to all the nodes on the top of the cylinder. 1.21–2 . In addition. The radial motion of all nodes is left unconstrained. are applied on the nodes on top of the cylinder. are applied on the nodes on top of the cylinder. An axial displacement of magnitude 0. Step 3 (PERTURBATION): Loading and boundary conditions: All nodes are ﬁxed in the circumferential direction. Analytical solution: The hoop stress is 10000. all nodes at the bottom of the cylinder are ﬁxed in the axial direction. Concentrated loads.3. Analytical solution: = 0. In addition. all nodes at the bottom of the cylinder are ﬁxed in the axial direction. OP=NEW option can be used to apply all the necessary boundary conditions. Analytical solution: The deformation should be consistent with that at the end of Step 3 in history deﬁnition 1. which were obtained as reaction forces (at the bottom nodes of the cylinder) for the deformation state in history deﬁnition 1. Step 4 (PERTURBATION): Loading and boundary conditions: All nodes are ﬁxed in the circumferential direction. In addition. In subsequent steps the *BOUNDARY. OP=NEW option can be used to apply all the necessary boundary conditions. all nodes at the bottom of the cylinder are ﬁxed in the axial direction. Analytical solution: The deformation state should be identical to that obtained in Step 1. The radial motion of all nodes is left unconstrained. The radial motion of all nodes is left unconstrained. Step 2 (PERTURBATION): Loading and boundary conditions: All nodes are ﬁxed in the circumferential direction.CYLINDRICAL MEMBRANES History definition 2 (for all element types) Step 1 (uses NLGEOM): Loading: All degrees of freedom at all nodes are constrained. Concentrated loads.

Input files emc6srs3. History definition 3: All elements yield solutions that are very close to the analytical solutions.3. Analytical solution: = = 0. a beam-type multi-point constraint is used to connect the nodes on top of the cylinder to a master node. Step 2 (uses NLGEOM): Loading: A concentrated load of magnitude 2 is applied to the top of the cylinder.0005. In addition. all nodes at the bottom of the cylinder are ﬁxed in the axial direction. MCL6 elements using history deﬁnition 2.inp emc9srp3.inp emc9srs4.inp MCL6 elements using history deﬁnition 1.CYLINDRICAL MEMBRANES Step 5 (PERTURBATION): Loading and boundary conditions: All nodes are ﬁxed in the circumferential direction. MCL9 elements using history deﬁnition 2.inp emc6srs4. History definition 4 (for all element types. Results and discussion History definition 1: All elements yield solutions that are very close to the analytical solutions.inp emc9srs3. The radial motion of all nodes is left unconstrained.inp emc6srp3. In subsequent steps the *BOUNDARY.21–3 . This step is recommended to apply the initial stresses. OP=NEW option can be used to apply all the necessary boundary conditions. The temperature of all nodes is prescribed to be 5000. MCL9 elements using history deﬁnition 3. MCL6 elements using history deﬁnition 3. leading to thermal strains. History definition 2: The solutions are very close to the state obtained at the end of Step 3 in history deﬁnition 1. The results match very well. History definition 4: The results are compared with those from a similar model using an MGAX1 (axisymmetric membrane elements that support twist) element. MCL9 elements using history deﬁnition 1. uses *ORIENTATION) Step 1 (uses NLGEOM): Loading: All degrees of freedom at all nodes are constrained. 1. To facilitate the application of the load.

21–4 .3.inp MCL6 elements with *ORIENTATION using history deﬁnition 4. 1. MCL9 elements with *ORIENTATION using history deﬁnition 4.inp emc9sro3.CYLINDRICAL MEMBRANES emc6sro3.

22–1 .0. The *EL FILE. Elbow. Young’s modulus = 3. Box. Rectangular.inp. Pipe. I. Poisson’s ratio = 0. Trapezoidal. The length of the beam is 75. the problem consists of one step in which a transverse load of 25. For three-dimensional elements this is followed by an additional step in which a moment of 25.3.3. Material: Linear elastic.22 VERIFICATION OF BEAM ELEMENTS AND SECTION TYPES Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested B21H B22 B23H B31 B31OS B31OSH B32H PIPE21H PIPE22 PIPE31H PIPE32 ELBOW31 ELBOW31B ELBOW31C ELBOW32 Problem description B32OS B32OSH B33H 2 y x z Step 1 1 2 1 Step 2 The problem consists of a cantilever beam lying along the x-axis. For two-dimensional elements. Section forces All problems are statically determinate. Nonlinear General.0 × 106 . Hexagonal. 1. Circular.0 is applied around the x-axis. L.inp. and section forces have been veriﬁed to be correct. Section types: Arbitrary (Open and Closed). ebo3a3sd. Numerous tests with similar geometries and loadings are run to test the available options associated with each of the section deﬁnitions.0 is applied to the end of the beam.BEAM TESTS 1. eb3ja3sd. eb3jgssd.3.inp. General.inp). and the model is made up of ﬁve elements.inp) and in two input ﬁles using *BEAM GENERAL SECTION (eb32gssd. DIRECTIONS=YES option is used in the input ﬁles with the open thin-walled slit ring sections (eb3ia3sd.

6.224 × 10−4 (Step 2) 1.BEAM TESTS Reference solution Solid circular sections: 2 2. 1.8789.466 × 10−5 (Step 2) 2 2.22–2 .865 × 10−3 (Step 1).0 1 9. Solid square sections: 1.0 . 7.758 × 10−2 (Step 1).3.325 × 10−2 .0 1 2.

0 1 0.3.423 × 10−3 (Step 1).22–3 . 1. 1. 2.0025.BEAM TESTS Solid thin rectangular sections: 2 1 2.1 .0 0.7031.2 . 5.440 × 10−4 (Step 2) Note: Loadings changed to .406 × 10−2 (Step 1).2712. Closed thin-walled pipe sections: 2 2.885 × 10−4 (Step 2) 1.

2 2.521 × 10−4 (Step 2) Closed thin-walled hexagonal sections: 2 0.1 4.796 × 10−4 (Step 2) 1.BEAM TESTS Closed thin-walled box sections: 2 0.22–4 .0 0.3.278.0 1 .1 2.2 0.0 0. 6.3489.2 1 1. 7.978 × 10−3 (Step 1).556 × 10−2 (Step 1). 2. 2.

8931.3.1 4.0 0. 7.2 0.BEAM TESTS Open thin-walled I-sections: 2 2. .1081 (Step 2) 1.22–5 . 1.2 1 0.0 .3564.2 0.2 2.786 × 10−2 (Step 1).0 0.0 .2 2.112 × 10−3 (Step 1). 7.4 3.537 × 10−2 (Step 2) Open thin-walled C-sections: 0.

BEAM TESTS Open thin-walled slit ring sections: 2 0.1 1 4.5949 (Step 1).3.388 (Step 2) Open thin-walled L-sections: 2 0. 1.5 1 0. .422.6177 (Step 2) 1.0 1.1 29.22–6 .857 × 10−2 (Step 1).1 4. 2.0 0.84. .

inp eb32a3sd. channel-origin not at shear center. I-section. box section.inp eb3ialsd.1563 (Step 2) The results for Step 1 are within 1% of the analytical values.0 4.inp eb3ia2sd. slit circular section.0 0.inp eb3ia3sd. B31 elements. B32H elements. channel-origin not at shear center.inp eb3iaisd. channel-origin at shear center. box section. While results for rods and cylinders are exact.inp eb32aisd.inp eb3ia1sd. slit circular section. B31 elements.2 2.069.inp eb32a2sd. other closed sections can have an error of several percent.2 2. Input files Arbitrary cross-section.138 × 10−2 (Step 1). L-section. L-section.inp eb32alsd. Results and discussion 8. B32H elements. For open section beams can have errors in excess of 10% unless an open section beam element type is used. . B32H elements. 1. B31 elements. B32H elements. B32H elements.inp eb3iabsd. *BEAM SECTION tests: eb32a1sd. Open section beams include warping. B31 elements.22–7 . I-section. which can have a signiﬁcant effect on .3.inp B31 elements. channel-origin at shear center. B31 elements. The results for Step 2 are less accurate for . B32H elements.BEAM TESTS Open thin-walled T-sections: 2 1 0.inp eb32absd.

channel-origin not at shear center. B32H elements. channel-origin at shear center.inp eboiaisd. channel-origin not at shear center. I-section. B33H elements.inp eb3jalsd. B32H elements. L-section. I-section. B33H elements. B32H elements.inp ebo2aisd.inp eboialsd. B31OS elements.inp eb3id2sd.inp ebo3aisd. Arbitrary cross-section. slit circular section. B31OSH elements.inp eb3id1sd.inp eboha3sd.inp eb3jd2sd.inp ebo3a3sd. L-section. B32OSH elements. I-section. I-section. L-section. slit circular section. L-section. I-section. B32OS elements. B32H elements. B32OSH elements. B32OS elements. channel-origin at shear center. L-section. L-section.inp ebo3a2sd. channel-origin at shear center. B31OS elements. slit circular section. B33H elements. B31OS elements. B33H elements. slit circular section. B31OSH elements. slit circular section. B31OSH elements.inp ebo2a2sd. B33H elements.inp eboia3sd.inp ebo3a1sd.inp ebohalsd.inp eb3idisd. B31OS elements.inp eb32d2sd.inp B31 elements. B31OSH elements. channel-origin at shear center.inp ebo2a3sd.inp eb32dbsd. I-section.inp ebohaisd. B32OSH elements. channel-origin at shear center.inp eb3ja2sd. B32OS elements. B31 elements. box section. channel-origin at shear center. B31 elements. B33H elements. channel-origin not at shear center. L-section. B31OS elements.inp eb3idbsd. channel-origin at shear center. channel-origin not at shear center. B31 elements.inp eb32dlsd.inp eboha2sd.inp eb3jaisd. channel-origin not at shear center. channel-origin at shear center.inp eb3idlsd. B32OS elements. B32H elements.inp B33H elements. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION tests: eb32d1sd. 1.inp eb3jabsd. B31OSH elements. channel-origin not at shear center.inp ebo2alsd.inp eb3ja3sd.3. B32OS elements.BEAM TESTS eb3ja1sd. channel-origin not at shear center. slit circular section.inp eb32d3sd.inp eb3jd1sd. box section. B32OSH elements. I-section. slit circular section. B31 elements. B33H elements.inp eboha1sd.inp eb3id3sd.22–8 .inp ebo2a1sd.inp eb32disd.inp ebo3alsd. box section. channel-origin not at shear center.inp eboia1sd. B32H elements.inp eboia2sd. B32OSH elements. B31 elements.

I-section.inp eb2hbdsd.inp eb2hbnsd.inp eb2jbnsd. B32OSH elements. I-section. B31OS elements. B21H elements. B33H elements. I-section. nondefault integration.inp eb23bnsd.inp Box cross-section. B31OS elements. default integration. channel-origin at shear center. I-section. B32OS elements.inp ebohd2sd. B31OSH elements. L-section. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION tests: eb23exsd. B32H elements.inp eb32bdsd. B31OSH elements.inp eb3jdbsd.inp eb32bnsd.inp ebohd3sd. B32OSH elements.inp ebo2dlsd.inp eboid2sd. slit circular section. B32OS elements. B32OS elements. L-section. L-section. B21H elements.inp eboid1sd. B31 elements. Box cross-section.inp ebo2d1sd. B31OSH elements.inp eb3jbdsd.inp ebo3d3sd.22–9 . B31OS elements.inp ebo2disd. channel-origin at shear center. channel-origin not at shear center. default integration. B31 elements. B32H elements.inp ebo3disd.inp ebohdisd.inp B22 elements. *BEAM SECTION tests: eb23bdsd. slit circular section.inp eb3ibdsd. default integration. default integration.inp ebo3d1sd. nondefault integration. L-section. channel-origin at shear center. slit circular section. B31OS elements.inp eb3ibnsd.inp eb3jbnsd. B23H elements. B33H elements. slit circular section.inp ebohd1sd. default integration. channel-origin not at shear center. channel-origin not at shear center. 1. B32OS elements. B33H elements.inp B33H elements. B32OSH elements. box section. I-section. B33H elements.inp eboid3sd. B22 elements.inp eboidlsd.BEAM TESTS eb3jd3sd.inp eb3jdlsd. B31OSH elements.inp ebo2d3sd. L-section. B31OS elements.inp ebo2d2sd. B23H elements. slit circular section. nondefault integration. B22 elements. B33H elements.inp eb3jdisd. default integration. channel-origin not at shear center.inp eb2jbdsd. B32OSH elements. B31OSH elements.inp ebo3d2sd.inp eboidisd. nondefault integration.inp eb2hexsd. channel-origin at shear center. B32OSH elements. nondefault integration.inp ebohdlsd. B32OS elements. nondefault integration.3. B21H elements.inp ebo3dlsd.

BEAM TESTS eb2jexsd.inp eb32gisd.inp eb3igpsd.inp eb3jcnsd. B33H elements.inp B31 elements.inp eb32cnsd.inp B21H elements.inp eb3jexsd.3. default integration.inp eb3iexsd. pipe section. B22 elements. B23H elements. B31 elements. default integration. B21H elements.inp eb32cdsd. solid square section. default integration.inp eb3icnsd. 1. nondefault integration. B33H elements. B32H elements. nondefault integration. nondefault integration. B32H elements. eb3ifxsd.inp eb32exsd. B31 elements. pipe section. eb3jfxsd. B33H elements. default integration. default integration. pipe section.inp eb2jgssd. B31 elements. B21H elements. eb2jfxsd.inp eb2hcnsd. solid square section. B22 elements. *BEAM SECTION tests: eb23cdsd.22–10 .inp eb2hgpsd. B31OS elements. B31 elements. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION tests: eb23fxsd.inp eb3jgpsd. B31 elements. B32H elements.inp B33H elements. Circular cross-section.inp B22 elements. B33H elements. eb2hfxsd. B21H elements. B32H elements. B22 elements.inp eb2hgssd.inp eb2jcdsd. solid square section. pipe section. General cross-section tests: eb23gpsd. solid square section. nondefault integration. default integration.inp B22 elements.inp eb2hcdsd. pipe section.inp eb2jgpsd.inp eb3jcdsd. B23H elements. B23H elements. B33H elements. B32OS elements. eb32fxsd. B32H elements. pipe section. nondefault integration. solid square section. I-section.inp eb3igssd.inp eb32gssd.inp eb3jgssd. I-section.inp B23H elements.inp eb23gssd. B23H elements.inp eb3icdsd.inp B23H elements.inp eb2jcnsd.inp Circular cross-section. B31 elements. nondefault integration.inp ebo2gisd.inp ebo3gisd. I-section.inp eb23cnsd. B21H elements. solid square section.inp eb32gpsd.inp B32H elements.

nondefault integration.inp B23H elements.inp ebo2idsd.inp B22 elements. default integration.inp ebohgisd. default integration.inp B21H elements. eb32hnsd. eb2jhdsd.inp eb3iitsd.inp B22 elements.inp eb32itsd. T-section.inp B33H elements.inp B32H elements. nondefault integration. eb3ihdsd. eb23hnsd. B21H elements. nondefault integration. default integration. Hexagonal cross-section. B23H elements. default integration. B33H elements.inp B31 elements.inp B23H elements.inp eb3jinsd.inp eb3iidsd. eb3jjxsd. default integration. nondefault integration.inp B23H elements.inp eb2hidsd. B21H elements. B32H elements.inp B22 elements.inp eb3jidsd.inp B32H elements.inp eb23insd. nondefault integration. B32H elements. nondefault integration. default integration. nondefault integration. B31 elements. *BEAM SECTION tests: eb23hdsd. I-section.inp eb32insd. B31 elements. I-section. B32OSH elements.inp eb32idsd. eb2hhnsd. B22 elements.22–11 .inp B31 elements. B23H elements. eb32jxsd.inp B22 elements.inp B21H elements. eb2hjxsd. B33H elements. B32H elements.inp B21H elements.inp B33H elements.inp eb2jinsd.inp eb2jidsd. default integration. default integration. eb2jhnsd. eb3ijxsd. B31 elements. eb32hdsd. default integration. *BEAM SECTION tests: eb23idsd. nondefault integration.inp eb3jitsd. nondefault integration. eb2hhdsd.inp B33H elements.3. I cross-section. nondefault integration.inp B31OSH elements. nondefault integration. nondefault integration. B31OS elements. default integration. T-section. eb3jhnsd.inp eb3iinsd.inp B32H elements. B31OS elements. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION tests: eb23jxsd.inp B31 elements. Hexagonal cross-section. default integration. B33H elements. 1.inp eb2hinsd. eb3ihnsd. T-section.BEAM TESTS ebohgisd. nondefault integration. eb3jhdsd. default integration.inp ebo2insd. eb2jjxsd. default integration.

default integration. default integration.inp ebo3itsd. default integration.inp ebo3insd. nondefault integration. 1.inp ebo2kxsd.inp ebohldsd.inp eb32kxsd. B31OSH elements.inp eboiinsd. B32OSH elements. B32H elements.22–12 . *BEAM GENERAL SECTION tests: eb23kxsd. B33H elements. default integration. nondefault integration. B31OS elements. B32H elements. T-section. I cross-section. default integration. T-section.inp ebo2ktsd. B32OS elements. B31 elements. B31OS elements. B31OSH elements.inp ebo3ldsd. T-section. B31OSH elements.BEAM TESTS ebo2itsd. T-section. nondefault integration. B33H elements. B33H elements.inp B31 elements. B32OSH elements.inp eb2hkxsd. T-section. default integration. default integration. T-section. *BEAM SECTION tests: eb32ldsd.inp eb32ktsd.inp ebo2lnsd. B32OS elements.inp eb3ilnsd.inp ebo3idsd.inp eb3jktsd. T-section. nondefault integration. B32OSH elements. B32OS elements. B32OS elements. default integration.inp ebo3ktsd.3.inp eboiidsd.inp eb3iktsd. B31OS elements. nondefault integration. B31 elements. default integration.inp eb3jldsd.inp eb3jkxsd.inp ebohidsd. B32OS elements.inp ebohinsd. T-section. nondefault integration.inp eb3ildsd.inp eboikxsd.inp eboiktsd.inp eb2jkxsd. B22 elements.inp ebohitsd. B31OSH elements. B31OS elements.inp ebo2ldsd. T-section.inp ebohkxsd.inp ebo3kxsd. B23H elements.inp eb32lnsd. B32H elements. nondefault integration.inp ebo3lnsd.inp eb3ikxsd.inp eboiitsd. B31OSH elements.inp B31OS elements.inp eb3jlnsd. B32OS elements. T-section.inp ebohktsd. B32OSH elements. B32OS elements. B21H elements. B33H elements. B31 elements. B32OSH elements. nondefault integration. B32H elements. B31OSH elements. T-section.inp L cross-section.

B31 elements. default integration.inp B33H elements.inp B32H elements. nondefault integration.inp eb32pdsd. nondefault integration.inp eb32ncsd.inp Pipe cross-section. B21H elements. default integration. B33H elements. circular section. section data deﬁned using a table of values. circular section. B32H elements. B22 elements. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION tests: eb32mxsd. *BEAM SECTION tests: eb23pdsd.inp eboildsd. circular section.inp eb2hpdsd. eb3imxsd.inp B31OSH elements.inp eb3ipnsd. B32OSH elements. B22 elements.inp eb32pnsd. section data deﬁned using a table of values. B32H elements. nondefault integration. circular section.inp eb3jpdsd.inp eb23nvsd.inp eb2jpdsd. B23H elements. default integration.inp eb2hpnsd.inp B22 elements.inp B31OS elements.inp eboilnsd.inp eb23pnsd.inp eb32nvsd.inp eb2jnvsd.inp eb2jpnsd.inp B31 elements. nondefault integration. B31 elements. B33H elements.3. eboimxsd.inp eb3ipdsd. B33H elements. default integration. B31 elements. B31 elements. B21H elements. L cross-section. default integration. default integration.inp eb3jncsd. B21H elements. section data deﬁned using a table of values. circular section. nondefault integration.inp eb2jncsd. B32OSH elements. section data deﬁned using a table of values. nondefault integration. eb3jmxsd. section data deﬁned using a table of values.inp eb3incsd.inp eb2hnvsd. Nonlinear general cross-section tests: eb23ncsd. ebo2mxsd.inp B32OS elements.22–13 . section data deﬁned using a table of values. B23H elements. ebo3mxsd.inp eb2hncsd.BEAM TESTS ebohlnsd.inp eb3jnvsd. ebohmxsd. B23H elements.inp B32OSH elements. nondefault integration. B21H elements.inp B31OSH elements. B23H elements. B22 elements. B32H elements.inp eb3invsd. default integration. 1. B32H elements. circular section.

inp ep3hpdsd.inp B22 elements. nondefault integration. B33H elements. nondefault integration.inp ep23pdsd.inp ep2hpdsd. thin rectangular section. B31 elements.inp eb2hrrsd.inp eb32rrsd. nondefault integration.inp ep23pnsd. nondefault integration. B21H elements.inp eb2jr4sd.inp eb2jrrsd. PIPE22 elements. B23H elements.inp eb23r5sd. default integration.inp eb3ioxsd. PIPE32 elements. solid square section. nondefault integration.inp eb2jrssd. solid square section. B23H elements.inp B33H elements.inp ep33pdsd. thin rectangular section.inp ep3hpnsd. PIPE21H elements.inp eb2hr4sd.inp ep33pnsd. solid square section. B21H elements. B22 elements. default integration. B22 elements.3. B31 elements. B31 elements. B32H elements. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION tests: eb23oxsd. nondefault integration. thin rectangular section. solid square section. PIPE31H elements. B23H elements.inp eb3joxsd.inp eb2hr5sd. default integration. Pipe cross-section. PIPE31H elements. B21H elements. PIPE21H elements.inp eb32oxsd.inp eb2joxsd.inp ep2hpnsd. PIPE32 elements. nondefault integration. default integration.22–14 . B23H elements. default integration. nondefault integration. thin rectangular section. default integration.inp eb32rssd. B21H elements. thin rectangular section.inp B22 elements. *BEAM SECTION tests: eb23rssd. solid square section.inp eb23r4sd. nondefault integration. B22 elements. thin rectangular section. solid square section. Rectangular cross-section. PIPE22 elements.inp eb32r4sd.inp eb2hrssd.inp eb2jr5sd. B23H elements. nondefault integration. default integration. B31 elements. solid square section. nondefault integration. B21H elements. solid square section.inp eb2hoxsd. thin rectangular section. nondefault integration.inp eb23rrsd. 1.BEAM TESTS eb3jpnsd. default integration.

B31 elements.inp eb3irrsd.inp eb2jqssd. thin rectangular section. solid square section. B32H elements.inp eb3iqrsd. nondefault integration.inp eb23t5sd. B23H elements.inp eb23trsd. thin rectangular section. nondefault integration. B32H elements. B33H elements. Trapezoidal cross-section. thin rectangular section. solid square section.inp eb23tssd. default integration.inp eb3jqrsd. nondefault integration.inp eb23t6sd. B22 elements. thin rectangular section. thin rectangular section.inp eb2ht5sd.inp B22 elements. solid square section. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION tests: eb23qrsd.inp eb3ir4sd. thin rectangular section. B22 elements. nondefault integration. B33H elements. default integration.inp B31 elements.inp eb3jr5sd. B22 elements. thin rectangular section.inp eb3irssd. B33H elements. thin rectangular section.inp eb3jqssd. default integration.inp eb2jqrsd. B21H elements. default integration. solid square section. solid square section. solid square section. nondefault integration. B32H elements.inp eb3jr4sd. *BEAM SECTION tests: eb23t4sd.inp eb32qrsd. default integration. B33H elements. Rectangular cross-section. B22 elements. thin rectangular section. B32H elements. B32H elements. B21H elements. default integration. B33H elements.inp eb2hqssd. default integration. thin rectangular section. thin rectangular section.inp eb3jrrsd. default integration. nondefault integration.inp eb2hqrsd. B31 elements. thin rectangular section.inp eb3jrssd. nondefault integration.22–15 . solid square section.inp eb3ir5sd.inp eb2ht4sd.inp B22 elements.inp eb3iqssd. solid square section. thin rectangular section.inp eb23qssd. solid square section. nondefault integration. nondefault local origin. B33H elements. B21H elements. default integration. B23H elements. B21H elements. nondefault integration.3.BEAM TESTS eb32r5sd. solid square section. B22 elements.inp eb32qssd. solid square section. thin rectangular section. B32H elements. solid square section. solid square section. solid square section. 1.

solid square section. B33H elements. B33H elements. solid square section. nondefault integration. nondefault local origin. thin rectangular section. B31 elements.inp eb3it5sd. solid square section.inp eb2jt6sd. Trapezoidal cross-section.22–16 . B32H elements. solid square section. nondefault integration. thin rectangular section.inp eb23sssd. solid square section. B31 elements.inp eb32trsd. thin rectangular section.inp eb3jt4sd. thin rectangular section. thin rectangular section. nondefault local origin. nondefault local origin.3. default integration.inp eb2jt5sd. default integration.inp eb2htssd. B23H elements. B23H elements. nondefault integration.inp eb3itssd. nondefault integration. nondefault integration. nondefault local origin. solid square section. thin rectangular section. default integration. B23H elements. solid square section.inp eb2htrsd. nondefault local origin. solid square section. B31 elements.inp eb2jtrsd.BEAM TESTS eb2ht6sd. nondefault integration.inp eb3it4sd. B31 elements.inp eb32tssd. B32H elements. B31 elements. B32H elements. solid square section. solid square section. B22 elements. nondefault integration. solid square section. solid square section. B23H elements. default integration. thin rectangular section. default integration. default integration.inp eb2jtssd. thin rectangular section. B33H elements.inp eb32t6sd. 1.inp eb32t4sd.inp eb3jtssd. B21H elements. nondefault local origin. B32H elements.inp eb3itrsd.inp eb2jt4sd.inp eb32t5sd. B23H elements. B33H elements. B21H elements. solid square section. B22 elements. solid square section. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION tests: eb23s6sd.inp eb3it6sd. solid square section.inp eb3jtrsd. nondefault integration.inp eb3jt6sd.inp B22 elements. B32H elements. thin rectangular section.inp B21H elements. B33H elements. solid square section.inp eb3jt5sd. thin rectangular section.inp eb23srsd.

inp erefstsd. thin rectangular section. thin rectangular section. B23H elements.inp eb32s6sd.22–17 . solid square section. B33H elements.inp B21H elements. B32H elements. Reference solution for the L-section beams. B21H elements. B33H elements.inp erefsisd. B31 elements.inp eb2hsrsd. default integration. thin rectangular section.inp eb3isssd. Reference solution for the circular section beams. solid square section. default integration. solid square section. default integration.inp eb3jsssd. nondefault local origin. thin rectangular section.inp eb2hsssd. solid square section.inp eb32sssd. solid square section. B23H elements. Reference solution for the T-section beams. Reference solution for the I-section beams. B23H elements.BEAM TESTS eb2hs6sd. nondefault local origin. B31 elements.inp eb32srsd. B21H elements.inp eb2jsrsd. thin rectangular section.inp eb3is6sd. B31 elements. solid square section. solid square section. nondefault local origin. B33H elements.inp eb2js6sd.inp eb2jsssd. solid square section. default integration. solid square section. B32H elements.inp Reference solutions: erefscsd.inp eb3js6sd. default integration. B32H elements. nondefault local origin.3.inp erefslsd. 1. solid square section.inp eb3isrsd.inp eb3jsrsd. nondefault local origin.

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1. STEADY STATE (mode based and direct).inp. and *DYNAMIC procedures. the ROTARY INERTIA parameter with the value ISOTROPIC or EXACT (default) is used on the *BEAM SECTION or *BEAM GENERAL SECTION option. A pair of input ﬁles. xbeamaddinertia_std_lin3d. Comparisons are made between the *DYNAMIC and *MODAL DYNAMIC procedures. The second set of problems veriﬁes the *BEAM ADDED INERTIA option. *MODAL DYNAMIC. These analyses compare the dynamic response to an acceleration record on a single-element cantilever structure made of B31 elements using the isotropic or exact rotary inertia formulation. *STATIC (with mass depended loads).inp are collections of all pipe and all beam elements placed in a plane or space. and b31_moddyn_exact. The remaining single-element input ﬁles verify various cross-section types for transient dynamic and eigenvalue extraction procedures.inp. VERIFICATION TESTS FOR TIMOSHENKO BEAMS IN Abaqus/Standard Elements tested B21 B21H B22 B22H B31 B31H B31OS B31OSH B32 B32H B32OS PIPE21 PIPE21H PIPE22 PIPE22H PIPE31 PIPE31H PIPE32 PIPE32H Problem description B32OSH There are two sets of problems presented in this section. Input ﬁles pmcp_pipe2d_bai.inp. The *BEAM ADDED INERTIA option is used for all beam section deﬁnitions. To change the rotary inertia formulation for Timoshenko beams.3.inp. In Abaqus/Standard it also veriﬁes the isotropic versus the exact rotary inertia formulation for Timoshenko beams. That offset produces the coupling between the translational degrees of freedom and the rotational degrees of freedom in the mass matrix for the element.23 BEAM ADDED INERTIA Products: Abaqus/Standard Features tested Abaqus/Explicit This section provides basic veriﬁcation tests for the *BEAM ADDED INERTIA option that can be used with all Timoshenko beams. The beam’s mass together with the added mass may combine to give an offset between the location of the node and the center of mass for the cross-section. The ﬁrst set includes four input ﬁles: b31_dyn_iso.inp. b31_dyn_exact. I.BEAM ADDED INERTIA 1.3.inp. This option allows adding mass and rotary inertia properties per element length at speciﬁed locations on the beam cross-section. pmcp_pipe3d_bai. These multiple step analyses verify the *FREQUENCY.23–1 . shows the concept of the offset mass for the beam element that can also be modeled with MASS and ROTARYI elements with appropriate BEAM-type MPC deﬁnitions to accommodate the mass offset.inp.inp. b31_moddyn_iso. and pmcp_beam3d_bai.inp and xbeamaddinertia_std_quad3d. pmcp_beam2d_bai.

inp b21h_circ_bai_freq. B31 element.inp pipe31h_bai_45. isotropic rotary inertia formulation. B21H element with circular cross-section. modal dynamic. and unsymmetric solver. B22 element with rectangular cross-section.inp pmcp_pipe3d_bai. B31 element with circular cross-section.inp B31 element.inp b32_box_bai.inp b31_circ_mass_ri. Input files b31_dyn_iso.BEAM ADDED INERTIA Results and discussion The results compare well with the concentrated masses and rotary inertia element models and differ from the isotropic formulation as predicted.inp b31os_i_bai. B21 element with circular cross-section.inp pmcp_beam2d_bai. PIPE31H.inp b31_moddyn_iso. All three-dimensional beams.inp b21_circ_bai_45. EXPLICIT DYNAMIC TEST OF BEAMS WITH *BEAM ADDED INERTIA Elements tested B21 B22 B31 B32 1. All two-dimensional pipe elements. B32 with box cross-section. II. transient dynamic procedure. frequency extraction. various dynamic procedures. various dynamic procedures.inp b31_circ_bai. exact rotary inertia formulation. transient dynamic.inp b31_moddyn_exact. B31OS element with I cross-section.inp pmcp_beam3d_bai. transient dynamic. MASS and ROTARYI elements.inp b31_dyn_exact. transient dynamic. transient dynamic. B31 element.inp pmcp_pipe2d_bai. B31 element. All three-dimensional pipe elements. modal dynamic. exact rotary inertia formulation. transient dynamic. isotropic rotary inertia formualtion.inp b22_rect_bai_freq. various dynamic procedures.3. various dynamic procedures. All two-dimensional beams. transient dynamic. transient dynamic.23–2 . frequency extraction.

the mass and inertia assigned to the offset nodes are exactly equivalent to those assigned to the ﬁrst beam element using the *BEAM ADDED INERTIA option. BEAM-type MPCs connect each node of the second beam to its corresponding offset node. additional nodes are deﬁned at locations offset from the element nodes and MASS and ROTARYI elements are deﬁned at the offset nodes. it is found that the nodal values match closely. Identical beam elements are assigned additional mass and rotary inertia in two ways: using the *BEAM ADDED INERTIA option and by deﬁning additional point mass and rotary inertia elements and rigidly constraining them to the beam nodes using BEAM-type MPCs.inp xbeamaddinertia_xpl_quad2d. The two beam elements with *BEAM GENERAL SECTION are also subjected to the same test. Results and discussion On comparing the nodal displacements and rotations of each beam element with *BEAM ADDED INERTIA to those of its corresponding element with BEAM-type MPCs. B22 elements.inp xbeamaddinertia_xpl_lin3d. The offset node corresponding to each node of the second beam lies in the cross-section passing through the beam node and has the same local coordinates with respect to the beam node as the center of mass coordinates deﬁned for the ﬁrst beam.23–3 . All four beams are cantilevered at one end and are subjected to the same concentrated load at the other end. B32 elements. One of them is assigned additional mass and inertia using the *BEAM ADDED INERTIA option. Two of the beam elements are assigned identical section properties using the *BEAM SECTION option. and the remaining two are assigned identical section properties using the *BEAM GENERAL SECTION option.3. B31 elements. For each case four beam elements with the same element length are deﬁned. This veriﬁes that the *BEAM ADDED INERTIA option is being used to assign mass and inertia values accurately. Four cases. each comprising one of the four beam element types available in Abaqus/Explicit. while the other has BEAM-type MPCs connecting each node to nodal locations offset from it where MASS and ROTARYI elements with appropriate section properties are deﬁned. One of the elements with section properties given by the *BEAM SECTION option has additional mass and rotary inertia assigned to it using the *BEAM ADDED INERTIA option. are considered. The solutions obtained using the two methods are compared. For the second beam element with *BEAM SECTION. 1.BEAM ADDED INERTIA Problem description This problem veriﬁes the use of the *BEAM ADDED INERTIA option in Abaqus/Explicit.inp xbeamaddinertia_xpl_quad3d. Input files xbeamaddinertia_xpl_lin2d.inp B21 elements. Similarly.

.

inp iw_bs_b22_dyl_bﬁ. transient dynamic. 1. B31 element.24 BEAM FLUID INERTIA Products: Abaqus/Standard Features tested Abaqus/Explicit This section provides basic veriﬁcation tests for the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA option that can be used with all Timoshenko beams. *BEAM ADDED INERTIA.inp using *BEAM FLUID INERTIA agree well with the results from b21_circ_bai. isotropic rotary inertia formulation.inp iw_bs_b31_i_dyl_bﬁ. Elements tested B21 B22 B31 B32 Problem description There are two sets of problems presented in this section. transient dynamic. The comparison is meaningful only for the direction in which the external excitation is applied. B21 element. *BEAM FLUID INERTIA. *BEAM SECTION.3. B22 element. B31 element.24–1 .inp and veriﬁes the use of the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA option in a *DYNAMIC analysis. The Abaqus/Explicit transient analysis results closely match the transient analysis results obtained using Abaqus/Standard.3.inp iw_bs_b31_e_dyl_bﬁ.inp iw_bs_b21_dyl_bﬁ. B21 element. *BEAM SECTION. *BEAM SECTION.BEAM FLUID INERTIA 1. transient dynamic. exact rotary inertia formulation. transient dynamic. *BEAM SECTION.inp and b21_circ_bai. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files b21_circ_bﬁ. Results and discussion The results obtained from b21_circ_bﬁ.inp. which uses *BEAM ADDED INERTIA to add equivalent masses. The ﬁrst set includes the input ﬁles b21_circ_bﬁ. frequency extraction. The second set consists of the remaining input ﬁles and tests the use of the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA option in transient dynamic analysis with the *BEAM SECTION or *BEAM GENERAL SECTION option.inp b21_circ_bai.inp B21 element. The transient dynamic analyses are also performed using Abaqus/Explicit to verify the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA option in Abaqus/Explicit. frequency extraction.

inp iw_bﬁ_std_reﬂ. B31 elements. transient dynamic.3. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION.inp iw_bs_b32_i_dyl_bﬁ.inp iw_bgsm_bﬁ_std_reﬂ. B31 elements. isotropic rotary inertia formulation. transient dynamic. comparison of meshed and general section deﬁnitions to test dynamic response to planar loading with reﬂections from a “hard” plane.inp iw_bﬁ_std_bbl. B31 elements. exact rotary inertia formulation. transient dynamic.inp iw_bgs_b32_e_dyl_bﬁ.inp B32 element. 1. B31 elements. B31 element.BEAM FLUID INERTIA iw_bs_b32_e_dyl_bﬁ. transient dynamic. B32 element. isotropic rotary inertia formulation. transient dynamic. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION.inp iw_bﬁ_std. transient dynamic. transient dynamic.inp iw_bgs_b31_e_dyl_bﬁ.inp iw_bgs_b31_i_dyl_bﬁ. transient dynamic. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. B32 element. transient dynamic. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. exact rotary inertia formulation. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. different radii on the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA option to test dynamic response to bubble loading. B31 element. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. B21 element. B22 element. B31 elements. B31 elements. the HALF parameter on the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA option. different radii on the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA option to test dynamic response to spherical loading with reﬂections from a “hard” plane.inp iw_bgs_b22_dyl_bﬁ. exact rotary inertia formulation. transient dynamic. different radii on the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA option to test dynamic response to bubble loading with reﬂections from a “hard” plane. transient dynamic. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. isotropic rotary inertia formulation. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. B32 element.inp iw_bﬁ_std_reﬂec.inp iw_bgs_b21_dyl_bﬁ. different radii on the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA option to test dynamic response to planar loading with reﬂections from a “soft” plane. transient dynamic. transient dynamic.inp iw_bgs_b32_i_dyl_bﬁ. *BEAM SECTION. transient dynamic. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION.24–2 . *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. different radii on the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA option to test dynamic response to constant plane-wave pressure gradients. B31 element. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION.inp iw_bgs_b31_dyl_bﬁ_half. transient dynamic. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION.inp iw_bﬁ_std_refbbl. *BEAM SECTION.

B22 element. transient explicit dynamic analysis.inp iw_bs_b32_i_dyl_bﬁ_xpl. transient explicit dynamic analysis. exact rotary inertia formulation. exact rotary inertia formulation. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. *BEAM SECTION.inp iw_bs_b22_dyl_bﬁ_xpl. exact rotary inertia formulation. B31 element. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. transient explicit dynamic analysis.BEAM FLUID INERTIA Abaqus/Explicit input files iw_bs_b21_dyl_bﬁ_xpl.inp iw_bgs_b32_i_dyl_bﬁ_xpl.inp iw_bgs_b32_e_dyl_bﬁ_xpl. B31 elements. exact rotary inertia formulation. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. transient explicit dynamic analysis. B31 element.inp iw_bs_b31_e_dyl_bﬁ_xpl. transient explicit dynamic analysis.3. transient explicit dynamic analysis. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. transient dynamic. transient dynamic. *BEAM SECTION. B21 element. transient explicit dynamic analysis. B31 elements. isotropic rotary inertia formulation.inp iw_bﬁ_xpl. *BEAM SECTION. transient dynamic. B32 element. *BEAM SECTION.inp iw_bgs_b21_dyl_bﬁ_xpl. B32 element. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION.24–3 . *BEAM SECTION.inp B21 element. B22 element. transient explicit dynamic analysis. B31 element. transient explicit dynamic analysis. B32 element. transient explicit dynamic analysis. transient explicit dynamic analysis.inp iw_bs_b31_i_dyl_bﬁ_xpl.inp iw_bs_b32_e_dyl_bﬁ_xpl.inp iw_bgs_b31_i_dyl_bﬁ_xpl.inp iw_bgs_b22_dyl_bﬁ_xpl. isotropic rotary inertia formulation. B31 element.inp iw_bﬁ_xpl_refbbl. B31 element. the HALF parameter on the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA option. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. different radii on the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA 1. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. different radii on the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA option to test dynamic response to constant plane-wave pressure gradients. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. transient explicit dynamic analysis.inp iw_bﬁ_xpl_bbl. transient explicit dynamic analysis.inp iw_bgs_b31_dyl_bﬁ_half_xpl.inp iw_bgs_b31_e_dyl_bﬁ_xpl. B32 element. isotropic rotary inertia formulation. B31 elements. different radii on the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA option to test dynamic response to bubble loading. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. isotropic rotary inertia formulation. *BEAM SECTION.

inp option to test dynamic response to bubble loading with reﬂections from a “hard” plane. comparison of meshed and general section deﬁnitions to test dynamic response to planar loading with reﬂections from a “hard” plane. different radii on the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA option to test dynamic response to spherical loading with reﬂections from a “hard” plane. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. different radii on the *BEAM FLUID INERTIA option to test dynamic response to planar loading with reﬂections from a “soft” plane. 1. B31 elements. transient dynamic. B31 elements.inp iw_bgsm_bﬁ_xpl_reﬂ. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. B31 elements. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION. transient dynamic. transient dynamic.24–4 .3.BEAM FLUID INERTIA iw_bﬁ_xpl_reﬂ.inp iw_bﬁ_xpl_reﬂec.

This problem also demonstrates a technique for introducing follower forces into a mesh generated using solid elements. The density is 10000 kg/m3 .BEAM WITH END MOMENT 1.6 × 103 N. Because of dynamic effects the required forces are only 490. so the applied moment is independent of tip rotation.0 × 103 N for the CPE4R mesh. Each beam is 400 mm long (L) and 20 mm thick (h). 510. The couple on Beam 1 (the upper beam) is comprised of follower forces.25–1 . nodes attached to solid elements have only translational degrees of freedom. Non-follower forces generate the moment on Beam 2 (the lower beam). and the nodes at the left are constrained with BEAM and LINEAR MPCs so that they remain in a straight line of constant length.0 N for the C3D10M mesh. In the ﬁnite element model all the nodes at the right side are pinned. Problem description This problem demonstrates the use of the *CLOAD option with CPE4R. The material for this problem is elastic with a constant Young’s modulus of 1000 MPa and a Poisson’s ratio of 0.0 × 103 N for the CPE6M mesh. The time period is chosen so that the quasi-static response can be observed with a minimum of dynamic vibration. and C3D10M elements in a large-strain analysis. For small-strain elasticity the moment per unit width required to form a beam into a circle is given by The force required for this moment (using the beam thickness as the moment arm) is 523. These forces are ramped on linearly over the analysis time of 0. CPE6M. follower forces. The LINEAR MPC is used to constrain the end of the beam to remain a plane section. Two beams are analyzed together. so the moment is a function of the tip rotation.2 seconds.25 BEAM WITH END MOMENT Product: Abaqus/Explicit Elements tested CPE4R CPE6M C3D10M Features tested Concentrated loads.3. However. Both beams are cantilevered on one end and are subjected to a force couple (a balanced set of loads on the translation degrees of freedom) on the other end. and 4900. A follower force in Abaqus requires a rotational degree of freedom to introduce change of direction of the application of the force. The BEAM MPC is used to activate rotational degrees of freedom at nodes where the forces are applied.3. multi-point constraints. 1.

1.3. the moment arm of the force-couple decreases as the beam deﬂection increases.25–2 shows the corresponding meshes composed of CPE6M elements.inp CPE4R elements. Figure 1. CPE6M elements.inp beamfollow_cpe6m.3.BEAM WITH END MOMENT Results and discussion Figure 1.25–2 .inp beamfollow_c3d10m.3.3. C3D10M elements. Beam 1 forms a circle.25–4 shows the time history of the tip rotations (in radians) of the two beams.25–3. Figure 1.3. Since the load on Beam 2 is not a follower load. while Beam 2 stops short of a 90° tip rotation.25–1 shows the undeformed and deformed meshes (CPE4R) of both beams. Input files beamfollow. The undeformed and deformed meshes for C3D10M elements are shown in Figure 1.

3. 1.25–3 .3. 2 3 1 Figure 1.25–2 Deformed and undeformed beam meshes (CPE6M).25–1 Deformed and undeformed beam meshes (CPE4R).BEAM WITH END MOMENT 2 3 1 Figure 1.3.

25–3 Deformed and undeformed beam meshes (C3D10M).254E+00 0.3. beam beam beam beam beam beam 2 1 2 1 2 1 (CPE4R) (CPE4R) (CPE6M) (CPE6M) (C3D10M) (C3D10M) tip rotation 6.25–4 Tip rotations of beams.05 0.BEAM WITH END MOMENT 2 3 1 Figure 1.000E-01 0.000E+00 2.000E+00 6. 0.3. 1.10 time 0. 4.15 0.20 Figure 1.25–4 .3.00 0. 2. XMIN XMAX YMIN YMAX 0.

The three meshes should give identical results with these constraints. The mesh shown in the center is constrained to behave as the continuous mesh by using multi-point constraints (MPCs) to pin the coincident nodes along the interface between the two parts. The three-dimensional case is identical to the two-dimensional case except that 8-node continuum elements (C3D8R) are used to model the beam. The two parts intersect along a vertical line of nodes where there are two nodes at each point with identical coordinates (coincident nodes).26–1 . Three meshes are also used in the three-dimensional case with the same constraints (in three dimensions) as described for the two-dimensional case. The material is linear elastic with Young’s modulus = 1 × 106 . kinematic formulation. In the twodimensional case all the elements are 4-node plane strain continuum elements (CPE4R). A symmetry condition (direction 1) is speciﬁed for all the nodes on the right boundary of the mesh. The above problems are solved with different section control options.FLEXURE OF A DEEP BEAM 1. The upper mesh is the standard case with 45 nodes. The problem was originally used by Flanagan and Belystchko (1982) to test the hourglass control algorithms found in lower-order elements. In the lower mesh the *TIE option is used to constrain the nodes along the interface to have the same response as the original mesh.26–1 by circles. The half-symmetry model of the beam has a half-span of 0.4 and a depth of 0. multi-point constraints. Figure 1. A pinned boundary condition (directions 1 and 2) is speciﬁed for the center node on the left boundary of the mesh.3. This problem is modeled with both two-dimensional and three-dimensional elements. three different kinematic assumptions can 1. All the nodes that have boundary conditions or constraints are indicated in Figure 1.3. In addition. In this case the out-of-plane displacements are constrained to be zero (plane strain). and density = 1000. The center and lower mesh in the ﬁgure have been generated as two distinct parts each containing 16 elements (4 × 4) and 25 nodes. Problem description In this example the ﬂexural response of a simply supported beam is modeled using continuum elements.26–1 shows three meshes for the problem.3. Poisson’s ratio = 0.3.1. tied contact surfaces.26 FLEXURE OF A DEEP BEAM Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit CPE4R C3D8R Features tested Hourglass control. A constant pressure load of magnitude 720000 is applied instantaneously to the top surface of the beam at the beginning of the step.0. The mesh consists of 32 elements (8 × 4). For two-dimensional and three-dimensional solid elements the section control options in Abaqus/Explicit allow the user to choose between ﬁve different hourglass control options.

1.3.016).3. Figure 1. Table 1.26–5 shows the time history of vertical deﬂection for the midpoint on the symmetry plane for the three-dimensional case. There are three values plotted in the ﬁgure (one for each mesh). For this problem only slight differences are observed among the default and nondefault kinematic and hourglass options in Abaqus/Explicit. Table 1.26–3 shows the time history of vertical deﬂection for the midpoint on the symmetry plane for the two-dimensional case.3.” Section 24. The results obtained using the STIFFNESS form of hourglass control and nondefault hourglass stiffness with Abaqus/Standard also agree with the results obtained with ENHANCED hourglass control for both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses. The Abaqus/Explicit analysis was run with the AVERAGE STRAIN kinematic formulation and SECOND ORDER accuracy.26–10 compares the time history of the tip displacement for ENHANCED hourglass control for the two-dimensional case between Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit.26–5 and Figure 1.3. The two-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses were also run in Abaqus/Standard with the ENHANCED and STIFFNESS forms of hourglass control. With the ENHANCED form of hourglass control.3. Viscous hourglass control should not be used in quasi-static or low-mode dynamics problems. Results and discussion Figure 1.4 of the Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual.26–7 through Figure 1.3.26–6 shows the time history of the energies in the three-dimensional case.26–6 show results for the three-dimensional analysis run with default section control options (AVERAGE STRAIN kinematics and the RELAX STIFFNESS form of hourglass control are used) with Abaqus/Explicit. Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1.3.FLEXURE OF A DEEP BEAM be chosen for the three-dimensional solid elements.3. The results show a close match.3. The three-dimensional deformed shapes are indistinguishable from those for the two-dimensional case. The section controls option in Abaqus/Standard allows the user to pick between two different hourglass control options. A discussion of the accuracy and performance that can be obtained with the various section control options can be found in “Section controls. and analyses with this option are not included here.26–9 show the history of the tip displacement for selected nondefault section control cases.26–1 lists the peak response of the vertical displacements for all of the cases.3.26–2 through Figure 1. All three values (one for each mesh) are plotted. The reduced-integration elements in Abaqus/Standard allow only average strain kinematic formulation with second-order accuracy. Figure 1.3.1.26–4 shows the time history of the energies in the two-dimensional case.26–1 lists the various options and their plot legend and ﬁle descriptors. Figure 1.3.3.3.26–2 . the solution for the two-dimensional case essentially matches the three-dimensional case with AVERAGE STRAIN kinematics. Figure 1. which are the only options available in Abaqus/Standard.26–4 show results for the two-dimensional analysis run with default section control options (the RELAX STIFFNESS form of hourglass control is used) with Abaqus/Explicit. and they are identical.3. The results correspond exactly with the results reported in Flanagan and Belystchko (1982). Figure 1.26–2 shows the deformed shape for the two-dimensional case at the maximum deﬂection (time=.

26–3 .inp bend3d_aenhs_std.inp bend3d_css.inp bend3d_ocs. Two-dimensional case with the STIFFNESS hourglass control. Two-dimensional case with the ENHANCED hourglass control. Three-dimensional case with the CENTROID kinematic and STIFFNESS hourglass control options.inp Two-dimensional case with the COMBINED hourglass control.inp bend2d_rs. Three-dimensional case with the CENTROID kinematic and COMBINED hourglass control options. Three-dimensional case with the AVERAGE STRAIN kinematic and STIFFNESS hourglass control options.inp bend3d_acs. Three-dimensional case with the AVERAGE STRAIN kinematic and ENHANCED hourglass control options.inp bend3d_ass.inp bend3d_aenhs.inp bend3d_crs.inp bend3d_ccs.inp bend2d_ss_std. Three-dimensional case with the default section control options (AVERAGE STRAIN kinematic and RELAX STIFFNESS hourglass control). Three-dimensional case with the AVERAGE STRAIN kinematic and COMBINED hourglass control options. Three-dimensional case with the ORTHOGONAL kinematic and ENHANCED hourglass control options. Three-dimensional case with the ORTHOGONAL kinematic and STIFFNESS hourglass control options.inp bend2d_ss.inp bend3d_ors.3. Three-dimensional case with the CENTROID kinematic and ENHANCED hourglass control options. Three-dimensional case with the ORTHOGONAL kinematic and COMBINED hourglass control options. Three-dimensional case with ENHANCED hourglass control in Abaqus/Standard.inp bend3d_oenhs.inp bend3d_cenhs. Three-dimensional case with the ORTHOGONAL kinematic and RELAX STIFFNESS hourglass control options.FLEXURE OF A DEEP BEAM Input files bend2d_cs. Three-dimensional case with the CENTROID kinematic and RELAX STIFFNESS hourglass control options.inp bend2d_enhs_std. Two-dimensional case with STIFFNESS hourglass control in Abaqus/Standard.inp bend3d_ars.inp bend3d_oss. Two-dimensional case with the default section control options (RELAX STIFFNESS hourglass control). 1.inp bend2d_enhs. Two-dimensional case with ENHANCED hourglass control in Abaqus/Standard.

630 −6.409 –6.inp Three-dimensional case with STIFFNESS hourglass control in Abaqus/Standard. 679–706. D.401 −6.” J. Table 1. Meth.451 −6.451 −6.565 −6.638 −6. Eng..401 −6.26–4 . Belystchko. 17. Mech. 1982.466 −6.566 −6.3. Analysis File Peak Response (× 10−2 ) −6. P.FLEXURE OF A DEEP BEAM bend3d_ass_std. and T. Appl.26–1 Peak response of the vertical displacement of the centerline of the beam for different section control options. Reference • Flanagan.3.743 −6. pp.464 −6.392 –6.423 −6. “A Uniform Strain Hexahedron and Quadrilateral with Orthogonal Hourglass Control.286 Section Controls Kinematic n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a average average average average orthogonal orthogonal orthogonal orthogonal centroid centroid centroid centroid n/a n/a Hourglass relax stiffness combined enhanced enhanced stiffness relax stiffness combined enhanced relax stiffness combined enhanced relax stiffness combined enhanced enhanced stiffness bend2d_rs bend2d_ss bend2d_cs bend2d_enhs bend2d_enhs_std bend2d_ss_std bend3d_ars bend3d_ass bend3d_acs bend3d_aenhs bend3d_ors bend3d_oss bend3d_ocs bend3d_oenhs bend3d_crs bend3d_css bend3d_ccs bend3d_cenhs bend3d_aenhs_std bend3d_ass_std 1.394 –6. Comp.566 −6. vol.394 –6..449 −6.466 −6.

FLEXURE OF A DEEP BEAM Original Mesh Two Part Mesh MPC Constraint 2 3 1 Two Part Mesh Tied Contact Pair Figure 1. 2 3 1 Figure 1. 1.26–2 Deformed mesh at T=0.3.3.016 sec (2-D case with default section controls).26–1 Original mesh for ﬂexure.26–5 .3.

20. 5.000E+00 -0.26–3 History of the vertical displacement of the centerline (2-D case with default section controls). [ x10 -3 ] Figure 1.008E+02 0.2 0.3.3. Time 15.00 Original Mesh MPC Mesh Tied Mesh -0. 10.3.8 0.05 -0.26–4 Time history of the energies (2-D case with default section controls).04 -0.4 0. 5.129E-01 YMAX 9. 20. [ x10 3 ] ALLIE ALLKE ALLVD ALLWK ETOTAL 0.02 Vertical Displacement XMIN 0.FLEXURE OF A DEEP BEAM 0.000E-02 YMIN -6.6 ENERGY XMIN 0.637E-02 YMAX 0.01 -0.0 0.06 0.03 -0. 10.000E+00 XMAX 2.26–6 . Time 15. [ x10 -3 ] Figure 1.000E-02 YMIN -1.000E+00 XMAX 2. 1.

000E+00 XMAX 2.03 -0.4 0. [ x10 -3 ] Figure 1. Time 15.473E-02 YMAX 0.2 0. [ x10 -3 ] Figure 1.6 ENERGY XMIN 0.3.777E+02 0. 10. 20.000E+00 -0.3. 5.01 -0. 20. [ x10 3 ] ALLIE ALLKE ALLVD ALLWK ETOTAL 0.8 0.06 0. 1. 5.187E-01 YMAX 8.000E-02 YMIN -1. 10.26–6 Time history of the energies (3-D case with default section controls).00 Original Mesh MPC Mesh Tied Mesh -0.000E+00 XMAX 2.000E-02 YMIN -6.05 -0.3.04 -0.26–7 .0 0.02 Vertical Displacement XMIN 0.FLEXURE OF A DEEP BEAM 0. Time 15.26–5 History of the vertical displacement of the centerline (3-D case with default section controls).

FLEXURE OF A DEEP BEAM bend2d_cs bend2d_enhs bend2d_rs bend2d_ss Figure 1.26–7 Comparison of the tip displacement history for the 2-D case with different section control options (original mesh). bend3d_aenhs bend3d_ars bend3d_cenhs bend3d_crs bend3d_oenhs bend3d_ors Figure 1.3.3.3. 1.26–8 Comparison of the tip displacement history for the 3-D case with different section control options (original mesh).26–8 .

3.26–9 Comparison of the tip displacement history for the 3-D case with different section control options (original mesh).3.3. bend2d_enhs_exp bend2d_enhs_std Figure 1.26–10 Comparison of the tip displacement history for the 2-D case with enhanced hourglass control (original mesh).FLEXURE OF A DEEP BEAM bend3d_acs bend3d_ass bend3d_ccs bend3d_css bend3d_ocs bend3d_oss Figure 1. 1.26–9 .

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In the ﬁrst step the bulk viscosity is set to zero and the beam is allowed to rotate 5 complete revolutions about its endpoint. Normally. In the second step the bulk viscosity is set to 0. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional pipe elements are also tested for deformations.06 and the beam is allowed to oscillate with damping. Deformation tests These tests consist of three steps. In the second step the displacement constraints are removed. It is used to avoid the propagation of noise in the solution that may occur when the default time incrementation strategy is used without bulk viscosity. In the two-dimensional case the axis of rotation is the z-axis. In the three-dimensional case the axis of rotation is in the X–Y plane aligned at −45° to the original y-axis. in the third step the bulk viscosity is set to a value of 0. Problem description This problem is used to verify that individual beam elements demonstrate stable behavior for both smalldisplacement response and large-rotation response. Rigid body rotation tests These tests consist of two steps. similar to beam elements with pipe cross-sections. Initial velocities are applied to the beam to induce rotation. 1.3. In the ﬁrst case the beam is loaded in the axial. In both cases twodimensional and three-dimensional beams are tested with and without bulk viscosity. shear.06 and the beam is allowed to rotate another 5 revolutions.27 SIMPLE TESTS OF BEAM KINEMATICS Product: Abaqus/Explicit Elements tested B21 B22 B31 B32 PIPE21 PIPE31 Features tested Stability of beams in deformation and in rigid body rotation. and twisting (three-dimensional beams only) deformation modes and allowed to vibrate freely. This time incrementation strategy uses a time increment that is based on the critical element-by-element stable time increment estimates at the beginning of a step.27–1 . Fixed time incrementation (*DYNAMIC. In the ﬁrst step the bulk viscosity of the beam is set to zero. the default bulk viscosity will damp out and prevent the propagation of this high-frequency noise. and the beam is allowed to oscillate freely. and initial axial stresses are applied to simulate the centrifugal stress generated in a rotating body. and a displacement or rotation is applied to the ends of the beam using a SMOOTH STEP amplitude.3. bending.SIMPLE BEAM TESTS 1. FIXED) is used in all of the steps. EXPLICIT. The second case tests rigid body rotation of a beam about one of its endpoints. Finally.

Deformation test results This problem demonstrates that the beam elements used in Abaqus/Explicit provide stable behavior for free and damped vibration. for a hexagonal cross-section. as shown in Figure 1. The inaccuracy occurs only in the axially loaded case because the period of the vibration in the other modes is signiﬁcantly higher.27–4. for a rectangular section.3. The keys are: box circ hex i l pipe rect trap for a box cross-section. for a trapezoidal section. and Figure 1. All displacements and rotations exhibit magnitudes equal to or less than those applied in Step 1. and 3d for three-dimensional beams.27–5 (displacement) and Figure 1.27–2 . The displacement response and energy balance can be obtained more accurately by using direct time integration (*DYNAMIC. show typical displacement and rotation results for the axial. The displacement in the x-direction varies sinusoidally with a constant amplitude over the entire range of rotation.inp. for an L-section.3. DIRECT). The keys are 2d for two-dimensional beams.SIMPLE BEAM TESTS Results and discussion The results for each test are described in the following sections. and shear loading of a two-dimensional beam with a box cross-section.3. so more time increments are included in each vibration cycle. Plots of the displacement in the x-direction versus time are shown in Figure 1. EXPLICIT.27–1. The results obtained for the axial response of the two-dimensional box-section beam using direct time integration with a time increment of 1 × 10−4 are shown in Figure 1. indicates the cross-section of the beam used in the analysis. Rotation test results All axial strains are zero for both the two-dimensional and the three-dimensional cases. This inaccuracy occurs because too few increments are used to predict each cycle of the beam’s axial response. bending. Figure 1.27–2.27–3.27–7 for the two-dimensional case and Figure 1.3.3.3.3. 1. The energy balance for the axially loaded beam is poor. for a circular cross-section. Figure 1. for an I-section. Input files The input ﬁles included with the Abaqus release are named according to the following convention: bdimension_x-section_loading.27–8 for the three-dimensional case. respectively.27–6 (energy balance).3. for a pipe section. where dimension x-section indicates the dimension.3.

*M1. POISSON include an _p after the loading parameter. for twisting deformation about the beam axis (three-dimensional beams only). applied twist. *M2. for beam general section with SECTION=GENERAL.inp Two-dimensional beam element with a box cross-section and axial loading.3. *M2. for beam general section with SECTION=NONLINEAR and no parameter associated with the *AXIAL. and for an arbitrary closed section. The loading keys are: axial bend shear twist rot Additional input ﬁles for analyses of the box. and rectangular cross-sections with *BEAM SECTION. For example: b2d_box_axial. 1. circular. and *TORQUE options. *M1. b3d_circ_twist_p. *M1.SIMPLE BEAM TESTS arb_o arb_c gs gsbox gsl for an arbitrary open section.inp Three-dimensional beam element with a circular crosssection. for beam general section with SECTION=NONLINEAR and the ELASTIC parameter associated with the *AXIAL. for shear deformation. and an effective Poisson’s ratio deﬁned for the section. gsnl gsp loading indicates the displacement mode for the analysis. for beam general section with SECTION=BOX. for beam general section with SECTION=NONLINEAR and the LINEAR parameter associated with the *AXIAL. *M2.27–3 . and for rigid body rotation of the beam (circular cross-section only). and *TORQUE options. for axial deformation. L. and *TORQUE options. for bending.

[ x10 -3 ] x_displacement_1 5.00 0.UR3 0. -10.3.15 0.40 0.10 0.3. [ x10 -3 ] z_rotation_1 5.45 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.27–2 B21 box cross-section with bending. 0.45 0.10 0.05 0.05 0.27–1 B21 box cross-section with axial displacements.50 TOTAL TIME Figure 1.25 0.27–4 .30 0. 0. -5.40 0.3.U1 0. -5. DISPLACEMENT . DISPLACEMENT . 10.30 0. -10.SIMPLE BEAM TESTS 10.35 0. 1.35 0.00 0.25 0.50 TOTAL TIME Figure 1.

0 0.27–4 Energies for axial displacements (FIXED time increment control).3.05 0.10 0.0 1.20 0. 0.2 Figure 1.3.8 1.U2 0. DISPLACEMENT .50 TOTAL TIME Figure 1.6 TOTAL TIME 0.3.0 [ x10 6 ] KE IE ET 0.27–5 .27–3 B21 box cross-section with shearing displacements. -5.25 0. 1.0 0.35 0.0 -0.2 0.45 0. -10.00 0.5 -1.SIMPLE BEAM TESTS 10. 1. [ x10 -3 ] y_displacement_1 5.40 0.4 0.15 0.5 WHOLE MODEL ENERGY 0.30 0.

45 0.35 0.25 0. DISPLACEMENT .0 0.30 0.2 0.10 0.U1 0.27–5 B21 box-section with axial displacements (DIRECT time increment control).3.05 0.SIMPLE BEAM TESTS 10.00 0.4 0.25 0.3.20 0.50 TOTAL TIME Figure 1.20 0.8 WHOLE MODEL ENERGY 0.35 0.15 0.27–6 Energies for axial displacements (DIRECT time increment control).15 0.0 [ x10 IE_D ET_D 6 ] 0.05 0. 1.30 0.40 0. -5.50 TOTAL TIME Figure 1. 1.27–6 .45 0.40 0.6 0.3. 0. [ x10 -3 ] x_displacement_1 5.00 0. -10.10 0.

5 0. 10. Figure 1. 4. 2. 2.3. 6.3.5 Tip Displacement in X Direction -1. 12.5 -1.27–8 B31 displacement in x-direction versus time. 12.0 -1.3. Time 8. Time 8. 1. 0.27–7 .0 0. 10. Figure 1.0 U1 Tip Displacement in X Direction -0.0 U1 -0.27–7 B21 displacement in x-direction versus time.SIMPLE BEAM TESTS 0.0 -1.5 -2. 4. 6.

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28 TENSILE TEST Product: Abaqus/Explicit Elements tested CPS3 CPE3 CAX3 C3D6 M3D3 S3R C3D4 Features tested Concentrated loads. The load magnitude is increased linearly from zero to its ﬁnal value over the ﬁrst half of the step. CPE3 elements.28–3 shows a history plot of vertical displacement versus time for each of the seven cases. Input files tensile.3. The problem is analyzed using seven different element types.0. CPS3 elements. C3D8R elements. Poisson’s ratio = 0.inp tensile_c3d8r. M3D3 elements. Results and discussion Figure 1. The mesh is shown in Figure 1.3. CAX4R elements.inp tensile_cps3.0.inp tensile_m3d3.inp Input data used in this analysis. it is then held constant over the second half of the step to verify that any oscillatory dynamic effects are minimal.inp tensile_cax3.28–2 shows the elements in their displaced conﬁguration. Taking advantage of the symmetry of the conﬁguration.inp tensile_c3d6. with the displacements magniﬁed by a factor of 50. Since Poisson’s ratio is 0.3.inp tensile_c3d4. Figure 1.3. the bottom of the model in each case is constrained against displacement in the vertical direction.28–1. The material properties used are Young’s modulus = 1.inp tensile_cpe3. and the left side is constrained against displacement in the horizontal direction. Problem description Elements are subjected to tensile loading in this problem.0. C3D6 elements. CAX3 elements.inp tensile_cpe4r. 1. CPS4R elements. C3D4 elements.inp tensile_cps4r.28–1 . The magnitude of the concentrated load is chosen such that the total strain is . The material model is isotropic linear elasticity.3. and density = 1. CPE4R elements.TENSILE TEST 1. the results for the seven cases are identical.inp tensile_cax4r.01.

3.28–2 Displaced elements in tensile test problem.inp tensile_s4r.28–1 Mesh for tensile test problem.inp tensile_s3r_gauss5.inp tensile_s3r_gauss4. 5 Gauss integration points used for the shell section integration. 7 Gauss integration points used for the shell section integration. Shell elements with Gauss integration. 2 3 1 Figure 1. Shell elements with Gauss integration.TENSILE TEST tensile_m3d4r. 6 Gauss integration points used for the shell section integration. Shell elements with Gauss integration. 2 Gauss integration points used for the shell section integration. S3R elements. Shell elements with Gauss integration. 1.inp M3D4R elements. S4R elements. Shell elements with Gauss integration.28–2 .inp tensile_s3r.inp tensile_s3r_gauss2. 4 Gauss integration points used for the shell section integration. 103 104 102 101 203 204 202 201 303 304 302 301 403 404 402 401 503 504 502 501 603 604 602 601 703 704 705 702 701 CPS3 CPE3 CAX3 M3D3 S3R C3D6 C3D4 2 3 1 Figure 1.inp tensile_s3r_gauss6.3.inp tensile_s3r_gauss7.3.

28–3 . 0.3. Figure 1.000E+02 0. 1. Time 150. Vertical displacement 6.000E+00 2. node node node node node node node 105 205 305 405 505 608 707 [ x10 -3 ] 8.28–3 Vertical displacement versus time. 50.012E-02 0. 200. 2.TENSILE TEST 10. XMIN XMAX YMIN YMAX 0. 4. 100.000E+00 1.3.

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29 SIMPLE SHEAR Product: Abaqus/Explicit Elements tested CPE4R CPS4R C3D8 C3D8R M3D4R S4 S4R Features tested Large deformation kinematics.3. 1. In this problem all the in-plane degrees of freedom are either zero or are prescribed as functions of time. and S4R elements. M3D4R.inp shear_cpe4r. CPS4R.SIMPLE SHEAR 1. and it was chosen to give a time increment size that results in about 1% shear strain per increment.inp shear_c3d4. C3D6 element. The material model is isotropic linear elasticity.346 × 10−4 .inp shear_cax3. The purpose of this example problem is to verify the large deformation and large rotation algorithms in Abaqus/Explicit.29–1 . These results demonstrate that the kinematic formulation is uniform across all the element types deﬁned in Abaqus/Explicit. This problem is analyzed using ﬁve different element types. Results and discussion The computed stress-strain curves for the bottom and top rows of elements are in agreement with analytic solutions. each of which is deﬁned twice. There are no physical materials that exhibit linear elastic response to such large shear strain. Input files shear.inp shear_c3d8r. CAX3 element.inp shear_cpe3. C3D4 element. CPE4R. and density = 1. The value used for the density controls the time increment size. stability of large-strain formulation. C3D8R element. CPE3 element. each element in the top row is sheared in the y-direction.0. The material properties used are Young’s modulus = 1. Poisson’s ratio = 0. Each element in the bottom row is sheared in the x-direction. Problem description In this problem a state of simple shear is induced in a single element up to a nominal shear strain of 300%. CPE4R element.0.inp shear_c3d6.3.inp C3D8R.

inp shear_s3r.inp CPS3 element. C3D8 element included for the purpose of testing performance only. S3R element.SIMPLE SHEAR shear_cps3.inp shear_s4.inp shear_cps4r. M3D3 element. 1.inp shear_c3d8. S4 element included for the purpose of testing performance only.inp shear_s4r.29–2 .inp shear_m3d3. M3D4R element.inp shear_m3d4r.3. S4R element. CPS4R element.

*TEMPERATURE. The ﬂuid velocity in the Aqua loading is constant with height. PY. PX.3 −10.” Section 1. RECT) is tested under the following loads: *CLOAD.30 VERIFICATION OF THE ELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF FRAME ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard I. CIRC. I. CIRC. also apply concentrated forces at the nodes. The *TRANSFORM option is also tested. and the Aqua loads. FZ.3 1.0 units: Reference temperature for deﬁnition of thermal expansion coefﬁcient: Thermal expansion coefﬁcient at −10. The cantilever is subjected to concentrated tip loading that leads to both ﬂexure and torsion.3. Material: Young’s modulus at temperature −10. PIPE.3. P2. The wind velocity proﬁle is made nearly uniform with the height by setting the exponent to 1 × 10. Problem description The problem consists of a cantilever with a length of 75. F1. FD1.0 units: Young’s modulus at temperature 90. Various orientations of the cantilever in space are considered. The *INITIAL CONDITIONS.0 units: Poisson’s ratio at temperature −10. GRAV. The cross-sectional dimensions shown in “Veriﬁcation of beam elements and section types. F2. PIPE. are used for the ﬁve section types (BOX. RECT. FY.22. The remaining loads cause uniformly distributed loading on the cantilever. Under thermal loading the free end of the cantilever is ﬁxed.001 1. and I). TYPE=STRESS and *INITIAL CONDITIONS. Temperature dependence of frame element properties is tested under thermal loading. and the cantilever is pressed uniformly into the foundation using distributed loads. FD2. GENERAL. TYPE=TEMPERATURE options are also veriﬁed. FD1 and FD2. FX. FDT.0 temperature: 3 × 106 0.30–1 . These loads are considered to act either individually or in combination. PZ. WDD.0 units made of ﬁve frame elements.5 × 106 0. With *FOUNDATION loads the boundary conditions of the cantilever are changed to simple supports.3. SIMPLE LOAD TESTS Elements tested FRAME2D Features tested FRAME3D The elastic behavior of frame elements with different cross-sections (BOX. FDD.0 units: Poisson’s ratio at temperature 90.0 0. The wind loads. Both regular static steps and linear perturbation steps are considered. PB. WD2. P1. WD1.0−9 on the *WIND option. WD1 and WD2.FRAME ELASTICITY 1.

0 50.inp frame2d_gs_sig0.inp frame2d_rs_aqua_transform.inp frame3d_gs_sig0_transform. Rectangular section with Aqua ﬂuid loading.008 0. Rectangular section with Aqua ﬂuid loading and *TRANSFORM. ELASTIC FRAME ELEMENTS WITH PINNED ENDS Elements tested FRAME2D FRAME3D 1.inp frame2d_gs_foundation.0 0.inp frame3d_cs_foundation.inp frame2d_rs_foundation.3. Circular section with *TRANSFORM.0 The problem is statically determinate. Input files frame2d_bs_thermal. The section forces and section strains match the analytical values.008 −100. Circular section with *FOUNDATION loading.0 temperature: Initial temperature: Material density: Gravitational constant: Density of air for wind loads: Density of ﬂuid for Aqua loads: Seabed level: Still ﬂuid level: Foundation stiffness: Results and discussion 0.inp frame2d_ps_sig0. Rectangular section with *FOUNDATION loading.inp frame3d_ps_foundation. Circular section with wind loading and *TRANSFORM. Pipe section with *FOUNDATION loading.inp frame3d_rs_sig0_transform.0 1500. Box section with wind loading. General section with initial stress. Pipe section with initial stress. Pipe section with thermal loading. II. Rectangular section with initial stress and *TRANSFORM.FRAME ELASTICITY Thermal expansion coefﬁcient at 90.inp frame2d_cs_wind_transform. General section with initial stress.inp frame3d_is_aqua.30–2 . General section with *FOUNDATION loading.inp frame3d_ps_thermal.inp frame2d_is_aqua. I-section with Aqua ﬂuid loading. I-section with Aqua ﬂuid loading. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE.inp frame3d_cs_transform.inp frame2d_rs_aqua.inp Box section with thermal loading.8 10.0 0.002 −10.inp frame3d_bs_wind.

and YIELD STRESS parameters on the *FRAME SECTION option are required for this case.” Section 1.inp frame3d_3bar_pinned. Rectangular section with *CLOAD loading. ELASTIC FRAME ELEMENTS WITH BUCKLING STRUT RESPONSE Elements tested FRAME2D Features tested FRAME3D The uniaxial buckling strut behavior of frame elements with both ends pinned is tested. Model: Pipe’s radius: Pipe’s thickness: Cross-sectional area: 2.08122693 1.3.inp III. Problem description The use of the PINNED parameter on the *FRAME SECTION option is required in this case indicating that the element’s ends are pinned. for details. The tests consist of one frame element ﬁxed at one end and subjected to a prescribed displacement on the other. The variation of the amplitude is chosen in such a way that the buckling strut envelope is traced for the compressive as well as for the tensile behavior up to and beyond the yield stress value.32.” Section 1. 0. In this example the frame element behaves as an axial spring with constant stiffness. The value of the prescribed displacement changes according to an amplitude deﬁnition. Problem description The buckling strut envelope corresponds to Marshall Strut theory. The model and geometry used are the same as in the veriﬁcation problem “Three-bar truss. BUCKLING. 1.32. The PINNED. Input files frame2d_3bar_pinned. Results and discussion All tests match the exact solution. see “Three-bar truss. In small-displacement analysis the element can be compared with truss or spring elements.3.3.30–3 . Rectangular section with *CLOAD loading.FRAME ELASTICITY Features tested The linear elastic uniaxial behavior of frame elements under a concentrated load is tested.

0 REACTION FORCE .RF1 XMIN -5.500E-01 XMAX 6.0 DISPLACEMENT .inp frame3d_pinned_buckl.30–1.3.5 Figure 1.FRAME ELASTICITY Material: Young’s modulus: Shear modulus: Yield stress: Results and discussion 30 × 106 10 × 106 1 × 106 The uniaxial buckling and postbuckling behavior in compression and isotropic hardening behavior in tension can be seen by plotting the axial force in the element against the prescribed displacement. Pipe section with prescribed displacement.30–4 .30–1 IV.652E+05 YMAX 1. 1.500E-01 YMIN -3.0 -0.5 0.3.5 0.inp Pipe section with prescribed displacement. ELASTIC FRAME ELEMENT WITH BUCKLING STRUT RESPONSE FOR NONLINEAR GEOMETRY Element tested FRAME2D Feature tested A collapsing scaffold is investigated in a geometrically nonlinear analysis. Buckling response of FRAME2D element.321E+06 0.3. [ x10 6 ] F-D_12 1.U1 0. see Figure 1. Input files frame2d_pinned_buckl.

2 0. element 2 buckles.30–2. Input file frame2d_pinned_buckl_nlgeom. Figure 1.FRAME ELASTICITY Problem description The scaffold is made of three pinned frame elements with pipe cross-sections.30–2 Buckling response of scaffold with FRAME2D pipe elements.8 1.4 0. it remains buckled throughout the loading process. 0. After element 3 buckles. -50.3.3. The buckling of frame elements 2 and 3 changes the force distribution of the entire structure. then regains stiffness and develops tensile force.573E+01 YMAX 3. 250. The collapse occurs under a force-controlled loading. SECTION FORCE . × 106 1.30–2 plots the section force in each element versus the load factor from the Riks analysis. element_1 element_2 element_3 300.000E-02 XMAX 1.3.9 × 103 The snap-through character of the response requires the Riks analysis procedure.2 0.858E+02 0. The buckling strut envelope corresponds to Marshall Strut theory.0 1.6 LOAD FACTOR 0.5 × 106 51. as seen in Figure 1. 1. Model: Pipe’s radius: Pipe’s thickness: Material: 0.inp Buckling pipe section with nonlinear geometry.30–5 . 100.01 Young’s modulus: Shear modulus: Yield stress: Results and discussion 3.3. 150.2 Figure 1. XMIN 1. 350.SF1 200.0 0. 50.287E+00 YMIN -5.

30–3 plots the axial force in elements 1 and 3 versus the time for the scaffold in plane. and the default buckling envelope governs the postbuckling behavior. All end points of the scaffold structure are ﬁxed. will cause a switch to strut response. Element 3 buckles at the value of critical compressive force −56. and 4 in the threedimensional scaffold will violate the ISO equation and. ELASTIC FRAME ELEMENTS WITH SWITCHING ALGORITHM FOR NONLINEAR GEOMETRY Elements tested FRAME2D Feature tested FRAME3D A collapsing scaffold with geometry and material properties as described in “Elastic frame element with buckling strut response for nonlinear geometry” in “Veriﬁcation of the elastic behavior of frame elements. Figure 1. In all problems the buckling reduction factors are 1.inp frame3d_inspace_switch. The value of the displacement is chosen such that elements 1.30 is investigated using frame elements with the switching algorithm. FRAME3D element with switching algorithm. The ISO equation is used as a criterion for the switching algorithm. Input files frame2d_el_switch. Results and discussion Two types of problems are tested here: an in-plane scaffold structure modeled with FRAME2D and FRAME3D elements and a three-dimensional scaffold supported by an additional out-of-plane element. and a prescribed displacement is applied to node 2. At 72. element 1 buckles next and retains a small stiffness through the loading history. therefore.FRAME ELASTICITY V. The behavior of the three-dimensional scaffold is different. The ﬁrst element that switches to the strut response is element 4.” Section 1.3. Problem description The BUCKLING parameter is used on the *FRAME SECTION option to switch from frame element to buckling strut response. FRAME3D element with switching algorithm.3.inp FRAME2D element with switching algorithm.5% of the prescribed displacement values. 1.3. 3.75 and loses its stiffness at 58% of the prescribed displacement values.inp frame3d_el_switch. and a nondefault buckling envelope is used in the three-dimensional scaffold.30–6 .0 in both directions. elements 3 and 4 have already lost their stiffness. The default buckling envelope is used for the in-plane scaffold problems. followed by elements 3 and 1.

8 1. SECTION FORCE .0 0. 0. 1.4 TOTAL TIME 0.3.6 0.30–3 Buckling response of scaffold with FRAME2D and switching algorithm. elem1 elem3 -40.SF1 -20. -60.FRAME ELASTICITY 0.2 0.3.0 Figure 1.30–7 .

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3. . In the second statically determinate system (frame2d_pbs_cload.1. and torque. 1.015. The fourth problem (frame3d_pps_dload. BOX. The yield surface is represented by an interaction of plastic axial forces with plastic moments including plastic torque.1. Problem description The ﬁrst problem (frame2d_pps_cload. and plastic torque are user-deﬁned. 0. 0. bending. Model: Cross-sectional dimensions are given in the order required by the beam cross-sectional library. The values for plastic axial force and plastic bending moment are user-deﬁned. User-deﬁned as well as default generalized plastic forces are used.. plastic bending moment. The third example (frame3d_pis_cload.2.. and I cross-sections is tested under different loads (*CLOAD and *DLOAD) and geometries in two. and a torque are applied in three subsequent load steps.31 VERIFICATION OF THE PLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF FRAME ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested FRAME2D Features tested FRAME3D The plastic behavior of frame elements with PIPE. a bending load. The values for plastic axial force.4.2. The values for plastic axial force and plastic bending moment are user-deﬁned.31–1 .inp) is a statically determinate frame consisting of three elements that is loaded with various distributed loads.01 3. . × 103 Young’s modulus: Poisson’s ratio: Yield stress: 1.0 × 106 0.FRAME PLASTICITY 1. causing axial force. PIPE cross-section: BOX cross-section: I cross-section: Material: 1.015.3 50. 0.and three-dimensional problems.2.174355 1.inp) is a one-element test in which an axial force.2. In the second load step an additional constant bending moment is applied to the system. In three load steps concentrated forces are applied at the nodes. .2 .3. 0.inp). .inp) consists of three plane frame elements with PIPE crosssections forming a statically determinate system. .. . . two frame elements are simply supported at both sides with concentrated forces applied at the middle node in the ﬁrst load step. The plastic behavior is deﬁned by default values from a given yield stress.

The value of the plastic displacement is given by requesting output variable SEP.3. Plastic box section with concentrated loads.inp frame3d_pps_dload. Input files frame2d_pps_cload.inp frame3d_pis_cload.FRAME PLASTICITY Results and discussion In all problems the plastic hinges were created at predicted locations indicated by the active yield ﬂag. Plastic pipe section with distributed loads.inp frame2d_pbs_cload.inp Plastic pipe section with concentrated loads. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE. Plastic I-section with concentrated load. 1.31–2 .

Young’s modulus = 30. e. The frame elements tested have rectangular cross-sections with the same cross-sectional area as the truss elements tested. −1. Loading: −10000.g. 41134 in element 2.0. The PINNED parameter is used on the *FRAME SECTION option to indicate that the frame elements have pinned connections at the joints. Since the frame elements are formulated 1. and C are pinned.32 THREE-BAR TRUSS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested T2D2 T2D2H T2D3 T2D3H FRAME2D FRAME3D Problem description T3D2 T3D2H T3D3 T3D3H 5 A B 5 C 1 2 3 10 y D x Material: Linear elastic. All elements yield exact solutions.0 × 106 .3711 × 10−2 .3. T3D3.3.32–1 . Boundary conditions: Nodes A.. Reference solution .THREE-BAR TRUSS 1. Multi-point constraints are required to eliminate singularities in the three-node element tests using truss elements. Results and discussion 32907 in elements 1 and 3.

inp et23sfse.inp et23shse. instead.inp et22shse.inp T2D2 elements. T2D3 elements. FRAME2D elements. T3D3 elements. 1. T3D2H elements.32–2 . T3D2 elements.THREE-BAR TRUSS in terms of section properties.inp frame2d_3bar_pinned. T3D3H elements. FRAME3D elements.inp et33sfse. T2D3H elements.inp et32shse.inp et33shse.inp et32sfse. the section forces are available.3. Stresses calculated from the axial force and the cross-sectional area match the stresses obtained from the truss element tests. stress output is not available. T2D2H elements. Input files et22sfse.inp frame3d_3bar_pinned.

33–1 . and length is subjected to a bending moment. outer radius . applied to its end planes.33 PURE BENDING OF A CYLINDER: CAXA ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested CAXA4n CAXA4Rn (n=1.3.3. inner radius . 3. the solutions for stress and displacement are as follows: 1. 2. 4) Problem description CAXA8n CAXA8Rn z B D θ=0 L=6 A Ri=2 Ro=6 C r A hollow cylinder of circular cross-section. For a linear elastic material with Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio . M.PURE BENDING OF A CYLINDER 1.

at on the 0 plane. Only one-half of the structure is considered. In the user subroutine the value at each integration point. and at points . . Results and discussion The analytical solution and the Abaqus results for the CAXA8n. and on the 0° plane. with a symmetry plane at 0. is expressed in degrees. as shown in the ﬁgure on the previous page.PURE BENDING OF A CYLINDER where is the moment of inertia of the cylinder and r. The full. which is a quadratic function in both r and z. but an 8 × 12 mesh is used for the fully integrated ﬁrst-order elements and a 16 × 24 mesh is used for the reduced-integration ﬁrst-order elements.040 0 0 CAXA4n 2.102 0 0 CAXA4Rn 2. CAXA4n. . at 0° is set equal to at 180° with the *EQUATION option to remove the rigid body motion in the global x-direction. and CAXA4Rn (n=1. and 6. The output locations are at points . Loading: The bending load is simulated by applying a surface traction of the form on the plane of the cylinder. . 2.3. Poisson’s ratio = 0.and -directions with user subroutine DLOAD. 2. Material: Linear elastic. 3 or 4) elements are tabulated below for a structure with 1 and dimensions 6. and H.33.124 0 0 1. and z are the cylindrical coordinates. This is done by applying the appropriate nonuniform pressure load with the *DLOAD option and deﬁning the variation of the pressure in both the r.and reduced-integration second-order elements do use a single element mesh.33–2 . Young’s modulus = 30 × 106 . Variable at A at A at A Exact 2 0 0 CAXA8n 2 0 0 CAXA8Rn 2. CAXA8Rn. which are at the corresponding locations on the 180° plane. suggests that a single second-order element should model the structure accurately. which is stored in COORDS(3). The CAXA8n elements match the exact solution precisely. The form of the displacement solution. Boundary conditions: 0 on the 0 plane.

015 × 10−7 −3.211 × 10−6 −1.3.76 × 10−7 0 6 −7.3. the contours of .inp.124 0 0 −2.211 × 10−6 −2.927 × 10 −7 6.164 × 10−7 5.f CAXA41 elements.757 × 10−7 0 5.015 × 10−7 3. respectively.inp ecntsfsk.895 −1.757 × 10−7 0 −5.757 × 10 1.000 × 10 −7 6.76 × 10 −7 −4.102 0 0 −2.f ecntsfsk. CAXA42 elements.200 × 10−6 Note: The results are independent of n. Input files ecnssfsk. for the CAXA4R4 model.76 × 10 −7 4 × 10−7 6 −1.76 × 10 −7 −4 × 10−7 −6 1. the number of Fourier modes.908 −4 × 10−7 −6 1.996 × 10−7 −5.164 × 10−7 −5.895 1.76 × 10−7 0 6 −7.779 × 10−7 −1.779 × 10−7 1.000 × 10 −7 CAXA4Rn 2.203 × 10−6 −2.877 1.881 × 10−7 0 −6 7. Figure 1.203 × 10−6 −1.3.996 × 10−7 5.2 × 10−6 −2 0 0 −2 6 × 10 −7 1.2 × 10−6 −2 0 0 −2 6 × 10 −7 1. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnssfsk.33–3 .76 × 10 −7 4.inp ecnssfsk. and the contours of .979 −1.091 1.898 −7.984 × 10−7 −5.76 × 10−7 0 −6 7.762 × 10−7 0 −5.908 −7 4 × 10−7 6 −1.979 1.200 × 10−6 −2.091 −6.877 −1.954 × 10 −7 3.76 × 10−7 0 −6 7.098 −7.inp.898 7.927 × 10 −7 CAXA4n 2. the deformed mesh. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecntsfsk.984 × 10−7 5.954 × 10 −7 −3.2 × 10−6 −1.881 × 10−7 0 6 −7.098 −6.040 0 0 −2 5.33–1 through Figure 1.762 × 10−7 0 5.33–4 show plots of the undeformed mesh.PURE BENDING OF A CYLINDER Variable at B at B at B at C at C at C at D at D at D at E at E at E at F at F at F at G at G at G at H at H at H Exact 2 −6 × 10 −7 CAXA8n 2 −6 × 10 −7 CAXA8Rn 2 −5.2 × 10−6 −1. 1.757 × 10 −7 7.

CAXA8R1 elements.inp ecnxsfsk.f ecntsrsk.f ecnwsfsk.inp.inp.33–4 . CAXA82 elements. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnzsfsk.inp.f CAXA43 elements. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnzsrsk. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnssrsk.inp ecnzsrsk.inp ecnysfsk.f ecnvsfsk.f ecnxsfsk.inp.inp.inp ecnzsfsk.f ecnzsfsk. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnwsrsk. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnusrsk. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnusfsk. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnwsfsk.inp ecnwsrsk.inp ecnysrsk.f ecnysfsk. CAXA4R3 elements.inp ecnwsfsk. CAXA83 elements. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnvsfsk. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecntsrsk. CAXA8R3 elements.3.f ecnssrsk.inp. CAXA4R4 elements.PURE BENDING OF A CYLINDER ecnusfsk. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnxsfsk.inp.f ecnvsrsk. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnysfsk. CAXA8R2 elements.inp ecnusrsk.f ecnysrsk.inp.inp.inp ecnxsrsk.inp.f ecnxsrsk. CAXA4R2 elements. CAXA4R1 elements.inp ecnvsfsk.f ecnwsrsk. 1.inp.inp ecnssrsk. CAXA84 elements.f ecnzsrsk. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnxsrsk. CAXA81 elements.inp ecnusfsk. CAXA8R4 elements.inp ecnvsrsk.inp. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnvsrsk.inp.f ecnusrsk. CAXA44 elements.inp ecntsrsk.inp. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnysrsk.

33–5 .3.33–2 Deformed mesh.3.PURE BENDING OF A CYLINDER 2 1 3 Figure 1. 1. 2 1 3 Figure 1.3.33–1 Undeformed mesh.

98E-08 +1. 1.47E-07 -4.25E-08 +2.77E-07 -9.01E-06 2 1 3 3 4 5 3 2 4 5 3 6 5 4 3 2 6 4 5 7 2 3 6 4 5 7 1 6 2 5 3 4 7 6 2 5 1 8 3 4 7 5 6 8 4 7 3 5 2 6 1 8 4 7 3 5 6 9 4 8 7 2 6 1 5 9 3 8 4 7 6 3 5 8 9 2 7 8 4 6 5 8 7 9 4 1 3 8 6 5 2 10 7 6 9 4 8 5 10 7 6 3 10 9 4 5 8 6 7 5 9 2 3 4 10 8 6 11 7 5 9 11 8 6 10 7 2 9 4 5 11 11 1 9 2 2 6 7 8 9 4 5 2 3 10 11 7 6 8 22 3 2 5 9 3 8 10 11 6 7 8 3 4 22 3 2 5 8 11 6 22 3 7 9 10 4 5 11 22 2 10 3 6 4 9 11 7 8 33 5 9 12 4 6 33 7 8 6 5 33 4 9 33 4 7 10 6 12 33 11 5 7 4 1211 33 8 9 3 4 33 6 3 7 10 5 4 8 11 7 6 12 12 10 11 44 7 8 5 12 11 6 89 44 4 4 4 4 6 7 4 5 9 5 44 4 12 4 4 4 6 44 5 7 89 9 10 6 5 11 11 55 7 8 9 10 6 10 55 10 10 11 6 11 12 12 9 55 5 9 7 6 10 5 11 5 12 55 5 11 5 5 55 5 10 11 12 55 5 55 9 6 7 10 9 10 11 11 12 9 10 9 12 7 8 66 10 7 11 12 9 11 12 7 9 12 10 8 66 8 10 11 6 10 6 66 9 6 11 1211 9 8 10 9 6 666 10 11 9 11 78 8 10 6 66 6 6 9 6 6 6 6 10 11 7 9 11 11 9 10 8 99 7 8 11 10 8 10 8 99 108 10 8 10 7 88 9 10 99 10 8 8 99 10 88 7 7 9 8 77 99 9 88 9 7 8 77 88 7 77 88 7 88 8 77 8 77 77 7 77 77 7 Figure 1.25E-08 +9.38E-07 -4.99E-07 +4.3.32E-07 -6.3.18E-07 +5.33–3 Contours of r-displacement.47E-07 +8.01E-06 -8.79E-07 +2.58E-07 -5.58E-07 2 1 3 10 9 8 10 11 9 8 10 7 9 11 8 10 7 8 6 9 11 7 10 12 6 8 9 11 10 7 6 8 9 10 11 12 7 5 6 8 9 11 12 10 9 7 6 8 11 55 7 10 9 6 12 8 4 7 11 6 10 9 12 8 55 7 11 6 10 9 5 44 8 12 11 7 6 6 10 9 8 7 12 11 55 44 10 9 8 6 7 12 11 5 4 33 10 9 8 7 6 11 8 7 66 555 4 44 12 9 8 33 11 10 3 10 9 3 7 6 3 11 4 5 12 10 12 12 8 7 12 12 3 11 9 4 12 5 12 12 12 6 12 2 10 8 7 6 5 3 12 11 12 9 8 5 4 44 4 3 3 3 11 10 9 22 7 65 10 9 8 7 5 11 1111 11 3 11 1111 4 1110 22 54 11 11 3 6 11 8 2 11 3 9 11 7 11 11 11 8 7 6 5 33 1110 9 8 11 22 2 11 11 22 1 7 6 43 9 10 9 10 10 1010 10 10 10 8 10 22 10 10 1010 1 7 6 54 10 10 10 10 10 8 3 22 22 10 7 1 2 10 10 4 10 9 88 3 6 5 1 7 2 53 11 9 6 7 1 1 8 9 9 9 99 99 3 1 99 9 9 7 99 9 9 9 9 9 99 6 5 99 8 9 7 54 4 1 3 2 6 7 8 4 1 2 6 7 6 1 8 3 7 6 5 22 22 1 2 7 8 8 88 8 8 8 88 4 88 2 2 1 11 35 8 7 88 8 8 3 6 8 8 3 1 22 8 7 11 5 33 4 88 3 7 2 11 33 2 88 6 8 2 2 33 6 44 8 1 1 4 3 65 77 8 44 33 2222 11 8 3 44 7 22 7 33 77 7 77 44 6 22 2 4 5 77 7 3 5 6 3 7 4 55 7 44 33 5 7 44 55 33 3 7 6 5 44 55 3 5 55 4 4 4 66 44 5 55 66 44 5 55 66 4 5 4 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 5 6 5 5 5 Figure 1.38E-07 +6.32E-07 +1.79E-07 -5.77E-07 +4.62E-07 -2.33–4 Contours of z-displacement.3. U2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 VALUE -1.62E-07 +6.99E-07 -1.18E-07 -2.33–6 .98E-08 +5.PURE BENDING OF A CYLINDER U1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 VALUE -6.

34–1 . and length . outer radius .34 CYLINDER SUBJECTED TO AN ASYMMETRIC TEMPERATURE FIELD: CAXA ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested CAXA4n CAXA4Rn (n = 1.3. 3. 2. inner radius .3. is subjected to an asymmetric temperature distribution that is a linear function of the spatial coordinates: 1.ASYMMETRIC TEMPERATURE FIELD 1. 4) Problem description CAXA8n CAXA8Rn z B D θ=0 L=6 A Ri=2 Ro=6 C r A hollow cylinder of circular cross-section.

This problem is also solved with an 8 × 12 mesh of fully integrated ﬁrst-order elements and a 16 × 24 mesh of reduced integration ﬁrstorder elements. CAXA8Rn. Poisson’s ratio = 0. and on the 0° plane. below) are the cylindrical coordinates. 2.34–2 . 0. and 300. and CAXA4Rn (n = 1. with a symmetry plane at 0. which are at the corresponding locations on the 180° plane.33. as shown in the ﬁgure on the previous page. Material: Linear elastic. Poisson’s ratio . While both the CAXA8n and CAXA8Rn elements match the exact solution precisely with a zero state of stress. For a linear elastic material of Young’s modulus E. coefﬁcient of thermal expansion = 1 × 10−4 . the models using the CAXA4n and CAXA4Rn elements fail to predict a stress-free state. and H. the CAXA4Rn models give much more accurate results than the CAXA4n models. . and at points . This value of is obtained from the equation for above.ASYMMETRIC TEMPERATURE FIELD where is the constant temperature at the outside surface of the cylinder at 0° and r. 1. This example demonstrates that the fully integrated ﬁrst-order elements do not handle bending problems very well. CAXA4n. However. 0 on the 0 plane.3. Young’s modulus = 30 × 106 . This is accomplished by calculating the temperature at each node and deﬁning the temperature value using the *TEMPERATURE option. and z (see displacement solution. which is a quadratic function in both r and z. . Boundary conditions: Loading: A temperature ﬁeld of the form is applied. Results and discussion The analytical solution and the Abaqus results for the CAXA8n. even though the displacement solutions predicted are quite reasonable. . the solution for a structure subjected to such a temperature distribution is stress-free. The output locations are at points . with displacements as follows: Only one-half of the structure is considered. 3 or 4) elements are tabulated below for a structure with these parameters: 6. 2.06 is applied at and 0 to eliminate the rigid body motion in the global x-direction. 6. indicates that a single second-order element can model the structure adequately and yield accurate results. The form of the displacement solution. and thermal expansion coefﬁcient .

1.9999 × 10−2 −6.0001 × 10−2 3.0001 × 10−2 0.0312 × 10−2 −14076 1.4 × 10−2 0 −3.3.95 × 10−2 −14071 −6 × 10 0 −11664 2.4 × 10 0 0 −5 × 10 −2 −2 −2 18 × 10−2 0 −6 × 10 0 0 3 × 10−2 −6 × 10−2 0 −1.4 × 10−2 0 3. for the CAXA84 model.0168 6 × 10−2 0 −3.5100 −5.0001 × 10−2 −18 × 10−2 −18 × 10−2 −18 × 10−2 −18 × 10−2 −17.3.0306 × 10 −2 −2 −2 CAXA4Rn 0. Figure 1.34–1 through Figure 1.9999 × 10−2 6. respectively.4 × 10 0 0 5 × 10 −2 −2 −2 CAXA8n 0 6 × 10 0 0 −3 × 10−2 6 × 10−2 0 1.4 × 10 0 0 −5 × 10 −2 −2 −2 17.0312 × 10−2 14076 −1.0001 × 10−2 18 × 10−2 −0. the number of Fourier modes.3993 × 10 0 11108 −5. the applied asymmetric temperature ﬁeld.4 × 10 0 0 −5 × 10 −2 −2 −2 18 × 10−2 0 −6 × 10 0 0 3 × 10−2 −6 × 10−2 0 −1.34–3 .5190 5. the contours of .4 × 10 0 0 5 × 10 −2 −2 −2 CAXA8Rn 0 6 × 10 0 0 −3 × 10−2 6 × 10−2 0 1.9644 × 10−2 6.2186 2.0162 1.9644 × 10−2 −6.ASYMMETRIC TEMPERATURE FIELD Variable at A at A at A at B at B at B at C at C at C at D at D at D at E at E at E at F at F at F at G at G at G at H at H at H Exact 0 6 × 10 0 0 −3 × 10−2 6 × 10−2 0 1.0306 × 10 −2 −2 −1.3. and the contours of .4 × 10 0 0 5 × 10 −2 −2 −2 CAXA4n −14071 6 × 10 0 11664 −2.3993 × 10 0 11108 5.0168 −6 × 10−2 0 3.5100 −2 18 × 10−2 0 −6 × 10 0 0 3 × 10−2 −6 × 10−2 0 −1.95 × 10−2 Note: The results are independent of n.34–4 show plots of the undeformed and deformed meshes.2186 −2.

CAXA4R4 elements. CAXA8R1 elements. CAXA81 elements.inp ecnysfsl.inp CAXA41 elements. CAXA4R2 elements.3.inp ecnssrsl.inp ecnwsrsl. CAXA4R1 elements. CAXA4R3 elements. CAXA8R3 elements.34–4 .inp ecnvsrsl. CAXA8R4 elements.inp ecnzsrsl.3. CAXA44 elements. CAXA42 elements. 1. 2 1 3 Figure 1.inp ecntsfsl.inp ecnxsfsl.inp ecnusrsl.inp ecnwsfsl.inp ecnzsfsl. CAXA43 elements.34–1 Deformed mesh.inp ecnxsrsl.inp ecnusfsl.inp ecnysrsl.ASYMMETRIC TEMPERATURE FIELD Input files ecnssfsl. CAXA82 elements.inp ecnvsfsl.inp ecntsrsl. CAXA83 elements. CAXA84 elements. CAXA8R2 elements.

ASYMMETRIC TEMPERATURE FIELD 5 6 5 NT11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 VALUE 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 7 6 7 6 7 8 7 11 8 12 9 9 10 12 11 12 6 77 8 5 5 8 9 10 10 11 6 6 7 7 8 9 7 7 8 6 5 6 7 3 2 4 5 1 7 6 6 7 -1.69E-02 -7.53E-02 -5.53E-02 +9.23E-02 +5.53E-02 -5.38E-02 +7.07E-02 +3.69E-02 +1.38E-02 -3.07E-02 +3. 5 6 5 U1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 VALUE 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 7 6 7 6 7 8 7 11 8 12 9 9 10 12 11 12 6 77 8 5 5 8 9 10 10 11 6 6 7 7 8 9 7 7 8 6 5 6 7 3 2 4 5 1 7 6 6 7 -1.34–5 .38E-02 +7.3.18E-01 7 6 5 5 44 2 1 3 Figure 1.07E-02 +1.07E-02 +1.53E-02 +9.69E-02 +1.38E-02 -3.3.34–2 Applied temperature ﬁeld.23E-02 +5.69E-02 -7.23E-02 -1.18E-01 7 6 5 5 44 2 1 3 Figure 1.18E-01 -9.3.23E-02 -1.18E-01 -9.34–3 Contours of r-displacement. 1.

92E-02 +9. 1.38E-02 +4.ASYMMETRIC TEMPERATURE FIELD 2 1 U2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 VALUE 3 3 4 5 2 1 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 8 7 99 8 7 8 5 6 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 4 5 8 6 10 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 11 12 11 12 12 10 11 9 10 10 8 7 9 10 9 11 10 11 12 12 11 -1.34–4 Contours of z-displacement.52E-01 -1.69E-02 -6.15E-02 +6.38E-02 +1.92E-02 -4.24E-01 +1.15E-02 -1.69E-02 +1.3.3.24E-01 -9.34–6 .52E-01 2 1 3 7 Figure 1.

Assuming plane strain conditions and a linear elastic material with Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio . where p is a pressure value and r and are the cylindrical coordinates. the small-displacement solutions for stress and displacement are as follows: 1. The pressure stresses take the following forms: at and at . inner radius . 3.35–1 .3. and length is subjected to both internal and external pressure loads that are asymmetric.35 CYLINDER SUBJECTED TO ASYMMETRIC PRESSURE LOADS: CAXA ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested CAXA4n CAXA4Rn (n = 1. outer radius .ASYMMETRIC PRESSURE LOADS 1. 2.3. 4) Problem description CAXA8n CAXA8Rn z A C θ=0 L=6 A Ri=2 Ro=6 C r A hollow cylinder of circular cross-section.

and reduced-integration models. 6. 2.3. and CAXA4Rn (n = 1. respectively. The output locations are at points and on the 0° plane.35–2 . the value at each integration point. 1. Results and discussion The analytical solution and the Abaqus results for the CAXA8n. In the user subroutine. Boundary conditions: 0 everywhere. CAXA4n. respectively. as obtained from the equation for above.ASYMMETRIC PRESSURE LOADS where Only a slice of the cylinder is considered. Poisson’s ratio = 0. Closer agreement is anticipated if a denser mesh is used. Young’s modulus = 30 × 106 . Plane strain conditions are applied by setting 0 everywhere. CAXA8Rn. Material: Linear elastic. and 10 × 103 .3. The solutions predicted by Abaqus agree well with the exact solution. −9. In models using the ﬁrst-order elements. which is stored in COORDS(3). Loading: The asymmetric pressure loads are prescribed by applying the appropriate nonuniform distributed load types on the inside and outside surfaces of the cylinder with the *DLOAD option and deﬁning the pressure stress equations for in user subroutine DLOAD. 2. These constraints eliminate the rigid body motions in the global z. and at points E and G. is expressed in degrees. 20 and 40 elements are used in the full. where z can be any value along lines and in the ﬁgure shown on the previous page since the solution is independent of z. 3 or 4) elements are tabulated below for a cylinder with these parameters: 6. which are at the corresponding locations on the 180° plane.9854 × 10−4 at and 0°.and x-directions. In the r-direction 10 elements are used in the second-order element models.

the number of Fourier modes.9 0.9222 × 10 −3 −4 −3 CAXA8Rn −29760.inp ecnssfsm.0 −9.0 −3969. Figure 1.0 7702.9854 × 10−4 −9992.0 3978.1 0.0 7885. CAXA42 elements.9 −2029.9854 × 10−4 10067.9 0.0 −7722. 1.0 −9. since is treated as an internal variable in these elements and is not available for output.2 −2013.9854 × 10 10101.9 2029.0 2.3. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecntsfsm.4 0.9221 × 10−3 Note: The results are independent of n.0 −2.4 0.0 7849.9 −2031.9207 × 10 −3 −4 −3 CAXA4Rn −29132. Input files ecnssfsm.0 −2.5 0.4 6089.9222 × 10 29760.2 0.0 −9.9 −3964.0 3969.9207 × 10 28617.9221 × 10−3 29132.9 −5729.9854 × 10 9992.2 0.9 3964.4 0.inp ecntsfsm.3 0. and the contours of .0 −9.6 0.0 −2.0 9.9222 × 10 30000.0 2.2 −1902.0 9.0 9.1 −6034. The accuracy of may be assumed to be comparable to the accuracy of .3.0 7722.0 −2.6 −5973.5 0.4 −3967.9854 × 10−4 −10000.9 5729.9 2031.0 −3978.4 −2024.2 0.35–4 show plots of the undeformed mesh.inp.0 2.4 0.0 −7849. respectively. The variable is not compared.2 2013.f ecntsfsm.9222 × 10 29610.9854 × 10−4 −9988.4 −6089.4 3967. the deformed mesh.9854 × 10−4 −10101.4 2024.9854 × 10 9988.0 −7702.0 7890. the contours of .1 6034.9222 × 10 −3 −4 −3 CAXA4n −28617.9 0.9854 × 10 10000.9854 × 10−4 −10205.0 −9.2 0.7 6268.6 5973.2 1987.0 9.0 −2. for the CAXA8R3 model.0 9.0 3952.ASYMMETRIC PRESSURE LOADS Variable at A at A at A at A at A at C at C at C at C at C at E at E at E at E at E at G at G at G at G at G Exact −30000.35–1 through Figure 1. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnssfsm.35–3 .0 2.3.3 0.0 −3952.f CAXA41 elements.0 2.0 −7885.6 0.6 0.0 −7890.7 −6268.9222 × 10 −3 −4 −3 CAXA8n −29610.6 0.inp.

inp ecnusrsm.inp ecnysrsm.inp. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnusrsm.f ecnvsfsm.f ecnysfsm.inp. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecntsrsm. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnwsrsm.f CAXA43 elements.f ecnwsfsm. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnvsrsm.inp.f ecnvsrsm.f ecnwsrsm. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnxsfsm.f ecnxsfsm. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnxsrsm. CAXA4R4 elements. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnysfsm.inp.inp.f ecnxsrsm. CAXA8R1 elements. CAXA8R4 elements. 1.inp. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnssrsm.inp ecnwsrsm. CAXA44 elements.f ecnssrsm. CAXA4R1 elements.inp.inp. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnzsfsm. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnvsfsm. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnysrsm.inp ecntsrsm. CAXA82 elements.inp.inp ecnysfsm.f ecnzsrsm.ASYMMETRIC PRESSURE LOADS ecnusfsm. CAXA4R3 elements. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnwsfsm. CAXA83 elements.inp ecnwsfsm.inp ecnvsrsm.f ecnysrsm. CAXA84 elements. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnzsrsm.f ecnzsfsm.inp ecnvsfsm.inp.f ecntsrsm.inp ecnzsfsm. CAXA8R3 elements.inp ecnzsrsm.inp ecnxsfsm.inp.inp.f ecnusrsm.inp ecnusfsm.35–4 . CAXA8R2 elements. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecnusfsm.inp.3.inp.inp ecnssrsm. CAXA81 elements. CAXA4R2 elements.inp ecnxsrsm.

35–1 Undeformed mesh. 1.3. 2 1 3 Figure 1.3.35–2 Deformed mesh.3.ASYMMETRIC PRESSURE LOADS 2 1 3 Figure 1.35–5 .

1.24E-04 +6.ASYMMETRIC PRESSURE LOADS 8 S11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 VALUE -2.3.60E+04 -1.14E+04 -6.3.47E-03 -2.02E-03 -1.60E+04 +2.74E-04 -2.35–3 Contours of radial stress.57E-03 -1. U1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 VALUE -2.47E-03 10 8 9 11 10 8 11 7 9 10 6 8 7 9 10 11 6 8 9 12 7 9 6 10 5 8 11 7 6 5 9 11 8 4 12 10 7 6 8 5 4 9 7 11 6 12 5 8 4 10 9 11 12 7 6 5 10 8 5 3 5 10 9 7 6 8 4 3 5 7 11 3 3 8 7 4 11 9 5 8 9 3 6 10 4 10 9 12 2 3 6 4 4 5 4 2 7 5 2 3 5 2 2 11 3 4 3 5 4 10 9 2 1 4 3 3 22 11 4 3 2 1 1 8 6 1 2 4 1 3 3 2 1 Figure 1.06E+04 +2.06E+04 -1.35–4 Contours of r-displacement.12E-03 +1.12E-03 -6.28E+03 +2.57E-03 +2.51E+04 -2.51E+04 8 9 99 9 10 6 6 6 8 6 7 6 8 9 9 7 6 8 9 7 6 8 10 109 8 10 10 10 8 7 6 55 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 9 11 11 6 7 5 5 11 12 11 5 54 12 4 4 4 8 6 3 3 4 4 10 4 4 22 3 3 2 4 12 3 2 4 11 1 3 1 4 1 2 3 4 8 999 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 5 12 11 9 7 5 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 3 Figure 1.86E+03 +1.35–6 .86E+03 -2.24E-04 +2.02E-03 +2.28E+03 +6.74E-04 +1.3.14E+04 +1.

This is a coupled problem in which the stress equilibrium and ﬂuid continuity equations must be solved 1. inner radius is subjected to an asymmetric pore pressure distribution of the form . 4) Problem description z B D F θ=0 L=6 A Ri=2 R=4 Ro=6 C E r A hollow cylindrical soil column of circular cross-section. The presence of pore pressure gradients in the radial and circumferential directions causes the pore ﬂuid in the soil to ﬂow in these directions.ASYMMETRIC PORE PRESSURE FIELD 1. 2. and bending of the cylinder results.36–1 . 3. outer radius .3. and length where is the constant pore pressure at the outside surface of the cylinder at 0° and r and are the cylindrical coordinates.3.36 CYLINDER SUBJECTED TO AN ASYMMETRIC PORE PRESSURE FIELD: CAXA ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested CAXA8Pn CAXA8RPn (n = 1.

0 is applied at and 0 to eliminate Loading: A pore pressure ﬁeld of the form is applied. 6. It is apparent that the results of the CAXA models match closely with the results of the three-dimensional model. permeability = 1 × 10−5 . with a symmetry plane at 0. To facilitate comparison of results with the CAXA models.36–2 . the number of Fourier modes. In the three-dimensional model more elements are needed in the -direction to get results with higher accuracy. reveals that the effective stress components are identical to the pore pressure everywhere so that the total stress is zero everywhere in the cylinder. and 3 × 106 .” Section 1.34. initial void ratio = 1. and appear to be more accurate than the three-dimensional model because the applied asymmetric pore pressure ﬁeld can be prescribed precisely in the CAXA models. Results that are exactly equal and opposite to those shown below are obtained at the same locations on the 180° plane. 2. The stress solution. stress. For illustration purposes we consider only the steady-state coupled problem. 1 in the axial direction. In the three-dimensional model the C3D20P element is used in a ﬁnite element mesh with 2 elements in the radial direction. Young’s modulus = 1 × 108 . and strain components are output in the same cylindrical system. and 12 in the circumferential direction. and on the 0° plane.3. The results obtained from the CAXA models are independent of n. Note the similarity between the solution to this problem and the asymmetric temperature analysis described in “Cylinder subjected to an asymmetric temperature ﬁeld: CAXA elements. . the rigid body motion in the global x-direction. Boundary conditions: 0 on the 0 plane. 3 or 4) elements and those obtained with the C3D20P elements are tabulated below for a structure with these parameters: 6. However. and a cylindrical orientation is applied to the material so that displacement. as shown in the ﬁgure on the previous page. The pore pressure at each corner node on the inside and outside walls of the cylinder is calculated. 2. and we assume that the material is linear with constant permeability and is made up of incompressible grains and ﬂuid. all nodes in the three-dimensional model are transformed to a local cylindrical system. Poisson’s ratio = 0. and the pore pressure values are prescribed via degree of freedom 8 in the *BOUNDARY option. Material: Linear elastic. . . . which is shown in the table below.3. two elements are used in the radial direction so that direct comparison of results obtained with the three-dimensional model can be made. The output locations are at points . Results and discussion The results obtained with the CAXA8Pn and CAXA8RPn (n = 1. The results predicted by the pore pressure CAXA models will be compared with those predicted by the corresponding three-dimensional model.3. A mesh convergence study indicates that a single second-order CAXA element can model the structure adequately and yield accurate results.0 everywhere.ASYMMETRIC PORE PRESSURE FIELD simultaneously with the pore pressure CAXA elements. 1. Only one-half of the structure is considered.

9397 × 105 9.9987 × 10 6 1 × 106 1 × 106 1 × 106 −3.9066 × 105 9.8 × 10−2 2 × 106 2 × 106 2 × 106 2 × 106 3.9947 × 106 2.1819 × 10−2 0 3 × 10 6 2 × 106 2 × 106 2 × 106 −2.4 × 10−2 4.9751 × 105 −3.6 × 10−2 2.4 × 10−2 1 × 106 1 × 106 1 × 106 1 × 106 1.9751 × 105 1.9943 × 106 1.9987 × 106 1.2 × 10−2 0 3 × 106 3 × 106 9.8 × 10−2 2 × 106 2 × 106 2 × 106 2 × 106 3.4 × 10−2 4.ASYMMETRIC PORE PRESSURE FIELD Variable at A at A U at A at A at A at A at B at B U at B at B at B at B at C at C U at C at C at C at C at D at D U at D at D at D at D at E at E U at E at E C3D20P 0 0 1 × 10 6 CAXA8Pn 0 0 1 × 10 6 CAXA8RPn 0 0 1 × 106 1 × 106 1 × 106 1 × 106 −3.9945 × 106 2.9944 × 106 1.5791 × 10−2 2.1926 × 10−2 0 1.4 × 10−2 1 × 106 1 × 106 1 × 106 1 × 106 1.6 × 10−2 2.7711 × 10−2 1.2 × 10−2 0 2 × 106 2 × 106 2 × 106 2 × 106 −2.2 × 10−2 0 2 × 10 6 1.004 × 106 3 × 106 1.3853 × 10−2 1 × 106 9.0036 × 106 3.9066 × 105 9.2 × 10−2 0 3 × 10 6 3.3.36–3 .0038 × 106 −2.3864 × 10−2 4.9397 ×105 9.

1. CAXA8P2 elements.inp ecnyprsn.4 × 10−2 7.36–4 .inp eref3ksn.inp ecnzprsn.inp ecnxprsn.3.inp ecnzpfsn. CAXA8P3 elements. CAXA8RP3 elements. respectively. Input files ecnwpfsn.inp CAXA8P1 elements.4 × 10−2 7.36–1 through Figure 1. the applied asymmetric pore pressure ﬁeld. C3D20P elements (reference solution). CAXA8RP2 elements. CAXA8P4 elements.36–4 show plots of the undeformed and deformed meshes.inp ecnxpfsn.004 × 106 2.9718 × 10−2 7. CAXA8RP1 elements.3.9965 × 106 3.2 × 10−2 3 × 106 3 × 106 3 × 106 3 × 106 Figure 1. in the CAXA8P4 model.inp ecnwprsn.ASYMMETRIC PORE PRESSURE FIELD Variable at E at E at F at F U at F at F at F at F C3D20P 2.1581 × 10−2 3 × 106 3. the contours of .3.inp ecnypfsn.0105 × 106 CAXA8Pn 3 × 106 3 × 106 −0. and the contours of .9961 × 106 3.2 × 10−2 3 × 106 3 × 106 3 × 106 3 × 106 CAXA8RPn 3 × 106 3 × 106 −0. CAXA8RP4 elements.0105 × 106 −3.

36–2 Contours of pore pressure.92E+05 -2.15E+06 +1.36–5 .30E+05 +2. 1.53E+06 -2.36–1 Deformed mesh.3.61E+06 +2.30E+05 +6.07E+06 +2.92E+05 +1.07E+06 -1.3.3.ASYMMETRIC PORE PRESSURE FIELD 2 1 3 Figure 1.15E+06 -6. 3 2 POR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 VALUE -2.61E+06 -1.53E+06 4 5 5 6 5 6 7 8 7 8 8 9 89 9 10 10 11 12 10 11 12 8 9 9 6 10 10 11 3 4 4 4 4 5 1 1 2 2 3 3 2 1 3 4 5 7 12 2 9 1 3 10 12 11 Figure 1.

53E-03 +5.36–4 Contours of z-displacement.04E-02 9 10 10 9 4 3 5 8 7 7 6 2 1 5 2 6 7 6 6 10 5 5 11 6 10 9 7 12 11 44 12 5 12 109 8 10 5 7 5 33 33 4 12 12 11 2 9 8 10 2 11 11 4 4 1 2 3 1 5 10 9 8 3 10 9 8 2 1 7 1 2 5 3 2 8 9 8 6 4 3 3 4 5 6 4 3 5 5 4 7 6 7 4 7 5 7 8 6 7 5 9 6 10 6 6 11 8 11 7 8 9 10 11 12 12 9 10 10 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 3 Figure 1.36–3 Contours of r-displacement.66E-02 +2.38E-02 -8.3.76E-03 +2.76E-02 -1.98E-02 +6.ASYMMETRIC PORE PRESSURE FIELD 7 8 U1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 VALUE 7 8 99 8 8 8 8 -3.93E-02 +2.04E-02 -2.09E-02 -4.49E-02 +3.36–6 .87E-02 +4.30E-03 -2.09E-02 6 7 6 12 12 6 10 2 1 3 7 Figure 1.93E-02 -1.3. 2 1 U2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 VALUE 3 3 4 5 7 5 2 1 3 3 2 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 4 5 5 5 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 8 8 7 9 9 8 8 9 8 9 9 10 8 7 7 8 7 9 8 9 7 8 7 7 9 10 11 12 12 10 11 11 9 10 10 8 12 11 10 10 11 11 10 -6. 1.53E-03 +1.76E-03 +8.66E-02 -5.38E-02 +1.76E-02 +3.98E-02 -3.87E-02 -2.3.49E-02 -1.30E-03 +1.

Input files ecntsfdyn.3. the radial displacements at the midside nodes are constrained to be equal to the average radial motion of the nodes at the inside and outside radii.3. 1. the directsolution steady-state procedure *STEADY STATE DYNAMICS. 4) Problem description CAXA4RHn CAXA8n CAXA8Rn CAXA8RHn SAXA1n SAXA2n A cantilever pipe 100 units long with an outer radius of 1.3.0E4 units is applied to the tip of the cantilever pipe. 3. CAXA43 elements. Results and discussion The results of the tests agree well with the results obtained by modeling the cantilever pipe with beam elements having pipe cross-sections. The ﬁrstorder.2 units subjected to tip loading is analyzed. with half applied to the midside nodes in each of the 0° and 180° planes on the loaded end of the pipe. the subspace-based steadystate procedure *STEADY STATE DYNAMICS. The second-order CAXA models use 20 elements along the length of the pipe.E6 and Poisson’s ratio of 0.inp ecnusrdyn.inp ecnvsfdyn.37 MODAL DYNAMIC AND TRANSIENT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS WITH CAXA AND SAXA ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard I.37–1 . The ﬁrst-order SAXAn model uses 20 elements along the length of the pipe.CAXA AND SAXA ELEMENTS IN DYNAMIC ANALYSIS 1.2675 units and a wall thickness of 0. The concentrated load is split in two. fully integrated CAXA model consists of 2 × 20 elements in the mesh. while the CAXA4Rn and the CAXA4RHn models consist of 4 × 40 elements in the mesh. and the transient dynamic procedure *DYNAMIC are used in the veriﬁcation tests. A sinusoidal load with a maximum amplitude of 1. All the nodes on one end of the pipe are ﬁxed. CAXA4R3 elements. To avoid any deformation through the wall thickness in the CAXA model caused by the application of concentrated loads on the loaded end.inp CAXA42 elements. while 10 elements are used in the SAXA2n model. SUBSPACE PROJECTION. CAXA44 elements. CAXA4R2 elements. MODAL DYNAMIC AND TRANSIENT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS Elements tested CAXA4n CAXA4Rn (n = 2. The material behavior is assumed to be isotropic elastic with a Young’s modulus of 30. The pipe is modeled with all the elements listed above. DIRECT.inp ecntsrdyn. The modal procedures *MODAL DYNAMIC and *STEADY STATE DYNAMICS.inp ecnusfdyn.

SAXA23 elements. CAXA43 elements. SAXA13 elements. CAXA82 elements.inp ecnzsfdyn.inp esntsxrr.inp CAXA42 elements. SAXA24 elements.inp esnvsxdyn. CAXA8R3 elements.inp ecnvsfrr.inp esnxsxdyn.inp ecnzsrdyn. Since random response analysis is a modal-based procedure. The base motion is applied only to degree of freedom 1. SAXA22 elements.inp ecnxsfrr. 4) Problem description SAXA1n SAXA2n The cantilever pipe described in the previous section is used in these veriﬁcation tests. CAXA82 elements. SAXA12 elements.inp esnusxdyn. CAXA83 elements.inp ecnxsfdyn.inp esntsxdyn. CAXA84 elements. The material deﬁnition is assumed to be isotropic elastic. The ﬁrst ten modes are used in the *RANDOM RESPONSE steps with a damping ratio of 0.inp ecnusfrr.inp ecnzsfrr. Input files ecntsfrr.inp esnysxdyn. The values are not important.inp ecnysfdyn. CAXA83 elements.37–2 .inp ecnxsrdyn. Results and discussion The results of the analysis compare well with the results obtained by modeling the cantilever pipe with beam elements having pipe cross-sections. Elements tested CAXA4n CAXA8n (n = 2. A white noise power spectral density is used to describe the applied ground accelerations.inp ecnysrdyn. CAXA8R2 elements.inp esnzsxdyn.3. 3. RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS CAXA4R4 elements. CAXA84 elements. CAXA44 elements. CAXA8R4 elements. SAXA12 elements.inp II.CAXA AND SAXA ELEMENTS IN DYNAMIC ANALYSIS ecnvsrdyn. SAXA14 elements. a *FREQUENCY step is required to obtain the mode shapes and natural frequencies of the system. 1.01 for each mode.inp ecnysfrr.

SAXA13 elements. SAXA24 elements. Input files ecntsfrs. CAXA4H2 elements are used in the present veriﬁcation test.inp esnvsxrr.3. Results and discussion The results of the analysis compare well with the results obtained by modeling the cylinder with beam elements. An 8 × 8 mesh of CAXA4H2 elements is employed.2. The test illustrates the use of *BASELINE CORRECTION and *BASE MOTION for CAXA elements. The ﬁnite element mesh consists of a single element that has nodes lying on the axis from each of the planes forming the element.inp esnzsxrr.1. SAXA22 elements.inp esnysxrr. SAXA23 elements.inp esnxsxrr. 1.37–3 . RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS Elements tested CAXA42 CAXA82 Problem description The model consists of a cylinder 300 units in length with an outer radius of 2 units. The nodes on the axis of the cylinder are constrained such that they do not move away from the axis after deformation.inp IV. The nodes on the axis are tied such that the element can simulate a solid cylinder.CAXA AND SAXA ELEMENTS IN DYNAMIC ANALYSIS esnusxrr. CAXA82 elements. The material properties are assumed to be isotropic elastic.” Section 3. MODAL DYNAMIC ANALYSIS WITH BASELINE CORRECTION Element tested CAXA4H2 Problem description This problem is similar to the veriﬁcation problem pmodbas3. The spectrum of peak displacement values as a function of frequency and damping ratio is speciﬁed on the *SPECTRUM option.inp III.inp ecnxsfrs. CAXA42 elements. SAXA14 elements. The structure analyzed is a cylinder made of rubberlike material. and the base motion is applied in directions 1 (r-direction) and 2 (z-direction) using the *RESPONSE SPECTRUM option. The values are not important.inp using CAX4H elements described in “Modal dynamic analysis with baseline correction.

4.inp (see “Modal dynamic analysis with baseline correction. CAXA81 elements.inp ecnzsffv41.3.inp ecnwsffv41.” Section 4.inp CAXA41 elements. where axisymmetric elements are used. Results and discussion The results obtained by using CAXA elements compare well with those described in “FV41: Free cylinder: axisymmetric vibration.1).4. 4) Problem description This problem is similar to the problem described in “FV41: Free cylinder: axisymmetric vibration. CAXA82 elements.8 of the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual. 1. The acceleration records are the same as those used in the problem pmodbase.2.inp ecnusffv41.inp ecnxsffv41. CAXA43 elements.inp.8 of the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual.inp ecnvsffv41.” Section 3.inp ecnysffv41. 2. Results and discussion The results agree with those obtained with the veriﬁcation problem pmodbas3.” Section 4. The axisymmetric behavior is simulated by imposing the condition that the radial and axial displacements of the nodes on planes other than the 0° plane be the same as the nodes on the 0° plane.37–4 .inp V. The response to applied axial excitation at the rigid surface is sought. FREE CYLINDER: AXISYMMETRIC VIBRATION Elements tested CAXA4n CAXA8n (n = 1. 3. CAXA44 elements. CAXA83 elements. Input file ecntsfbc.inp ecntsffv41. CAXA42 elements. Input files ecnssffv41.CAXA AND SAXA ELEMENTS IN DYNAMIC ANALYSIS The structure is preloaded statically in compression in the axial direction by a rigid platen. CAXA84 elements. CAXA4H2 elements.

THICK HOLLOW SPHERE: UNIFORM RADIAL VIBRATION Elements tested CAXA4n CAXA8n (n = 1.” Section 4.inp ecnxsffv42.inp ecnysffv42.” Section 4. CAXA82 elements. CAXA84 elements. CAXA44 elements.9 of the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual.CAXA AND SAXA ELEMENTS IN DYNAMIC ANALYSIS VI. where axisymmetric elements are used. Input files ecnssffv42. CAXA81 elements. 3. CAXA42 elements. CAXA83 elements. CAXA43 elements. Results and discussion The results obtained by using CAXA elements compare well with those described in “FV42: Thick hollow sphere: uniform radial vibration.inp ecnzsffv42.4.inp ecnvsffv42.9 of the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual.inp ecntsffv42.inp ecnwsffv42.inp ecnusffv42. 4) Problem description This problem is similar to the problem described in “FV42: Thick hollow sphere: uniform radial vibration. 1.inp CAXA41 elements. 2.3.37–5 .4.

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38–1 consists of a 1-m-long conductor through which a constant current density of 6. Only a steadystate solution is considered for each test. With these boundary conditions the problem is one-dimensional. m.3. A reasonable mesh is used in each case to obtain the quadratic distribution of heat. 1. Potential 0. 0°Cm−1 ) at Material: Thermal conductivity = 45 W/m°C.1 V {ϕ θ = 100° C -2 Figure 1. It is assumed that all electrical energy is converted into heat. electrical conductivity = 6.THERMAL-ELECTRICAL SIMPLE LOAD TESTS 1.3. which results in a temperature distribution through the conductor.58E6 1/ Boundary conditions: Zero potential ( 0 V) and zero temperature gradient ( 0 m.38–1 . or current density of 6.58E5 Am {θ = 100° C or = 0.3.58E5 Am−2 is established by creating a potential difference across the ends of the conductor or by prescribing a concentrated current.38 SIMPLE LOAD TESTS FOR THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested DC1D2E DC1D3E DC2D3E DC2D4E DC2D6E DC2D8E DCAX3E DCAX4E DCAX6E DCAX8E DC3D4E DC3D6E DC3D8E DC3D10E DC3D15E Problem description DC3D20E The problem illustrated in Figure 1. y ∂θ -1 ∂x = 0 °Cm ϕ=0V z 1. The electrical energy generated by the ﬂow of current is converted into heat.3.0 m x J = 6.1 V and temperature 100°C.38–1 Model of conductor.58E5 Am−2 and temperature 100°C at 1 m.

energy is now supplied by specifying a prescribed current at 1 m instead of a potential of 0. The exact solution is recovered in most test cases. Results and discussion The tests are composed of three steps.1 V. DC2D6E elements.inp ec26vfsj. the temperature may vary by as much as 3% in the y–z plane for a given x-value. In Step 1 the proper temperature boundary conditions are applied. Therefore.inp ec12vfsj.inp ec34vfsj. DCAX4E elements.inp ec23vfsj. with a maximum deviation of 1.inp ec24vfsj. DC2D4E elements. DCAX6E elements.THERMAL-ELECTRICAL SIMPLE LOAD TESTS Reference solution In this uniaxial problem the exact solution for the temperature is of the form . Step 3 invokes a coupled thermal-electrical procedure in which the same amount of electrical energy as that of Step 1 is provided to the specimen.3. the temperature results are identical to those obtained in Step 1. DC1D3E elements. Step 2 is a heat transfer step in which the conductor is allowed to cool down. . Here again. For ﬁrst-order elements the results are a function of y and z when the mesh generated is skewed in the x–y plane and/or the x–z plane.2.inp ec28vfsj. skewed meshes do not affect the results.inp eca6vfsj. Moreover.38–2 . Input files eca3vfsj.inp ec13vfsj.inp eca8vfsj. 1. where .inp eca4vfsj. and the potential distribution that served as input for Step 1 is retrieved as output in this step. and are real constants. The coupled thermal-electrical procedure is used to obtain the desired temperature distribution across the conductor. DC1D2E elements. DC2D8E elements. For the different test cases studied. DC3D4E elements. DC2D3E elements. DCAX8E elements. However.inp DCAX3E elements. Application of the above material properties and boundary conditions leads to the exact solution where −1462.5% from the exact solution observed with the DC3D6E elements. and the ﬂow of current is obtained by a potential difference between the two ends of the conductor. special care is needed when using triangular and tetrahedral elements. For second-order elements the exact results are obtained since the results are at most a quadratic function of the variable x.

DC3D10E elements.inp ec3kvfsj. DC3D8E elements.inp ec38vfsj.inp ec3fvfsj.THERMAL-ELECTRICAL SIMPLE LOAD TESTS ec36vfsj.38–3 . DC3D20E elements. 1. DC3D15E elements.inp DC3D6E elements.inp ec3avfsj.3.

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39–1. all nodes on this face are constrained to displace equally in 1.3. compressed axially. The two-dimensional ﬂuid block measures 1 × 1 and has unit thickness. The spring resists the horizontal expansion of the ﬂuid.HYDROSTATIC FLUID ELEMENTS 1. In addition. while maintaining the original ﬂuid volume (since the ﬂuid is incompressible). while the three-dimensional ﬂuid block measures 1 × 1 × 1. F fluid K Figure 1. a “block” of incompressible ﬂuid is subjected to a system of loads. In each case a single grounded spring acting in the x-direction is attached to a node on the outermost face of the model perpendicular to the x-direction.3. as shown in Figure 1. The downward force causes the ﬂuid to compress vertically and expand horizontally. No external loading is applied.3.39–1 Loading of ﬂuid elements. The ﬁrst axisymmetric problem is similar: the ﬂuid volume is now a cylinder. In the second axisymmetric problem the pressure inside the ﬂuid is speciﬁed. For the two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases.39 HYDROSTATIC FLUID ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested F2D2 F3D3 F3D4 FAX2 Problem description These analyses test the family of hydrostatic ﬂuid elements. Node 1 is the cavity reference node for the ﬂuid cavity. and the “walls” bounding the ﬂuid are ﬁxed.3.39–1 . thus generating internal pressure in the ﬂuid. with a spring resisting the radial expansion.

4 *FLUID PROPERTY. TYPE=HYDRAULIC 1.39–3 F3D3 element. 1.39–2 F2D2 element. 3.39–2 .3. 2.HYDROSTATIC FLUID ELEMENTS the x-direction. TYPE=F2D2.3. All nodes on this face are constrained to displace equally in the y-direction. 3 2.0 8 4 5 3 7 y 6 1 x 2 z Figure 1. a grounded spring of negligible stiffness acting in the y-direction is attached to a single node on this face to preclude solver problems in the solution. The downward force is applied as a concentrated load to a single node on the uppermost face of the model perpendicular to the y-direction. 4 3 y 1 2 x Figure 1. *ELEMENT. ELSET=CAV1.3. ELSET=CAV1 1. Finally. REFNODE=1.

3. 7. 7. TYPE=HYDRAULIC 8 4 5 3 7 y 6 1 x 2 z Figure 1. 1. In the ﬁrst problem a single grounded spring acting in the r-direction is attached to a node on the outermost face of the model perpendicular to the r-direction. All nodes on this face are additionally constrained to displace equally in the r-direction. TYPE=F3D3. 7. 8. 6 2. ELSET=CAV1 1.HYDROSTATIC FLUID ELEMENTS *ELEMENT. 5. 4. In the second problem all nodes are ﬁxed in space. 8. Finally. and the pressure inside the ﬂuid is speciﬁed at node 1. 8.3. 6. 7 5. ELSET=CAV1 1. 3. 3. REFNODE=1. 5 *FLUID PROPERTY. a grounded spring of negligible stiffness acting in the z-direction is attached to a single node on this face to preclude solver problems in the solution. 7. 4 4. 8 6. ELSET=CAV1. No external force is speciﬁed. TYPE=HYDRAULIC The axisymmetric ﬂuid cylinder has a radius of 1 and a height of 1. 8 *FLUID PROPERTY. 2. 3. Node 1 is the cavity reference node for the ﬂuid cavity. 6. ELSET=CAV1. TYPE=F3D4. 6 3. 2. All nodes on this face are constrained to displace equally in the z-direction.39–4 F3D4 element. 4. 6 2. *ELEMENT. and no springs are used in the model. 6. 7.39–3 . 7 3. The downward force is applied as a concentrated load to a single node on the uppermost face of the model perpendicular to the z-direction.3. 3. REFNODE=1.

3. Results are reported at the end of the step. and 6.39–5 FAX2 element. 1. is constrained to be equal at nodes 3 and 4. Spring: 400. 3.3. is constrained to be equal at nodes 3 and 4. is constrained to be equal at nodes 2. is constrained to be equal at nodes 2 and 3. and 8. and 8. 0 at nodes 2. is constrained to be equal at nodes 3.0 (arbitrary). Axisymmetric boundary conditions—Problem 1: 0 at node 4. 4. is constrained to be equal at nodes 2 and 3. 2. *ELEMENT. and 7. Loading: The concentrated force applied to all models except the second axisymmetric analysis ( −600 at node 4) is ramped linearly from zero to the ﬁnal value of −600 over a single static step. 5. 0 at node 2. 0 at node 2. 1 for the second axisymmetric analysis.39–4 . density = 10. TYPE=HYDRAULIC Material: Fluid: incompressible. and 4. 0 at nodes 2 through 8. 7. 3 2. 0 at nodes 2. 5. REFNODE=1. Axisymmetric boundary conditions—Problem 2: 0 at nodes 2.3. ELSET=CAV1. Three-dimensional boundary conditions: 0 at nodes 4.HYDROSTATIC FLUID ELEMENTS z 4 3 1 2 r Figure 1. ELSET=CAV1 1. TYPE=FAX2. and 4. 3. Two-dimensional boundary conditions: 0 at node 4. 3. 4 *FLUID PROPERTY. 6.

0 −2 − 3 3 Table 1.5919 0.3718 −0.000 1.0 −0.0 0.39–2 Node 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0.5919 0.0 −0.0 0.HYDROSTATIC FLUID ELEMENTS Reference solution Since the ﬂuid is incompressible. PCAV 376. PCAV 376.0 0.0.0 0.3.0 0.3718 −0.3718 F2D2 results.0 0.0 0.9 CVOL 1.5919 0.3. the original ﬂuid volume should be maintained.3.0 −0.5919 0.3718 −0.3718 0.3718 F3D3 results.000 Table 1. For the two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases CVOL = 1.0 RF 0.39–5 .0 0.39–1 Node 1 2 3 4 0.5919 0.5919 0. the reaction forces at the nodes are as follows: Node 2 3 4 Results and discussion RF − − 0.0 0. and for the axisymmetric case CVOL = .0 0.0 CVOL 1.9 0. For the second axisymmetric problem.0 0.

3718 −0.5919 0.0 −0.4711 0.1416 0.39–4 Node 1 2 3 4 0.3718 −0.0 FAX2 results: Problem 1.0 −0.0 0.39–6 .39–3 Node 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0.0 0.inp efa2sxso.3. problem 2.inp F2D2 elements.0472 PCAV 1.4711 0. FAX2 elements.inp ef34sxso. FAX2 elements.0 −0.000 Table 1.0 0. 1. PCAV 88.3718 F3D4 results.0 0.5380 −0.0 0. PCAV 376.3.inp efa2sxsr.0 CVOL 1. RF 0. problem 1.0 0.3.39–5 Node 1 2 3 4 Input files FAX2 results: Problem 2.9 0.3.142 Table 1.1416 −3.5919 0. F3D3 elements.inp ef33sxso.5919 0.0 −2.0 0.142 RF −3.5919 0.0944 −1.0 0.0 CVOL 3. F3D4 elements.0 0.3718 0.HYDROSTATIC FLUID ELEMENTS Table 1.25 0.0 ef22sxso.0 0.5380 CVOL 3.

3.0 1. Nodes 13 and 14 are also constrained to displace equally in the y-direction.40–1 .3.FLUID LINK ELEMENT 1. as shown in Figure 1. I.0 10 1.3 of the Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual. Material: Fluid: incompressible.” Section 29. Finally.40 FLUID LINK ELEMENT Product: Abaqus/Standard Features tested This section provides basic veriﬁcation tests for the ﬂuid link element.0 0.0 2. Each vessel is modeled using a two-dimensional ﬂuid block that measures 1 × 1 with unit thickness. The other vessel is always maintained at zero pressure.0 (arbitrary). The difference in pressures between the two vessels causes ﬂuid to be transferred.3.3.001 0. The downward force on the ﬁrst ﬂuid cavity is applied as a concentrated load to node 4 in the y-direction.40–1. density = 10.0 0. Two analyses are performed to verify the ﬂuid transfer rate between the two vessels using either of the options available for the speciﬁcation of the mass ﬂow rate: TYPE=FUNCTION and TYPE=TABULAR. Nodes 3 and 4 are constrained to displace equally in the y-direction. To capture the nonlinear 1. One of the vessels is subjected to internal pressure by applying a load F.0 2. grounded springs of very small stiffness acting in the y-direction are attached to nodes 4 and 14 to preclude solver problems in the solution.0 0. Nodes 1 and 11 are the cavity reference nodes for the two ﬂuid cavities. Fluid link: TYPE=FUNCTION Field variable 10 1. and the values of and in the above table. as shown in Figure 1.001 10 100 10 100 1.0 The data used for the TYPE=TABULAR analysis was computed using the implicit functional relationship between q and discussed in “Fluid link elements. CONNECTED FLUID CAVITIES Elements tested FLINK F2D2 Problem description A ﬂuid link element is used to transfer ﬂuid between two vessels ﬁlled with incompressible ﬂuid.40–2.8.

683 PCAV 2.0 100.17 PCAV 100. The pressure in the ﬁrst cavity should always be 100.e. The third step is a dummy perturbation step.778 0. the pressure in the second cavity is not zero.18E−7 CVOL 1.32 eﬂ2sfsp. TYPE=FUNCTION.0 TYPE=TABULAR Step 1 2 4 Input files CVOL 0.00 2.0 100. Reference solution Since the ﬂuid is incompressible. TYPE=FUNCTION Step 1 2 4 MFL 10. Results and discussion The results for TYPE=FUNCTION and TYPE=TABULAR analyses compare quite well with one another.22 1.683 PCAV 2.4 MFLT 2. i.8 95. respectively. 1. F2D2 elements.01.22E−7 3.22 3. the total ﬂuid volume should be maintained.00E−7 2.0 31.0 CVOL 0.inp F2D2 elements. TYPE=TABULAR option for various combinations of and the one ﬁeld variable.0.22 1.22E−7 3.3.00 2.inp eﬂ2stsp. In the ﬁrst step the temperature and the ﬁeld variable are held ﬁxed at 10 and 1.17E−7 CVOL 1.18 PCAV 100. This step is included to verify that an intermittent perturbation step has no effect on the subsequent general step.20 1.20 1.00E−7 2.778 0. Loading: The concentrated force of 100 units is applied instantaneously over all static steps.3 95.FLUID LINK ELEMENT relationship between q and accurately.01.32 MFL 10.0 100.0 100.40–2 . Because of the presence of grounded springs of very small stiffness. with the ﬁeld variable instantaneously changed to 2 for a time period of 0. for a time period of 0. In the fourth step the temperature is held ﬁxed at 100. Results are reported at the end of each general step.800 0.800 0. while the ﬁeld variable remains ﬁxed at 1. The agreement between the two models could be further improved by reﬁning the tabular data for the TYPE=TABULAR model to better represent the nonlinear relationship between q and as deﬁned by the TYPE=FUNCTION model.4 MFLT 2.22 3. TYPE=TABULAR. CVOL=2.0 30. In the second step the temperature is ramped from 10 to 100 for a time period of 0.. 33 values of q were included in the data lines of the *FLUID LINK.20.

FLUID LINK ELEMENT F 1.0 1.3.40–3 .40–2 Fluid link model.0 1.0 fluid fluid 1.3. 1.0 Figure 1. 4 3 14 13 y x 1 2 11 12 fluid link Figure 1.40–1 Fluid link analysis.3.

. and the system comes to rest. It is clear that Abaqus is accurately modeling the ﬂuid cavity response. 13 and 14 is absent.40–3. It is a simple exercise to show that with a single ﬂuid link element and ﬁxed temperature the change . Two models are considered. Results and discussion A comparison of the Abaqus results for the cavity pressure (pressure at node 1) to exact solutions for both the hydraulic and pneumatic ﬂuids is shown in Figure 1. Node 11 is connected to the ﬂuid link element but not to a ﬂuid cavity. the reference gauge pressure. A grounded spring of unit stiffness acting in the y-direction is attached to node 4. Input files onecav_hydr. hydraulic ﬂuid.40–2 except that the cavity deﬁned by nodes 12.4. in which case the change in mass is simply . In Step 2 the ﬂuid ﬂux loading is removed and the pressure at node 11 is held at its value at the end of step one using the *BOUNDARY. 1. SINGLE FLUID CAVITY WITH A FLUID LINK ELEMENT Elements tested FLINK F2D2 Problem description A ﬂuid link element with one end connected and the other end free is used to transfer ﬂuid to a single ﬂuid cavity.40–4 .3. The ﬂuid link is deﬁned using the TYPE=FUNCTION parameter with =0. See “Hydrostatic ﬂuid models. In Step 1 a constant mass ﬂow rate of 10 is applied to node 11 on the ﬂuid link element using the *FLUID FLUX option. one with an incompressible hydraulic ﬂuid and the other with a compressible pneumatic ﬂuid. . in Step 4 all pressure boundary conditions are removed.3. is set to 10. .FLUID LINK ELEMENT II. FIXED option. for details. is set to 10. Loading: Four steps are used in the analyses. F2D2 elements.inp F2D2 elements. In Step 3 the pressure at node 11 is ramped up to 5. For the pneumatic ﬂuid the ambient pressure. and the reference ﬂuid density. Node 1 is the cavity reference node for the ﬂuid cavity. Finally. For an incompressible hydraulic ﬂuid . Nodes 3 and 4 are constrained to displace equally in the y-direction.” Section 23.3. The hydraulic ﬂuid is given an arbitrary ﬂuid density of . is set to 0.inp onecav_pneu. where is the initial volume of the in mass in the ﬂuid cavity is given by ﬂuid cavity and is the change in volume of the ﬂuid cavity with respect to .1 and =0. The model in this example is identical to the model shown in Figure 1.1 of the Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual. The vessel is modeled using a two-dimensional ﬂuid block that measures 1 × 1 with unit thickness. pneumatic ﬂuid.

3.40–3 Cavity pressure.3.40–5 .FLUID LINK ELEMENT hydraulic hydraulic pneumatic pneumatic (ABAQUS) (exact) (ABAQUS) (exact) Figure 1. 1.

.

In Abaqus/Standard the problem is modeled with 10 DC2D4 elements of dimension 0.41–1 . The results obtained with Abaqus/Explicit are in close agreement with those obtained with Abaqus/Standard. Only one coupled thermal shell element is used.01. A ﬁlm condition and sink temperature are imposed on the top surface. The ﬁlm condition is applied on one face of the shell. 100(1 + t/3600). and the shell’s thickness represents the length of the model.01 × 0. Problem description An inﬁnite plate of width 0.1 unit and thickness 1 unit is considered. In Abaqus/Explicit two-dimensional (plane strain and plane stress) elements are used to model the plate: 10 elements are used through the width of the plate when using CPE4RT and CPS4RT elements. initial temperature.02 . and the transient solution to the heat transfer problem is sought. and a large number of temperature points are considered through the thickness (19 points. 0. A zero ﬂux boundary condition is imposed on all of the surfaces except the top surface. 1. 7800. which is the maximum allowable temperature points. The problem is also modeled using S4RT elements in Abaqus/Explicit. speciﬁc heat. density.3. Results and discussion The transient solution at 3600 units is plotted for all four cases. In Abaqus/Explicit dummy mechanical properties are prescribed to complete the material deﬁnition. 260.FILM CONDITION 1. sink temperature.3. ﬁlm coefﬁcient.41 TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT FILM CONDITION Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit CPE3T CPE4RT CPS3T CPS4RT DC2D4 S4RT Features tested Temperature-dependent ﬁlm conditions.f FORTRAN program to compute the ﬁnite difference solution to the differential equation 1. the ﬁnite difference solution is plotted as a solid line.4. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files ec24dfd1. while 20 elements are used when using CPE3T and CPS3T elements. 10 + 0.) Material: Thermal conductivity. and the three ﬁnite element results as markers at the centroid of the elements.

inp ec24dfd3.inp with surface-based loads. S4RT elements.inp. User subroutine UFIELD used in ec24dfd4.inp with surface-based loads.inp with surface-based loads. Same as problem ec24dfd3. Finite element model with temperature dependent ﬁlm condition prescribed through user subroutine FILM.inp ec24dfd3. User subroutine FILM used in ec24dfd6. User subroutine FILM used in ec24dfd3.inp. 1. CPS3T elements. tempdepﬁlm_xpl_cpe3t. Same as problem ec24dfd2.inp ec24dfd4. User subroutine UFIELD used in ec24dfd7.inp CPE3T elements.FILM CONDITION ec24dfd2.inp tempdepﬁlm_xpl_s4rt.inp ec24dfd7. The solution is computed at 101 points through the width of the plate at time steps of 0. CPE4RT elements. Finite element model of the problem as described above.inp ec24dfd6.inp.f ec24dfd7.inp tempdepﬁlm_xpl_cps3t. Same as problem ec24dfd4.f ec24dfd4.41–2 .f Abaqus/Explicit input files with appropriate boundary conditions for the ﬁlm and sink conditions.inp. CPS4RT elements.inp ec24dfd6.inp tempdepﬁlm_xpl_cps4rt.3.f ec24dfd5. Finite element model where the ﬁlm condition is changed using a ﬁeld variable which is prescribed through user subroutine UFIELD.inp tempdepﬁlm_xpl_cpe4rt.01 units.

10 Figure 1.41–3 .06 0.41–1 Finite element model and temperature proﬁle (Abaqus/Standard).FILM CONDITION FILM CONDITION 60.04 Y 0. 50. T-FDIFF T-FELEM T-UFILM T-FVARS 40. 2 3 1 0. 0.00 0.02 0.08 0.3. 20.3. 10. 1. TEMPERATURE 30.

.

1.3.PRESSURE PENETRATION 1.3. Problem description y 10 11 12 13 12 14 15 16 17 18 1 1 x Figure 1.42–1 .42–1 Contact between a deformable surface and a rigid surface.3.42 SURFACE-BASED PRESSURE PENETRATION Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested CPE4 CPE8 CAX4 CAX8 SAX1 SAX2 Features tested Contact between a deformable body and a rigid surface and contact between two deformable surfaces exposed to a ﬂuid pressure at both ends of the surfaces are tested through the use of the *PRESSURE PENETRATION option.

3.3. Material: Young’s modulus = 1 × 105 . the nodes at 0 in Figure 1. Poisson’s ratio = 0.42–2 .3. Boundary conditions: The rigid surface is constrained in all degrees of freedom.42–3 are constrained in all degrees of freedom.PRESSURE PENETRATION y 10 11 12 13 12 14 15 16 17 18 2 x Figure 1.42–2: 1.42–2 and the nodes at 0 in Figure 1. Loading: For the models illustrated in Figure 1.42–1 and Figure 1.3.42–3 Contact between two deformable surfaces with nonmatching meshes.3.3. y 10 2 2 12 x 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Figure 1.3.42–2 Contact between two deformable surfaces with matching meshes.3. When the contact between two deformable surfaces is considered.

inp eia3srs3_ppen. is the pressure at the element containing node 14. For the model illustrated in Figure 1.inp eia2srs3_ppen.3. CAX8 elements.inp eia3srs2_ppen. CPE8 elements. CAX8 elements. SAX2 elements with elements.42–3 . CAX4 elements with elements. When shell elements are used. a rigid body created from MAX1 a rigid body created from MAX1 a rigid body created from MAX1 a rigid body created from SAX1 a rigid body created from SAX1 1. . 14. and d is the distance measured from node 14. of 550. Results and discussion The contact pressure and the ﬂuid pressure at each slave node on the contacting surfaces are output. and is the distance measured from node 14 to the center of an element. is applied in the negative y-direction on the surface 0 and 12. . Step 3: Increase the magnitudes of the ﬂuid pressure to 650 from 550 and to 900 from 800. respectively. CAX8 elements with elements.PRESSURE PENETRATION Step 1: A nonuniform displacement. Input files Deformable surface in contact with a rigid surface: ei22srs1_ppen.inp ei23srs1_ppen. SAX1 elements.0. SAX2 elements.0 at both ends.inp eia2srs4_ppen. is exposed to a ﬂuid pressure with a magnitude of 800. CAX4 elements. .inp eia3srs4_ppen.3. is applied in the negative x-direction on the surface of 2. CAX8 elements with elements.inp CPE4 elements.inp eia3srs1_ppen. at both ends.42–3: Step 1: A nonuniform displacement.0.inp eia2srs1_ppen. a nonuniform pressure. 2.0 when solid elements are used. SAX1 elements with elements.0) are exposed to a ﬂuid pressure Step 3: Increase the ﬂuid pressure to 900. Step 2: Two ends of the contacting surfaces ( with a magnitude of 800. is applied on the surface of 2.0.inp eia3srs3_ppen_auglagr. of 2.inp eia3srs1_ppen_auglagr. and the other end. is the displacement at node 14.inp eia2srs2_ppen. is exposed to a ﬂuid pressure with a magnitude Step 2: One end of the contacting surfaces.

inp eia2sss4_ppen. Two deformable surfaces with nonmatching meshes in contact with each other: ei22sss2_ppen. CAX4 elements.inp ei23sss1_ppen_auglagr. SAX1 elements.42–4 .inp eia2sss2_ppen. 1. SAX1 and CAX4 elements.inp ei23sss1_ppen.inp CPE4 elements.inp CPE4 elements.PRESSURE PENETRATION Two deformable surfaces with matching meshes in contact with each other: ei22sss1_ppen.3.inp eia2sss1_ppen. CAX4 elements.inp eia2sss3_ppen. CPE8 elements. CPE8 elements.

Elements that have only one displacement degree of freedom at their nodes consider the thickness-direction behavior only. These models are used with or without any initial gap. and transverse shear). Abaqus provides an alternative way for the user to model such behavior by specifying either a built-in or user-deﬁned material model with the *MATERIAL option. and elastic-plastic with low initial stiffness so that initial yield occurs further along the initial loading curve. elastic-plastic with high initial stiffness so that yield occurs at the second data point given along the initial loading curve.43–1 . This uncoupled pressure-closure behavior is speciﬁed with the suboptions of the *GASKET BEHAVIOR option. Gasket elements with all displacement degrees of freedom active at their nodes are used to model all three types of behavior (thickness-direction. These gasket behavior models are separate from the models in the material library. The thickness-direction behavior is deﬁned in terms of stress in most cases but is deﬁned as force or force per unit length whenever it is appropriate for the element type. which is uncoupled from the transverse shear and membrane behavior. They are designed primarily to provide appropriate pressure-closure behavior in the thickness direction. Membrane behavior and transverse shear behavior are modeled as linear elastic. For some gasket behaviors that are not addressed readily by these special behavior models.3.GASKET ELEMENTS 1. or stresses) are obtained properly from the generalized strains through the constitutive relations for the different types of behavior. membrane. Thermal expansion is also considered along the thickness direction of the gasket with or without an initial void. 1. Analyses are performed to verify that the generalized strains (displacements and strains) in the gaskets are obtained properly from the nodal displacements and that the generalized stresses (forces. Thermal expansion is also considered for the membrane response.43 GASKET BEHAVIOR VERIFICATION Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested GKPE4 GK2D2 GKAX4 GK3D2 GK3D8 GKPE6 GKPS4 GKPS4N GKPS6 GKPS6N GK2D2N GKAX4N GKAX6 GKAX6N GK3D2N GK3D4L GK3D4LN GK3D6 GK3D6L GK3D6LN GK3D8N GK3D12M GK3D12MN GK3D18 GK3D18N GK3D6N Problem description Gasket elements are used to model sealing components between structural members. Behavior The element tests included in this section cover three different types of model behavior in the thickness direction: elastic with damage. Rate-dependent (creep) effects through the thickness of the gasket may be added to the elastic-plastic model. such as coupled compression-membrane behaviors or through-thickness tensile behavior.3. forces per unit length.

Results and discussion The results are obtained at the end of each step in terms of generalized stresses. The tests performed along the thickness direction of the gasket involve.43–2 .GASKET ELEMENTS Some tests involving viscoelastic effects (in the frequency domain) in conjunction with the elastic or elastic-damage models have also been included. GKPS4 elements. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE. 1. The initial geometry may or may not be aligned with the global axes. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE. Corresponding solid elements are included in the tests to facilitate the comparison of solutions. and uniform extension or compression of the gasket membrane. These tests model the frequency-dependent stiffness and damping characteristics of gaskets for different levels (as measured by closure) of preload. The tests also include thermal loading in the gasket membrane and/or gasket thickness direction. Loading history The different tests include compression along the thickness direction of the gasket. Input files ege4gcxx. When gasket elements with thickness-direction-only behavior are used. Field expansion is also tested for a 2–node two-dimensional gasket.inp Linear perturbation analysis: eg22nlxp. The tests are displacement. quasi-static analysis with creep. in most cases. GK2D2N elements. Model Each model contains a set of 1 to 4 gasket elements of the same type. shearing of the top surface of the gasket with respect to its bottom surface (whenever possible).inp GKPE4 elements.or load-controlled through direct control of the gasket element’s nodes or through a contact pair that involves the gasket and a rigid component compressing the gasket. The tests involving the modeling of viscoelastic behavior consist of steady-state harmonic oscillations at different excitation frequencies about base states that involve different levels of closure. a series of loading and unloading steps to verify that the user-prescribed loading and unloading curves are followed properly and that interpolation between user-speciﬁed unloading curves is done correctly. reaction forces. generalized strains. the model may also contain a rigid element that is used to control the loading of the gasket. The material properties for the tests involving viscoelastic behavior include speciﬁcation of storage and loss moduli as functions of excitation frequency and level of preload (closure). These tests are displacement controlled. Only thickness-direction viscoelastic behavior is modeled in these cases.3. and nodal displacements.inp egs4gdxp. The results obtained in each test match the results obtained by hand calculations. The tests for the gasket elements using suboptions of the *MATERIAL option are elastic-plastic creep analyses.

GKPS4 elements. User subroutine UVARM used in ega6nhxu. GKAX6 elements. GK3D18 elements.inp ega6nhxv.GASKET ELEMENTS Generation of missing nodes: eg3rgdxm.inp egl4glxv.inp egl6ghxy.inp egl6ghxu.inp egs4gdxs. GK3D6LN elements.inp Dependency on ﬁeld variable and temperature: ega4glxv.3.f ega6nhxu. GK3D4LN elements. GK3D18 elements. GK3D4L elements.inp egl6nhxv.inp eg3rnhxm. GKAX6N elements.43–3 . GK3D4L elements.inp Solid element numbering: eg3agdxs. GK3D4L elements.inp ega4glxu. elastic-plastic (high stiffness). GK3D4LN elements. GKAX4 elements. GK3D6L elements. User subroutine UVARM used in ega4glxu.inp ega6glxv.inp egl4glxu.f Yield option: ega4glxy. GKAX6N elements. GK3D6L elements. GKAX6N elements.inp eg3rndxm. GK3D6L elements.inp egl4nhxv.f egl4glxu. GKAX4 elements. GKAX6 elements. GK3D12M elements.inp egl6nhxy. GKAX4N elements.inp ega6nhxu. GK3D18N elements. GK3D18N elements.inp.inp egs6gdxs.inp egl4nhxy.inp ega4nhxy. elastic with damage.inp. initial 1.inp ega6glxy.inp. GKPS6 elements. User subroutine UVARM used in egl6ghxu.inp User subroutine UVARM: ega4glxu. User subroutine UVARM used in egl4glxu.inp GKAX4 elements. GK3D6LN elements.f egl6ghxu.inp eg3rgdxs.inp ega6nhxy.inp egl4glxy.inp.inp egl6ghxv.

inp egl6ghxl.inp eg22glxd.inp egl6gdxl. GK2D2 elements. GK3D2 elements. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness).inp ege4ghxl.43–4 . elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness). elastic-plastic with creep.inp GK2D2 elements. elastic-plastic (low initial stiffness). elastic with damage. elastic with damage. GKAX2 elements. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness). GKPS4 elements.inp eg32glxl. GKAX6 elements. GK3D6L elements. GK3D18 elements.inp eg36gdxz.inp ega4glxz. elastic with damage.inp egl4gdxz.inp eg36glxd.inp Static analysis with load control: eg32gdxl. elastic-plastic (low initial stiffness).inp egl4gcxz.inp eg3rghxl. GK3D4L elements.inp egs4gdxl. GK3D6L elements.inp egl6ghxz. elastic-plastic (low initial stiffness). GK3D6 elements.inp egl4nhxz.inp ega6glxz. elastic with damage. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness). elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness). elastic with damage. elastic-plastic with creep. GKAX6N elements.3. GK3D6 elements. GK3D6LN elements. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness). GKPE4 elements. GKAX4 elements. elastic with damage. GK3D4L elements.inp eg3rgdxl. GKPE4 elements. GK3D12M elements. elastic with damage.inp eg22gdxz.inp ega4gdxl. elastic with damage.inp ega2gcxz. GK3D2 elements.inp Static analysis with displacement control: eg22gdxd. 1. GK3D4L elements. GKPE4 elements. GK3D6 elements.inp eg38ghxl.inp ega6nhxz. GKAX4 elements. GK2D2 elements.inp eg38gdxl. elastic with damage.inp eg3agdxd. GK3D8 elements. GKAX4N elements. GK3D6 elements. elastic-plastic (low initial stiffness).inp egl6nhxz. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness).inp egl4glxz. elastic with damage.inp egs4ghxl. GKPS4 elements.GASKET ELEMENTS Slope drop option: eg22gcxz. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness). elastic with damage. GK3D18 elements. elastic-plastic (low initial stiffness). GKAX4 elements.inp ege4gdxz. elastic with damage. elastic-plastic with creep. GK3D6L elements. GK3D8 elements.inp ege4gdxl.inp eg36gcxz. GK2D2 elements. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness).inp eg36gdxd. GK3D4LN elements. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness).inp ega4glxl. elastic with damage.inp ega4nhxz. elastic with damage. elastic-plastic (low initial stiffness). elastic-plastic (low initial stiffness). elastic-plastic with creep.

elastic with damage. elastic with damage. elastic with damage.43–5 . GK3D6LN elements.inp ega4ndxk. GK3D8N elements. Static analysis with load control enforced through a contact pair: eg24ndxk. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness). GK3D12MN elements. elastic with damage.inp eg22nhxc. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness). GKPS4N elements.inp eg3andxc_auglagr.inp GK3D12M elements. GK3D8N elements.inp ega6gdxd.inp eg3anlxc. GKAX6 elements. elastic-plastic (low initial stiffness). elastic-plastic (low initial stiffness). GK3D6LN elements. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness). augmented Lagrangian contact model.inp eg3rnhxk. GK3D2N elements. elastic with damage.inp eg36ndxc.inp ega4nhxk. elastic with damage. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness). elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness).inp egs6glxd. GKPS6 elements.GASKET ELEMENTS eg3aglxd. GKAX6 elements.inp egl4gdxd. elastic with damage.3. GK3D6N elements. GK2D2N elements.inp egl6nhxk.inp eg3rndxk.inp ege6gdxd. GK3D4L elements. GK3D8N elements. GKPS6 elements.inp GKPS4N elements. elastic with damage.inp eg26ndxc.inp ege6ghxd. GK3D4L elements. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness). GKAX4N elements.inp eg38nhxk. GKAX4N elements.inp egs6gdxd. GKPS6N elements.inp egl6ndxk. GK3D6N elements. GK3D12MN elements. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness). elastic with damage. elastic with damage. GK3D2N elements. Static analysis with displacement control enforced through a contact pair: eg22ndxc. augmented Lagrangian contact model. GK3D12MN elements. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness). elastic with damage. GKPE6 elements. GKPS6N elements. elastic-plastic (low initial stiffness).inp GK2D2N elements.inp egl4glxd.inp eg3andxc.inp eg38ndxk. elastic with damage. 1. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness).inp eg38nhxk_auglagr.inp eg26nhxc.inp eg32nhxk.inp eg24nhxk. elastic-plastic (low initial stiffness). GK3D18N elements. elastic with damage. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness).inp eg32ndxk.inp eg36nhxc.inp ega6glxd. GKPE6 elements. elastic with damage. elastic-plastic (low initial stiffness). elastic with damage. GK3D18N elements. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness).

inp gasket3d_visc1_str. Two-dimensional gasket elements. elastic with damage. elastic with damage and viscoelastic (deﬁned directly in terms of storage and loss moduli).inp gasket3d_visc2_str. elastic with damage and viscoelastic (deﬁned in terms of storage and loss moduli ratios). Three-dimensional gasket elements. elastic with damage and viscoelastic (deﬁned in terms of storage and loss moduli ratios). elastic with damage and viscoelastic (deﬁned in terms of storage and loss moduli ratios). GK3D4LN elements. elastic with damage and viscoelastic (deﬁned directly in terms of storage and loss moduli). elastic with damage and viscoelastic (deﬁned directly in terms of storage and loss moduli).inp ega6nhxc. Three-dimensional line gasket elements. elastic with damage and viscoelastic (deﬁned in terms of storage and loss moduli ratios).inp gasketlink2d_visc1_force.inp ega6ndxc. GK3D4LN elements.inp gasketlink3d_visc1_force.inp Two-dimensional gasket elements.inp gasketaxi_visc1_str. GKAX6N elements. elastic with damage and viscoelastic (deﬁned in terms of storage and loss moduli ratios). gasket2d_visc2_str. augmented Lagrangian contact model.inp gasketlink2d_visc2_force. Two-dimensional link gasket elements. Two-dimensional link gasket elements. elastic with damage and viscoelastic (deﬁned directly in terms of storage and loss moduli). Axisymmetric gasket elements. Axisymmetric gasket elements. elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness). Three-dimensional link gasket elements.43–6 . elastic-plastic (high initial stiffness).inp gasketline3d_visc1_force. GKAX6N elements.inp egl4nhxc. Steady-state dynamic analysis with displacement control about different preloaded base states: gasket2d_visc1_str. Three-dimensional gasket elements. elastic with damage and viscoelastic (deﬁned in terms of storage and loss moduli ratios). elastic-plastic (low initial stiffness).inp egl4ndxc.GASKET ELEMENTS eg3anlxc_auglagr.inp 1. elastic with damage.inp gasketaxi_visc2_str. Three-dimensional line gasket elements.inp GK3D12MN elements. elastic with damage and viscoelastic (deﬁned directly in terms of storage and loss moduli).inp gasketline3d_visc2_force.3.

GASKET ELEMENTS gasketlink3d_visc2_force.43–7 . Field expansion test: ﬁeldexp-gasket.inp Fully constrained GK2D2 element including ﬁeld expansion in the thickness-direction behavior.inp gasketlinkaxi_visc2_force. The ﬁeld expansion is driven by two different ﬁeld variables.3.inp gasketlinkaxi_visc1_force. Both general static and linear perturbation steps are tested. elastic with damage and viscoelastic (deﬁned directly in terms of storage and loss moduli). elastic with damage and viscoelastic (deﬁned in terms of storage and loss moduli ratios).inp Three-dimensional link gasket elements. Axisymmetric link gasket elements. 1. Axisymmetric link gasket elements. elastic with damage and viscoelastic (deﬁned directly in terms of storage and loss moduli).

.

The outer cylinder is subjected to a pressure of 300 MPa on the outer surface. for any gasket element the surface closest to the cylindrical axis represents the bottom surface and the farthest surface represents the top surface. Therefore. Using symmetry conditions.44–1 .3. The gasket is modeled either as a singleor two-layer gasket. a quarter of the geometry is modeled. or a three-dimensional problem. TIE and PIN 1. whereas the outer cylindrical tube has an inner radius of 25 mm and an outer radius of 50 mm.GASKET ELEMENTS 1.44 GASKET ELEMENT ASSEMBLY Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested GKPE4 GKPE6 GKPS4 GKPS4N GKPS6 GKPS6N GK3D6 GK3D6N GK3D8 GK3D8N GK3D12M GK3D12MN Problem description GK3D18 GK3D18N The different methods for joining gaskets to the remainder of the mesh are tested in this section. A 1 mm thick cylindrical gasket. 10 14 1 25 The problem is modeled either as a plane strain problem. a plane stress problem. A unit-thickness slice is modeled in all cases. gasket P = 300 MPa. The inner cylindrical tube has an inner radius of 10 mm and an outer radius of 24 mm. is considered. sandwiched between two coaxial cylindrical tubes. The thickness direction of all gasket elements is the positive radial direction. The thickness direction is speciﬁed using the *NORMAL option at the symmetry planes. The gasket is joined to the rest of the model by using shared nodes.3.

SOLID ELEMENT NUMBERING. For example.inp eg38gdxf. GK3D18N elements. Poisson’s ratio = 0. GKPS6 elements. GK3D18N elements. generation of missing nodes. whereas C3D20R and GK3D18N are used with contact pairs. GKPE6 elements. GK3D6N elements.inp eg3rndxf. GKPS4N elements.002 mm. element types C3D27R and GK3D18 are used with shared nodes. GKPS4 elements. the pressure is 400 MPa for a closure of 0. GKPS4 elements. Results and discussion The generalized strains in the gasket elements are consistent with the displacements of their top and bottom surfaces. GK3D18 elements. generation of missing nodes. Depending on the type of gasket elements used and the method used to join them to the cylindrical tubes. the input ﬁles demonstrate the use of general and tied contact conditions. GK3D12MN elements.inp ege6gdxf. The membrane behavior of the gasket has the same Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio as the cylindrical tubes.inp GKPE4 elements. GKPS6 elements.inp eg3agdxf. or contact pairs with no friction. GK3D8N elements.3. Material: Cylindrical tubes: Young’s modulus = 2.inp eg24ndxf. GK3D18 elements. SOLID ELEMENT NUMBERING. 1.inp eg3rgdxs.3. SOLID ELEMENT NUMBERING. for a gasket of unit thickness. and the generalized stresses are obtained correctly from the generalized strains through the speciﬁed gasket behavior. When contact pairs are used. The *ORIENTATION option is used to specify the local 2 and 3 directions for all three-dimensional gasket elements. Different element types are used to model the tubes and the gasket.inp eg3rndxm.inp eg3rgdxm.inp eg26ndxf. GK3D18 elements. Input files ege4gdxf.0 × 105 MPa. GK3D12M elements. Gasket: The thickness-direction behavior is linear elastic such that. the membrane behavior may or may not be used.inp egs6gdxs.inp eg3rgdxf.inp egs4gdxf. GK3D12M elements.GASKET ELEMENTS MPCs. GKPS6N elements.inp egs4gdxs.inp eg3andxf.inp eg36ndxf. SOLID ELEMENT NUMBERING.inp eg38ndxf.inp egs6gdxf.inp eg3agdxs. and suitable methods are chosen to join the two materials. GK3D8 elements.inp eg36gdxf.44–2 . GK3D6 elements. The damage model with no unloading curve is used to specify this behavior. No mesh convergence studies of the solution have been performed.

I. E F 1 H G A B 1 D 1 2 C 1 3 1.3.45 COHESIVE ELEMENTS Products: Abaqus/Standard Features tested Abaqus/Explicit This section provides veriﬁcation for the following options: *COHESIVE SECTION *DAMAGE INITIATION *DAMAGE EVOLUTION The pressure continuity is also veriﬁed for the undamaged pore pressure cohesive elements in Abaqus/Standard.45–1 . RESPONSE=CONTINUUM *COHESIVE SECTION.3. RESPONSE=GASKET *COHESIVE SECTION. ELEMENT KINEMATICS Elements tested COH3D8 COH3D6 COH2D4 COHAX4 Problem description The following three types of constitutive response for cohesive elements are veriﬁed in this test: *COHESIVE SECTION. RESPONSE=TRACTION SEPARATION Each response is veriﬁed for deformation in pure normal and two pure shear modes (one shear mode for two-dimensional and axisymmetric elements) by applying appropriate displacement boundary conditions.COHESIVE ELEMENTS 1.

inp lk_coh2d4_co_stack1_std.inp lk_coh2d4_gk_stack1_std.0 Pure shear in the second shear direction: = = = = = = = 1. TRACTION SEPARATION response for COH2D4. STACK DIRECTION option. CONTINUUM response for COH2D4.inp lk_coh3d6_ts_std. The thickness direction for the elements is set to the global 1-direction using the *COHESIVE SECTION.3. Material: The response of cohesive elements is tested for the following material models: • • • • • Linear elastic (*ELASTIC) Hyperelastic (*HYPERELASTIC) Hyperfoam (*HYPERFOAM) Mises plasticity (*PLASTIC) Drucker-Prager plasticity (*DRUCKER PRAGER) Boundary conditions: Pure normal mode: = = = = = = = 1.inp lk_coh3d6_gk_std. 1. TRACTION SEPARATION response for COH3D6.inp lk_coh3d6_co_std.inp lk_cohax4_ts_stack1_std. GASKET response for COH2D4.0 for each case. GASKET response for COH3D8.inp TRACTION SEPARATION response for COH3D8.0 =−1. for which the thickness direction is set to the default direction.0 Pure shear in the first shear direction: = = = = = = = 1. CONTINUUM response for COH3D6. GASKET response for COH3D6.0 =−1.inp lk_coh3d8_co_stack1_std. except for COH3D6. Results and discussion The response of the cohesive elements matches the analytical results.COHESIVE ELEMENTS Model: This test comprises single-element models.45–2 . the geometry of which is deﬁned so that the initial thickness is 1. TRACTION SEPARATION response for COHAX4.0 All degrees of freedom other than those listed above are ﬁxed.0 =−1.inp lk_coh2d4_ts_stack1_std.inp lk_coh3d8_gk_stack1_std. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files lk_coh3d8_ts_stack1_std. CONTINUUM response for COH3D8.

COH2D4. COH3D6.inp coh_transshear_std. COHAX4 with Drucker-Prager plasticity. COH2D4. COHAX4 with hyperelasticity. COH3D6. COH3D6. COHAX4 with hyperfoam material. CONTINUUM response for COHAX4. COH2D4.inp lk_coh3d8_gk_stack1_xpl. COHAX4 with hyperelasticity. GASKET response for COH3D8. GASKET response for COH3D8.inp lk_coh2d4_co_stack1_xpl.inp lk_coh3d6_co_xpl. COH2D4. CONTINUUM response for COH3D6.inp coh_co_hyper_std. COH3D8.inp lk_cohax4_gk_stack1_std. COHAX4 with hyperfoam material.inp TRACTION SEPARATION response for COH3D8. CONTINUUM response for COH3D8.inp lk_cohax4_ts_stack1_xpl.inp lk_coh2d4_gk_stack1_xpl. COH2D4. 1. TRACTION SEPARATION response for COH3D6. COH2D4.inp CONTINUUM response for COHAX4. CONTINUUM response for COH3D8. COHAX4 with uncoupled transverse shear stiffness speciﬁed using the *TRANSVERSE SHEAR STIFFNESS option.45–3 . COH3D6. COH2D4.inp coh_gk_hyperfoam_xpl. GASKET response for COHAX4. COH2D4. CONTINUUM response for COH3D8. COHAX4 with hyperfoam material. COH3D6. GASKET response for COH3D8.inp coh_co_dp_std. COH2D4. COH2D4.inp lk_coh3d6_ts_xpl.inp lk_coh3d6_gk_xpl. COHAX4 with Mises plasticity.inp lk_cohax4_gk_stack1_xpl. COH3D6. COHAX4 with hyperfoam material.inp coh_gk_mises_std.inp coh_gk_hyper_std.3. COH3D6.COHESIVE ELEMENTS lk_cohax4_co_stack1_std. Abaqus/Explicit input files lk_coh3d8_ts_stack1_xpl. COHAX4 with Mises plasticity. COHAX4 with hyperelasticity.inp lk_coh3d8_co_stack1_xpl. COH3D6. GASKET response for COH3D8. COH3D6. CONTINUUM response for COH2D4. TRACTION SEPARATION response for COHAX4. CONTINUUM response for COH3D8.inp coh_co_hyper_xpl.inp coh_co_hyperfoam_std.inp coh_co_hyperfoam_xpl. CONTINUUM response for COH3D8. GASKET response for COH3D8. CONTINUUM response for COH3D8. COH2D4.inp coh_gk_hyperfoam_std.inp lk_coh2d4_ts_stack1_xpl. GASKET response for COH2D4. COH3D6. COH3D6. GASKET response for COH3D6. COHAX4 with hyperelasticity.inp coh_co_mises_std. COH2D4. GASKET response for COH3D8. GASKET response for COHAX4. TRACTION SEPARATION response for COH2D4. COH3D6. CONTINUUM response for COH3D8.inp coh_gk_hyper_xpl.inp lk_cohax4_co_stack1_xpl.

COH3D6. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COH3D8.45–4 .inp coh3d8_qds_damdisp_softlin_std. COHAX4 with uncoupled transverse shear stiffness speciﬁed using the *TRANSVERSE SHEAR STIFFNESS option. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D8. and tabular softening laws are deﬁned to specify the nature of the evolution of the damage variable. COH2D4. Each damage model is veriﬁed for damage in pure normal and two pure shear modes (one shear mode for two-dimensional and axisymmetric elements). QUADS damage initiation.inp coh3d8_qds_damdisp_softtab_std. QUADS damage initiation. QUADS damage initiation. II. MAXE damage initiation.inp coh3d8_mxe_damdisp_softexp_std. A linear elastic material model is used to verify the MAXE and QUADS damage initiation criteria. The damage variable evolves according to the evolution law speciﬁed in terms of displacement or energy dissipation. exponential. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COH3D8.3.COHESIVE ELEMENTS coh_transshear_xpl. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files coh3d8_mxe_damdisp_softlin_std. power law. DAMAGE MODELING VERIFICATION Elements tested COH3D8 COH3D6 COH2D4 COHAX4 COH3D8P COH3D6P COH2D4P COHAX4P Problem description This test veriﬁes damage modeling for cohesive elements using different damage initiation criteria and damage evolution laws to simulate the failure of cohesive layers.inp COH3D8.inp coh3d8_mxe_damdisp_softtab_std. 1. Results and discussion Degradation of the response of a cohesive element begins when the speciﬁed damage initiation criterion is met. Damage evolution is deﬁned based on either effective displacement or energy dissipated. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D8. Linear. The DUCTILE and SHEAR initiation criteria are tested with Mises and Drucker-Prager plasticity.inp coh3d8_qds_damdisp_softexp_std. the test veriﬁes the overall damage of cohesive elements when multiple damage initiation criteria are active for the same material deﬁnition. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D8.inp MAXE damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D8. The dependence of damage evolution on the mode mix measure speciﬁed in tabular. or Benzeggagh-Kenane form is also considered in this test. MAXE damage initiation. In addition.

displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D6P. QUADS damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D6. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COH3D6.inp coh3d6p_mxe_damdisp_softlin_std.inp coh2d4_qds_damdisp_softlin_std.inp coh3d8p_mxe_damdisp_softlin_std.COHESIVE ELEMENTS coh3d8_mxe_damener_softlin_std. QUADS damage initiation. 1.inp coh3d6_mxe_damener_softexp_std. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D6. QUADS damage initiation. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D6.inp coh3d6_mxe_damener_softlin_std. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D8P.inp coh2d4_mxe_damdisp_softlin_std. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D8.inp coh2d4_mxe_damdisp_softexp_std. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH2D4. MAXE damage initiation. QUADS damage initiation. MAXE damage initiation.inp coh3d6_mxe_damdisp_softtab_std. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D6. QUADS damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH2D4. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D6. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D8.inp coh3d6_mxe_damdisp_softexp_std. QUADS damage initiation. MAXE damage initiation.inp MAXE damage initiation.inp coh3d8_qds_damener_softexp_std.inp coh3d6_qds_damener_softexp_std. Damage evolution independent of mode mix for COH3D8. Damage evolution independent of mode mix for COH3D6.inp coh3d8_nomodemix_std. MAXE damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COH3D6.inp coh3d6_qds_damdisp_softtab_std. MAXE damage initiation. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D6. QUADS damage initiation. MAXE damage initiation. MAXE damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D6. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D8.inp coh3d6_mxe_damdisp_softlin_std.inp coh3d6_qds_damdisp_softlin_std. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D6.inp coh3d8_mxe_damener_softexp_std.inp coh3d8_qds_damener_softlin_std. MAXE damage initiation.3.inp coh3d6_nomodemix_std.inp coh3d6_qds_damener_softlin_std. MAXE damage initiation.45–5 .inp coh3d6_qds_damdisp_softexp_std. MAXE damage initiation. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D8. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH2D4. QUADS damage initiation.

inp coh2d4_mxe_damener_softlin_std.inp cohax4_qds_damdisp_softexp_std. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH2D4P. MAXE damage initiation. MAXE damage initiation. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COHAX4.inp cohax4_mxe_damener_softexp_std. QUADS damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COHAX4.inp coh2d4_mxe_damdisp_softtab_std.inp cohax4_qds_damdisp_softtab_std.inp cohax4_mxe_damdisp_softtab_std.inp coh2d4_qds_damener_softlin_std. MAXE damage initiation.inp coh2d4_nomodemix_std.inp coh2d4_mxe_damener_softexp_std. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COHAX4P.inp coh2d4p_mxe_damdisp_softlin_std.inp cohax4_nomodemix_std. MAXE damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COHAX4. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COHAX4. MAXE damage initiation.inp QUADS damage initiation.inp cohax4_qds_damener_softlin_std. Damage evolution independent of mode mix for COHAX4.inp cohax4_qds_damener_softexp_std. QUADS damage initiation.inp coh2d4_qds_damdisp_softtab_std. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH2D4. 1. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COHAX4. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COHAX4.inp cohax4_mxe_damdisp_softlin_std.inp cohax4_qds_damdisp_softlin_std. QUADS damage initiation. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COHAX4. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH2D4. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH2D4. QUADS damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COHAX4.inp cohax4p_mxe_damdisp_softlin_std. MAXE damage initiation.inp cohax4_mxe_damener_softlin_std. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH2D4.COHESIVE ELEMENTS coh2d4_qds_damdisp_softexp_std. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COHAX4. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH2D4. MAXE damage initiation. Damage evolution independent of mode mix for COH2D4. MAXE damage initiation.inp cohax4_mxe_damdisp_softexp_std. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COH2D4. MAXE damage initiation.45–6 .inp coh2d4_qds_damener_softexp_std. QUADS damage initiation. QUADS damage initiation. MAXE damage initiation. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COHAX4. QUADS damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COH2D4.3. QUADS damage initiation.

inp coh2d4_coupled_multi_std. COH3D6. SHEAR damage initiation. COH3D6. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D8. Energy-based damage evolution with energy-dependent mode mix measure for COH2D4.inp coh3d8_damdisp_mixener_std. SHEAR damage initiation.3. Energy-based damage evolution with traction-dependent mode mix measure for COH2D4. Displacement-based damage evolution with energydependent mode mix measure for COH3D8. COH3D6.inp coh2d4_damener_mixtrac_std. DUCTILE damage initiation. COH2D4. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D8. CONTINUUM response for COH3D8. COH2D4.inp coh_co_misesshear_std. DUCTILE damage initiation. Displacement-based damage evolution with energydependent mode mix measure for COH2D4.inp coh3d8_damdisp_mixtrac_std.inp COH3D8 with multiple damage models and coupled traction-separation behavior.inp coh3d8_damener_mixener_std. COH2D4.inp coh3d8_qds_damdisp_softlin_xpl.45–7 . CONTINUUM response for COH3D8.inp coh2d4_damener_mixener_std.inp coh3d8_damener_mixtrac_std. CONTINUUM response for COH3D8.inp coh2d4_damdisp_mixener_std.inp coh_co_misesduct_std.COHESIVE ELEMENTS coh3d8_coupled_multi_std. COHAX4 with Drucker-Prager plasticity.inp coh3d8_ts_dam_loadcycle_std. COHAX4 with Mises plasticity. COH2D4 with multiple damage models and coupled traction-separation behavior. COH3D8 subjected to loading and unloading in pure normal (both tension and compression) and pure shear modes after partial damage.inp coh_co_dpshear_std. Abaqus/Explicit input files coh3d8_mxe_damdisp_softlin_xpl.inp coh2d4_damdisp_mixtrac_std. COH3D6. COHAX4 with DruckerPrager plasticity. Energy-based damage evolution with traction-dependent mode mix measure for COH3D8. Energy-based damage evolution with energy-dependent mode mix measure for COH3D8. CONTINUUM response for COH3D8. COH2D4. Displacement-based damage evolution with tractiondependent mode mix measure for COH2D4.inp coh_co_dpduct_std.inp MAXE damage initiation. Displacement-based damage evolution with tractiondependent mode mix measure for COH3D8. COHAX4 with Mises plasticity. QUADS damage initiation. 1.

inp coh3d6_mxe_damdisp_softlin_xpl. MAXE damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COH3D6.inp coh3d8_qds_damener_softexp_xpl. QUADS damage initiation.inp coh3d8_mxe_damener_softlin_xpl. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D6.inp coh3d6_qds_damener_softlin_xpl.inp coh3d8_qds_damdisp_softtab_xpl. QUADS damage initiation. MAXE damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D8.3.inp coh3d6_mxe_damener_softexp_xpl. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D8. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH2D4. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D8.inp coh3d6_mxe_damener_softlin_xpl. Damage evolution independent of mode mix for COH3D8. QUADS damage initiation. QUADS damage initiation. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D6. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D6. MAXE damage initiation. MAXE damage initiation.inp coh3d6_mxe_damdisp_softexp_xpl.inp coh2d4_mxe_damdisp_softlin_xpl. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COH3D8. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D8.inp coh3d8_mxe_damdisp_softtab_xpl.inp coh3d8_qds_damdisp_softexp_xpl.inp coh3d8_qds_damener_softlin_xpl. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH3D6.inp coh3d6_nomodemix_xpl. QUADS damage initiation.inp coh3d6_mxe_damdisp_softtab_xpl.inp coh3d6_qds_damener_softexp_xpl. QUADS damage initiation. QUADS damage initiation.45–8 .inp coh3d8_mxe_damener_softexp_xpl. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D6. MAXE damage initiation. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D8. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D6.inp MAXE damage initiation.COHESIVE ELEMENTS coh3d8_mxe_damdisp_softexp_xpl. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COH3D8. MAXE damage initiation.inp coh3d6_qds_damdisp_softtab_xpl.inp coh3d6_qds_damdisp_softexp_xpl. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COH3D6. QUADS damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D6. MAXE damage initiation.inp coh3d6_qds_damdisp_softlin_xpl. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D8. Damage evolution independent of mode mix for COH3D6.inp coh3d8_nomodemix_xpl. QUADS damage initiation. 1. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH3D6. MAXE damage initiation. MAXE damage initiation.

MAXE damage initiation. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COHAX4.inp cohax4_qds_damdisp_softtab_xpl.inp cohax4_qds_damdisp_softlin_xpl. QUADS damage initiation.inp cohax4_nomodemix_xpl. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH2D4.inp cohax4_mxe_damener_softexp_xpl.inp coh2d4_qds_damener_softlin_xpl. QUADS damage initiation. QUADS damage initiation. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR-softening for COH2D4. MAXE damage initiation. QUADS damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COHAX4.inp cohax4_qds_damener_softlin_xpl. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COH2D4. QUADS damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COHAX4.inp coh2d4_nomodemix_xpl. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COHAX4. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COH2D4. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for COHAX4. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COHAX4. QUADS damage initiation. MAXE damage initiation.inp QUADS damage initiation.inp cohax4_qds_damdisp_softexp_xpl.COHESIVE ELEMENTS coh2d4_qds_damdisp_softlin_xpl. QUADS damage initiation. MAXE damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COHAX4.inp coh2d4_mxe_damener_softexp_xpl. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COHAX4. MAXE damage initiation. QUADS damage initiation.inp coh2d4_qds_damdisp_softexp_xpl.inp cohax4_mxe_damdisp_softlin_xpl. MAXE damage initiation. MAXE damage initiation. QUADS damage initiation. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COHAX4.inp coh2d4_mxe_damener_softlin_xpl. 1. Damage evolution independent of mode mix for COHAX4. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH2D4.inp cohax4_mxe_damdisp_softtab_xpl.inp cohax4_mxe_damdisp_softexp_xpl. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH2D4.inp coh2d4_mxe_damdisp_softexp_xpl.inp coh2d4_qds_damener_softexp_xpl.3. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH2D4. MAXE damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for COH2D4. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COH2D4.inp coh2d4_qds_damdisp_softtab_xpl. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for COHAX4.inp cohax4_mxe_damener_softlin_xpl.inp coh2d4_mxe_damdisp_softtab_xpl.inp cohax4_qds_damener_softexp_xpl. MAXE damage initiation. Damage evolution independent of mode mix for COH2D4.45–9 .

Displacement-based damage evolution with energydependent mode mix measure for COH3D8.inp coh2d4_damdisp_mixtrac_xpl.inp coh_co_dpshear_xpl.COHESIVE ELEMENTS coh_co_misesduct_xpl.inp coh_co_misesshear_xpl.inp coh_gk_misesduct_xpl. COH2D4. COH3D6. DUCTILE damage initiation. COHAX4 with Mises plasticity. COHAX4 with Mises plasticity.45–10 . CONTINUUM response for COH3D8.inp coh3d8_ts_dam_loadcycle_xpl.inp coh3d8_damener_mixener_xpl. Displacement-based damage evolution with energydependent mode mix measure for COH2D4. COH2D4. COHAX4 with DruckerPrager plasticity.inp DUCTILE damage initiation. COH2D4. Energy-based damage evolution with energy-dependent mode mix measure for COH3D8. COH2D4 with multiple damage models and coupled traction-separation behavior.inp coh2d4_damener_mixener_xpl. Energy-based damage evolution with traction-dependent mode mix measure for COH2D4.inp coh3d8_coupled_multi_xpl. COH3D8 subjected to loading and unloading in pure normal (both tension and compression) and pure shear modes after partial damage. COH2D4. CONTINUUM response for COH3D8.inp coh_co_dpduct_xpl.inp coh2d4_coupled_multi_xpl.3. COHAX4 with Drucker-Prager plasticity. COH3D6. COH3D6. DUCTILE damage initiation.inp coh2d4_damdisp_mixener_xpl. GASKET response for COH3D8. Energy-based damage evolution with energy-dependent mode mix measure for COH2D4. COH2D4. CONTINUUM response for COH3D8. COH2D4. COH3D6. Displacement-based damage evolution with tractiondependent mode mix measure for COH3D8.inp coh2d4_damener_mixtrac_xpl. Displacement-based damage evolution with tractiondependent mode mix measure for COH2D4. COH3D6.inp coh3d8_damdisp_mixtrac_xpl. Energy-based damage evolution with traction-dependent mode mix measure for COH3D8.inp coh3d8_damener_mixtrac_xpl. COH3D8 with multiple damage models and coupled traction-separation behavior. SHEAR damage initiation. GASKET response for COH3D8. COHAX4 with Mises plasticity. SHEAR damage initiation. 1. CONTINUUM response for COH3D8. COH3D6.inp coh_gk_misesshear_xpl.inp coh3d8_damdisp_mixener_xpl. COHAX4 with Mises plasticity. SHEAR damage initiation.

CPE4P with COH2D4P using *TIE. In some tests the solid and cohesive elements have different mesh densities.inp coh3d8p_cont.45–11 . CAX4P with COHAX4P. C3D8P with COH3D6P. CPE4P with COH2D4P using *FLUID LEAKOFF. the *TIE option will be used to connect them to each other.inp coh2d4p_cont_leak. They are connected to each other through a layer of pore pressure cohesive elements. Results and discussion The smooth variation of pore pressure can be observed crossing the layer of cohesive elements. When different pressure is speciﬁed at the top and the bottom sides of model. therefore.inp coh3d8p_cont_tie.inp coh3d8p_cont_leak. C3D8P with COH3D8P using *FLUID LEAKOFF. No damage is introduced to the pore pressure cohesive elements in the tests. 1. the driven ﬂuid ﬂows smoothly across the layer of cohesive elements generating the same pressure gradient everywhere.COHESIVE ELEMENTS III. One block is on the top.inp cohax4p_cont_leak. C3D8P with COH3D8P. CAX4P with COHAX4P using *FLUID LEAKOFF. while another one is on the bottom.inp CPE4P with COH2D4P.3.inp cohax4p_cont. C3D8P with COH3D6P using *FLUID LEAKOFF. C3D8P with COH3D8P using *TIE. The model contains two blocks meshed by using pore pressure solid elements. CAX4P with COHAX4P using *TIE.inp cohax4p_cont_tie.inp coh3d6p_cont_tie.inp coh3d6p_cont.inp coh2d4p_cont_tie. C3D8P with COH3D6P using *TIE. Input files Available only in Abaqus/Standard coh2d4p_cont. In some tests resistance is introduced to the ﬂow by building a “ﬁlter cake” using the *FLUID LEAKOFF option. PRESSURE CONTINUITY FOR PORE PRESSURE COHESIVE ELEMENTS Elements tested COH3D8P COH3D6P COH2D4P COHAX4P Problem description This test veriﬁes the pressure continuity for pore pressure cohesive elements without damage.inp coh3d6p_cont_leak.

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1) through point (0. A four-step *STEADY STATE DYNAMICS.3 1. and one element is used for all other element shapes. Coriolis loading is activated in Steps 2 and 4.CORIOLIS LOADING FOR SSD 1.0.0 (0.0 1. and on a unit cube for three-dimensional solids. on a unit square plate for two-dimensional solids. Material: Length for truss models Area Planar dimensions for two-dimensional solids Thickness Cubic dimensions for three-dimensional solids Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Damping Coriolis loading Coriolis axis of rotation 1 1 1×1 1 1×1×1 1000.46 CORIOLIS LOADING FOR DIRECT-SOLUTION STEADY-STATE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested T2D2 T2D3 T3D2 T3D3 CPE3 CPS3 CPE4 CPS4 CPE6 CPS6 CPE6M CPS6M CPE8 CPEG3 CPEG4 CPEG6 CPEG8 C3D4 C3D6 C3D8 C3D10 C3D10M C3D15 C3D20 C3D27 Problem description CPS8 The effect of Coriolis loading in a direct-solution steady-state dynamics analysis is veriﬁed.46–1 .0 =1. 0) 1.3.5. Two elements are used for the triangular and prism element shapes. 0. One representative element type is tested for all solid and truss element classes that can be used in *STEADY STATE DYNAMICS analyses and that support Coriolis loading. ﬁve elements are used for the tetrahedral element shapes. The elements are constrained at all nodes and displaced in one degree of freedom: degree of freedom 1 in Steps 1 and 2 and degree of freedom 2 in Steps 3 and 4. =0. The use of this feature with submodeling is veriﬁed by performing a global and a submodel analysis with CPE4 elements. DIRECT analysis is performed on a unit length rod for trusses. and the resulting additional reaction forces and phase shifts are veriﬁed by comparing them to analytical values. −10.0 0.3.

inp ecs4sfdc.inp ec3fsfdc.inp CPE4 elements. CPS4 elements.inp ece6sfdc. CPS8 elements.inp ece6smdc.46–2 .inp et23sfdc. C3D8 elements.inp ece4sfdc. T3D2 elements. T3D3 elements.inp et32sfdc.inp ecg6sfdc.inp ecg4sfdc. CPS3 elements. C3D10 elements. CPEG4 elements. CPE4 elements. T2D3 elements.inp ec3asfdc.inp ec3rsfdc. global model. C3D20 elements. C3D27 elements.inp ec3asmdc. 1. C3D4 elements. CPEG8 elements.inp ec3ksfdc.inp ecs8sfdc.inp ecs6smdc.inp ec34sfdc. submodel. T2D2 elements.3.inp ecg3sfdc.inp ece8sfdc. CPEG6 elements. C3D10M elements.inp ec36sfdc. CPEG3 elements. CPE6M elements. CPS6M elements.inp ece4sfds.inp et33sfdc. CPE3 elements.CORIOLIS LOADING FOR SSD Results and discussion The reaction forces and the phase angle shifts due to the Coriolis loading match the analytical results for all of the elements that are tested. CPE8 elements. CPE4 elements. Input files ece4sfdg.inp ecs6sfdc. CPE6 elements. C3D6 elements. C3D15 elements.inp ecg8sfdc. CPS6 elements.inp ece3sfdc.inp ecs3sfdc.inp ec38sfdc.inp et22sfdc.

is also tested. with small and large displacements. two for the two-dimensional elements (PSI24 and PSI26) and three for the three-dimensional elements (PSI34 and PSI36).PIPE-SOIL INTERACTION 1. The material is deﬁned with different material response in the different directions. Problem description The problem consists of a single PSI element subjected to a prescribed displacement history. The elements are not connected in any way. The *ORIENTATION option is also tested.3 30.3.0 × 106 Elastic stiffness in vertical direction: 2.0 × 106 ASCE formulae for sand: Axial direction: 19000..47 PIPE-SOIL INTERACTION ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested PSI24 PSI26 PSI34 PSI36 Features tested The constitutive behavior of the pipe-soil interaction (PSI) elements is tested. The axial and transverse vertical response is symmetric about the origin. Temperature and ﬁeld variable dependence of material properties is tested. which uses the same material model in all the directions. i.e.003 1. The far-ﬁeld edge is ﬁxed. An isotropic model. The value of the prescribed displacement changes in such a way that the constitutive response corresponding to negative and positive relative displacement is veriﬁed.0 × 106 Elastic stiffness in horizontal direction: 4.0° D 0. and the displacement history is applied to the pipeline side.47–1 .3. while the vertical response uses different behavior for positive and negative relative displacement. Material: Elastic stiffness in axial direction: 1. Both regular static steps. and linear perturbation steps are considered.0 0.6 0. The prescribed displacement applied to each element is in a different direction. Each input ﬁle contains as many PSI elements as the number of coordinate directions.

005 The forces applied to the pipeline match the analytical values.8 0.1 ASCE formulae for clay: Axial direction: S D Vertical direction: 0.1 Results and discussion 1000 1.0 0.4 0.0 0.15 0.25 0. 1. PSI24 element with user-deﬁned orientation.47–2 . small displacements. Input files Linear material behavior: epsi24ls1.4 0.1 Horizontal direction: 0.15 0.3.3 0. small displacements.inp epsi24ls3.015 Horizontal direction: 0.6 0.inp PSI24 element with small displacements.25 0.inp epsi24ls2.5 0. unsymmetric stiffness.PIPE-SOIL INTERACTION Vertical direction: 24000. PSI24 element with user-deﬁned orientation.

isotropic behavior. PSI24 element with large displacements.inp epsi34cn3.inp epsi26cn1. PSI34 element with temperature dependence. PSI34 element with ﬁeld variable dependence. large displacements.inp epsi36sn1.f PSI34 element with small displacements.inp epsi26ns1.inp epsi34cs1. PSI34 element with small displacements. PSI34 element with perturbation. PSI26 element with large displacements.inp epsi36ln1. PSI26 element with large displacements. user-deﬁned orientation.3.inp epsi24ln3. large displacements. PSI24 element with ﬁeld variable dependence.inp epsi34sn1. PSI36 element with large displacements. 1.inp epsi34np1. The user subroutine used with epsi26un1.PIPE-SOIL INTERACTION epsi34ls1.47–3 .inp epsi26ln1. large displacements. user-deﬁned orientation.inp epsi34ns1. PSI26 element with user-deﬁned orientation.inp epsi36lp1. PSI26 element with isotropic behavior. large displacements.inp User subroutine: epsi26un1. PSI26 element with large displacements. large displacements.inp ASCE formulae for sand: epsi24ss1. temperature dependence. unsymmetric stiffness. isotropic behavior. small displacements.inp epsi36ns1. PSI36 element with temperature dependence. PSI34 element with temperature dependence. PSI24 element with small displacements.inp ASCE formulae for clay: epsi24cn1. large displacements.inp epsi24sn1.inp Nonlinear material behavior: epsi24ns1. PSI24 element with small displacements.inp epsi26ln2. PSI36 element with large displacements. user-deﬁned orientation. PSI36 element with perturbations.inp epsi26nn2.inp. PSI24 element with large displacements.inp epsi26un1. PSI26 element with temperature dependence.

PIPE-SOIL INTERACTION epsi34us1. The user subroutine used with epsi34us1.47–4 .inp.inp epsi34us1.3.f PSI34 element with small displacements. 1.

11 “Thermal-electrical elements.12 “Rigid elements. and truss stress/displacement elements.14 “Abaqus/Explicit element loading veriﬁcation.” Section 1.4.4.4.17 1.” Section 1.4.8 “Coupled temperature-displacement elements.13 “Mass and rotary inertia elements.15 “Incident wave loading.ELEMENT LOADING OPTIONS 1.5 “ELBOW elements.” Section 1.4.10 “Continuum mass diffusion elements.4.9 “Piezoelectric elements.2 “Pipe stress/displacement elements.4–1 .6 “Continuum pore pressure elements.4 “Cohesive element load veriﬁcation.4.4.” Section 1. membrane.” Section 1.3 “Shell.” Section 1.4.7 “Continuum and shell heat transfer elements.” Section 1.4.4.” Section 1.” Section 1.4.4.4.” Section 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.1 “Beam stress/displacement elements.4.4 Element loading options • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • “Continuum stress/displacement elements.” Section 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.4.16 “Distributed traction and edge loads.4.

.

CENT. AND GENERALIZED PLANE STRAIN ELEMENTS Problem description Note: Meshes for tests of foundation types F2 . P3. −1. GRAV. 0. P1.0 0. CENTRIF.0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads. 1. 2. 1. and F4 are irregularly shaped. P2. HP2.3 .0 higher-order elements: 3. 0) 3 × 106 0.0 lower-order elements: 7. BY.1 CONTINUUM STRESS/DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard I. HP3. 10.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS 1.0 (0.0 ALL. PLANE STRAIN. Model: Square dimensions Thickness Centrifugal axis of rotation Coriolis axis of rotation Gravitational load vector Material: 7×7 1.0001 5 × 10−5 Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Density Initial conditions: Initial temperature Initial velocity (Coriolis loading) Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Results and discussion ALL. Input files CPEG3 element load tests: ecg3sfd1. HP1. 0) through origin (0. *TEMPERATURE.4. F3 . 1.inp BX.1–1 .0 ALL. PLANE STRESS. 1) through origin (0. −10.4. 5.

F3. HP1. CENT.inp ecg3sfdi. P2. BX. F2. CENT. ROTA.inp ecg3shda. P. P3.inp ecg3sfd3.inp ecg4sfd3. CENT. HP. P. ROTA. F3.1–2 .inp ecg4shd2. *TEMPERATURE. F1.inp ecg4shd3.inp ecg4sfd5.inp ecg3sfdr.inp ecg3shd3. F2. HP3. F1. F2. HP2.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS ecg3sfd2.inp ecg4sfdi. HP4. ROTA.inp ecg3shdr. CENTRIF. CORIO.inp CPEG4H element load tests: ecg4shd1. P1.inp ecg3sfdc. HP.inp ecg4sfd2. GRAV. BY. P.inp ecg4shdr.inp ecg4sfd4. P3. P2. HP2.inp ecg4sfda. P. P3.inp ecg4shda. HP3.inp ecg3sfda. CENTRIF. F3. HP3. HP.inp ecg3sfd4. GRAV. F4. *TEMPERATURE. HP2. BY. F2. HP. *TEMPERATURE. P4. *TEMPERATURE.inp CPEG3H element load tests: ecg3shd1. P2. *TEMPERATURE. CORIO. GRAV. BX.inp ecg4shd5.inp ecg3shd4. CORIO.inp ecg4shdi. *TEMPERATURE. F3.inp CPEG4 element load tests: ecg4sfd1.inp ecg4shd4. ROTA. F1.inp ecg3shdi.4.inp F1.inp ecg4sfdr. CORIO.inp ecg3shd2. BY. 1. F4. P4. BX. HP1. CENTRIF. *TEMPERATURE. CORIO.inp ecg4sfdc. CORIO. HP1. P1. P1. HP4.

CENT. HP4. *TEMPERATURE.inp ecg4srda. HP2.inp ecg4sjd3.inp ecg4sidr. P1. CORIO.inp ecg4sjdr.inp ecg4syd2. GRAV. ROTA.inp ecg4sjda. P4. HP2. F1.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS CPEG4I element load tests: ecg4sid1.inp ecg4srd5. CENTRIF.4. BX. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. HP4. BX.1–3 .inp ecg4sjdi. HP3.inp ecg4syd4.inp CPEG4R element load tests: ecg4srd1. *TEMPERATURE. P2. CENT. BY. F3. ROTA. HP2.inp ecg4sydr. HP. F2.inp ecg4sid2.inp ecg4sjd5. F3. F2. CENTRIF.inp ecg4syd5.inp ecg4sida. P.inp ecg4sidi. CORIO. HP. P4.inp CPEG4IH element load tests: ecg4sjd1. *TEMPERATURE. F3. CENT. 1. P3. BY.inp CPEG4RH element load tests: ecg4syd1. HP4.inp ecg4srd3. HP. F1.inp BX. HP. P. F1. F4. BX. HP3.inp ecg4sid4. P1. F1. *TEMPERATURE.inp ecg4syd3. *TEMPERATURE. F4. P1. CORIO. *TEMPERATURE.inp ecg4srdr. P4. GRAV. HP2. ROTA.inp ecg4sid5. P3. P2. F2. CENTRIF. F4. F2.inp ecg4sid3.inp ecg4syda. HP1.inp ecg4sjd4.inp ecg4sydi. *TEMPERATURE.inp ecg4sjd2. P. HP1. CENT. P.inp ecg4srdi. CENTRIF. GRAV.inp ecg4srd2. P2. HP1. HP3. BY. P3. P3. P2.inp ecg4srd4. HP3. ROTA. F4. CORIO. P1. P4. F3. BY. HP1. HP4.

P1.inp CPEG6MH element load tests: ecg6sld1. HP. BX.inp ecg6sld2. P.inp ecg6sfdc. BY.inp ecg6shd2.inp ecg6shda. *TEMPERATURE. CORIO. F3.inp BX. HP1. CENT. HP. GRAV. HP2. CORIO. *TEMPERATURE. BY. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. P1. HP3. ROTA. F1. F2. *TEMPERATURE. CENT.inp ecg6sldr.inp ecg6shd3.inp ecg6slda. GRAV. CENTRIF. CORIO.inp CPEG6M element load tests: ecg6skd1. GRAV.inp ecg6sld4. BY.inp ecg6skdr.inp ecg6skd4. HP.inp ecg6shdr.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS CPEG6 element load tests: ecg6sfd1.inp ecg6sfd4.4. P1. BX. P2.inp ecg6skdc.inp ecg6sfdr. CENTRIF. P2. P. BY. ROTA. CENTRIF. HP1. F2. HP2.inp ecg6skdi. F1. *TEMPERATURE. CENT. CORIO. F3. F1. HP2. F1. CORIO. HP3. P3. BX. 1.inp ecg6sfda. F2.inp CPEG6H element load tests: ecg6shd1. F3. F3.inp ecg6sfdi.inp ecg6sfd2. HP2. P3.inp ecg6sfd3. HP1. P2. P3. ROTA. P. HP3. *TEMPERATURE.inp ecg6shdi. P. P3. F2.inp ecg6skd3.inp ecg6skda. HP3. HP.inp ecg6shd4. ROTA. CENT.1–4 . CORIO. P2.inp ecg6skd2.inp ecg6sld3. HP1. *TEMPERATURE.inp ecg6sldi. P1. GRAV. CENTRIF.

HP3. P3. F2. CORIO. BX. HP3. F1.inp ecg8srd5. HP3.inp ecg8sfdi. BY.inp ecg8srd3. HP1. P2.inp ecg8sfdr. CORIO.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS CPEG8 element load tests: ecg8sfd1. P3. F2. ROTA. *TEMPERATURE.inp ecg8sfd5. F4. CENTRIF. HP. F1. F2. F3.inp ecg8srda.inp ecg8shdi.inp ecg8syd5.inp ecg8syda.inp ecg8syd3. HP3. HP.inp CPEG8H element load tests: ecg8shd1.inp ecg8srdi.inp ecg8shd2. CENT. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. CORIO.inp ecg8sfda. P. P4. HP. P2. HP2. CENT.inp ecg8syd2. HP4. P1. P4. GRAV. F2. F3. ROTA.inp ecg8shd5. P4. CENTRIF. *TEMPERATURE. CENTRIF.inp ecg8srdr. BY. CENTRIF.inp CPEG8R element load tests: ecg8srd1. P1. P. P2. F1. F4. BY. P. P1.inp ecg8shda. F3. CENT. F1. P1. P3. BY. F4.inp ecg8srd2.inp BX. P3. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE.inp ecg8syd4.inp ecg8shdr.4.inp ecg8srd4. CORIO. P2. F3. HP2. P4.inp ecg8sfd3. BX. *TEMPERATURE. CORIO. F4.inp ecg8sfdc.inp ecg8sfd4. HP2. HP4. HP4. HP1. HP4.inp CPEG8RH element load tests: ecg8syd1. GRAV. CENT. BX. HP1. GRAV.inp ecg8shd4.inp ecg8shd3.inp ecg8sfd2.1–5 . ROTA. HP2. 1. HP1.

CENT.inp ece3shd4. P3. BY. *TEMPERATURE. P.inp ece4sfdi. P2. HP.inp ece3shdi. F1. HP1.inp ece4shd3. P2. CORIO. *TEMPERATURE.inp HP.inp CPE3H element load tests: ece3shd1.inp ece3sfd3. CENTRIF. P1. CENT. HP. P3. ROTA. CENT. P. HP3. F3.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS ecg8sydi. BY.inp ece4sfdr. F1.inp ece3sfdc. BX. P4.inp ece4sfds. P4.inp ece3shd2. HP1. CORIO. P2.inp CPE4H element load tests: ece4shd1.1–6 . HP2.inp ece4sfd5. CENTRIF. HP2. HP2. F3.inp CPE4 element load tests: ece4sfd1.inp ece4sfd3. CENT. HP3. *TEMPERATURE. CORIO. P2. CENTRIF. P. F2. 1. CORIO. *TEMPERATURE.inp ece4shd2. F2.inp ece4sfdg. GRAV. CORIO. GRAV. BX.4.inp ece4sfd2. CENTRIF. BY. CORIO.inp ece3sfd4. P3.inp ece3shd3.inp ece4sfdc. HP1. P1. P. HP1.inp ece3sfdr.inp CPE3 element load tests: ece3sfd1.inp ece3sfd2. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. HP4. ROTA. F2. F1. P1. HP4. P1. HP2. F4. F2. ROTA. HP3.inp ece3sfda. CORIO. F3.inp ece3sfdi. HP3. GRAV. BX.inp ece4sfd4.inp ecg8sydr. ROTA. BX.inp ece4sfda. GRAV.inp ece3shda. P3.inp ece3shdr. BY. HP. F1.

F3.inp ece4srdr.inp ece4shdi.inp ece4sjda. *TEMPERATURE. HP2.inp ece4srd3. HP.inp ece4sjdr.inp ece4syd2. CENTRIF. ROTA.inp CPE4R element load tests: ece4srd1. P4. BY.inp ece4sid2. BY. P1. P1.inp ece4sjdi. HP3. F4.inp ece4sjd5. *TEMPERATURE. P1. CORIO.inp ece4srd5. BY. P1. BX.4. CENTRIF. *TEMPERATURE. HP4. P3. BX. P2. F1. GRAV. HP. F2. ROTA. P.inp ece4sidi.inp CPE4RH element load tests: ece4syd1.inp ece4shd5. F3. P2. CENT. P.inp ece4sjd3. HP4. ROTA. CENTRIF.inp ece4sid3. GRAV. BX.inp ece4srdi. CORIO. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS ece4shd4. HP1. HP4. *TEMPERATURE. F3. HP1. CENT. HP1. F1.inp F3. F4. P4. *TEMPERATURE. P2. P4. HP2.inp ece4sid4. P3. CENTRIF.inp CPE4I element load tests: ece4sid1.inp ece4shdr. HP. CORIO. CENT. BX. HP1.inp ece4shda. CENT.inp ece4sjd4. HP. P. P2. BY. HP2.inp ece4srd4. HP3.inp ece4srda. HP4. F1. F2.inp ece4srd2. GRAV. HP3. *TEMPERATURE. P. 1. HP2. F1. HP3. ROTA.inp ece4sida.inp CPE4IH element load tests: ece4sjd1. P3.inp ece4sjd2. F4. P3. CORIO. F2.inp ece4sidr. *TEMPERATURE. P4. F4.inp ece4sid5.1–7 .

P3. BY.inp ece6skdi. F2.inp ece6shd3.1–8 .inp ece6skdr. HP2. CENT.inp ece6shda. HP. P2. P3. HP1.inp CPE6H element load tests: ece6shd1. CENTRIF. *TEMPERATURE. F2. CENTRIF. F2.inp ece6skd2. HP3. CENT. HP2. BY. HP3. P2. F3.inp ece6sfdc. P1. F4. HP1.inp ece6sld3. ROTA. CORIO.inp ece6skd4. BX. HP3. GRAV.inp ece4sydr. HP2.inp ece4syda.inp ece4sydi. CORIO. *TEMPERATURE. BY.inp F2. P3.inp CPE6M element load tests: ece6skd1.inp ece6sfda.inp ece6skd3. ROTA. *TEMPERATURE. F1.inp ece6sfd2. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS ece4syd3. CENT. *TEMPERATURE. BY. BX.inp ece4syd4. F2. F1. BX. 1. ROTA.4. F3.inp CPE6MH element load tests: ece6sld1. CENT.inp ece6sfd3. HP.inp ece6shd4.inp ece6shdr.inp ece6sfd4.inp ece4syd5.inp ece6skda. P1. F3.inp ece6sld4. P. ROTA. P3. P2. F3. *TEMPERATURE. F3. P.inp ece6shd2. P1. P1. CENTRIF. HP2.inp ece6slda. F1. CORIO. F1.inp ece6sld2.inp CPE6 element load tests: ece6sfd1. CORIO. P2. GRAV. CENTRIF. HP1. CORIO. CORIO.inp ece6sfdr. BX. GRAV. HP3. HP1.

GRAV. P2. HP4. *TEMPERATURE. BY.4. P3. *TEMPERATURE. CENT.inp ece8shdr. *TEMPERATURE. CORIO.inp CPE8R element load tests: ece8srd1. P3. HP4.inp ece8srd3. *TEMPERATURE.inp ece8syd4. BX.inp ece8syd3. P2. F4. ROTA. P. P1.inp HP. 1. *TEMPERATURE. HP1. P. BX. HP4. CENTRIF.inp ece8shd2.inp ece8sfd5.inp ece8sfd2. HP2. ROTA. P.inp CPE8RH element load tests: ece8syd1.1–9 . BX. P2. F1.inp ece8srdr. P1.inp CPE8H element load tests: ece8shd1. BY.inp ece8srda. HP. F3. CENT. P4.inp ece8srd5. HP2. BX.inp ece6sldr. HP3. P1. GRAV.inp ece8srd4.inp ece8shdi. CENTRIF. GRAV. HP1. F2.inp ece8sfdi.inp ece8srdi. HP2. CENT. HP2.inp ece8shd5. HP3. HP3. HP1.inp ece8shd3. HP1. GRAV. P2. ROTA.inp ece8shda. F3.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS ece6sldi. HP. HP. P4. CENT. F2.inp ece8srd2.inp ece8sfdc. F4.inp ece8syd2. F4. HP3. F1. CENTRIF. CORIO. CORIO. ROTA.inp ece8shd4. F3.inp ece8sfda. CENTRIF. *TEMPERATURE.inp CPE8 element load tests: ece8sfd1.inp ece8sfd4. F2.inp ece8sfd3. CORIO. P. F1. BY. BY. P4. HP4. P3. F1. P4. *TEMPERATURE. P3. F2.inp ece8sfdr. F3. *TEMPERATURE. P1.

CENT. CORIO.inp ecs4sidi. P2.inp ecs3sfdi. HP2. P4. ROTA. BX. P2. HP4.inp ecs4srd3. P. *TEMPERATURE. HP2. HP1. HP3. CENTRIF. HP4. P3. F3. CORIO. F2. HP1. BX.inp ece8sydi.inp CPS3 element load tests: ecs3sfd1.inp ecs4sfda. F2.inp CPS4I element load tests: ecs4sid1.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS ece8syd5. HP4. CORIO. HP1.inp ecs3sfda. HP2. CORIO. *TEMPERATURE.inp ecs4sfdi. P1.inp ecs3sfd2. P2. CORIO. F2.inp F4. HP2.inp CPS4 element load tests: ecs4sfd1. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV. P2. *TEMPERATURE. HP. HP3.1–10 .inp ecs3sfd3. P3.inp ecs4sfdc. *TEMPERATURE. CENT.inp ecs4sid3. BY. F4.inp ecs4sid5. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. P1. F1.inp ecs3sfdc. CENTRIF.inp ecs4sfd2. P4.4.inp ece8syda.inp CPS4R element load tests: ecs4srd1. CENTRIF.inp ecs4sidr. P. HP. CENT. P3.inp ecs3sfd4. HP. BY. ROTA. F2. F4. CENTRIF.inp ecs4srd2. F1.inp ece8sydr. F3.inp ecs4sid4. BX. CENT. *TEMPERATURE. P3. P4.inp ecs4sfd3.inp ecs4sfd5. BY. HP3.inp ecs4sida. GRAV. F3.inp ecs4sfdr. HP1. P1. BX.inp ecs4sfd4. P1. BY. ROTA. HP3.inp ecs4sid2. P. F1. 1. *TEMPERATURE. F1. HP. GRAV. CORIO. P.

HP4. P. HP3.inp ecs4srd5. HP3.inp ecs8srd2. F2.inp ecs6skdi. CORIO. HP. P2. CENTRIF. BX.inp CPS6M element load tests: ecs6skd1.inp ecs6skd3. BY. HP1. F3. F3. F4. P. HP3. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. BY. F2. F1. CENTRIF. P2. *TEMPERATURE.inp CPS8 element load tests: ecs8sfd1. BX. *TEMPERATURE. HP2.inp ecs8sfda. P2. F4. ROTA.4.inp ecs6sfd3. P3. CORIO. P4. *TEMPERATURE.inp ecs8sfd5. CORIO.inp CPS8R element load tests: ecs8srd1. HP2. F1. P. P. BY. F3. F1. HP2. P3.inp CPS6 element load tests: ecs6sfd1. GRAV. BY.inp ecs4srdi.inp ecs6sfdc.inp ecs6skda. P3. GRAV.inp ecs8sfdc. P2. P1. BX.inp ecs6sfdr. CENT.inp ecs8sfdr. HP3.inp ecs6skd2. P3. GRAV. BX. HP. ROTA.inp ecs4srda. 1. F2. F1. CENTRIF. CORIO.inp ecs8sfd2. CENT. *TEMPERATURE. HP1.inp ecs6sfdi. HP.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS ecs4srd4. HP4.inp ecs6sfd2. HP.1–11 .inp ecs6skd4. P1. ROTA. CENTRIF.inp ecs6sfda. *TEMPERATURE. CORIO. HP2. HP1.inp ecs6skdr. P1. CORIO. F2. *TEMPERATURE.inp ecs8sfd3. CENT.inp ecs8sfd4. *TEMPERATURE.inp ecs8sfdi. P4. P1.inp ecs8srd3.inp F3.inp ecs6sfd4. CENT. HP1.

inp ecs8srda. CENT.0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS ecs8srd4.inp ecs8srdr. HP. P2. AXISYMMETRIC SOLID ELEMENTS Problem description Model: Planar dimensions Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravitational load vector Material: 3×3 (0. HP3.inp eca3sfd2. F3.inp ecs8srdi. BZ.inp eca3sfd3. F1. P1. CORIO. HP3. 1.0 0.inp eca3sfd4. 1. P3.inp eca3sfdi. HP1. BR. *TEMPERATURE. HP. 0) Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Initial conditions: 3 × 106 0. P.inp II. CENT.1–12 .4.inp CAX3H element load tests: eca3shd1. Input files CAX3 element load tests: eca3sfd1. F2. P3. F3. P1. ROTA. GRAV.3 5 × 10−5 Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Results and discussion 3. BZ. HP1. P2. 0) through origin (0. F4. F1.inp eca3shd2.inp BR. CENTRIF. HP2.inp ecs8srd5. GRAV. −1. HP2. P. CENTRIF.

BR. HP1. GRAV.inp eca4shd5. BZ. GRAV. HP2. CENTRIF. HP4.inp eca4sjd3. CENTRIF. BZ. GRAV.inp CAX4 element load tests: eca4sfd1. F2.inp eca4sid5. P4.inp eca4sid2. HP3.inp eca4sfdi. F3. BZ. F4. F4. HP4. P2. HP3.inp eca4sfd2. CENT. HP4. P2. HP4.inp eca4sjd2. HP3. F4.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS eca3shd3. P1.4. P3. P. P2. F2. BR. F2. F1. P4. F2. P3. CENTRIF. P3.inp eca4sid3.inp eca4shd4. HP4.inp CAX4I element load tests: eca4sid1. P.inp CAX4H element load tests: eca4shd1. HP. P.inp eca4sfd3. HP2. HP2.inp eca4sfd5. F3. P3. HP3. HP1. P4. HP2. P. HP. HP1. HP. BR. CENT. P1. F3.inp eca4sjdi. HP1. CENTRIF.1–13 . P4. CENT. BR. BR.inp eca4sid4.inp CAX4R element load tests: eca4srd1. F1.inp eca3shd4. BZ. P1. F1.inp eca4sfd4. BZ.inp eca4sjd4.inp CAX4IH element load tests: eca4sjd1. HP1. P1.inp eca4srd2. CENTRIF. HP. GRAV. CENT.inp eca4shdi.inp eca4shd3. HP2.inp eca4shd2. 1. F4.inp eca4sidi. F1. GRAV. P2. P2.inp F2. HP3. P1. CENT. P4.inp eca4sjd5. F3. F3. P3. F1.

HP1. CENT.inp eca4syd4. P2. HP. GRAV. HP2.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS eca4srd3. F1. CENTRIF. HP2. F4. P3. P2. F2.inp eca4syd3.inp eca6shdi. BR.inp CAX6H element load tests: eca6shd1. HP1. P. CENTRIF. HP. P3.inp eca4syd2. CENT. P1.inp eca6sfd2. HP.inp eca6sfd3.inp eca6sld2. P1. P4. P2. F3. HP1.inp eca6skdi.inp eca6sfd4. CENTRIF. P1. BZ. F2. P1.4.inp CAX6MH element load tests: eca6sld1. P2. HP.inp eca4srdi.inp eca6shd4. GRAV. F3. CENTRIF. HP3. P. HP1. HP2. CENT. F2. BZ.inp eca6shd2. P1.inp F2. P2. BR.1–14 .inp eca4srd5. P. CENT. 1. BZ. GRAV.inp CAX4RH element load tests: eca4syd1.inp eca4srd4.inp eca4sydi. P3.inp eca4syd5. P3.inp CAX6M element load tests: eca6skd1. F3. HP3. F2. F1. HP3. HP2. HP2. BR. F4. BR. HP1. GRAV. HP4. F1.inp CAX6 element load tests: eca6sfd1.inp eca6skd4.inp eca6shd3. F1. P. F3.inp eca6sfdi. F3. F1. BZ. HP3. BZ. CENTRIF. P.inp eca6skd2. CENT. GRAV. BR. P3. HP3. F2.inp eca6skd3.inp eca6sld3. HP.

1–15 . HP4. HP4. HP. CENTRIF.inp eca8shdi. P4. HP3. BR. P1.4. HP2. P3. F4.inp eca8srd5. HP4. P.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS eca6sld4. CENT. CENTRIF. F1. F3. P. GRAV. CENTRIF. CENT. F4. HP3. HP2. CENT.inp CAX8R element load tests: eca8srd1.inp eca8sfd5. P1. HP.inp eca8sfd2.inp eca8srd2. F3. P4. HP. BZ. P4.inp eca6sldi. HP1. P2.inp CAX8RH element load tests: eca8syd1.inp eca8srdi. P4. GRAV. F2. P1. F2.inp eca8sfd4.inp eca8shd5. HP3.inp eca8shd3. F1. BR.inp eca8shd2. HP2. BR. F1. F1. F4. P. 1. HP1. CENT. HP.inp CAX8H element load tests: eca8shd1.inp eca8syd5. F2.inp eca8shd4.inp eca8syd2. BR. CENTRIF. F3. HP3. P2. P3. P2.inp eca8sfd3.inp F3.inp CAX8 element load tests: eca8sfd1. HP2.inp eca8srd3. F3. P3.inp eca8srd4. P3. BZ. F2. BZ. P2. HP1.inp eca8sfdi. HP1. P1. HP4. GRAV. GRAV.inp eca8syd4.inp eca8syd3. BZ. P. F4.

CONTINUUM ELEMENTS III.4. HP3.inp ec34sfd2.0 0.inp BX. P4. HP1. P3.inp ec34sfdi. Input files C3D4 element load tests: ec34sfd1. F3.0 Initial temperature Initial velocity (Coriolis loading) Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Results and discussion ALL.inp ec34sfd5. 5. THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLIDS Problem description Model: Cubic dimensions Centrifugal and Coriolis axes of rotation Gravitational load vector Material: 7×7×7 (0.0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads. CENT.5.inp ec34sfd4.0 ALL. 1. CORIO. CORIO. F1. BY.5) (1. *TEMPERATURE. 0) Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Density Initial conditions: 3 × 106 0.0001 10.inp ec34sfda. ROTA.inp ec34sfdc. F2.3 .0 ALL.inp ec34sfdr. 0) through (−1000. HP. 2. 1. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. HP4. P1. BZ. 10.inp ec34sfd3. 0. −10.0 −7.1–16 . −3. 1. F4. P2. CENTRIF. 3. P. HP2.

inp ec36sfda. HP3. P2. P2. F1. *TEMPERATURE. ROTA.inp ec36sfd3. P1.inp C3D8 element load tests: ec38sfd1. P2. GRAV.inp ec36sfdi.inp C3D6 element load tests: ec36sfd1. HP4.inp BX. CENTRIF. HP2. HP1. F1. HP4. P. F3. *TEMPERATURE. BZ.inp ec36sfd6. BZ. CORIO. P5. HP2.inp ec34shd3. BY. P1.1–17 . P1. F4. HP5. P4. ec38sfd2. P5.inp ec36shd2. P4. F1.inp ec36shd6. P. F5.inp ec36shdr. BX. P3.inp ec38sfd4. HP2.inp ec36sfd2.inp ec34shda. F1. BZ. ROTA. CENT.inp ec36shda. P3.inp ec36shdi. HP3.4. HP3. HP4. F2. P1. P5. CENT. F4.inp ec34shd5. P3.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS C3D4H element load tests: ec34shd1. BY. HP. P4. GRAV. HP6.inp ec36sfdc. F2. BX.inp ec34shd4. HP5.inp ec36shd4. P2. ROTA. HP1. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. HP3.inp 1. P4. CENTRIF. HP5. BZ. HP1. CENTRIF. HP4. F3. CORIO. CENT. CENT. P3. F5.inp ec36shd3. HP. F2. F3. F2. P6. GRAV.inp ec34shd2. CORIO.inp ec36shd5.inp C3D6H element load tests: ec36shd1. *TEMPERATURE. CENTRIF. BY. F3. F4.inp ec34shdr. *TEMPERATURE. HP2. BY. CORIO.inp ec36sfdr.inp ec38sfd3.inp ec36sfd5. BX.inp ec36sfd4. HP1.

HP6. *TEMPERATURE.inp BX.inp ec38shd6.inp C3D8I element load tests: ec38sid1. *TEMPERATURE. F5. P4.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS ec38sfd5. F6.1–18 .inp ec38sfdc. F1. P2. HP5. GRAV. HP3. CENT. HP4. F2. ec38sid2.inp ec38sid4.inp ec38sid3. HP. HP2. BY. HP.inp ec38sfdi.inp ec38shd5. HP2. *TEMPERATURE.inp ec38sid7.inp ec38sfdr. F3. CENT. P1. CENTRIF.inp BX. CENT.inp BX. BZ. BZ. HP. BZ. F6. F3. P6. HP5. F3. P5. F1. F1.inp ec38shdi. ec38sjd2.inp ec38sida. CORIO. HP6. P3. CORIO. P. BY. F4. P4. HP3. P3. HP6. HP4. P5. P4. BY. HP4.inp ec38sfd7. HP5.inp ec38sid5. P3. ROTA.inp ec38shd4. *TEMPERATURE. CORIO. CENTRIF. GRAV.inp ec38shdr.inp ec38sjd3. GRAV. P.inp ec38sfd6.inp ec38shda. P. P2.inp C3D8H element load tests: ec38shd1. HP1.inp ec38shd7.4.inp ec38shd3. F5. *TEMPERATURE.inp C3D8IH element load tests: ec38sjd1. ec38shd2. P6. F4. HP3. P5. CENTRIF. HP2. F6.inp F4. CORIO. F2. P6. HP1. HP1. P2. *TEMPERATURE.inp ec38sjd4. ROTA.inp ec38sid6. P1.inp ec38sfda.inp ec38sidr.inp ec38sidi. F2. 1. ROTA. P1. F5.

F4.inp ec38sjda. P3. F3. P. P1. CENT.inp ec38sjd7. *TEMPERATURE. F2. ec38syd2.inp ec38syda. F6.inp ec3asfd4.inp ec38sjd6. HP. HP2.inp ec38syd6. BZ. CENTRIF. F3. HP2. P2. P3.inp ec38sydi.inp ec3asfd5. HP. *TEMPERATURE. CORIO.inp ec38srdr. CORIO. HP5. ROTA.inp F4.inp ec38srd3. F2. HP3. HP4. CENTRIF.inp ec38srd6. HP1. F6. BY.inp ec38sjdr. HP. F5. P1.inp ec3asfd2. BZ. CENT. P2. HP6.inp ec38syd3. P4. HP3.inp ec38srd5. 1.inp ec38srdi.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS ec38sjd5.inp ec38sydr. P5. F4.inp C3D10 element load tests: ec3asfd1.1–19 . F1. P2. F1. P1. F3.inp ec38syd4.inp BX. P6. HP2. *TEMPERATURE. P4.inp ec38srd4. *TEMPERATURE. P. GRAV. P4. ROTA. P5. F5. GRAV. P3. F4. HP5. ec38srd2. *TEMPERATURE. BY.inp BX.inp ec3asfd3.inp C3D8R element load tests: ec38srd1.inp ec38sjdi. GRAV.4. CENT.inp ec38srda. F5. HP1. CORIO. *TEMPERATURE. ROTA. HP3.inp ec38syd7. CENTRIF. F2. F6. HP1.inp ec38srd7. BX. HP6. HP4. HP4. CORIO. BZ. P.inp ec3asfda. BY.inp ec38syd5. P6. F1.inp C3D8RH element load tests: ec38syd1.

CORIO.inp ec3asid5. F4.inp ec3askd4. CENT. CENT. BZ.inp ec3asidc. P1. P2. HP4. CORIO.inp ec3askdr. ROTA. HP4. HP3.inp ec3asldr. HP2.inp ec3asld5. F3. GRAV. F2. P2. P3. CENTRIF. *TEMPERATURE.inp C3D10MH element load tests: ec3asld1. *TEMPERATURE.inp ec3asid4. GRAV. HP1.inp ec3aslda. BZ.inp C3D10H element load tests: ec3ashd1. P4. ROTA.inp ec3asida.inp ec3ashd2. HP2. CORIO. ROTA. HP2.inp C3D10M element load tests: ec3askd1. BX.inp ec3asld2.inp ec3ashda. P1.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS ec3asfdc. HP1. F2.inp ec3ashd4.inp ec3ashd5. P4. F2. BX. 1. BY.inp ec3asfdr. BZ. HP3. GRAV. F1. F1.inp ec3asidr.inp ec3asld3. P2. CORIO.inp ec3askd2. HP1. P3.inp ec3asid3. BY. P4. F3. F2. BY. CENTRIF. HP1. P3. F4. GRAV.inp ec3askd3. BZ. BX. F4. CENTRIF.inp ec3ashdr.inp ec3askda. P4. HP4. P1.inp CORIO. *TEMPERATURE. ROTA. HP3. CENT. F1. CORIO. CENTRIF. F4.4. F1.inp ec3askd5. ROTA. P3. *TEMPERATURE. CENT. F3.inp C3D10I element load tests: ec3asid1.1–20 .inp ec3ashd3. P1.inp ec3asid2.inp ec3asld4. HP4. BX. F3. HP3. HP2. P2. BY.

P5.inp ec3fshd3. HP2.inp ec3ksfd3. P2.inp ec3fsfd4. BZ. HP1. P3. HP3.inp ec3fsfd5. HP4.inp ec3ksfda. CORIO. HP1.inp BX. HP5. BX. CENT.inp ec3ksfdc. F5. HP4.inp ec3ksfdr. *TEMPERATURE.inp ec3fsfd3. F4. P1. CENTRIF. ec3ksfd2. GRAV.inp ec3fshd6.inp ec3fsfdc. P6. F2.inp ec3fsfd6. F2. F4. *TEMPERATURE. P3.inp 1. BY.inp C3D15H element load tests: ec3fshd1.inp ec3fshd4. P4. F1. BX.inp ec3ksfd4. P2. *TEMPERATURE. HP2. P1.inp ec3fsfda. BY. P. P4. P5. F4.inp ec3ksfd7. HP. CORIO. F1. F1. P4. CENT. ROTA.inp ec3fshdi.inp ec3fshdr. P5. BZ. CORIO.inp ec3fshd2. F3. GRAV. HP1. HP3. CENTRIF. HP. F6. F3.4. HP. *TEMPERATURE. HP4.inp ec3ksfd6. *TEMPERATURE. CENT. P. HP5.inp ec3ksfdi. CORIO.inp C3D20 element tests: ec3ksfd1. F5. CORIO.inp ec3fsfdr. HP5. CENTRIF. F5. P3. HP2. ROTA.1–21 .inp ec3fshda. HP6.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS C3D15 element load tests: ec3fsfd1.inp ec3ksfd5.inp ec3fsfdi. BZ. ROTA. BY.inp ec3fsfd2. F2. HP3. GRAV.inp ec3fshd5. P2. F3. *TEMPERATURE. P. P1.

HP4.inp ec3ksyd6. HP3. CENT. HP6.inp ec3ksrd6. HP3. BZ.inp ec3ksrd7. P. F5. HP4. CENT. F1.4. BZ. P6.inp ec3kshdr. HP1.inp C3D20RH element load tests: ec3ksyd1. P4. CORIO. HP4. HP6. CENT. *TEMPERATURE.inp ec3kshd7.inp ec3ksrd2.inp BX. P4. P5.inp ec3ksrd3. P3. HP2.inp ec3kshd6. F6. P2. HP2.inp ec3ksyd5. F2. P3. ROTA. P1. CENTRIF.inp ec3ksyd7.inp ec3kshd3. GRAV. P. ROTA. P6. HP2.inp ec3ksrd5. BY. HP5.inp ec3ksydi.inp ec3ksrd4. BZ. F6.inp BX.inp ec3kshdi. *TEMPERATURE. F2. *TEMPERATURE.inp C3D20R element load tests: ec3ksrd1. HP1.inp ec3kshda. F3. F4. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE.inp ec3kshd4. GRAV. HP5. 1. P6. ec3ksyd2. BY. GRAV. P2. P4. ec3kshd2. CENTRIF. F3.inp ec3kshd5.inp ec3ksyd4. ROTA. P1. HP3. F4.inp ec3ksyd3. P5. HP. F3.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS C3D20H element load tests: ec3kshd1. HP.inp BX. F2. F6. HP. P3. CORIO. P5. CORIO. F5. F1.inp ec3ksrdi. *TEMPERATURE.1–22 . P1. HP1.inp ec3ksydr. F4.inp ec3ksrda. P. F5.inp ec3ksrdr. HP6. CENTRIF. F1.inp ec3ksyda. BY. HP5. P2.

F4. ROTA. F3. 1.0 ALL. F1. THREE-DIMENSIONAL VARIABLE NUMBER OF NODE SOLIDS Problem description Model: Cubic dimensions Centrifugal and Coriolis axes of rotation Gravitational load vector Material: 7×7×7 (0. *TEMPERATURE.5) (1. HP. HP5. 1. P4. 2. 10. P2.0 Initial temperature Initial velocity (Coriolis loading) Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Results and discussion ALL.inp BX.inp ec3isfd3. F2. CORIO.0 −7. GRAV. 0) through (−1000. *TEMPERATURE.inp ec3isfd2. −3. F5. HP2. CENT. BY. HP4.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS IV. P. 1.0 0. P3. 0. −10.inp ec3isfdi.5. P5.0001 10. P1. HP1.inp ec3isfd4.0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.0 ALL.inp ec3isfda.4. 3. CENTRIF.inp ec3isfd6. 5.3 .inp ec3isfdr.1–23 . Input files C3D15V element load tests: ec3isfd1.inp ec3isfd5. HP3. BZ. 0) Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Density Initial conditions: 3 × 106 0.

F4. *TEMPERATURE.inp ec3ishdi.inp ec3rshd4. F2. ROTA.inp C3D27H element load tests: ec3rshd1. HP3. P3. *TEMPERATURE. F5. HP5. 1. F1. HP.inp ec3ishd5. P.inp ec3rshd2.inp ec3ishda. P2. ROTA. P5. F4. CENTRIF. CORIO. HP1. P5. GRAV. P.1–24 . P1. F3. HP4. HP3. *TEMPERATURE. P4. F5.inp ec3ishd3. F6. GRAV.inp ec3rsfd7. HP6.inp ec3rsfdr. BY. HP. *TEMPERATURE. BX.inp ec3rshda. HP6. HP3. *TEMPERATURE. HP2. F5. HP.inp ec3rsfd6.inp ec3rsfd5. P6. F3. F4.inp ec3ishd6. HP4. P3. CORIO.inp ec3ishdr. CORIO. P1. BY. P. CENT.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS C3D15VH element load tests: ec3ishd1. GRAV. CORIO. P1.inp ec3ishd4. F1.inp C3D27 element load tests: ec3rsfd1.inp BX. HP2.inp ec3rshd7.inp ec3rshdr. P2. CENTRIF. CENT. P5.inp ec3rsfdc. F2.inp ec3rshd3. P4.inp ec3rsfd4.inp ec3rsfdi. HP1. HP2. F2. ec3rsfd2. CENTRIF. P6.inp BX. P4.inp ec3rshdi. ROTA. HP5. P2. *TEMPERATURE. BZ. F3.4. BY. F1. F6. P3.inp ec3rsfd3. BZ.inp ec3rshd5.inp ec3rshd6. HP5. HP4.inp ec3ishd2.inp ec3rsfda. HP1. CENT. BZ.

0) through origin (0.inp ec3rsyd6.inp ec3rsyd2. P6. BX. P6. HP4.inp C3D27RH element load tests: ec3rsyd1. P2.inp ec3rsyd5. HP5.inp ec3rshd5. F1. P1. BZ.1–25 . HP4.inp ec3rsyda. −1. F4. AXISYMMETRIC SOLID ELEMENTS WITH TWIST Problem description Model: Planar dimensions Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravitational load vector 3×3 (0.inp ec3rsyd3. P5. F4. F3. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. HP. CENTRIF. HP3. P. F6.inp ec3rsyd4. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV.inp V.inp ec3rsydi. ec3rshd2. F2. F1. HP. 1. F5.inp ec3rshd6. CORIO. P4. HP6.inp ec3rshd4. CORIO. HP5.inp BX. F2. CENTRIF. HP2.4. ROTA. 0) 1. P3. CENT. HP1.inp ec3rshdr. BY.inp ec3rshd3.inp ec3rshd7. P4.inp ec3rsydr. HP1. BZ. P2. P1. P. F6. *TEMPERATURE. HP2. F5.inp ec3rshdi. BY. P3. GRAV. HP3. ROTA. HP6.inp ec3rshda.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS C3D27R element load tests: ec3rshd1. CENT. F3. P5.inp ec3rsyd7.

CENT. CENTRIF. BR.inp eca4grdi. CENTRIF. P1. BZ. BR. HP3.inp CGAX4R element load tests: eca4grd1. CENT. P. Input files CGAX3 element load tests: eca3gfd1. HP2. HP1. P3. BZ.inp CGAX4 element load tests: eca4gfd1. HP4. GRAV.0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads. P3. CENT.inp eca3gfdi. P1. 1. HP3. P3. CENT. CENTRIF. BZ. P. HP. P.inp eca4ghdi.inp eca4gfdi. P2.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS Material: Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Initial conditions: 3 × 106 0. P. HP2. P1.inp BR.inp eca3ghdi.1–26 . HP2. P4. P1.inp CGAX4H element load tests: eca4ghd1.inp eca4gydi. GRAV. P2. HP4. HP1. HP1. HP2. GRAV. HP1. CENT. P4.inp CGAX4RH element load tests: eca4gyd1. GRAV. HP1. CENTRIF. HP.inp CGAX3H element load tests: eca3ghd1. HP. CENTRIF. P4. P2. P. HP2. P1. P2. CENT.3 5 × 10−5 Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Results and discussion 3. HP4. GRAV. HP2. HP3. HP3. BR. HP. HP3. HP1. P3. P4. BZ. BR.0 0. HP. HP3. P2. BZ. P3.4. HP. HP4. GRAV. BR. P. CENTRIF. BZ. P1. P3. P2.

P3. P4. HP1. P3.4. P3. HP2. HP2. GRAV. P. P.inp CGAX8RH element load tests: eca8gyd1.inp CGAX6MH element load tests: eca6gld1. P. GRAV. BZ. BR. CENT. P2. HP. BR. HP3. P2. HP3.inp eca8ghdi. HP1. GRAV. P3. HP. CENTRIF. BR. CENT. HP3. HP. CENTRIF. HP1. BZ. GRAV.inp eca6gkdi. P4. HP1. HP1. P3. CENTRIF. HP. HP2.inp eca8gydi. P.inp eca6gfdi. HP2. P1. CENTRIF. HP.inp CGAX8R element load tests: eca8grd1. BZ. P2. P1. GRAV.inp CGAX6M element load tests: eca6gkd1.inp eca6gldi. GRAV. BZ. BR. CENTRIF. P1. HP2.inp eca6ghdi. GRAV. BR. P2. P3. GRAV. P. CENT. HP4. P3. BZ. HP3. P.1–27 . P4. HP. P1. CENT. P. HP1. CENT. P3. BZ. HP. P1. CENT. P2. BZ. CENT. BR.inp BR. P4.inp eca8gfdi. P. HP4. BR. P1.inp CGAX8 element load tests: eca8gfd1.inp CGAX8H element load tests: eca8ghd1. CENTRIF. HP3. HP4. CENTRIF. HP1. HP4. HP. P2. HP2. HP2. HP2. P2.inp eca8grdi. HP1. P1. P1. CENTRIF.inp CGAX6H element load tests: eca6ghd1. CENT.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS CGAX6 element load tests: eca6gfd1. HP3. HP3. P2. 1. BZ. HP3.

CAXA4R3 element. and P4.5 Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Initial conditions: 30 × 106 0.inp ecntsrd1.0 1.inp CAXA41 element. CAXA43 element.inp ecnusfd1.inp ecnushd1. HP2. CAXA4RH2 element.0 0. CAXA4H3 element. CAXA4H2 element. P2. CAXA42 element. HP3. 1.1–28 .inp ecnsshd1.inp ecnssyd1.inp ecntsyd1. CAXA44 element. P1.inp ecnssrd1.inp ecnvsfd1. HP4. P3.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS VI.inp ecnusyd1. CAXA4H1 element. HP1.4. AXISYMMETRIC SOLID ELEMENTS WITH NONLINEAR ASYMMETRIC DEFORMATION Problem description Model: Circular cross-section pipe with the global z-axis as the pipe axis.inp ecntsfd1. CAXA4RH3 element.00001 Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Results and discussion 1E6 0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads. Length Outer radius Wall thickness Material: 1. Input files All the elements are tested with the following loads: BZ.inp ecnusrd1. CAXA4R2 element. CAXA4R1 element. CAXA4RH1 element.3 .inp ecntshd1. Axisymmetric element tests ecnssfd1.

0 Initial temperature Initial velocity (Coriolis loading) ALL.inp ecnxsyd1. CAXA8H2 element.inp ecnwsyd1.inp ecnwshd1.inp ecnzsyd1.inp ecnyshd1. CAXA8RH4 element. CAXA8H1 element. CAXA8R1 element. CAXA4R4 element. CAXA8R2 element.inp ecnysyd1.inp ecnzsfd1. CAXA83 element.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS ecnvshd1. CAXA8RH2 element.4.inp ecnwsrd1.inp ecnzshd1. CAXA8H4 element.inp ecnwsfd1.0001 10. 1. CAXA81 element. CAXA4RH4 element. −10. 0. CAXA8RH3 element.1–29 . 1) through origin (0. CAXA8R4 element. CAXA82 element.inp ecnzsrd1. Problem description Model: Planar dimensions Inner radius Circumferential extent Centrifugal and Coriolis axes of rotation Gravitational load vector Material: 3×3 1 180° (0.inp ecnysrd1. CAXA84 element. 0.inp ecnvsyd1. 1) Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Density Initial conditions: 3 × 106 0.inp VII.inp ecnxshd1.3 .inp ecnvsrd1.inp ecnxsrd1.inp ecnxsfd1. CAXA8RH1 element. 5. CYLINDRICAL SOLID ELEMENTS CAXA4H4 element.inp ecnysfd1. CAXA8H3 element.0 ALL. CAXA8R3 element.0 1.

CENT.inp ecccghd2.0 0. F6. HP4. F2. P4.inp BX. Input files CCL9 element load tests: ecc9gfd1. HP1.inp ecc9gfdi. HP2. HP. F3. CORIO. HP. P3. BY. BY. HP1. ROTA. F4. HP4. CENTRIF. P3. F4. GRAV. F5.inp CCL12 element load tests: eccigfd1.inp BX. ROTA. BZ.0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.inp ecc9gfd2. HP2. BZ. BZ. F2. HP3. ecccgfd2. HP3. P. P4. HP5. F4. F5. GRAV.inp eccigfd2. HP2. F2. HP5. ROTA. 1. P1. HP5.inp ecc9ghdi. F2.inp ecccgfdi. P2.inp CCL12H element load tests: eccighd1.inp ecccghda. HP5.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Results and discussion 3. F4. CENT. P. P2. CENTRIF. HP1. P5. *TEMPERATURE. HP3. GRAV. ROTA.inp ecc9ghd2. BY. *TEMPERATURE. P3. GRAV.1–30 . P6. P2. P2. F1. HP3. HP1.inp ecccgfda. CORIO. P5. P5. P4. HP1. CENT. BY. BX. F4. F1. HP6. P1.inp CCL18 element load tests: eccigfd1.4. F6. CENTRIF. F5. CORIO. F5.inp ecc9gfda. HP2. *TEMPERATURE. CENTRIF. BX. P1. HP4. BY. CENT. HP5. *TEMPERATURE. HP2. HP4. BZ.inp ecccghdi. P5. P. HP3. P1. P3. HP. BX. P. CENT. F2. GRAV. P3. F3. HP6.inp ecc9ghda.inp CCL9H element load tests: ecc9ghd1. F3. F1. *TEMPERATURE. P4. P1. F5. P5. BZ. P2. F3. HP4. HP. P4. P6. F3. F1. CENTRIF. CORIO. F1.

HP3. ROTA. HP5.1–31 . P. HP6. BY. P4. *TEMPERATURE. P2. HP1. CORIO. HP1. GRAV. F3. CENTRIF. F3.inp eccrgfdi. F2.inp BX. F2. P5. P3.inp CORIO. P. F1. F3.CONTINUUM ELEMENTS eccigfda. P4. HP1. HP5. HP2. HP2. F1. HP4. F5. GRAV. HP5. P6. F4. *TEMPERATURE.inp BX. P3. eccrgyd2. ROTA. P. eccrgrd2. HP4. CENT.inp eccrgrdi. P1.inp eccrgydi. BZ. P. BZ. P1. P2. P4. HP. P5. BY. P6. BY. F3. BZ. HP. P1. F4. F2.inp eccrgyda.inp eccrghdi. P6. P4. BZ. ROTA. F1. P3.inp eccighd2. eccrgfd2. CENT. F5. BX. CORIO.4. BZ. F5. ROTA. P5.inp BX. P2. F2. GRAV. F4. HP6.inp CCL24R element load tests: eccrgrd1. eccrghd2. F5. P2.inp CCL24H element load tests: eccrghd1. GRAV. CENTRIF. F3.inp CCL24 element load tests: eccrgfd1.inp BX. HP. HP3.inp eccigfdi. F6. 1. CENTRIF. F1. CENTRIF. HP.inp eccrgrda. ROTA. CORIO. *TEMPERATURE. F5. *TEMPERATURE. HP1. CENTRIF. HP. CORIO.inp eccighda. F6.inp CCL24RH element load tests: eccrgyd1. P5.inp eccrgfda. HP6. HP5. HP4. ROTA. P3. F4. CENT. P6.inp eccrghda.inp CCL18H element load tests: eccighd1. HP. HP4. CENT. F6. HP6. HP4. P4. BY. P2. CORIO. P3.inp eccighdi. P1. HP2. HP3. CENT. P. HP5. HP2. P1. HP2. BY. F2. HP1. F6. F1. HP3. P5. *TEMPERATURE. HP3. P. F4. GRAV.

CONTINUUM ELEMENTS VIII. C3D8 element using a hyperelastic material loaded with ﬁeld expansion driven by a single ﬁeld variable. predeﬁned ﬁeld variable. Tests nonlinear static.inp hyper-thermﬁeld-expand. C3D8 element using a linear elastic material and loaded with both ﬁeld and thermal expansion. static perturbation. static perturbation. C3D8 element using a hyperelastic material loaded with both ﬁeld and thermal expansion.1–32 . 1. Initial conditions: In all cases the initial value of all relevant ﬁeld variables is assumed to be zero at all the nodes.inp hyper-twoﬁeld-expand. Input files ﬁeldexp_cpe4. and buckle procedures.inp CPE4 element using a linear elastic material model and loaded with both ﬁeld and thermal expansion.inp ﬁeldexp_c3d8. Results and discussion The results for loading based on ﬁeld expansion match those obtained from a similar model using thermal expansion. Material: Most tests use a linear elastic material model. and buckle procedures.inp hyper-ﬁeld-expand. FIELD EXPANSION TESTS Problem description Model: This section lists a number of simple tests that verify the ﬁeld expansion capability. In most cases a single element or a small assembly of elements is loaded using the ﬁeld expansion capability. CPS4 element using a linear elastic material and loaded with both ﬁeld and thermal expansion. In all cases a ﬁeld expansion coefﬁcient is deﬁned and is associated with at least one. Tests nonlinear static. Tests nonlinear static.4. static perturbation.inp ﬁeldexp_cps4. The ﬁeld expansion is driven by a single ﬁeld variable. C3D8 element using a hyperelastic material loaded with ﬁeld expansion driven by two different ﬁeld variables. and buckle procedures. There are a few tests that use a hyperelastic material model. and in some cases more than one.

02 a = 4.95.0 a = 2. PZ.49). b = 3.16667 0.0.995.0). 1.0. = = = 0.0 (0.49).02 = 0. *TEMPERATURE. c = 0. 0. 0) (1.01.49).0). = 0.4. 1.0 = = 12.49). A = (0. P1. 0. PY.95).1.995. J = 25.49).995.01.3 0.5. a = 2. = 3. r = 2. = 0.1.0. = = 0. t = 0.02 r = 2.4.1 r = 2.2 BEAM STRESS/DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard I.0.1 C = (3. d = 0. = 0. GRAV. = = 0.0. n = 2. = 0.2. 0. PX. d = 1.566. 0) n = 4.0. B = (0. LOAD TYPES: CENT. b = 3. CENTRIF. B = (−. b = 3. = 0.02 h = 2. C = (.2 a = 2. c = 2. = 2.01. E = (−. b = 4.4.133 A = 12. A = (−. P2.995.2–1 . l = 1.5 Arbitrary (open) Box Circle General Hexagonal I-section L-section Pipe Rectangular Trapezoidal Material: Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion 3 × 106 0. 1) through (7.566.BEAM ELEMENTS 1. 1. D = (.0.0. 3. −1. ROTA Problem description Model: Length Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravity load vector Beam section data: Arbitrary (closed) 15.0001 1.0. 0.995. t = 0. −1.0.0.0.02. 0.0.

P.inp eb23rgd1. CENT.inp eb2hrgd1. P.inp eb23qxdi. GRAV. P. CENT. *TEMPERATURE. CENT. Input files Rectangular section B21 element load tests: eb22qxd1. PY. CENT.inp eb22rgd1. *TEMPERATURE. CENTRIF.inp eb2hrvdi. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE.inp eb22qxdi. CENTRIF. GRAV. GRAV. GRAV. P. *TEMPERATURE. P2.inp eb2hrvd1. PX.4. CENTRIF. PY. GRAV.inp CENT.inp B21H element load tests: eb2hqxd1.inp eb2hqxdi. CENTRIF. P2. P. ROTA. CENTRIF. *TEMPERATURE. PY. P. *TEMPERATURE.inp eb2hrxdr. P2. PX.inp eb22rvd1. P2.inp eb23rgdi. P2. PX. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. P2.inp eb22rxdr.inp eb22rvdi. PY. *TEMPERATURE.inp eb22rgdi. PX. PX. PY. P.inp eb2hrgdi. PY. CENTRIF. GRAV. CENT. PX. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. −10.BEAM ELEMENTS Initial conditions: Initial temperature Results and discussion ALL. 1. CENT. CENT. PY. ROTA. P2. GRAV.0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads. PY. PX. PX. *TEMPERATURE. CENTRIF. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE.inp B22 element load tests: eb23qxd1.2–2 . CENTRIF. P. P2. *TEMPERATURE.

P. GRAV. GRAV. PX. CENT. CENT. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV.inp eb2arvdi.inp eb2jqxdi.inp B23H element load tests: eb2jqxd1. P. PY. *TEMPERATURE. CENTRIF. GRAV.2–3 . *TEMPERATURE. P. PY.inp B23 element load tests: eb2aqxd1. PX. *TEMPERATURE.inp eb2jrgd1. P. ROTA. *TEMPERATURE. PX. CENT. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. PX. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. PY. PY.inp eb2jrvdi. *TEMPERATURE. P2. P. P. *TEMPERATURE.inp B22H element load tests: eb2iqxd1.inp eb2arxdr. *TEMPERATURE. ROTA. PY. P2. GRAV.inp eb2iqxdi. P. *TEMPERATURE. PX.inp eb2arvd1. PY. PY.inp eb2irvdi. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV. P2. P. CENTRIF. P2.4. 1. P2. PX.inp eb2argdi.inp CENT.inp eb2irvd1. *TEMPERATURE. CENT.inp eb2jrgdi.inp eb23rxdr. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE.inp eb2irgd1. PY. *TEMPERATURE. P2. PY.inp eb23rvdi. CENT. *TEMPERATURE.inp eb2irxdr. P2. P. CENT.inp eb2argd1. P2. PY. *TEMPERATURE.inp eb2aqxdi.inp eb2jrxdr. PX. PX. CENT. P2. *TEMPERATURE. ROTA. CENT. ROTA. PX. CENTRIF. CENTRIF. CENTRIF. GRAV. CENTRIF.inp eb2irgdi.BEAM ELEMENTS eb23rvd1. P. CENTRIF. CENTRIF. CENT. GRAV.inp eb2jrvd1. CENTRIF. PX. P2. CENTRIF.

PZ. CENT. P1. GRAV. CENTRIF.inp B32H element load tests: eb3iqxd1. PX. PY. P1. PZ. CENTRIF. PY. *TEMPERATURE. P1.inp eb33rgd1. P1. PZ.inp eb3irgd1. PY. GRAV. CENT. CENT. PX. PX. PX. PZ. CENTRIF. CENTRIF. *TEMPERATURE. CENTRIF. PY.inp eb32rgd1. *TEMPERATURE. P2. PZ. PZ. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV. P1.inp eb32rvd1. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. PX. PZ. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV. CENT. P1. GRAV. CENT. CENTRIF. P2.inp eb33rxdr. P2. PY. PX. PY. P1. P2. *TEMPERATURE. P2. GRAV. CENT. PX. *TEMPERATURE. ROTA. CENTRIF. PX.inp eb3hrvd1. CENTRIF.inp CENT.inp eb3hrgd1. PY. PY. CENTRIF. CENTRIF. GRAV. CENTRIF. PZ. CENT. PZ. CENT. PZ. *TEMPERATURE. P2. GRAV. P2. PX. PY.4. *TEMPERATURE. P2. ROTA. ROTA. PZ.inp B31H element load tests: eb3hqxd1. GRAV. CENT. P1. P2. P1. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV. PX.inp eb3argd1.inp B33 element load tests: eb3aqxd1. P2. PY.BEAM ELEMENTS B31 element load tests: eb32qxd1. P2. PY. P1. CENT. P2. PZ.inp B32 element load tests: eb33qxd1. P1. ROTA. P2. P1. CENTRIF. CENT.inp eb3irvd1. PX.inp eb3hrxdr.inp eb32rxdr. PX. GRAV.2–4 . *TEMPERATURE. GRAV. P1. PY. PZ. GRAV. P1. PZ. CENT. *TEMPERATURE. 1.inp eb33rvd1. CENTRIF. PX. CENTRIF. PY. GRAV. CENT. PX. P2. PY.inp eb3irxdr.

PX. P2. *TEMPERATURE. CENT. PY. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. PZ.inp ebo2kxd1. PX. CENTRIF. P2. P2.inp CENT. PX. PZ. CENTRIF.inp B31OSH element load tests: ebohigd1. CENT. P1. ROTA. P. CENT. PZ. CENT. GRAV. PZ. PX. *TEMPERATURE.inp eb32rxdr. P2. CENTRIF. PY. PY. CENT. GRAV. P1. PZ.inp ebohixdr. *TEMPERATURE.inp eb2iigdi. PZ. PX. P2. CENT. P1. GRAV.inp eb3arxdr.inp eb2ikxdi. CENTRIF. PY. P2. *TEMPERATURE. CENTRIF.inp B33H element load tests: eb3jqxd1. PX. *TEMPERATURE.inp B31OS element load tests: ebo2igd1. P1. PY. P1. PZ. PX. *TEMPERATURE. CENT. 1. PX. CENTRIF. P2. PY. P1.inp ebohkxd1. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE.inp eb2iivdi. P. P2. PX.inp eb2ikxd1. PY. PZ. CENT. GRAV.2–5 . GRAV. GRAV. P2.inp I-section CENT.4.inp eb3jrvd1. B22H element load tests: eb2iigd1. PZ. PZ. P2. GRAV. PZ. PY. PX. P1. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. P1. P1.inp ebo2ivd1. CENTRIF. CENTRIF. PY. CENTRIF. GRAV. ROTA. PY. P2. CENT. PY. ROTA. P2. P2. P1.inp ebohivd1. CENTRIF. CENTRIF. P. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV. P1. PX. GRAV.inp eb2iivd1. PX. CENT. CENTRIF. GRAV. CENT. CENTRIF.inp eb3jrgd1.BEAM ELEMENTS eb3arvd1. ROTA. P1.inp ebo2ixdr. PY. PZ. GRAV. PX. P1. *TEMPERATURE. PY. *TEMPERATURE. PZ.

*TEMPERATURE. PZ. P2. CENTRIF. CENTRIF. CENT. CENTRIF. CENT. GRAV. P1. PZ.2–6 . PX. GRAV. PX. P1. P1. CENTRIF. P2.inp eb2iexd1. PY. P2. CENTRIF.inp ebo3ixdr. PX. CENT. PY. PY. CENTRIF. P1.inp B32OSH element load tests: eboiigd1. *TEMPERATURE. P1.inp eb3iivd1. P1.inp eb2ibgdi. CENTRIF. CENT. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV.inp ebo3kxd1. P1.inp eb3ikxd1. *TEMPERATURE. PY. GRAV. P2. PZ. PX. P2. PZ.inp eboiixdr. PY. PX. P2. *TEMPERATURE. PX. P1. *TEMPERATURE. PX. PX. P2. CENTRIF. CENT.BEAM ELEMENTS B32H element load tests: eb3iigd1. CENTRIF. PZ. *TEMPERATURE. ROTA. *TEMPERATURE. P. CENT.inp ebo3ivd1. ROTA. PY.inp eboiivd1.inp B32OS element load tests: ebo3igd1. GRAV.inp eb2ibvdi. arbitrary closed section CENT. PX. P1. PY. PZ. PX.inp CENT. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. 1. GRAV. PZ.inp B32H element load tests: eb3ibgd1. *TEMPERATURE. CENT. P1. GRAV. P. *TEMPERATURE. PY. P1. PZ. CENTRIF.inp eb2ibvd1. GRAV. PY. CENTRIF. CENTRIF. PY. *TEMPERATURE. P2. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV. CENT. P. P1. PZ. PY.inp eboikxd1. CENT. PX. PX. CENTRIF. PY. GRAV. CENT.4. P2. PY. *TEMPERATURE. P2. PZ.inp Box section. P1. P2. CENT. GRAV. P2. P2. *TEMPERATURE. PZ. PX. PZ. B22H element load tests: eb2ibgd1.inp eb2iexdi. GRAV. GRAV. PZ.

inp Circular section CENT. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV. GRAV.inp CENT. *TEMPERATURE. P1. GRAV. P2. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. CENTRIF. P2. P1.inp B32H element load tests: eb3icgd1. CENT. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV.inp eb3ia1d1. PY. *TEMPERATURE. CENTRIF. PZ.2–7 . CENTRIF.inp eb2igxdi. P. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV. PX. CENTRIF.inp eb2icvd1. P2. P2. P2. PY. CENT. GRAV. P2. PX. CENTRIF. PX. P2. CENT. CENT. P1.inp eb2ifxdi. CENT. PZ. CENT. CENTRIF. PY. CENT. PZ. PX. PX. *TEMPERATURE.inp eb3iexd1. CENTRIF. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV.inp eb3iabd1. P. PZ. PX. PX. PY. B22H element load tests: eb2icgd1. P1. PX. PZ. PZ. PY.inp General section CENT.inp eb2ifxd1. P1. PZ. CENT. P1. P1.inp B32H element load test: eb3igxd1. P1. PZ. P2. PZ. P1. PY.BEAM ELEMENTS eb3ibvd1. P2. PZ. CENTRIF. PX. *TEMPERATURE. PY. CENT. B22H element load tests: eb2igxd1. P. PX. 1.inp eb2icvdi. CENTRIF. PY. *TEMPERATURE. CENTRIF. P1. PY. *TEMPERATURE. P2. PZ. P2.inp eb3idbd1. PY. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. P2. CENTRIF. *TEMPERATURE. P. PY. PX. CENTRIF. PY. PZ. PY. PX. P1. P1.inp eb3icvd1. GRAV.inp eb3ifxd1. P1. CENTRIF. GRAV.inp eb2icgdi. PX.4. GRAV. CENT. P2. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. PZ.

B32H element load tests: eb3ilgd1.inp eb2ihvd1. PZ. PY.inp eb3idld1. PY. CENT. PY. PX. GRAV. P2. *TEMPERATURE. arbitrary open section CENT. P2. CENTRIF. PY. P2. GRAV. P1. *TEMPERATURE. P. CENT.inp eb2ijxd1. PZ. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. CENT. P1. P1.inp eb2ipgdi. PY. PX. CENTRIF. PZ.inp eb3iald1.inp B32H element load tests: eb3ihgd1. PZ. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. B22H element load tests: eb2ipgd1. P1. CENTRIF. PZ. PZ. PY. P1. P2. P1. PZ. *TEMPERATURE. PY. P2. PX. P1. PZ. CENTRIF. P2. P.inp L-section. P1. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE.4.inp eb3ilvd1. PX. CENT. GRAV. PX. CENT. P1. PX. GRAV. PX. PX.inp eb3imxd1. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE.inp Pipe section CENT. P2. PY. PY. P1.inp eb2ijxdi.inp CENT. CENT. P. PZ. CENTRIF. P2. *TEMPERATURE. 1.inp eb3ihvd1. *TEMPERATURE. PX. PY. CENT.2–8 . GRAV.inp eb2ihgdi. P1. GRAV. CENTRIF. *TEMPERATURE. PX. CENT.inp eb3ijxd1.BEAM ELEMENTS Hexagonal section B22H element load tests: eb2ihgd1. PY.inp eb3ia2d1. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV. PY. P1. P2. GRAV. CENTRIF. CENT. GRAV. CENTRIF. CENTRIF. CENT. PZ. PZ. PX. P2. CENTRIF. P2. *TEMPERATURE. PX. CENTRIF. GRAV. P2. PZ. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. PX. P1. CENTRIF. P2. PY. CENTRIF. PZ. GRAV.

P2. PZ. GRAV. PZ. CENT. PY. CENT.inp eb2itvd1. PX. GRAV. GRAV. CENTRIF. *TEMPERATURE. PY. CENT. GRAV. PZ. CENTRIF.inp eb2isxdi. P2.4. PX.inp eb2itgdi. P. PY.BEAM ELEMENTS eb2ipvd1. *TEMPERATURE.inp eb3ioxd1. PZ. GRAV. PY. PZ. P2. PZ. PY. CENTRIF. GRAV. CENT. P2. P2. PZ. P. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. P1. PX. P2. PX. CENTRIF.inp eb3itvd1. PY. PZ. P. P1. PY. CENTRIF. P2. PX. CENT. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. P1. 1. PX. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. PY. PX. CENT. CENTRIF. P1. CENTRIF. PY. CENT.inp Trapezoidal section CENT. B22H element load tests: eb2itgd1. GRAV. P1. *TEMPERATURE. PX. CENT.inp eb2ipvdi. PZ. *TEMPERATURE. P2. P1.inp eb3isxd1.2–9 .inp eb2isxd1. CENTRIF. P2. P. *TEMPERATURE. CENTRIF. *TEMPERATURE. P2. PZ. GRAV. PX.inp CENT. PY. P1. PY.inp eb3ipvd1. CENTRIF.inp B32H element load tests: eb3itgd1. P1. PX. *TEMPERATURE. P1. CENTRIF. P. P2. PZ. CENT.inp eb2ioxd1. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV.inp eb2ioxdi.inp B32H element load tests: eb3ipgd1. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. PX. P1. GRAV.inp eb2itvdi. *TEMPERATURE. P1.

4.0. B32H: F2.inp eb2jrxd3. LOAD TYPES: F1. Input files Rectangular section eb22rxd3.inp eb32rxd3. F2 Problem description Model: Length Rectangular section data I-section data Material: 15. = 3. B31: F1. B23H: F2.inp eb2hrxd3. B32H: F1.inp B21: F2. B31H: F2.3 Results and discussion The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.inp eb3jrxd3.0. B31H: F1.inp eb3irxd3. = = = 0.BEAM ELEMENTS II.0. l = 1. B21H: F2.inp eb23rxd3. 1.inp eb3hrxd3.inp eb3jrxd2. B22: F2. b = 3. B32: F2.2.inp eb32rxd2.inp eb3arxd2. B33: F2.inp eb3hrxd2.inp eb33rxd2. B22H: F2.0 a = 2.inp eb2arxd3.0 h = 2. = 2.4. B33H: F1.2 Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio 3 × 106 0. B31: F2. B32: F1.inp eb2irxd3.inp eb3arxd3.inp eb33rxd3. B33H: F2. B23: F2.inp eb3irxd2. B33: F1.2–10 .

FY.inp eb23pxd9. FY.inp B21: FX. FZ.inp ebohixd2.inp ebohixd3.BEAM ELEMENTS I-section ebo2ixd2.inp eb3ipxd9.2–11 . FY.0. FY.inp eboiixd3.inp eb32pxd9.inp eb3hpxd9. FY. B32OSH: F2.05 h = 2.inp eb33pxd9. FY. B23: FX. B31H: FX.0.inp eb2ipxd9.inp III. B32OSH: F1. B31OSH: F2.4. FY.4.0.inp ebo3ixd2. FY. Input files Pipe section eb22pxd9. Problem description Model: Length Orientation Pipe section data I-section data Material: 10 45° with horizontal axis r = 1. B32H: FX.inp ebo3ixd3. FZ B31OS: F1.inp eb2apxd9. B32OS: F1. = = = 0. 1. B31OS: F2. FZ. FOUNDATION TYPES: FX. B31: FX.inp eb2hpxd9.2 Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Results and discussion 30 × 106 0. B31OSH: F1. B32OS: F2. FY. FY. B32: FX. t = 0. B21H: FX. FZ. B22H: FX.inp eb2jpxd9.3 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads. = 2.2.inp eboiixd2.inp ebo2ixd3. B23H: FX. B22: FX. l = 1. FY. FZ. = 3.

FY. l = 1.BEAM ELEMENTS eb3apxd9. 0) = 2. B31OSH: FX. FY.inp eboiixd9.0 ALL. 2.inp eb23pxda. 1. ebo2ixd9.0 h = 2.inp eb3jpxd9. t = 1. FY.0. FZ. = 3. FZ. FZ.inp B21 element.inp IV. 10.4. B23H element. Problem description Model: Pipe section data I-section data Axis of rotation Material: r = 10.0 (for 3-D beams) Results and discussion The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads. FZ. B22H element. 1) through (0. B33H: FX.inp ebo3ixd9. 1.inp eb2hpxda. B31 element. Input files All elements are tested with the CORIO load. FZ.inp eb32pxda. B32OSH: FX. B21H element.2–12 .inp eb2ipxda. B32OS: FX.0.inp eb2jpxda. 5.0. 0. B22 element. 0. FY. B23 element.4.inp ebohixd9. FY. 2. FZ.inp I-section B33: FX. Pipe section eb22pxda. 3. = = = 0.2. CORIOLIS LOADING B31OS: FX.0 ALL.2 Young’s modulus Initial conditions: 30 × 106 Initial velocity ALL. (0.inp eb2apxda. FY.

B31OSH element.inp ebo3ixda.inp eb3jpxda.inp ebohixda.inp B31OS element.inp eb3apxda. B33H element.inp I-section B31H element.inp eboiixda. B32H element. B32 element. B32OS element.inp eb3ipxda.4. B33 element.BEAM ELEMENTS eb3hpxda.inp eb33pxda. ebo2ixda. B32OSH element.2–13 . 1.

.

0. 1.PIPE ELEMENTS 1.5. PI. HPE.3–1 . 1.inp CENT.3 0.2 (0.0 ALL. CORIO. HPI.4. Model: Length Pipe section data Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravity load vector Material: 15.inp ep22pxd3. Abaqus/Explicit DISTRIBUTED LOADS Problem description Internal pressures are applied to an effective diameter of 3. 5. GRAV. −10.0. F2.0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.6. 0.4.0 r = 2. 0) Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Initial conditions: 3 × 106 0. t = 0. whereas external pressures are applied to an effective diameter of 4. CENTRIF. 10. 1. Input files PIPE21 element load tests: ep22pxd1. PE. PY. The effective axial force output variable ESF1 is also tested. P2.3 PIPE STRESS/DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS Products: Abaqus/Standard I. *TEMPERATURE.0 100. 0) (0. 1) through (7.inp ep22pxdr. ROTA. PX. 2.0 ALL. 0.4188 Initial temperature Initial velocity (Coriolis loading) Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Results and discussion ALL.0 0.

CORIO. PE. P2. HPE. CENTRIF. P2. PI. F2. GRAV. PZ. PZ.inp ep33pxd3. PZ. PZ. GRAV. PY. PX. ROTA. F1. 1.inp ep32pxd2. ROTA. *TEMPERATURE. PE.inp ep3hpxd2. *TEMPERATURE. PI. PX.inp ep33pxd2. PY. P2. ROTA. GRAV. CENT. PE.PIPE ELEMENTS PIPE21H element load tests: ep2hpxd1. PE. HPI.inp ep2ipxdr. ROTA. HPE. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE. F2. CORIO. HPE. PY.inp PIPE22H element load tests: ep2ipxd1. PX.inp PIPE32 element load tests: ep33pxd1. HPE. CENT. CORIO. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. CENTRIF. HPI. CENTRIF. ROTA. PI. F2. PY.inp ep2hpxd3.inp ep2hpxdr. P2. CENT. P1.4. PI. PI.inp ep23pxd3. PE. CORIO. HPI. *TEMPERATURE. PX. CENTRIF. F2.inp ep33pxdr. PI.inp ep3hpxd3. CENT. F1. CENTRIF. PX. PY. HPE. P2. P2. CENT. CENTRIF. P2.inp ep3hpxdr. HPI.inp ep23pxdr. CENT. P1.inp PIPE22 element load tests: ep23pxd1. PX. CENTRIF. GRAV. PE. HPE. PY. PY. CORIO.3–2 . P1.inp CENT. HPE. HPI. CORIO. *TEMPERATURE. PX.inp PIPE31 element load tests: ep32pxd1. P1. PI. GRAV. F1. HPI. F2. F2. ROTA. GRAV. HPI.inp PIPE31H element load tests: ep3hpxd1.inp PIPE32H element load tests: ep3ipxd1. PE.inp ep32pxdr.inp ep32pxd3. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. CORIO.inp ep2ipxd3.

PIPE32H: FX. PIPE31: FX. FY. FZ Problem description Model: Length Orientation Pipe section data Material: 10 45° with horizontal axis r = 1. PE. FY.inp ep2ipxd9.inp PIPE21 element load tests in Abaqus/Explicit: pipe21_load_options_xpl. FZ. FY.inp ep2hpxd9. PIPE31H: FX.0. PY. FY. PIPE32: FX. HPE. FZ.05 Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Results and discussion 30 × 106 0. GRAV. PX. PI.3 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.PIPE ELEMENTS ep3ipxd2. PE.inp ep23pxd9.inp ep3ipxd3. FY. FY. HPE.inp ep3ipxd9. P2.inp ep3hpxd9.4. II. FY. *TEMPERATURE. P2. PIPE22: FX. HPI. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV. PX.inp ep32pxd9. HPI.inp ep33pxd9. FZ.inp F1. FZ. FOUNDATION TYPES: FX. PI. PY.inp PIPE31 element load tests in Abaqus/Explicit: pipe31_load_options_xpl. PIPE22H: FX. FY. PZ. FY. Input files ep22pxd9. ROTA.inp ep3ipxdr. F2. PIPE21H: FX. 1. t = 0.inp PIPE21: FX.3–3 . P1.

0 The effective axial force output. which are documented at the top of the input ﬁle. EFFECTIVE AXIAL FORCE WITH MODAL PROCEDURES Element tested PIPE21 Problem description Internal pressures are applied to an effective area of 1. while external pressures are applied to an effective area of 2. Model: Length Orientation Pipe section data Material: 100.0 90° and 45° with horizontal axis r = 1. t = 0.inp Input ﬁle for this analysis.0. 1.0. The effective axial force output variable ESF1 is also tested.PIPE ELEMENTS III.0. ESF1.25 Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Results and discussion 1 × 106 0.0 1.3–4 .4. Input file xesf1mod. agrees with the analytically determined values.

P.inp esa3sxd8. CENT. 1.0 5.3 1. P. P. HP.inp esa3sxdi. MEMBRANE. AND TRUSS ELEMENTS 1.4. 1.4 SHELL.SHELL. GRAV.4–1 . Input files SAX1 element load tests: esa2sxd1. BZ. 1. HP. F.inp BR.0 Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Initial conditions: Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation 12.inp. BR.inp esa2sxdi. GRAV. F. HP. AND TRUSS STRESS/DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard I. MEMBRANE. P. BZ. 0) through origin (0. HP.0 Gauss integration is used for the shell cross-section in input ﬁle esa2sxd1. CENTRIF. AXISYMMETRIC SHELLS Problem description Model: Length Radius Thickness Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravity load vector Material: 10. CENTRIF.5 (0.inp esa2sxd8.4.0 0. 0) 3 × 106 0. CENT.0 0.inp SAX2 element load tests: esa3sxd1. Results and discussion The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.

0 5. MEMBRANE.4.5 (0. F.inp ema2srdi.inp MAX2 element load tests: ema3srd1. BR. AND TRUSS ELEMENTS II. P.SHELL.inp ema3srdi. CENT. BZ. HP.inp MGAX1 element load tests: emg2srd1. GRAV. P. 1. HP.inp BR. P. F. GRAV. BZ. HP. 0) Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Initial conditions: 3 × 106 0. CENTRIF. Input files MAX1 element load tests: ema2srd1.inp emg2srd8. F.0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads. HP.0 0.3 1. CENT. HP. 1. CENT. P.4–2 .inp ema2srd8. BZ. P. AXISYMMETRIC MEMBRANES Problem description Model: Length Radius Thickness Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravity load vector Material: 10. CENTRIF. CENTRIF. 0) through origin (0. BR. P. 1. GRAV. HP.0 Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Results and discussion 12.inp emg2srdi.inp ema3srd8.0 0.

F. BZ. CENTRIF. HP. MEMBRANE.SHELL.inp emc6srda. 1) Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Initial conditions: 3 × 106 0.inp emc9srd8. CENT. BX.4–3 .inp BX.0 Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Results and discussion 12. 0.inp emc6srd8. Problem description Model: Length Radius Thickness Centrifugal axis of rotation Coriolis axis of rotation Gravity load vector Material: 10.0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.0 0. CENTRIF. F. Input files MCL6 element load tests: emc6srd1. CORIO. 0. CENTRIF. 1) through origin (0. P. ROTA. AND TRUSS ELEMENTS MGAX2 element load tests: emg3srd1. F.inp MCL9 element load tests: emc9srd1. CENT.inp emc6srdr.0 0. 1. HP. BY. BZ. HP.0 5.inp III. CENT. CYLINDRICAL MEMBRANES BR. BY. GRAV.inp emg3srdi. GRAV. P. P. 1) through origin (0. 0.3 1.inp emg3srd8. BZ. GRAV.4. P. HP.5 (0.

BY. P.4–4 . 2. 1. P. ROTA.inp esf3sgdi. ROTA. 0. 0) through origin (0. CENT. HP. Input files S3/S3R element load tests: esf3sgd1. *TEMPERATURE. CORIO.inp esf3sxd1.inp IV.0 0. 10. BZ.0001 Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Initial conditions: Initial temperature Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Initial velocity (Coriolis loading) Results and discussion ALL. 0. BX. 5.inp emc9srdr. P.0 (0.inp BX. HP. BY.SHELL.3 1. GRAV.0 ALL. 1) 3 × 106 0. HP. *TEMPERATURE. 1. *TEMPERATURE. P. −10 7. BZ. HP. CENT. GENERAL SHELLS AND MEMBRANES: GENERAL ELEMENT LOADING Problem description Model: Square dimensions Thickness Centrifugal axis of rotation Coriolis axis of rotation Gravity load vector Material: 7×7 2.inp esf3sxdi.0 ALL. 1. CENTRIF.0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads. AND TRUSS ELEMENTS emc9srda. *TEMPERATURE. 1) through origin (0.0 . GRAV. MEMBRANE.4.inp esf3sxdr.

*TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. CENT. HP. ROTA. CENT. HP. P. GRAV.inp ese4sxd1. P. GRAV. HP.inp esf4sxd1. BX. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. HP. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV. BX. BZ.inp ese4sxda. CENTRIF. CORIO. CORIO. HP. CENT. BX.inp esf4sxdi. BY. BX.inp esf4sxdr. P. BZ. GRAV. P. HP.inp es54sgdi. GRAV.inp es54sxda. *TEMPERATURE. CENT.inp S8R element load tests: es68sgd1. BZ. BX. *TEMPERATURE. P. AND TRUSS ELEMENTS S4 element load tests: ese4sgd1. BX. BY.inp ese4sgdi. CENT. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE.inp es54sxd1. BX. BY.inp S4R5 element load tests: es54sgd1. BY. HP. *TEMPERATURE. P. BX. HP.inp BX. HP. P. *TEMPERATURE. BZ. P. P. ROTA. *TEMPERATURE. CENT. GRAV. HP. P. GRAV.inp ese4sxd8.SHELL.inp es54sxdi. *TEMPERATURE.inp esf4sgdi. P. P. BZ.inp es68sxdi.inp es54sxdr.inp S4R element load tests: esf4sgd1. *TEMPERATURE. P. CENT.inp esf4sxda. BZ.inp S8R5 element load tests: es58sgd1. HP.4–5 . *TEMPERATURE. CENTRIF. BY. CENTRIF. F. CORIO.inp es68sxd8. HP. P. F. CORIO. HP. HP. HP.inp es68sxda. GRAV.inp es68sxd1. BY. BZ. P.inp esf4sxd8.4. BY. ROTA. HP. BZ. 1. F. CENT. CENTRIF.inp es54sxd8. HP.inp es58sgdi. MEMBRANE. BZ. *TEMPERATURE.inp es68sgdi.inp es68sxdr. P. P.inp ese4sxdi. CENT. P. HP. BY. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. BY. F.

inp es56sxda. HP. CORIO. GRAV. P. *TEMPERATURE. BY. BX.inp es56sxdr. BY. GRAV. CENTRIF. CORIO. MEMBRANE. CORIO. ROTA.inp M3D3 element load tests: em33sfd1. CENT.inp es58sxd8. *TEMPERATURE. GRAV. ROTA. CENT. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. BX. BZ. HP. HP. BZ. CENT. CENT.inp es63sxd8. P. CENT. BY. BZ. *TEMPERATURE. F. P.inp es59sxdi. CENTRIF. P. BX. P. BZ. CENT.SHELL. P. *TEMPERATURE.inp em33sfda. 1.inp es63sxda. *TEMPERATURE. HP. HP. *TEMPERATURE. BX. *TEMPERATURE. HP. HP.inp STRI3 element load tests: es63sgd1.inp es56sxdi. F. BZ.inp es56sgdi. P. GRAV.inp es63sxdr.inp es58sxdr.inp em33sfdi.inp es59sgdi. HP. P. P. CENT.inp S9R5 element load tests: es59sgd1. HP.inp es56sxd8. BZ. P. HP. BY. F.inp em33sfd8.inp em33sfdr. HP. *TEMPERATURE.inp es59sxd1. BZ. P. ROTA. CORIO. BZ. BY. P. *TEMPERATURE.4. F.inp es59sxdr.inp es63sgdi. GRAV.inp es63sxdi. BX.inp es59sxd8. CENTRIF. *TEMPERATURE. ROTA. F. HP. P.inp STRI65 element load tests: es56sgd1. HP. BX. *TEMPERATURE. BY. ROTA.inp es59sxda.inp es63sxd1. CENTRIF.4–6 . *TEMPERATURE. CENTRIF. HP. *TEMPERATURE. AND TRUSS ELEMENTS es58sxd1. BY.inp es58sxda.inp es58sxdi. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. P.inp BX. P. GRAV. CORIO. HP. HP. GRAV.inp es56sxd1. P. CENT. BY. BX.

*TEMPERATURE. GRAV.inp em38sfd8. CENT. BX. BY. F. HP. HP.inp em36sfd8. CENTRIF. HP.inp em38srd8. BY.inp em38sfdr. CORIO.inp M3D6 element load tests: em36sfd1.inp em36sfdi. CORIO. BY. P. HP.4–7 . CENTRIF.inp em38srda.inp em34srdr. GRAV. CENTRIF. ROTA.inp em36sfda. BZ.inp em36sfdr. *TEMPERATURE. ROTA.inp M3D8 element load tests: em38sfd1. *TEMPERATURE. F. BZ. HP.inp em38sfda. P. P. CENTRIF. BZ. *TEMPERATURE.inp em34sfda. F. AND TRUSS ELEMENTS M3D4 element load tests: em34sfd1.inp em34srdi. F. F. *TEMPERATURE. CORIO. GRAV. P. CENTRIF. GRAV. P. P. HP. CORIO. HP. BX. BZ. CENT. HP.inp em38sfdi.inp em38srdi.inp em34srd8.inp M3D8R element load tests: em38srd1. BX. BX. BX. 1. CENT. ROTA. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE. HP. HP.inp em34srda. BZ. *TEMPERATURE. P. P. ROTA. P. BY.4. BY.inp BX. CORIO. ROTA. MEMBRANE.inp em34sfdr. HP. CENT. *TEMPERATURE.inp em34sfd8. GRAV. P. P.inp M3D9 element load tests: em39sfd1. BZ. CENTRIF.inp em38srdr. *TEMPERATURE. *TEMPERATURE.inp em34sfdi.SHELL. CENT. BY. GRAV. CENT.inp M3D4R element load tests: em34srd1.

S4: *TEMPERATURE. S4R: *TEMPERATURE. S4: *TEMPERATURE.inp es54sxdg.inp esf4sxdg. HP.inp S3/S3R: *TEMPERATURE. CENT.4. CORIO. P.inp ese4sxdg. AND TRUSS ELEMENTS em39sfd8. F. MEMBRANE. Input files esf3sxdg. BX. CORIO.inp em39srdr. 1.inp M3D9R element load tests: em39srd1.inp em39sfda. *TEMPERATURE. 70. P. *TEMPERATURE. P. GENERAL SHELLS AND MEMBRANES: UNCONSTRAINED THERMAL EXPANSION Problem description Unconstrained expansion of a hollow cylinder subject to uniform thermal loading is investigated. ROTA. CENTRIF.inp em39sfdr. HP.405 0.inp V. S4R5: *TEMPERATURE.05 Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Initial conditions: 4.SHELL. HP. ROTA. BZ.inp ese4sgdg.87 × 10−6 Initial temperature Results and discussion ALL.4–8 . F.inp em39srda.inp em39sfdi. Onequarter of the cylinder is modeled with a 6 × 6 mesh of quadrilateral elements with appropriate boundary conditions applied along lines of symmetry.2875 0. BY. *TEMPERATURE.inp em39srd8.0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.inp em39srdi. GRAV. A similar discretization is used (with the diagonals crossed on the quadrilaterals) to test triangular elements. Model: Length Radius Thickness Material: 0.

S8R: *TEMPERATURE. HP.inp VI.inp esnzsxd1.inp es63sxdg.inp esntsxd1. P. BZ. HP.0 0. BX.inp esnxsxd1.inp es59sxdg.inp es56sxdg.4. P. P. BZ.0 Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Results and discussion 1 × 106 0. BX. HP. S9R5: *TEMPERATURE. MEMBRANE. AXISYMMETRIC SHELLS WITH NONLINEAR ASYMMETRIC DEFORMATION Problem description Model: Length Radius Thickness Material: 10. AND TRUSS ELEMENTS es68sxdg. BZ. P. HP.0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads. BZ.4–9 .0 5.inp esnvsxd1. HP.01 Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Initial conditions: 3 × 107 0. BZ. 1.inp esnysxd1.inp SAXA11: SAXA12: SAXA13: SAXA14: SAXA21: SAXA22: SAXA23: SAXA24: BX. P. BX.3 1. P. S8R5: *TEMPERATURE. P. BX.inp es58sxdg. P. BZ. BX. STRI3: *TEMPERATURE. Input files esnssxd1. HP. BZ. HP. STRI65: *TEMPERATURE. BX. HP. BX.SHELL.inp esnusxd1. BZ.inp esnwsxd1.

4–10 .inp T2D3 element load tests: et23sfd1.0 ALL. CORIO. 5.inp et22shdr. ROTA. 1. 10.0001 5 × 10−5 Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Density Initial conditions: Initial temperature Initial velocity (Coriolis loading) (3-D only) Results and discussion ALL. TRUSS ELEMENTS Problem description Model: Length Area Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravitational load vector Material: 1.inp BX. 1. −1.inp et22sfda.0 ALL. BY. −10.SHELL.3 .0 0. CENT. GRAV.0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads. 0) 3 × 106 0. BX. CENTRIF.1 (0. BX. 2.inp T2D2H element load tests: et22shd1. CENT. CENTRIF. 2.5. GRAV. 1. CORIO. *TEMPERATURE. 0.inp et22shda. AND TRUSS ELEMENTS VII. BY. *TEMPERATURE. CENT.inp et22sfdr.inp et22sfdc. BY. MEMBRANE. CORIO. ROTA. CENTRIF. GRAV.0 ALL. *TEMPERATURE. 0) through (. Input files T2D2 element load tests: et22sfd1. 3. 0) (0.4.

CENT. BY. BX. CORIO. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. CORIO.inp VIII.inp et32sfdc. GRAV.inp T2D3H element load tests: et23shd1. BZ. GRAV. CENTRIF.inp et23sfdr. BX.inp et33shda. BZ. CENTRIF. ROTA.4. CENTRIF. ROTA. In all cases a ﬁeld expansion coefﬁcient is deﬁned and associated with at least one. ROTA. FIELD EXPANSION TESTS CORIO. CENT. CENT.inp et32shdr. CORIO.inp et32sfdr. CORIO. GRAV. BY. predeﬁned ﬁeld variable. BY. AND TRUSS ELEMENTS et23sfda.inp et23shdr. GRAV. *TEMPERATURE. CORIO. BX.inp T3D3 element load tests: et33sfd1. *TEMPERATURE.inp et23sfdc. BZ.inp T3D2H element load tests: et32shd1.inp et33sfdc.inp et33sfda. *TEMPERATURE.inp et33shdr. CENTRIF. 1. ROTA. BX. Problem description Model: This section lists a number of simple tests that verify the ﬁeld expansion capability. BZ. CORIO.SHELL. Material: All tests use a linear elastic material model.inp et32shda.inp T3D3H element load tests: et33shd1. and in some cases more than one. MEMBRANE. *TEMPERATURE. CENT. CORIO.inp T3D2 element load tests: et32sfd1.inp et33sfdr. ROTA.4–11 . CENTRIF. CENT.inp et23shda. BX.inp et32sfda. BY. BY. ROTA. In most cases a single element or a small assembly of elements is loaded using the ﬁeld expansion capability. CORIO.

T2D2 element using a linear elastic material model loaded with ﬁeld expansion deﬁned using user subroutine UEXPAN. The one-dimensional elements are subjected to ﬁeld and thermal expansion while fully constrained. The ﬁeld expansion behavior is driven by three different ﬁeld variables. Tests proper interpolation of temperature and predeﬁned ﬁeld-variable-dependent material data deﬁning ﬁeld expansion coefﬁcient. SC8R element using a linear elastic material model and loaded with ﬁeld expansion driven by a single ﬁeld variable.4. T2D2 element using a linear elastic material model loaded with both ﬁeld and thermal expansions.inp ﬁeldexp-t2d2-multﬂd. The ﬁeld expansion behavior is driven by two different ﬁeld variables. respectively. Tests nonlinear static and linear perturbation steps.inp ﬁeldexp_sc8r.4–12 . T2D2 element using a linear elastic material model loaded with both ﬁeld and thermal expansions.2.inp buckleplate_s8r5_ﬁeldexpan_riks. The thermal expansion coefﬁcient and the two ﬁeld expansion coefﬁcients are assumed to be associated with a nonzero reference temperature and nonzero reference ﬁeld variable values. 1.inp S4R element using a linear elastic material model and loaded with both ﬁeld and thermal expansion.inp ﬁeldexp_m3d4.” Section 1. AND TRUSS ELEMENTS Initial conditions: In all tests the initial value of all relevant ﬁeld variables is assumed to be zero at all the nodes. Tests Riks procedure and produces same result as buckleplate_s8r5_riks.SHELL.inp uexpan1x_ﬁeld.inp in “Buckling of a simply supported square plate. S8R5 element using an elastic material model loaded with ﬁeld expansion driven by a single ﬁeld variable. and the results have been veriﬁed by analytical means. Input files ﬁeldexp_s4r. M3D4R element using a linear elastic material model and loaded with both ﬁeld and thermal expansion.inp ﬁeldexp-t2d2-reftemp.4 of the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual. Results and discussion The results for loading based on ﬁeld expansion match those obtained from a similar model using thermal expansion. MEMBRANE.

Thermal loading speciﬁed using the *TEMPERATURE option. 0. 0) through origin (0. COH3D8P. the effect of thermal loading applied using the *TEMPERATURE option is veriﬁed by allowing each element to deform freely in the thickness direction with the change in temperature. COH3D6. −1000. and COH3D6P: Cubic dimensions Thickness Thickness direction Response Centrifugal axis of rotation Coriolis axis of rotation Gravitational load vector COH2D4 and COH2D4P: Planar dimensions Thickness Thickness direction Response Centrifugal axis of rotation 7×7 Geometry Global 2 Continuum (1.5. 0) 1. The resulting thermal strains in the thickness direction are compared with the analytical results. 0.4. Problem description In this veriﬁcation test all the nodes of each element are ﬁxed. 0. Surface-based distributed loading speciﬁed using the *DSLOAD option.COHESIVE ELEMENT LOAD VERIFICATION 1. Model: COH3D8. 3. 0) through (3.0) 7×7×7 Geometry Global 2 Continuum (1. and the reaction forces generated at the nodes as a result of the load application are used to verify the element load calculations. 0.5. 1.4. In addition. 0) through (3.5) (1.5 COHESIVE ELEMENT LOAD VERIFICATION Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit COH3D8 COH3D6 COH2D4 COHAX4 COH3D8P COH3D6P COH2D4P COHAX4P Features tested The following features are tested in this veriﬁcation problem: • • • Element-based distributed loading speciﬁed using the *DLOAD option.5–1 . −1000.

inp coh3d8p_loads_std. CENT. GRAV. P. P2. 0. *TEMPERATURE for COH3D6P. 0) Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Density Initial conditions: 3 × 106 0. CENT. BY. CENTRIF. BZ. P2. BR. P4. P3. 0) 10 × 10 Geometry Global 1. *TEMPERATURE for COHAX4.4. P2.5–2 . P5. CENT. 0) through origin (0. *TEMPERATURE for COH2D4. ROTA. CENTRIF. P6. P4. ROTA. P. P6. BY. P2.COHESIVE ELEMENT LOAD VERIFICATION Coriolis axis of rotation Gravitational load vector COHAX4 and COHAX4P: Planar dimensions Thickness Thickness direction Response Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravitational load vector Material: (0. CENT. P. CENTRIF. BX. BY. P4. BY. P1. P1. P1.0 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.inp coh2d4_loads_std. P5. BZ. P1. ROTA. P6. P1. P3. BX. CENTRIF. P4. P3. GRAV.3 0. 1) through origin (0. P2. P. GRAV. P5. P1. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files coh3d8_loads_std. BY.0001 10. P4. 0. P. GRAV. GRAV. In addition. 1. P6. *TEMPERATURE for COH3D8.inp cohax4_loads_std. P3. BX.0 Initial temperature Results and discussion ALL. 1. CENT. Global 2 Continuum (0. GRAV. BZ. P2.inp coh3d6p_loads_std. P5. P. P3. BX. P3. CENTRIF. BZ. 1. BZ. 1. ROTA. *TEMPERATURE for COH3D8P.inp BX. P4. *TEMPERATURE for COH3D6. CENTRIF. CENT. ROTA.inp coh3d6_loads_std. the thermal stresses and strains in the thickness direction match the analytical results for the case of thermal loading.

CENTRIF. P3. *TEMPERATURE for COH2D4P.COHESIVE ELEMENT LOAD VERIFICATION coh2d4p_loads_std. BZ. COH2D4. CENT. P3. VP2. and COHAX4. P1. 1. P.5–3 . VP1. BZ. P1. COH3D6. GRAV.inp coh_p_vp_xpl. VP3. VP4. CORIO for COH3D8. VP for COH3D8. GRAV. and COHAX4. *TEMPERATURE for COH3D8. P1.inp cohp_corioload. P4. *TEMPERATURE for COHAX4P. BR. COH3D6P. CENTRIF. and COH2D4P. GRAV for COH3D8. coh_bf_grav_xpl. and COHAX4.inp BX.4. BR.inp coh_corioload. COH2D4. P2. P3. ROTA.inp coh_thermal_xpl. CORIO for COH3D8P. BY. P. BY. COH3D6. and COH2D4. P2.inp cohax4p_loads_std.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files BX. COH2D4. CENT. COH3D6. P. P4. COH3D6. P2.

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CENTRIF.4. Results and discussion The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.4. BY. BZ.6–1 .inp exelcxd1. Input files exel1xd1. BY. GRAV.6 ELBOW ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard I. ELBOW31: ROTA. 0. BZ. CENTRIF.0. 0. PI. BY.inp ELBOW31: BX. 1. preventing cross-sectional deformations. t = 1. BZ.inp exelbxd1. 1) Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Initial conditions: 3 × 106 0. CENTRIF.0 0. 1) through midspan (0. CENTRIF. *TEMPERATURE. CENT. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE. CENT. ELBOW31B: BX. CENT. *TEMPERATURE. ELBOW31B: ROTA.ELBOW ELEMENTS 1.0 (0. PI. and ROTA on ELBOW31 and ELBOW32 elements. GENERAL LOADING Problem description Model: Length Elbow section data Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravity load vector Material: 15.0 The boundary condition NODEFORM is used for load types BX. PI. *TEMPERATURE.inp exelbxdr. CENT. GRAV. −10. BY. ELBOW31C: BX.3 1.0001 Initial temperature ALL. GRAV. BZ.0 = 10. GRAV.inp exel1xdr.

1.535 (0.275. ELBOW31C: ROTA.inp exel2xd1. ELBOW32: ROTA.04. the net reaction in the 3-direction should be the buoyant force.8.ELBOW ELEMENTS exelcxdr. in all directions. All other reaction forces and moments should sum to zero.96 × 104 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads. GRAV. and the positive hydrostatic pressure gradient is in the negative 3-direction.33 Uniform pressure magnitude Initial conditions: 10. CLOSED-END PRESSURE LOADING Problem description Closed-end pressure loading of ELBOW elements is veriﬁed.0 −2. which in this case is 2203.4. Internal pressure is applied to the elbow. A single element is oriented at 45° to the x.025 0. *TEMPERATURE.inp II. t = 0. BY.and z-axis in a ﬂuid of density 1 × 103 .0 1. The magnitude of the acceleration resulting from gravity is 9. According to Archimedes’ Principle. CENTRIF.6–2 . PI.0 Zero pressure height Reference pressure height Reference pressure magnitude Results and discussion 0. BZ. The reaction forces should sum to 0. CENT. The test consists of completely constraining all degrees of freedom and recovering the reaction forces under the hydrostatic pressure load on the elbow.0 = 0.inp exel2xdr. Model: Length Elbow section data Effective diameter Gravity vector Material: 1. 0. The results also indicate that the directions of the nonzero reaction forces and moments on individual nodes are correct. The second test is of a curved elbow with closed-end conditions modeled by an ELBOW element. 1) Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Loading: 1 × 1010 0. ELBOW32: BX.

1.inp exel2xdh.ELBOW ELEMENTS Input files exel1xdh.inp exelcxdh. PI. ELBOW32: HPE.inp exelbxdh.4.inp ELBOW31: HPE. PI. ELBOW31B: HPE. PI.6–3 . PI. ELBOW31C: HPE.

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1. HP2.4. Q2. HP1. P3.inp ece4pfdl. BX. GRAV. S. GRAV. Q1. BX. HP. HP4. CENTRIF. HP1. 1. Q3. Q4. BY.PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS 1.4. P3. Q.4142 1 × 10−5 1. P2. S2. PLANE STRAIN ELEMENTS WITH PORE PRESSURE Problem description Model: Planar dimension Gravity load vector Material: 3×5 (1. ROTA. Q3. S1. BY.inp CENTRIF. P4. S4.0 0.0 1.inp CPE4PH element load tests: ece4phde. P1.7–1 .7 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.0 Initial void ratio Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Sink pore pressure Results and discussion 1. S4. Q2. 0) Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Permeability Speciﬁc weight of ﬂuid Initial conditions: 1 × 108 0.0 5. Q1. S3. Input files CPE4P element load tests: ece4pfde. HP3. HP2. P.7 CONTINUUM PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard I. P4. S2. P2.inp ece4pfdr. S1. HP3. HP4.0 14. Q4. S3. P1.

HP. Q3. S2. Q3D. Q3. S2. Q1. P4. S3. ROTA. Q2. S3. HP1.4. Q3.inp ece4pydl. HP3. S4. HP2. Q1. QD. S2.inp ece4prdr. S. P1. HP2. P3. BX.inp CPE8P element load tests: ece8pfde. GRAV. S3. HP4. S3. HP3. P1.inp ece8pfdr. BY. HP1. S3. BX. S2. ece8phdl. HP3. BX.inp ece4phdr.inp P. HP3. P2.inp ece4pydr. S2. HP4. BY. ROTA. GRAV.inp CENTRIF. S2. P. S4. P4. P3. QD. P2. P. Q. Q2. S. Q2. ROTA. P3. HP3. Q4D. Q. 1. HP. Q. HP4. P. HP2. P4. P2. HP1. P2. GRAV. Q3.inp CPE4RP element load tests: ece4prde. Q3D. HP1.inp ece6pldr. Q2D.inp CENTRIF. HP. P1. P2. S. HP1. Q1. CENTRIF. GRAV. P.7–2 . S1. Q2.inp ece4prdl. Q. Q4. HP4. ROTA. Q4. HP1. Q2D. S4. GRAV. CENTRIF.inp ece6pkdr.inp CPE6MPH element load tests: ece6plde. ROTA. P1.inp CPE8PH element load tests: ece8phde. P2. Q.inp CPE6MP element load tests: ece6pkde. S1. HP. BY. P3. P1. BX. Q3. Q4. Q2. S1. HP3.inp CPE4RPH element load tests: ece4pyde. HP. BY. Q1D. Q1.inp ece8phdr. HP. Q3. Q1.PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS ece4phdl. CENTRIF. Q4D.inp ece6pldl. HP2. Q1D. S1. P3. Q1. Q4. P. S1. Q2. S4. S1. ece8pfdl. P4. P1. HP. S. CENTRIF. P. GRAV.inp ece6pkdl. S. S. BY. HP2. S. BX. ROTA. BX. HP2. P3. S3. Q. BY. ROTA. Q.

0 14. Q4.inp II.7–3 .inp CENTRIF. Q2. HP1. P3. CENTRIF. HP4. HP3. HP4. ROTA. HP. ece8prdl. P1. P.0 1. S3. P4. QD. Q3. GRAV. Q3. S. P3. BX. S4. Q3D. Q2D. P4. HP3.0 (1. Q1D.inp ece8pydr. S4. HP2. GRAV. S1.inp CPE8RPH element load tests: ece8pyde. BX.inp ece8prdr.4142 1 × 10−5 1. Q. Q1. HP. BY. HP1.PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS CPE8RP element load tests: ece8prde.0 0. P2. S2. Q. Q1D.0 Initial void ratio Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Sink pore pressure Results and discussion 1. Q4.7 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads. QD. Q2D. P2. AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENTS WITH PORE PRESSURE Problem description Model: Planar dimension Inside radius Gravity load vector Material: 3×5 1. Q4D. P1.4. S1. 1. S.inp ece8pydl. S2. BY. Q3D. S3. Q1.0 5. 0) Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Permeability Speciﬁc weight of ﬂuid Initial conditions: 1 × 108 0. P. Q2. 1. Q4D. ROTA. HP2.

BZ. P1. GRAV. Q1. HP2. Q1D. Q.inp eca4pfdl. Q2. P. S1.inp eca4prdl. HP2. CENTRIF. Q3.inp CENTRIF. S1. HP3. S. S3. P1. Q2.inp CAX4PH element load tests: eca4phde. Q1. HP. Q. HP2. Q3. S2. BR. HP. P3. BR. HP4. P2.inp CENTRIF. Q1. Q1. S4. Q. Q2. S1. GRAV. HP4. P1. P2.4.inp CAX4RP element load tests: eca4prde. HP2. Q.inp CAX4RPH element load tests: eca4pyde.inp CENTRIF. P1. Q2. HP3. HP3. Q1. HP4. HP. P. Q. GRAV. Q2D. S. S4. Q4D. Q1D. Q3. HP1. S2. GRAV. HP1. GRAV. S. GRAV. Q3D. BZ. Q4. S3. eca8phdl.inp CAX8P element load tests: eca8pfde. Q2. HP4. P3. BZ. HP1. GRAV. Q2. Q. S1.inp eca6pldl. BR. P. CENTRIF. S4. S. P2. HP. HP1. CENTRIF. HP1. CENTRIF. S. P4. P2. S2. HP1. Q. Q4D. P3. HP4. S2. S1. BZ. Q3D. S4. S2. P3. Q3. S2. HP1. Q2. QD. HP4. BR. BZ. Q4. P. S2. BZ. P1.7–4 . Q2.inp CAX6MPH element load tests: eca6plde. HP3. HP3. BR. Q4. P1. BZ. BR. Q3. S2. BZ.inp eca4pydl. P4. Q. S1. Q4. HP2. P3. HP.inp eca6pkdl. Q4. Q2D. 1. HP. P. S3. Q4. HP2. S1. BR. S3. S. P2. Q1. Q1. HP3. P4.inp CAX6MP element load tests: eca6pkde. P4. P. BR. P. HP3. HP2.inp CAX8PH element load tests: eca8phde. Q1. HP3. QD.PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS Input files CAX4P element load tests: eca4pfde. eca8pfdl. CENTRIF. P2. Q3. S. HP1. P3. P1. S3. S3. HP. P2. Q3. S4. P2.inp eca4phdl. P3. P. S4. GRAV. P3. P4. P4. S. P1. HP. S3. Q3. S3. S1. HP2.

P4. Q. P1. GRAV. S. Q3D.7–5 . S. eca8prdl. P3.inp CENTRIF. S2.inp eca8pydl. Q2. BZ. QD. P. Q4. HP1. P1. S2. P. HP3. P4. Q3D. HP2. CENTRIF. Q.0 Initial void ratio Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Sink pore pressure Results and discussion 1. Q1D.0 0. 1. S4. HP4.inp III. S3. Q3. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS WITH PORE PRESSURE Problem description Model: Cubic dimension Gravity load vector Material: 3×5×1 (1. S1. Q4D. HP2. Q1D. BZ. HP3. QD. Q2D.PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS CAX8RP element load tests: eca8prde.inp CAX8RPH element load tests: eca8pyde. P2.0 1. Q4D. HP4.7321 1 × 10−5 1. HP1. BR. P2. Q2. GRAV.0 14. S4. HP. 1.4. HP. Q1.7 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads. P3. Q3. BR. S1. 1) Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Permeability Speciﬁc weight of ﬂuid Initial conditions: 1 × 108 0.0 5. Q1. Q4. S3. Q2D.

ROTA. HP6. ROTA. BZ. P1. GRAV. HP4. S6.inp CENTRIF. Q6. Q3. S3. BX. Q. S2. GRAV. ROTA. S.inp C3D8RP element load tests: ec38prde. HP5. S6. HP4. Q. HP2. S2. BZ. HP. HP. Q3. HP1. HP1. P1. BZ. P5. HP3. HP2. HP2.inp ec38prdr. HP6. HP3. S. P5. P.inp C3D10MPH element load tests: ec3aplde. P3. S2. P1. S4. S5. P3. Q5. P3.7–6 . HP3. HP2. P2. BY. P2. HP. S1.inp C3D8RPH element load tests: ec38pyde. S3. ROTA. ec38prdl.inp ec38pfdr. Q4. Q1. Q4. P. S2. HP. Q6. P2. HP2. 1.4. Q4. BY. P6. ec38pydl. BX. HP1. S4. HP. Q1. HP6. S1. P6. S1. P6. P6. Q4. P1. Q3. BX.inp ec3apldl. Q5. S6. HP4. P2.inp C3D10MP element load tests: ec3apkde. HP5. P. P2. S5. Q2. HP1. S1. P4. ec38pfdl. S3. Q3. HP. Q1. CENTRIF. S6. S3. HP3. P5. S4. ROTA. P3. Q4. BY. Q1. P. S4. CENTRIF. Q1. BZ. P1. Q. S3. S. HP4. HP3. Q5.inp CENTRIF. BX. HP5.inp CENTRIF. Q3. S3. GRAV. Q2.inp ec38pydr.inp ec38phdl. BX. P. BY. Q5. Q. HP1.inp ec3apldr. HP3. HP1. S1. ROTA. HP6. Q. S2. HP5. HP4. BZ. BX. S. P4. Q2. Q2. S1. Q1. S5.inp C3D8PH element load tests: ec38phde.PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS Input files C3D8P element load tests: ec38pfde. GRAV. GRAV. Q6.inp ec38phdr. Q4. Q2. Q. P4. P4. S4. S2. P3. P1. Q3. P5. BY. P4. HP4. S. HP2.inp ec3apkdl. P. Q2. Q6. BY. S4. BZ. S5.inp ec3apkdr. GRAV.inp CENTRIF. S. P4. P3. P2.

GRAV. S5. S2.0 (1. Q4. Q6. S1. HP4. HP2.inp IV. P4. P2. HP2. HP1. BX. Q1D. Q. S1. S. P1. HP6.inp ec3kphdr. S. S. 1. HP3. Q2. S6.inp CENTRIF. P5. P1. Q5. ec3kprdl. S4. HP4. HP3. Q5D. P2. HP3. S6. QD. Q1D. HP6. ec3kpfde. HP4. HP. HP3. P6. HP.7–7 . Q5D. Q6. S4.inp CENTRIF. HP6. BY. Q3D. CAXA ELEMENTS WITH PORE PRESSURE Problem description Model: Planar dimension Inside radius Gravity load vector 3×5 1. Q5. BX. Q5D. S2. Q1. Q3. P6. Q5.4.f ec3kpfdl. GRAV. BY. Q4. CENTRIF. Q3D. Q1.inp ec3kprdr.inp C3D20RPH element load tests: ec3kpyde. Q2D. P4. P. Q1D. P. Q3. S6. Q5D. Q5. S3. Q. P1. HP5. S. Q2D. Q2. Q3. BY. Q3. ROTA. QD. S5. P3. S5. Q1. S6. Q2D. S4. S2. ROTA. QD. Q4. S3.inp. P5. HP. ROTA. BZ.inp CENTRIF. BZ. S5. P2. HP5. HP5. HP1. Q4. P. P3. ROTA. Q6. P3. S3. Q6D. HP2. HP6. Q1D. P2. P5. BX. User subroutines FLOW and DFLOW used in ec3kpfde. Q2. P6. Q6. S2. Q2D. HP2. P4. Q4D. P. GRAV.inp ec3kpydr. 0) 1. P6.inp C3D20PH element load tests: ec3kphde. Q6D. BZ. Q. BZ. S1. QD. Q1. HP4. Q6D.inp ec3kphdl.inp C3D20RP element load tests: ec3kprde. Q4D. S4. S3. HP5.PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS C3D20P element load tests: ec3kpfde. Q4D. HP. P4. BY. Q2. P1. Q3D. Q6D. P3.inp ec3kpfdr. P5. Q. GRAV. HP1. Q3D. Q4D. BX. ec3kpydl. S1. HP1.

Input files ecnwpfde. Q2D.inp ecnypfde. GRAV. P3. Q4D. Q2. Q2D. Q3D. Q1. P2. P1. S1.inp CAXA8P1: BX. HP4. S3. CAXA8P3: BX.7–8 . S3. P4.0 Initial void ratio Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation Sink pore pressure Results and discussion 1. P4. HP3. S4. Q3. GRAV. Q3. Q2. Q4D. Q1D. P1. Q3.PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS Material: Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Permeability Speciﬁc weight of ﬂuid Initial conditions: 1 × 108 0. Q3D. CAXA8P2: BX. GRAV. P2. HP1. Q1D. P2. Q2. S4.0 14. Q2D. Q2D. HP3. Q3D. Q3. Q3. Q4D. P2. HP2. P1. P1. P1. P3. HP4. Q1D. Q2D. Q2. BZ. CAXA8RP2: BX.inp ecnxprde.0 0. HP1. P2. P3. Q3. S2. Q1D. GRAV. Q1. HP4. HP1. P2. S1. BZ.inp ecnyprde. P1.7 The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads. Q1. S2.0 1. Q4. 1.inp ecnwprde. S1. Q1. GRAV. Q4D. HP2. CAXA8RP3: BX. S2. HP3.0 5. HP2. HP4.inp ecnxpfde. Q1. Q2. S4. Q4. P3. S2. HP3. P4. Q2. Q2D. GRAV. Q1. Q3. Q4. BZ. S1. Q3D. Q3D. S3. S3. Q3D. S2. Q4D. HP4. S2. Q1D. HP3. BZ.4142 1 × 10−5 1. Q4. S1. BZ. P2. P3. S3. Q2D. Q4D. Q4. S1. S2. Q3D. HP3. S4. P3. HP2. S3. HP1. P4. S4. GRAV. HP3. HP1. P4. HP1. S4. Q1. S1. CAXA8RP1: BX. CAXA8P4: BX. Q2. S3. Q1D.4. Q4. P1. HP1. S4. HP4. BZ. Q1D. HP2. Q4D. Q4.inp ecnzpfde. BZ. HP4. HP2. P4. P3. HP2. P4.

PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS

ecnzprde.inp

CAXA8RP4: BX, BZ, GRAV, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q1D, Q2D, Q3D, Q4D, S1, S2, S3, S4.

V.

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PORE-THERMAL ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Cubic dimension Gravity direction
**

Material:

7×7×7 (1, 0, 0)

Modulus Density Expansion Speciﬁc heat Conductivity Density, pore ﬂuid Expansion, pore ﬂuid Speciﬁc heat, pore ﬂuid Conductivity, pore ﬂuid Permeability Speciﬁc weight of ﬂuid

Initial conditions:

3 × 106 10.0 0.0001 1.0 0.1 10.0 0.0001 1.0 0.1 0.01 1.0

**Initial void ratio Initial temperature Initial pore pressure
**

Results and discussion

1.0 0.0 0.0

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

c3d8pt_loads.inp c3d8rpt_loads.inp

C3D8PT: BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6. C3D8RPT: BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6.

1.4.7–9

PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS

c3d8rpht_loads.inp c3d10mpt_loads.inp

C3D8RPHT: BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6. C3D10MPT: BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4.

VI.

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PORE-THERMAL ELEMENTS WITH FLOW LOADS

Problem description Model:

**Cubic dimension Gravity direction
**

Material:

5×3×1 (1, 1, 1)

M odulus Density Expansion Speciﬁc heat Conductivity Density, pore ﬂuid Expansion, pore ﬂuid Speciﬁc heat, pore ﬂuid Conductivity, pore ﬂuid Permeability Speciﬁc weight of ﬂuid

Initial conditions:

1 × 108 1.7321 0.0 10.0 1.0 1.7321 0.0 10.0 1.0 1 × 105 1.0

**Initial void ratio Initial temperature Initial pore pressure
**

Results and discussion

1.0 0.0 0.0

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

c3d8pt_dﬂow_loads.inp

C3D8PT: BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6, Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5, Q6, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6.

1.4.7–10

PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS

c3d8pt_sﬂow_loads.inp c3d8rpt_dﬂow_loads.inp

c3d8rpht_dﬂow_loads.inp

c3d10mpt_ﬂow_loads.inp

c3d10mpt_dsﬂow_loads.inp

VII.

C3D8PT: P, HP, Q, S. C3D8RPT: BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6, Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5, Q6, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6. C3D8RPHT: BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6, Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5, Q6, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6. C3D10MPT: BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, S1, S2, S3, S4. C3D10MPT: P, HPQ, S.

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PORE-THERMAL ELEMENTS WITH HEAT LOADS

Problem description Model: For this set of veriﬁcation problems both the solid and the pore ﬂuid used identical heat transfer properties so that results could be compared with conventional heat transfer elements.

Cubic dimension

Material:

7×7×7

Modulus Density Expansion Speciﬁc heat Conductivity Density, pore ﬂuid Expansion, pore ﬂuid Speciﬁc heat, pore ﬂuid Conductivity, pore ﬂuid Permeability Speciﬁc weight of ﬂuid

Initial conditions:

3 × 106 82.9 0.0 0.39 3.77 × 10−5 82.9 0.0 0.39 3.77 × 10−5 0.001 10.0

Initial void ratio Initial temperature Initial pore pressure

1.0 0.0 0.0

1.4.7–11

PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS

Results and discussion

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

**c3d8pt_heat_loads.inp c3d8rpt_heat_loads.inp c3d8rpht_heat_loads.inp c3d10mpt_heat_loads.inp
**

VIII.

C3D8PT: S, F, R. C3D8RPT: S, F, R. C3D8RPHT: S, F, R. C3D10MPT: S, F, R.

AXISYMMETRIC PORE-THERMAL ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

Cubic dimension

Material:

3×3

Modulus Density Expansion Speciﬁc heat Conductivity Density, pore ﬂuid Expansion, pore ﬂuid Speciﬁc heat, pore ﬂuid Conductivity, pore ﬂuid Permeability Speciﬁc weight of ﬂuid

Initial conditions:

3 × 106 5 × 10–5 0.0001 1.0 0.1 5 × 105 0.0001 1.0 0.1 0.01 1.0

**Initial void ratio Initial temperature Initial pore pressure
**

Results and discussion

1.0 0.0 0.0

The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.

1.4.7–12

PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS

Input files

cax4pt_loads.inp cax4rpt_loads.inp cax4rpht_loads.inp

CAX4PT: CENT, CENTRIF, BR, GRAV,HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, P1, P2, P3, P4. CAX4RPT: CENT, CENTRIF, BR, GRAV,HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, P1, P2, P3, P4. CAX4RPHT: CENT, CENTRIF, BR, GRAV,HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, P1, P2, P3, P4.

IX.

AXISYMMETRIC PORE-THERMAL ELEMENTS WITH FLOW LOADS

Problem description Model:

Cubic dimension

Material:

3×5

Initial conditions:

1 × 108 1.4142 0.0 10.0 1.0 1.4142 0.0 10.0 1.0 1 × 10–5 1.0

**Initial void ratio Initial temperature Initial pore pressure
**

Results and discussion

1.0 0.0 0.0

The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.

1.4.7–13

PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS

Input files

cax4pt_dﬂow_loads.inp cax4rpt_dﬂow_loads.inp cax4rpht_dﬂow_loads.inp

CAX4PT: CENTRIF, BR,HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, S1, S2, S3, S4. CAX4RPT: CENTRIF, BR,HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, S1, S2, S3, S4. CAX4RPHT: CENTRIF, BR,HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, S1, S2, S3, S4.

X.

AXISYMMETRIC PORE-THERMAL ELEMENTS WITH HEAT LOADS

Problem description Model: For this set of veriﬁcation problems both the solid and the pore ﬂuid used identical heat transfer properties so that results could be compared with conventional heat transfer elements.

Cubic dimension

Material:

7×7

Initial conditions:

30 × 106 82.9 0.0 0.39 3.77× 10–5 82.9 0.0 0.39 3.77× 10–5 0.001 10.0

**Initial void ratio Initial temperature Initial pore pressure
**

Results and discussion

1.0 0.0 0.0

The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.

1.4.7–14

PORE PRESSURE ELEMENTS

Input files

cax4pt_heat_loads.inp cax4rpt_heat_loads.inp cax4rpht_heat_loads.inp

CAX4PT: S, F, R. CAX4RPT: S, F, R. CAX4RPHT: S, F, R.

1.4.7–15

HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS

1.4.8

CONTINUUM AND SHELL HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS

Product: Abaqus/Standard I. ONE-DIMENSIONAL HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

Length Area

7.0 3.0

**The area of element types DCCAX2 and DCCAX2D is 0.4774648.
**

Material:

**Thermal conductivity Sink (bulk ﬂuid) temperature Absolute zero temperature Speciﬁc heat Density
**

Results and discussion

3.77 × 10−5 75.0 −460.0 0.39 82.9

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

**ec12dfdc.inp ec13dfdc.inp ec12dcdc.inp ec12dddc.inp eca2dcdc.inp eca2dddc.inp
**

II.

DC1D2: BF, F1, F2, R1, R2, S1, S2. DC1D3: BF, F1, F2, R1, R2, S1, S2. DCC1D2: BF, F1, F2, R1, R2, S1, S2. DCC1D2D: BF, F1, F2, R1, R2, S1, S2. DCCAX2: BF, F1, F2, R1, R2, S1, S2. DCCAX2D: BF, F1, F2, R1, R2, S1, S2.

PLANAR SOLID HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

Square dimension Thickness

7×7 1.0

1.4.8–1

HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS

Material:

**Thermal conductivity Sink (bulk ﬂuid) temperature Absolute zero temperature Speciﬁc heat Density
**

Results and discussion

3.77 × 10−5 75.0 −460.0 0.39 82.9

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

DC2D3 element load tests: ec23dfdc.inp ec23dfdj.inp DC2D4 element load tests: ec24dfdc.inp ec24dfdj.inp DC2D6 element load tests: ec26dfdc.inp ec26dfdj.inp DC2D8 element load tests: ec28dfdc.inp ec28dfdj.inp DCC2D4 element load tests: ec24dcdc.inp ec24dcdj.inp DCC2D4D element load tests: ec24dddc.inp ec24dddj.inp BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. F, R, S. BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. F, R, S. BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. F, R, S. BF, F1, F2, F3, R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. F, R, S. BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. F, R, S. BF, F1, F2, F3, R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. F, R, S.

1.4.8–2

HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS

III.

AXISYMMETRIC SOLID HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Planar dimensions Inside radius
**

Material:

7×7 1.0

**Thermal conductivity Sink (bulk ﬂuid) temperature Absolute zero temperature Speciﬁc heat Density
**

Results and discussion

3.77 × 10−5 75.0 −460.0 0.39 82.9

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

DCAX3 element load tests: eca3dfdc.inp eca3dfdj.inp DCAX4 element load tests: eca4dfdc.inp eca4dfdj.inp DCAX6 element load tests: eca6dfdc.inp eca6dfdj.inp DCAX8 element load tests: eca8dfdc.inp eca8dfdj.inp DCCAX4 element load tests: eca4dcdc.inp eca4dcdj.inp

BF, F1, F2, F3, R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. F, R, S.

BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. F, R, S.

BF, F1, F2, F3, R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. F, R, S.

BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. F, R, S.

BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. F, R, S.

1.4.8–3

HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS

**DCCAX4D element load tests: eca4dddc.inp eca4dddj.inp
**

IV.

BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. F, R, S.

THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLID HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

Cubic dimensions

Material:

7×7×7

**Thermal conductivity Sink (bulk ﬂuid) temperature Absolute zero temperature Speciﬁc heat Density
**

Results and discussion

3.77 × 10−5 75.0 −460.0 0.39 82.9

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

DC3D4 element load tests: ec34dfdc.inp ec34dfdj.inp DC3D6 element load tests: ec36dfdc.inp ec36dfdj.inp DC3D8 element load tests: ec38dfdc.inp ec38dfdj.inp DC3D10 element load tests: ec3adfdc.inp ec3adfdj.inp BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. AVG, F, R, S. BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6. AVG, F, R, S. BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5. AVG, F, R, S. BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. AVG, F, R, S.

1.4.8–4

HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS

DC3D15 element load tests: ec3fdfdc.inp ec3fdfdj.inp DC3D20 element load tests: ec3kdfdc.inp ec3kdfdj.inp DCC3D8 element load tests: ec38dcdc.inp ec38dcdj.inp DCC3D8D element load tests: ec38dddc.inp ec38dddj.inp

V.

BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5. AVG, F, R, S.

BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6. AVG, F, R, S.

BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6. F, R, S.

BF, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6. F, R, S.

AXISYMMETRIC HEAT TRANSFER SHELL ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Length Radius Thickness
**

Material:

10.0 5.0 0.5

**Thermal conductivity Sink (bulk ﬂuid) temperature Absolute zero temperature Speciﬁc heat Density
**

Results and discussion

3.77 × 10−5 75.0 −460.0 0.39 82.9

The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.

1.4.8–5

HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS

Input files

DSAX1 element load tests: esa2dxdc.inp esa2dxdj.inp DSAX2 element load tests: esa3dxdc.inp esa3dxdj.inp

BF, FNEG, FPOS, RNEG, RPOS, SNEG, SPOS. F, R, S.

BF, FNEG, FPOS, RNEG, RPOS, SNEG, SPOS. F, R, S.

VI.

GENERAL HEAT TRANSFER SHELL ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Planar dimensions Thickness
**

Material:

7×7 0.5

**Thermal conductivity Sink (bulk ﬂuid) temperature Absolute zero temperature Speciﬁc heat Density
**

Results and discussion

3.77 × 10−5 75.0 −460.0 0.39 82.9

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

DS3 element load tests: es33dxdc.inp es33dxdj.inp DS4 element load tests: es34dxdc.inp es34dxdj.inp DS6 element load tests: es36dxdc.inp es36dxdj.inp

BF, FNEG, FPOS, RNEG, RPOS, SNEG, SPOS. F, R, S. BF, FNEG, FPOS, RNEG, RPOS, SNEG, SPOS. F, R, S. BF, FNEG, FPOS, RNEG, RPOS, SNEG, SPOS. F, R, S.

1.4.8–6

HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS

DS8 element load tests: es38dxdc.inp es38dxdj.inp BF, FNEG, FPOS, RNEG, RPOS, SNEG, SPOS. F, R, S.

1.4.8–7

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

1.4.9

COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

Products: Abaqus/Standard I.

Abaqus/Explicit

COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT TRUSS ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Length Area Centrifugal axis of rotation Coriolis axis of rotation Gravity load vector
**

Material:

7.0 3.0 (0, 1, 0) through origin (0, 0, 1) through origin (2-D) (0, 1, 0) through origin (3-D) (0, −1, 0)

Young’s modulus Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Thermal conductivity Density Sink (bulk ﬂuid) temperature Absolute zero temperature

Initial conditions:

30 × 106 0.0 3.77 × 10−5 82.9 75.0 −460.0

Initial velocity

ALL, 1, 5.0 ALL, 2, 2.0

Results and discussion

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

T2D2T element load tests: et22tfdd.inp et22tfdr.inp BX, BY, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, CORIO, F1, F2, R1, R2, S1, S2. ROTA.

1.4.9–1

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

T2D3T element load tests: et23tfdd.inp et23tfdr.inp T3D2T element load tests: et32tfdd.inp et32tfdd_po.inp et32tfdr.inp T3D3T element load tests: et33tfdd.inp et33tfdr.inp BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, CORIO, F1, F2, R1, R2, S1, S2. ROTA. BX, BY,BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, CORIO, F1, F2, R1, R2, S1, S2. *POST OUTPUT analysis. ROTA. BX, BY, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, CORIO, F1, F2, R1, R2, S1, S2. ROTA.

II.

COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT PLANE STRESS, PLANE STRAIN AND GENERALIZED PLANE STRAIN ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Square dimensions Thickness Centrifugal axis of rotation Coriolis axis of rotation Gravity load vector
**

Material:

7×7 1.0 (0, 1, 0) through origin (0, 0, 1) through origin (0, −1, 0)

Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Thermal conductivity Density Sink (bulk ﬂuid) temperature Absolute zero temperature

30 × 106 0.3 0.0 3.77 × 10−5 82.9 75.0 −460.0

1.4.9–2

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

Initial conditions:

**Initial velocity Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation
**

Results and discussion

ALL, 1, 10 ALL, 2, 5 3.0 0.0

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files Abaqus/Standard input files

CPE3T element load tests: coupledtempload_std_cpe3t.inp coupledtempload_s_std_cpe3t.inp CPE4HT element load tests: ece4thdd.inp BX, BY, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, CORIO, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S. BX, BY, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, P1, P2, P3, R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. Same as coupledtempload_std_cpe3t.inp except with surface-based loads.

ece4thdr.inp ece4thdk.inp CPE4T element load tests: ece4tfdd.inp

ece4tfdr.inp ece4tfdk.inp CPE8HT element load tests: ece8thdd.inp

BX, BY, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, CORIO, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

ece8thdr.inp ece8thdk.inp

BX, BY, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, CORIO, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

1.4.9–3

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

CPE8RHT element load tests: ece8tydd.inp BX, BY, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, CORIO, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

ece8tydr.inp ece8tydk.inp CPE8RT element load tests: ece8trdd.inp

ece8trdr.inp ece8trdk.inp CPE8T element load tests: ece8tfdd.inp

BX, BY, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, CORIO, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

ece8tfdr.inp ece8tfdk.inp CPEG3HT element load tests: ecg3thdd.inp ecg3thdr.inp ecg3thdk.inp CPEG3T element load tests: ecg3tfdd.inp ecg3tfdr.inp ecg3tfdk.inp CPEG4HT element load tests: ecg4thdd.inp

BX, BY, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, CORIO, F1, P1, HP1, R1, S1. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

BX, BY, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, CORIO, F1, P1, HP1, R1, S1. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

ecg4thdr.inp ecg4thdk.inp

1.4.9–4

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

CPEG4RHT element load tests: ecg4tydd.inp BX, BY, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, CORIO, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

ecg4tydr.inp ecg4tydk.inp CPEG4RT element load tests: ecg4trdd.inp

ecg4trdr.inp ecg4trdk.inp CPEG4T element load tests: ecg4tfdd.inp

ecg4tfdr.inp ecg4tfdk.inp CPEG6MHT element load tests: ecg6tldd.inp ecg6tldd_po.inp ecg6tldr.inp ecg6tldk.inp CPEG6MT element load tests: ecg6tkdd.inp ecg6tkdr.inp ecg6tkdk.inp CPEG8HT element load tests: ecg8thdd.inp

BX, BY, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, F1, F2, F3, P1, P2, P3, HP1, HP2, HP3,R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. *POST OUTPUT analysis. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

BX, BY, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, F1, F2, F3, P1, P2, P3, HP1, HP2, HP3,R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

ecg8thdr.inp ecg8thdk.inp

1.4.9–5

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

CPEG8RHT element load tests: ecg8tydd.inp BX, BY, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, CORIO, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

ecg8tydr.inp ecg8tydk.inp CPEG8T element load tests: ecg8tfdd.inp

ecg8tfdr.inp ecg8tfdk.inp CPS3T element load tests: coupledtempload_std_cps3t.inp coupledtempload_s_std_cps3t.inp CPS4T element load tests: ecs4tfdd.inp

BX, BY, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, P1, P2, P3, R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. Same as coupledtempload_std_cps3t.inp except with surface-based loads.

ecs4tfdr.inp ecs4tfdk.inp CPS8RT element load tests: ecs8trdd.inp

ecs8trdr.inp ecs8trdk.inp CPS8T element load tests: ecs8tfdd.inp

ecs8tfdr.inp ecs8tfdk.inp

1.4.9–6

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

Abaqus/Explicit input files

CPE3T element load tests: coupledtempload_xpl_cpe3t.inp coupledtempload_s_xpl_cpe3t.inp BX, BY, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, P1, P2, P3, R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. Same as coupledtempload_xpl_cpe3t.inp except with surface-based loads.

CPE4RT element load tests: coupledtempload_xpl_cpe4rt.inp coupledtempload_s_xpl_cpe4rt.inp BX, BY, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. Same as coupledtempload_xpl_cpe4rt.inp except with surface-based loads.

CPE6MT element load tests: coupledtempload_xpl_cpe6mt.inp coupledtempload_s_xpl_cpe6mt.inp BX, BY, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, P1, P2, P3, R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. Same as coupledtempload_xpl_cpe6mt.inp except with surface-based loads.

CPS3T element load tests: coupledtempload_xpl_cps3t.inp coupledtempload_s_xpl_cps3t.inp BX, BY, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, P1, P2, P3, R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. Same as coupledtempload_xpl_cps3t.inp except with surface-based loads.

CPS4RT element load tests: coupledtempload_xpl_cps4rt.inp coupledtempload_s_xpl_cps4rt.inp BX, BY, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. Same as coupledtempload_xpl_cps4rt.inp except with surface-based loads.

CPS6MT element load tests: coupledtempload_xpl_cps6mt.inp coupledtempload_s_xpl_cps6mt.inp BX, BY, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, P1, P2, P3, R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. Same as coupledtempload_xpl_cps6mt.inp except with surface-based loads.

1.4.9–7

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

III.

COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT AXISYMMETRIC SOLID ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Planar dimensions Inside radius Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravity load vector
**

Mesh:

7×7 1.0 (0, 1, 0) through origin (0, −1, 0)

**Linear elements Quadratic elements
**

Material:

2 elements in radial direction 1 element in radial direction

Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Thermal conductivity Density Sink (bulk ﬂuid) temperature Absolute zero temperature

Initial conditions:

30 × 106 0.3 0.0 3.77 × 10−5 82.9 75.0 −460.0

**Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation
**

Results and discussion

3.0 0.0

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files Abaqus/Standard input files

CAX3T element load tests: coupledtempload_std_cax3t.inp coupledtempload_s_std_cax3t.inp

BR, BZ, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, P1, P2, P3, R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. Same as coupledtempload_std_cax3t.inp except with surface-based loads.

1.4.9–8

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

CAX4HT element load tests: eca4thdd.inp BR, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. HP, P, F, R, S.

eca4thdk.inp CAX4T element load tests: eca4tfdd.inp

eca4tfdk.inp CAX8HT element load tests: eca8thdd.inp

BR, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. HP, P, F, R, S.

eca8thdk.inp CAX8RHT element load tests: eca8tydd.inp

BR, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. HP, P, F, R, S.

eca8tydk.inp CAX8RT element load tests: eca8trdd.inp

BR, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. HP, P, F, R, S.

eca8trdk.inp CAX8T element load tests: eca8tfdd.inp

eca8tfdk.inp

Abaqus/Explicit input files

CAX3T element load tests: coupledtempload_xpl_cax3t.inp BR, BZ, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, P1, P2, P3, R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3.

1.4.9–9

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

coupledtempload_s_xpl_cax3t.inp CAX4RT element load tests: coupledtempload_xpl_cax4rt.inp coupledtempload_s_xpl_cax4rt.inp CAX6MT element load tests: coupledtempload_xpl_cax6mt.inp coupledtempload_s_xpl_cax6mt.inp

Same as coupledtempload_xpl_cax3t.inp except with surface-based loads.

BR, BZ, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. Same as coupledtempload_xpl_cax4rt.inp except with surface-based loads.

BR, BZ, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, P1, P2, P3, R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. Same as coupledtempload_xpl_cax6mt.inp except with surface-based loads.

IV.

COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Cubic dimensions Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravity load vector
**

Material:

7×7×7 (0, 1, 0) through (−1000, 3.5, −3.5) (1, 2, 3)

Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Thermal conductivity Density Sink (bulk ﬂuid) temperature Absolute zero temperature

Initial conditions:

30 × 106 0.3 0.0 3.77 × 10−5 82.9 75.0 −460.0

**Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation
**

Results and discussion

0.0 −7.0

The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.

1.4.9–10

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

Input files Abaqus/Standard input files

C3D4T element load tests: coupledtempload_std_c3d4t.inp coupledtempload_s_std_c3d4t.inp C3D6T element load tests: coupledtempload_std_c3d6t.inp coupledtempload_s_std_c3d6t.inp C3D8T element load tests: ec38tfdd.inp BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6,S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S. BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5. Same as coupledtempload_std_c3d6t.inp except with surface-based loads. BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. Same as coupledtempload_std_c3d4t.inp except with surface-based loads.

ec38tfdr.inp ec38tfdk.inp C3D8HT element load tests: ec38thdd.inp

ec38thdd_po.inp ec38thdr.inp ec38thdk.inp C3D20T element load tests: ec3ktfdd.inp

BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6,S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6. *POST OUTPUT analysis. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

ec3ktfdr.inp ec3ktfdk.inp

BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6,S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

1.4.9–11

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

C3D20HT element load tests: ec3kthdd.inp BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6,S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

ec3kthdr.inp ec3kthdk.inp C3D20RT element load tests: ec3ktrdd.inp

ec3ktrdr.inp ec3ktrdk.inp C3D20RHT element load tests: ec3ktydd.inp

BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6,S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

**ec3ktydr.inp ec3ktydk.inp
**

Abaqus/Explicit input files

BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6,S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

C3D4T element load tests: coupledtempload_xpl_c3d4t.inp coupledtempload_s_xpl_c3d4t.inp C3D6T element load tests: coupledtempload_xpl_c3d6t.inp coupledtempload_s_xpl_c3d6t.inp C3D8RT element load tests: coupledtempload_xpl_c3d8rt.inp BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6. BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5. Same as coupledtempload_xpl_c3d6t.inp except with surface-based loads. BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. Same as coupledtempload_xpl_c3d4t.inp except with surface-based loads.

1.4.9–12

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

coupledtempload_s_xpl_c3d8rt.inp coupledtempload_s_xpl_sc8rt.inp C3D8T element load test: coupledtempload_xpl_c3d8t.inp

Same as coupledtempload_xpl_c3d8rt.inp except with surface-based loads. Same as coupledtempload_xpl_sc8rt.inp except with surface-based loads.

BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6.

V.

COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT AXISYMMETRIC SHELL ELEMENT

Problem description Model:

**Length Radius Thickness Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravity load vector
**

Material:

10.0 5.0 0.5 (0, 1, 0) through origin (0, 1, 0)

Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Thermal conductivity Density Sink (bulk ﬂuid) temperature Absolute zero temperature

Initial conditions:

3 × 106 0.3 3.77 × 10−5 82.9 75.0 −460.0

**Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation
**

Results and discussion

7.0 0.0

The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.

1.4.9–13

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

Input files

**SAX2T element load tests: esa3txdd.inp esa3txdk.inp
**

VI.

BR, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, FNEG, FPOS, P, HP, RNEG, RPOS, SNEG, SPOS. HP, P, F, R, S.

COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT GENERAL SHELL ELEMENT

Problem description Model:

**Planar dimensions Thickness Centrifugal and Coriolis axes of rotation Gravity load vector
**

Material:

7×7 2.0 (0, 1, 0) through origin (0, 1, 0)

Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Thermal conductivity Density Sink (bulk ﬂuid) temperature Absolute zero temperature

Initial conditions:

3 × 106 0.3 3.77 × 10−5 82.9 75.0 −460.0

**Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation
**

Results and discussion

7.0 0.0

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

S4T element load tests: es34txdd.inp es34txdr.inp es34txdk.inp BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, FNEG, FPOS, P, HP, RNEG, RPOS, SNEG, SPOS. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

1.4.9–14

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

S4RT element load tests: es4rtxdd.inp es4rtxdr.inp es4rtxdk.inp S8RT element load tests: es38txdd.inp es38txdr.inp es38txdk.inp

VII.

BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, FNEG, FPOS, P, HP, RNEG, RPOS, SNEG, SPOS. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, FNEG, FPOS, P, HP, RNEG, RPOS, SNEG, SPOS. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT AXISYMMETRIC TWIST ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Planar dimensions Inside radius Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravity load vector
**

Mesh:

7×7 1.0 (0, 1, 0) through origin (0, −1, 0)

**Linear elements Quadratic elements
**

Material:

2 elements in radial direction 1 element in radial direction

Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Thermal conductivity Density Sink (bulk ﬂuid) temperature Absolute zero temperature

Initial conditions:

30 × 106 0.3 0.0 3.77 × 10−5 82.9 75.0 −460.0

Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation

3.0 0.0

1.4.9–15

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

Results and discussion

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

CGAX3T element load tests: eca3hfdd.inp eca3hfdk.inp CGAX3HT element load tests: eca3hhdd.inp eca3hhdk.inp CGAX4T element load tests: eca4hfdd.inp BR, BZ, BF, CENT, CENTRIF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. HP, P, F, R, S. BR, BZ, BF, CENT, CENTRIF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, P1, P2, P3, HP1, HP2, HP3, R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. HP, P, F, R, S. BR, BZ, BF, CENT, CENTRIF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, P1, P2, P3, HP1, HP2, HP3, R1, R2, R3, S1, S2, S3. HP, P, F, R, S.

eca4hfdk.inp CGAX4HT element load tests: eca4hhdd.inp

eca4hhdk.inp CGAX4RT element load tests: eca4hrdd.inp

BR, BZ, BF, CENT, CENTRIF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. HP, P, F, R, S. BR, BZ, BF, CENT, CENTRIF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. HP, P, F, R, S. BR, BZ, BF, CENT, CENTRIF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. HP, P, F, R, S. BR, BZ, BF, CENT, CENTRIF, GRAV, F1, F2, P1, P2, HP1, HP2, R1, R2, S1, S2. HP, P, F, R, S.

eca4hrdk.inp CGAX4RHT element load tests: eca4hydd.inp

eca4hydk.inp CGAX6MT element load tests: eca6hfdd.inp eca6hfdk.inp

1.4.9–16

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

CGAX6MHT element load tests: eca6hhdd.inp eca6hhdk.inp CGAX8T element load tests: eca8hfdd.inp BR, BZ, BF, CENT, CENTRIF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. HP, P, F, R, S. BR, BZ, BF, CENT, CENTRIF, GRAV, F1, F2, P1, P2, HP1, HP2, R1, R2, S1, S2. HP, P, F, R, S.

eca8hfdk.inp CGAX8HT element load tests: eca8hhdd.inp

eca8hhdk.inp CGAX8RT element load tests: eca8hrdd.inp

BR, BZ, BF, CENT, CENTRIF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. HP, P, F, R, S.

eca8hrdk.inp CGAX8RHT element load tests: eca8hydd.inp

BR, BZ, BF, CENT, CENTRIF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. HP, P, F, R, S.

eca8hydk.inp

VIII.

BR, BZ, BF, CENT, CENTRIF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, R1, R2, R3, R4, S1, S2, S3, S4. HP, P, F, R, S.

COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT CONTINUUM SHELL ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Cubic dimensions Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravity load vector
**

Material:

7×7×7 (0, 1, 0) through (−1000, 3.5, −3.5) (1, 2, 3)

Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio

30 × 106 0.3

1.4.9–17

TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS

**Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Thermal conductivity Density Sink (bulk ﬂuid) temperature Absolute zero temperature
**

Initial conditions:

0.0 3.77 × 10−5 82.9 75.0 −460.0

**Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation
**

Results and discussion

0.0 −7.0

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files Abaqus/Standard input files

SC8RT element load tests: esc8tfdd.inp BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6,S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6. Same as esc8tfdd.inp except with surface-based loads. ROTA. HP, P, F, R, S.

**esc8tsdd.inp esc8tfdr.inp esc8tfdk.inp
**

Abaqus/Explicit input file

SC8RT element load test: coupledtempload_xpl_sc8rt.inp BX, BY, BZ, BF, GRAV, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6.

1.4.9–18

PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS

1.4.10

PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS

Product: Abaqus/Standard

Piezoelectric elements have both displacements and electric potentials as degrees of freedom. These elements include truss, plane stress, plane strain, axisymmetric, or three-dimensional continuum. The elements are identical to the basic stress/displacement elements except for the coupling between the stress ﬁeld and the electrical potential gradients. The mechanical loads are tested for these elements but are not reported here since they are identical to those reported in the section for continuum stress/displacement elements. Only the additional loads associated with body and distributed charges are reported in this section.

I. TRUSS ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Length Area Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravitational load vector
**

Material:

1.0 0.1 (0, 1, 0) through (.5, 0, 0) (0, −1, 0)

Young’s modulus Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Density Piezoelectric coupling matrix

3 × 106 .0001 5 × 10−5

Dielectric term

Initial conditions:

5.872 × 10−9

Initial temperature

Results and discussion

ALL, −10.0

The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.

1.4.10–1

PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS

Input files

T2D2E element load tests: et22efdf.inp et22efdr.inp T3D2E element load tests: et32efdf.inp et32efdr.inp T2D3E element load tests: et23efdf.inp et23efdr.inp T3D3E element load tests: et33efdf.inp et33efdr.inp

II.

BX, BY, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, EBF. ROTA.

BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, EBF. ROTA.

BX, BY, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, EBF. ROTA.

BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, EBF. ROTA.

PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Square dimensions Thickness Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravitational load vector
**

Material:

7×7 1.0 (0, 1, 0) through origin (0, −1, 0)

Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Density Piezoelectric coupling matrix

3 × 106 0.3 .0001 5 × 10−5

Dielectric term

5.872 × 10−9

1.4.10–2

PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS

Initial conditions:

**Initial temperature Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation
**

Results and discussion

ALL, −10.0 lower-order elements: 7.0 higher-order elements: 3.0 0.0

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

CPS3E element load tests: ecs3efdf.inp ecs3efdr.inp ecs3efdm.inp CPE3E element load tests: ece3efdf.inp ece3efdr.inp ece3efdm.inp CPS4E element load tests: ecs4efdf.inp ecs4efdr.inp ecs4efdm.inp CPE4E element load tests: ece4efdf.inp ece4efdr.inp ece4efdm.inp CPS6E element load tests: ecs6efdf.inp ecs6efdr.inp ecs6efdm.inp BX, BY, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, HP1, HP2, HP3, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3. ROTA. ES, HP, P. BX, BY, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4. ROTA. ES, HP, P. BX, BY, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4. ROTA. ES, HP, P. BX, BY, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, HP1, HP2, HP3, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3. ROTA. ES, HP, P. BX, BY, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, HP1, HP2, HP3, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3. ROTA. ES, HP, P.

1.4.10–3

PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS

CPE6E element load tests: ece6efdf.inp ece6efdr.inp ece6efdm.inp CPS8E element load tests: ecs8efdf.inp ecs8efdr.inp ecs8efdm.inp CPE8E element load tests: ece8efdf.inp ece8efdr.inp ece8efdm.inp CPS8RE element load tests: ecs8erdf.inp ecs8erdr.inp ecs8erdm.inp CPE8RE element load tests: ece8erdf.inp ece8erdr.inp ece8erdm.inp

III. AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENTS

BX, BY, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, HP1, HP2, HP3, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3. ROTA. ES, HP, P.

BX, BY, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4. ROTA. ES, HP, P.

BX, BY, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4. ROTA. ES, HP, P.

BX, BY, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4. ROTA. ES, HP, P.

Problem description Model:

Planar dimensions Inside radius Outside radius Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravitational load vector

3×3 1.0 4.0 (0, 1, 0) through origin (0, −1, 0)

1.4.10–4

PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS

Material:

Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Density Piezoelectric coupling matrix

3 × 106 0.3 .0001 5 × 10−5

Dielectric term

Initial conditions:

5.872 × 10−9

**Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation
**

Results and discussion

3.0 0.0

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

CAX3E element load tests: eca3efdf.inp eca3efdm.inp CAX4E element load tests: eca4efdf.inp eca4efdm.inp CAX6E element load tests: eca6efdf.inp eca6efdm.inp CAX8E element load tests: eca8efdf.inp eca8efdm.inp

BZ, GRAV, CENT, P1, P2, P3, HP1, HP2, HP3, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3. ES, HP, P.

BZ, GRAV, CENT, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4. ES, HP, P.

BZ, GRAV, CENT, P1, P2, P3, HP1, HP2, HP3, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3. ES, HP, P.

BZ, GRAV, CENT, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4. ES, HP, P.

1.4.10–5

PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS

**CAX8RE element load tests: eca8erdf.inp eca8erdm.inp
**

IV. THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLIDS

BZ, GRAV, CENT, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4. ES, HP, P.

Problem description Model:

**Cubic dimensions Centrifugal axes of rotation Gravitational load vector
**

Material:

7×7×7 (0, 1, 0) through (−1000, 3.5, −3.5) (1, 0, 0)

Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion Density Piezoelectric coupling matrix

3 × 106 0.3 .0001 10.0

Dielectric term

Initial conditions:

5.872 × 10−9

**Initial temperature Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation
**

Results and discussion

ALL, −10.0 0.0 −7.0

The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.

1.4.10–6

PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS

Input files

C3D4E element load tests: ec34efdf.inp ec34efdr.inp ec34efdm.inp C3D6E element load tests: ec36efdf.inp BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4, ES5. ROTA. ES, HP, P. BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4. ROTA. ES, HP, P.

ec36efdr.inp ec36efdm.inp C3D8E element load tests: ec38efdf.inp

ec38efdr.inp ec38efdm.inp C3D10E element load tests: ec3aefdf.inp ec3aefdr.inp ec3aefdm.inp C3D15E element load tests: ec3fefdf.inp

BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4, ES5, ES6. ROTA. ES, HP, P.

BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4. ROTA. ES, HP, P.

ec3fefdr.inp ec3fefdm.inp C3D20E element load tests: ec3kefdf.inp

BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4, ES5. ROTA. ES, HP, P.

ec3kefdr.inp ec3kefdm.inp

BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4, ES5, ES6. ROTA. ES, HP, P.

1.4.10–7

PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENTS

C3D20RE element load tests: ec3kerdf.inp BX, BY, BZ, GRAV, CENT, CENTRIF, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, HP1, HP2, HP3, HP4, HP5, HP6, EBF, ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4, ES5, ES6. ROTA. ES, HP, P.

ec3kerdr.inp ec3kerdm.inp

1.4.10–8

MASS DIFFUSION ELEMENTS

1.4.11

CONTINUUM MASS DIFFUSION ELEMENTS

Product: Abaqus/Standard I. PLANAR SOLID MASS DIFFUSION ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Square dimension Thickness
**

Material:

7×7 1.0

Solubility

Results and discussion

1.0

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

ec23mfdc.inp ec23mfdc.inp ec24mfdc.inp ec26mfdc.inp

ec28mfdc.inp

DC2D3; Diffusivity: 3.77 × 10−5 ( ), 7.54 × 10−5 −5 ( ), 11.31 × 10 ( ); Loads: BF, S1, S2, S3. DC2D3; Diffusivity: 3.77 × 10−5 ( ), 7.54 × 10−5 −5 ( ), 11.31 × 10 ( ); Loads: BF, S1, S2, S3. DC2D4; Diffusivity: 3.77 × 10−5 ; Loads: BF, S1, S2, S3, S4. DC2D6; Diffusivity: 3.77 × 10−5 ( ), 3.77 × 10−6 −5 −6 ( ), 7.54 × 10 ( ), 3.77 × 10 ( ), 3.77 × 10−6 −5 ( ), 11.31 × 10 ( ); Loads: BF, S1, S2, S3. DC2D8; Diffusivity: 3.77 × 10−5 ; Loads: BF, S1, S2, S3, S4.

II.

AXISYMMETRIC SOLID MASS DIFFUSION ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

Planar dimensions Inside radius

7×7 1.0

1.4.11–1

MASS DIFFUSION ELEMENTS

Material:

Diffusivity Solubility

3.77 × 10−5 1.0

Results and discussion

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

**eca3mfdc.inp eca4mfdc.inp eca6mfdc.inp eca8mfdc.inp
**

III.

DCAX3: DCAX4: DCAX6: DCAX8:

BF, S1, S2, S3. BF, S1, S2, S3, S4. BF, S1, S2, S3. BF, S1, S2, S3, S4.

THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLID MASS DIFFUSION ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

Cubic dimensions

Material:

7×7×7

Diffusivity Solubility

Results and discussion

3.77 × 10−5 1.0

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

ec34mfdc.inp ec36mfdc.inp ec36mfdc_po.inp ec38mfdc.inp ec3amfdc.inp ec3amfdc_po.inp ec3fmfdc.inp ec3kmfdc.inp

DC3D4: BF, S1, S2, S3, S4. DC3D6: BF, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5. *POST OUTPUT analysis. DC3D8: BF, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6. DC3D10: BF, S1, S2, S3, S4. *POST OUTPUT analysis. DC3D15: BF, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5. DC3D20: BF, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6.

1.4.11–2

THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ELEMENTS

1.4.12

THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ELEMENTS

Product: Abaqus/Standard

I.

ONE-DIMENSIONAL THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

Length Area

Material:

7.0 3.0

**Thermal conductivity Electrical conductivity Joule heat fraction
**

Results and discussion

3.77 × 10−5 3.77 × 10−5 0.0

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

ec12vfdf.inp ec13vfdf.inp

DC1D2E: BF, S1, S2, CBF, CS1, CS2. DC1D3E: BF, S1, S2, CBF, CS1, CS2.

II.

PLANAR THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Square dimension Thickness
**

Material:

7×7 1.0

Thermal conductivity Joule heat fraction

3.77 × 10−5 0.0

1.4.12–1

THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ELEMENTS

Results and discussion

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

DC2D3E element load tests: ec23vfdf.inp ec23vfdm.inp DC2D4E element load tests: ec24vfdf.inp ec24vfdf_po.inp ec24vfdm.inp DC2D6E element load tests: ec26vfdf.inp ec26vfdm.inp DC2D8E element load tests: ec28vfdf.inp ec28vfdm.inp BF, S1, S2, S3, S4, CBF, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4. S, CS. BF, S1, S2, S3, CBF, CS1, CS2, CS3. S, CS. BF, S1, S2, S3, S4, CBF, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4. *POST OUTPUT analysis. S, CS. BF, S1, S2, S3, CBF, CS1, CS2, CS3. S, CS.

III.

AXISYMMETRIC THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Planar dimensions Inside radius
**

Material:

7×7 1.0

**Thermal conductivity Joule heat fraction
**

Results and discussion

3.77 × 10−5 0.0

The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.

1.4.12–2

THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ELEMENTS

Input files

DCAX3E element load tests: eca3vfdf.inp eca3vfdm.inp DCAX4E element load tests: eca4vfdf.inp eca4vfdm.inp DCAX6E element load tests: eca6vfdf.inp eca6vfdm.inp DCAX8E element load tests: eca8vfdf.inp eca8vfdm.inp BF, S1, S2, S3, S4, CBF, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4. S, CS. BF, S1, S2, S3, CBF, CS1, CS2, CS3. S, CS. BF, S1, S2, S3, S4, CBF, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4. S, CS. BF, S1, S2, S3, CBF, CS1, CS2, CS3. S, CS.

IV.

THREE-DIMENSIONAL THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

Cubic dimensions

Material:

7×7×7

**Thermal conductivity Joule heat fraction
**

Results and discussion

3.77 × 10−5 0.0

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

DC3D4E element load tests: ec34vfdf.inp ec34vfdf_po.inp ec34vfdm.inp BF, S1, S2, S3, S4, CBF, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4. *POST OUTPUT analysis. S, CS.

1.4.12–3

THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ELEMENTS

DC3D6E element load tests: ec36vfdf.inp ec36vfdm.inp DC3D8E element load tests: ec38vfdf.inp ec38vfdf_po.inp ec38vfdm.inp DC3D10E element load tests: ec3avfdf.inp ec3avfdm.inp DC3D15E element load tests: ec3fvfdf.inp ec3fvfdm.inp DC3D20E element load tests: ec3kvfdf.inp ec3kvfdm.inp BF, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, CBF, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6. S, CS. BF, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, CBF, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5. S, CS. BF, S1, S2, S3, S4, CBF, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4. S, CS. BF, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, CBF, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6. *POST OUTPUT analysis. S, CS. BF, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, CBF, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5. S, CS.

1.4.12–4

RIGID ELEMENTS

1.4.13

RIGID ELEMENTS

Product: Abaqus/Standard I. TWO-DIMENSIONAL RIGID ELEMENT

Problem description Model:

**Length Thickness Centrifugal axis of rotation
**

Results and discussion

1.0 0.1 (1, 0, 0) through (1, 1, 0)

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input file

erp2sxd1.inp

II. AXISYMMETRIC RIGID ELEMENT

R2D2: CENT, BX, BY.

Problem description Model:

**Length of link Thickness of link Radius Centrifugal axis of rotation
**

Initial conditions:

10 0.5 5 (0, 1, 0) through origin

**Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation
**

Results and discussion

10.0 0.0

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

era2sxd1.inp era2sxdi.inp

RAX2: CENT, BR, BZ, P, HP. RAX2: P, HP.

1.4.13–1

RIGID ELEMENTS

III.

THREE-DIMENSIONAL RIGID ELEMENTS

Problem description Model:

**Square dimensions Thickness Centrifugal axis of rotation
**

Initial conditions:

7×7 2.0 (0, 1, 0) through origin

**Hydrostatic pressure datum Hydrostatic pressure elevation
**

Results and discussion

7.0 0.0

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

er33sxd1.inp er33sxdi.inp er34sxd1.inp er34sxdi.inp

R3D3: R3D3: R3D4: R3D4:

CENT, BX, BY, BZ, P, HP. P, HP. CENT, BX, BY, BZ, P, HP. P, HP.

1.4.13–2

MASS AND ROTARY INERTIA ELEMENTS

1.4.14

MASS AND ROTARY INERTIA ELEMENTS

Product: Abaqus/Standard Problem description Model:

Mass Rotary inertia

100.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 (0, 0, 1) through (0, 0, 0) (0, 1, 0) (0, 0, 1) through (0, 0, 0)

Centrifugal axis of rotation Gravity load vector Rotary acceleration axis

**The ROTARYI element is also tested with *ORIENTATION and with ﬁnite rotation.
**

Results and discussion

**The calculated reactions are in agreement with the applied loads.
**

Input files

emassd1.inp erotaryidr.inp

MASS: GRAV, CENTRIF, ROTA. ROTARYI: ROTA.

1.4.14–1

Abaqus/Explicit ELEMENT LOADING VERIFICATION

1.4.15

Abaqus/Explicit ELEMENT LOADING VERIFICATION

Product: Abaqus/Explicit I. GRAVITY LOAD

Elements tested

MASS T2D2 T3D2 B21 B31 PIPE21 PIPE31 SAX1 S3R S4R M3D3 CPE3 CPE4R CPS3 CPS4R CAX3 CAX4R C3D4 C3D6 C3D8R

Features tested

M3D4R

**Gravity load and nonstructural mass.
**

Problem description

In this veriﬁcation test all the available element types are tested by loading them with a gravity load. All the element nodes are ﬁxed in position, and the reaction forces generated at the nodes are used to verify the element load calculations. The material model is isotropic linear elasticity. The material properties used are deﬁned as follows: Young’s modulus = 193.1 × 109 , Poisson’s ratio = 0.3, and density = 7850. A nonstructural mass contribution to the element mass is deﬁned while the effective density is maintained at the above speciﬁed value by reducing the material density to the extent of the added nonstructural mass. Because the GRAV load is applied on both the structural mass and the nonstructural mass, the analytical solution used to verify the numerical results remains the same. In the ﬁrst step a gravity load is applied in the vertical direction (y-direction). The amplitude function for this gravity load is deﬁned such that the load is ramped up to a value of 10 over the ﬁrst half of the step and held constant over the second half of the step. In the second step the gravity load in the vertical direction is replaced with a gravity load in the horizontal direction (x-direction), which has an amplitude function that is similar to the vertical load.

Results and discussion

The results for all the elements agree with the analytical values, which are included at the top of the input ﬁle.

Input file

element_grav.inp

Input data used for this test.

1.4.15–1

Abaqus/Explicit ELEMENT LOADING VERIFICATION

II.

UNIFORM BODY FORCES

Elements tested

T2D2 CPE3

T3D2 SAX1 S3R S4R M3D3 M3D4R CPE4R CPS3 CPS4R CAX3 CAX4R C3D4

C3D6

C3D8R

Features tested

**Uniform body forces.
**

Problem description

In this veriﬁcation test all the available element types are tested by loading them with a uniform body force. All the element nodes are ﬁxed in position, and the reaction forces generated at the nodes are used to verify the element load calculations. The material model is isotropic linear elasticity. The material properties used are deﬁned as follows: Young’s modulus = 193.1 × 109 , Poisson’s ratio = 0.3, and density = 785. In the ﬁrst step a uniform body force of 1.0 × 105 is applied in the x-direction for all the elements except the axisymmetric elements, where it is applied in the r-direction. The amplitude function for this body force is deﬁned such that the load is ramped on over the ﬁrst half of the step and held constant for the rest of the analysis. In the second step another uniform body force of 1.0 × 105 is applied in the y-direction for all the elements except the axisymmetric elements, where it is applied in the z-direction. This load is applied using the same amplitude function that was used in the ﬁrst step. For C3D4, C3D6, C3D8R, S3R, S4R, M3D3, and M3D4R elements, another uniform body force of 1.0 × 105 is applied in the z-direction in a third step. This load also has the same amplitude function that was used in the ﬁrst step.

Results and discussion

The results for all the elements agree with the analytical values, which are included at the top of the input ﬁle.

Input file

element_body.inp

III. UNIFORM PRESSURE LOAD

Input data used for this test.

Elements tested *DLOAD option

RAX2 R2D2 R3D3 R3D4 B21 B31 PIPE21 PIPE31 SAX1 S3R M3D3 M3D4R CPE3 CPE4R CPS3 CPS4R CAX3 CAX4R C3D4 C3D6 C3D8R

S4R

1.4.15–2

Abaqus/Explicit ELEMENT LOADING VERIFICATION

*DSLOAD option

RAX2 R2D2 R3D3 R3D4 SAX1 S3R S4R M3D3 M3D4R CPE3 CPE4R CPS3 CPS4R CAX3 CAX4R C3D4 C3D6 C3D8R

Features tested

**Uniform pressure load prescribed with the *DLOAD and *DSLOAD options.
**

Problem description

In these veriﬁcation tests all the available element types are tested by loading them with uniform pressure using distributed element-based loads (*DLOAD) and distributed surface loads (*DSLOAD). All the element nodes are ﬁxed in position, and the reaction forces generated at the nodes are used to verify the load applications. Pipe elements (PIPE21 and PIPE31) are tested only with distributed element-based loads (*DLOAD). Multiple steps are used to apply different loads. All the loads applied in previous steps are removed at the beginning of each step. Loads are linearly increased over the ﬁrst half of each step and held constant over the second half. Isotropic linearly elastic material is used for all elements. The material properties used are deﬁned as follows: Young’s modulus = 193.1 × 109 , Poisson’s ratio = 0.3, and density = 785. For beam (B21, B31) and pipe (PIPE21, PIPE31) elements in the case of element-based loads, uniform distributed force per unit length of 1.0 × 105 is applied in along the x- and y-direction in the ﬁrst and second steps, respectively. In the third step uniform distributed force per unit length of 1.0 × 105 along the z-direction is applied on three-dimensional beam (B31) and pipe (PIPE31) elements. For shell elements (S3R, S4R) and axisymmetric line elements (SAX1) uniform distributed normal force per unit area of 1.0 × 105 is applied in the ﬁrst step. For three-edged planar elements (CPE3, CPE6M, CPS3, CPS6M) and axisymmetric elements (CAX3, CAX4R) a uniform distributed normal force per unit length of 1.0 × 105 is applied on each element edge in the ﬁrst three steps. For four-edged planar elements (CPE4R, CPS4R) and axisymmetric elements (CAX4R) a uniform distributed normal force per unit length of 1.0 × 105 is applied on each element edge in the ﬁrst four steps. For tetrahedral three-dimensional continuum elements (C3D4, C3D10M) a uniform distributed force per unit area of 1.0 × 105 is applied on each face in the ﬁrst four steps. For prismatic three-dimensional continuum elements (C3D6) a uniform distributed force per unit area of 1.0 × 105 is applied on each face in the ﬁrst ﬁve steps. For hexahedral three-dimensional continuum elements (C3D8) a uniform distributed force per unit area of 1.0 × 105 is applied on each face in the ﬁrst six steps. In the case of surface-based loads, in the ﬁrst step a uniform pressure of 1.0 × 105 is applied on one of the element edge surfaces (for CPE3, CPE4R, CPS3, CPS4R, CAX3, CAX4R, SAX1, R2D2, and RAX2 elements) or element faces (for C3D4, C3D6, C3D8R, S3R, S4R, M3D3, M3D4R, R3D3, and R3D4 elements). In the second step the same uniform pressure is applied on other element edge surfaces or element faces.

1.4.15–3

Abaqus/Explicit ELEMENT LOADING VERIFICATION

Results and discussion

The results for all the elements agree with the analytical values, which are included at the top of the input ﬁle.

Input files

element_pres.inp surface_pres.inp

Input data for element-based pressure loads used for this test. Input data for surface-based pressure loads used for this test.

IV.

VISCOUS PRESSURE LOAD

Elements tested *DLOAD and *DSLOAD options

**SAX1 S3R S4R M3D3 M3D4R CPE3 CPE4R CPS3 CPS4R CAX3
**

Feature tested

CAX4R

C3D4

C3D6

C3D8R

**Viscous pressure load.
**

Problem description

In this veriﬁcation test all the available element types are tested by loading them with a viscous pressure load. The nodes belonging to the plane strain, plane stress, and axisymmetric elements (CPE3, CPE4R, CPS3, CPS4R, CAX3, and CAX4R) are constrained in the x-direction; and an initial velocity of 100 is prescribed in the y-direction. The nodes belonging to the three-dimensional elements (C3D4, C3D6, and C3D8R) are constrained in the x- and z-directions, and an initial velocity of 100 is prescribed in the y-direction. The nodes belonging to the shell and membrane elements (S3R, S4R, M3D3, and M3D4R) are constrained in the x- and y-directions, and an initial velocity of 100 is prescribed in the z-direction. The nodes belonging to the axisymmetric shell element (SAX1) are constrained in the z-direction, and an initial velocity of 100 is prescribed in the r-direction. The material model is isotropic linear elasticity. The material properties used are deﬁned as follows: Young’s modulus = 193.1 × 109 , Poisson’s ratio = 0.3, and density = 7850. The coefﬁcient of viscosity is 1000. The viscous pressure load generates reaction forces at the nodes, which are used to verify the element load calculations. This test has only one step.

Results and discussion

The results for all the elements agree with the analytical values, which are included at the top of the input ﬁle.

1.4.15–4

Abaqus/Explicit ELEMENT LOADING VERIFICATION

Input files

**element_vpres.inp surface_vpres.inp
**

V.

Input data for element-based loads used for this test. Input data for surface-based loads used for this test.

VISCOUS BODY AND STAGNATION LOADS

Elements tested *DLOAD and *DSLOAD options

**SAX1 S3R S4R M3D3 M3D4R CPE3 CPE4R CPS3 CPS4R CAX3
**

Features tested

CAX4R

C3D4

C3D6

C3D8R

**Viscous body and stagnation loads.
**

Problem description

In this veriﬁcation test all the available element types are tested by loading them with a viscous body or a stagnation load. The nodes belonging to the plane strain, plane stress, and axisymmetric elements (CPE3, CPE4R, CPS3, CPS4R, CAX3, and CAX4R) are constrained in the x-direction; and an initial velocity of 100 is prescribed in the y-direction. The nodes belonging to the three-dimensional elements (C3D4, C3D6, and C3D8R) are constrained in the x- and z-directions, and an initial velocity of 100 is prescribed in the y-direction. The nodes belonging to the shell and membrane elements (S3R, S4R, M3D3, and M3D4R) are constrained in the x- and y-directions, and an initial velocity of 100 is prescribed in the z-direction. The nodes belonging to the axisymmetric shell element (SAX1) are constrained in the z-direction, and an initial velocity of 100 is prescribed in the r-direction. The material model is isotropic linear elasticity. The material properties used are deﬁned as follows: Young’s modulus = 193.1 × 109 , Poisson’s ratio = 0.3, and density = 7850. The viscous body and stagnation loads generate reaction forces at the nodes, which are used to verify the element load calculations.

Results and discussion

Viscous body force loading provides an alternative way to deﬁne the mass-proportional damping as a function of relative velocities and a step-dependent damping coefﬁcient. In the testing of viscous body force loading, the results agree with those obtained by using the mass-proportional damping with damping factor of 7.85.

Input files

element_vbf.inp surface_sp.inp element_sp.inp element_sbf.inp

Input data for viscous body loads. Input data for surface-based stagnation pressure loads. Input data for element-based stagnation pressure loads. Input data for stagnation body loads.

1.4.15–5

INCIDENT WAVE LOADING

1.4.16

INCIDENT WAVE LOADING

Products: Abaqus/Standard Features tested

Abaqus/Explicit

*INCIDENT WAVE *INCIDENT WAVE PROPERTY *INCIDENT WAVE INTERACTION *INCIDENT WAVE INTERACTION PROPERTY *INCIDENT WAVE FLUID PROPERTY *INCIDENT WAVE REFLECTION *ACOUSTIC WAVE FORMULATION

I. ACOUSTIC ELEMENT TESTS

Elements tested

AC2D3 AC2D4 AC2D4R AC2D6 AC2D8 AC3D4 AC3D6 AC3D8 AC3D8R AC3D10 AC3D15 ACAX3 ACAX4 ACAX4R ACAX6 ACAX8

Feature tested

AC3D20

**Incident wave loading on acoustic elements in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit.
**

Problem description

One-dimensional incident wave loading is tested in this veriﬁcation set. The model consists of a column of ﬂuid 1 m long with a square cross-section of area equal to 10−4 m2 . The length direction is the x-axis, while the cross-section is parallel to the y- and z-axes. In the axisymmetric case the column is oriented along the axial direction. The ﬁrst-order element models consist of 100 elements for the quadrilateral cases and 200 elements for the triangular cases. The second-order element models consist of 50 and 100 elements for the quadrilateral and triangular cases, respectively. For all cases one element is used along the breadth and width directions. A nonreﬂective boundary condition is imposed on one end of the column via the *IMPEDANCE option. The sound source is located at (−10, 0, 0) for the planar waves and at (−100000, 0, 0) for the spherical waves, while the standoff point is located at (0, 0, 0). The material properties of the ﬂuid are the same as those of the surrounding medium. The material used is air with the following properties: density, 1.21 kg/m3 ; bulk modulus, 1.424 × 105 Pa. The sound source excitation is applied in two ways: through the pressure amplitude and through the corresponding acceleration amplitude. The pressure is applied as a ramp function beginning at zero and

1.4.16–1

INCIDENT WAVE LOADING

reaching a magnitude of 1.826 Pa at the end of 4.4 ms. The acceleration amplitude is applied through a step function with a magnitude of 1 m/s2 . Transient simulations are performed in both Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit. The validity of the solution is checked by comparing the POR value at the ﬁrst node with the expected value of 1.826 Pa at the end of the step. The total wave formulation option is also tested. The acoustic solution under the speciﬁed incident wave loading obtained using the total wave formulation option is compared to the acoustic solution obtained while using the default scattered wave formulation option. A similar model is also created to test the bubble loading, with water used as the material instead of air.

Results and discussion

With the meshes used in these tests the result for all elements except AC3D4 is POR=1.825 Pa at node 1. The AC3D4 mesh yields a value of POR=1.865 Pa at node 1. Finer meshes yield more accurate results. The results obtained using the total wave formulation option are found to be identical to those obtained using the default scattered wave formulation.

Input files Abaqus/Standard input files

Planar wavefront, pressure amplitude: iw_1d_ac2d3_dyl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_ac2d4_dyl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_ac2d6_dyl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_ac2d8_dyl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_ac3d4_dyl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_ac3d6_dyl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_ac3d8_dyl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_ac3d10_dyl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_ac3d15_dyl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_ac3d20_dyl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_acax3_dyl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_acax4_dyl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_acax6_dyl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_acax8_dyl_p_pa.inp Spherical wavefront, pressure amplitude: iw_1d_ac2d3_dyl_s_pa.inp iw_1d_ac2d4_dyl_s_pa.inp iw_1d_ac2d6_dyl_s_pa.inp iw_1d_ac2d8_dyl_s_pa.inp iw_1d_ac3d4_dyl_s_pa.inp iw_1d_ac3d6_dyl_s_pa.inp AC2D3 elements. AC2D4 elements. AC2D6 elements. AC2D8 elements. AC3D4 elements. AC3D6 elements. AC2D3 elements. AC2D4 elements. AC2D6 elements. AC2D8 elements. AC3D4 elements. AC3D6 elements. AC3D8 elements. AC3D10 elements. AC3D15 elements. AC3D20 elements. ACAX3 elements. ACAX4 elements. ACAX6 elements. ACAX8 elements.

1.4.16–2

inp iw_1d_acax3_dyl_p_aa.inp iwt_1d_ac3d6_xpl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_ac3d20_dyl_p_aa.inp iw_1d_acax3_dyl_s_pa. AC2D4R elements. Planar wavefront.inp Bubble-loading amplitude: iw_1d_ac2d3_dyl_b_pa.inp iw_1d_ac3d6_xpl_p_pa.4. ACAX4 elements. AC2D4R elements.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files AC3D8 elements. ACAX6 elements. AC2D8 elements.inp bubbledrag_iw. 1.inp iwt_1d_ac2d4r_xpl_p_pa. AC3D15 elements.inp iw_1d_acax4_dyl_p_aa.inp iw_1d_ac3d8r_xpl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_acax6_dyl_s_pa. ACAX8 elements.inp iw_1d_acax6_dyl_p_aa. ACAX3 elements. AC3D8 elements. pressure amplitude: iw_1d_ac2d3_xpl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_acax8_dyl_s_pa.inp iw_1d_ac3d20_dyl_s_pa. AC3D15 elements. AC2D3 elements.inp iw_1d_ac3d8_dyl_p_aa.inp iw_1d_ac2d4r_xpl_p_pa.inp AC2D3 elements. *INCIDENT WAVE INTERACTION (preferred interface).INCIDENT WAVE LOADING iw_1d_ac3d8_dyl_s_pa.inp iwt_1d_acax4r_xpl_p_pa.16–3 . ACAX8 elements. acceleration amplitude: iw_1d_ac2d3_dyl_p_aa. AC2D3 elements. total wave formulation. total wave formulation.inp iw_1d_acax3_xpl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_ac3d4_dyl_p_aa. AC3D6 elements. ACAX4R elements.inp Planar wavefront. AC3D20 elements.inp iw_1d_ac3d6_dyl_p_aa.inp iw_1d_acax4r_xpl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_ac2d6_dyl_p_aa. AC3D10 elements. ACAX4R elements. total wave formulation. S4 elements. *INCIDENT WAVE (alternative interface). AC2D4 elements.inp iw_1d_ac3d4_xpl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_ac3d15_dyl_s_pa. ACAX3 elements. AC3D4 elements. AC3D4 elements.inp iw_1d_ac2d4_dyl_p_aa.inp iw_1d_ac3d10_dyl_p_aa.inp iw_1d_ac3d10_dyl_s_pa.inp iw_1d_acax8_dyl_p_aa.inp iw_1d_ac3d15_dyl_p_aa. ACAX3 elements.inp bubbledrag_iwi. AC2D6 elements. AC3D8R elements. AC3D10 elements. AC3D20 elements.inp iw_1d_acax4_dyl_s_pa. ACAX6 elements. S4 elements. ACAX4 elements. AC3D6 elements.inp iw_1d_ac2d8_dyl_p_aa. AC3D6 elements.

high speed of sound.inp iw_1d_ac2d4r_xpl_p_aa. 1. ACAX3 elements.inp iw_1d_ac3d4_xpl_p_aa.inp iw_1d_ac3d8r_xpl_s_pa_gendecay. decay.inp iw_b31_fastdecay.inp iwt_1d_ac2d3_xpl_p_aa.inp iw_1d_acax3_xpl_s_pa. ACAX3 elements. Coupled S4R and AC3D8R elements. AC2D3 elements. B31 elements. generalized.inp iw_1d_ac3d8r_xpl_s_pa. decay. high spatial decay. total wave formulation. AC3D8R elements. AC2D3 elements. ACAX3 elements.inp iwt_1d_acax3_xpl_s_pa. AC3D8R elements. generalized. decay. ACAX4R elements. AC3D8R elements.inp iw_1d_ac3d8r_xpl_p_aa. decay. AC3D8R elements. AC3D8R elements. AC3D8R elements.inp iw_1d_ac3d6_xpl_s_pa.inp iw_1d_ac2d4r_xpl_s_pa.inp iwt_1d_ac2d3_xpl_s_pa.inp iw_b31_highc.inp iw_aco_slowdecay. AC3D4 elements. generalized decay.4. AC2D3 elements. generalized. total wave formulation. AC3D4 elements.inp Bubble-loading amplitude: iw_1d_ac2d3_xpl_b_pa.inp iwt_1d_ac3d4_xpl_p_aa. ACAX4R elements. AC3D8R elements. generalized decay: iw_1d_ac3d4_xpl_s_pa_gendecay.inp iw_aco_highc.inp iwt_1d_ac3d8r_xpl_p_aa. total wave formulation. AC3D8R elements.inp iw_aco_nearlyacoustic.inp iw_1d_acax4r_xpl_s_pa. ACAX3 elements. total wave formulation. B31 elements. AC2D4R elements.inp iw_1d_acax4r_xpl_p_aa. high spatial decay. AC3D4 elements. AC3D6 elements. AC3D6 elements. but very slow. AC2D3 elements.inp Planar wavefront. but nearly acoustic. total wave formulation.inp Spherical.inp iw_1d_ac3d6_xpl_p_aa.inp iwt_1d_acax3_xpl_p_aa.inp AC3D4 elements.inp iw_b31_slowdecay. AC2D3 elements. total wave formulation. AC2D4R elements. AC3D8R elements. B31 elements.inp iw_1d_ac3d4_xpl_s_pa.inp iw_aco_fastdecay. total wave formulation. generalized.16–4 . but very slow.inp iw_cpl_fastdecay. high speed of sound.inp iwt_1d_ac3d8r_xpl_s_pa. acceleration amplitude: iw_1d_ac2d3_xpl_p_aa.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING Spherical wavefront.inp iw_1d_acax3_xpl_p_aa. generalized decay. pressure amplitude: iw_1d_ac2d3_xpl_s_pa. but nearly acoustic. B31 elements.inp iw_b31_nearlyacoustic. high spatial decay.

decay. decay. Second test with different model properties. Coupled S4R and AC3D8R elements. generalized. These tests show that at the start of the ﬁrst dynamic step in the analysis the acoustic ﬁeld is properly initialized to the values of the incident wave ﬁeld. Results and discussion The results match the expected values for all cases.inp iw_cpl_nearlyacoustic.inp iw_cpl_slowdecay.16–5 . Coupled S4R and AC3D8R elements. Coupled S4R and AC3D8R elements. Coupled S4R and AC3D8R elements.inp II.inp iw_cpl_nearlyacoustic0. high speed of sound.inp iw_shl_highc. In both cases the total wave formulation is used and the standoff point of the incident wave loading is speciﬁed to be inside the ﬁnite element mesh. S4R elements. decay. dimensional elements. high spatial decay. Consequently.inp iw_shl_slowdecay. but nearly acoustic. but nearly acoustic.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING iw_cpl_highc. high speed of sound. generalized. but nearly acoustic. two- 1.inp iw_shl_fastdecay. decay. INITIALIZATION OF ACOUSTIC FIELDS Elements tested AC2D3 AC2D4 AC2D4R AC2D6 AC2D8 AC3D4 AC3D6 AC3D8 AC3D8R AC3D10 AC3D15 ACAX3 ACAX4 ACAX4R ACAX6 ACAX8 Feature tested AC3D20 Incident wave loading on acoustic elements using incident wave loads and the total wave formulation in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit. Problem description These are multiple-element tests that model sound sources of planar waves and spherical waves exciting traveling waves in ducts.4. but very slow. generalized. generalized. S4R elements. S4R elements. Two cases are studied: a spherical wave source using an exponentially decaying time amplitude and a plane wave source using a sinusoidal amplitude. decay.inp iw_shl_nearlyacoustic.inp Decay amplitude with spherical wavefront. S4R elements. at the start of the analysis the incident waves have already travelled into the ﬁnite element domain. but very slow. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files std_twinit_2d_dcay. generalized.

xpl_twinit_2d_dcay. 0) and (1. Pipe elements and three-dimensional beams are also tested in Abaqus/Explicit.inp xpl_twinit_2d_sine.inp std_twinit_ax_dcay.inp std_twinit_ax_sine. axisymmetric elements.inp std_twinit_2d_sine.5. 0). 10) for the planar waves and at (0. The beam element has a square cross-section of area 1 × 10−4 m2 .INCIDENT WAVE LOADING std_twinit_3d_dcay. All nodes are completely ﬁxed.inp Decay amplitude with spherical wavefront.inp xpl_twinit_ax_dcay. axisymmetric elements.0 × 10−3 m. Sinusoidal amplitude with planar wavefront. where the wave source is located at (0.16–6 . Sinusoidal amplitude with planar wavefront. axisymmetric elements. Decay amplitude with spherical wavefront. Problem description In the case of two-dimensional modeling single-element tests are used to verify incident wave loading on two-dimensional beam and pipe elements. BEAM ELEMENT TESTS Elements tested B21 B21H B22 B22H B23 B23H B31 PIPE21 PIPE31 Features tested Incident wave loading on two-dimensional beam elements in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit. 0). twodimensional elements. Decay amplitude with spherical wavefront. Sinusoidal amplitude with planar wavefront. The material properties for the beam are = 1. 100000) for the spherical waves.4. III. Sinusoidal amplitude with planar wavefront. axisymmetric elements.5.inp xpl_twinit_ax_sine.inp std_twinit_3d_sine. Sinusoidal amplitude with planar wavefront.inp xpl_twinit_3d_sine. threedimensional elements. twodimensional elements. Decay amplitude with spherical wavefront. Sinusoidal amplitude with planar wavefront.inp xpl_twinit_3d_dcay.0 × 10−2 m and the thickness of 1.5. threedimensional elements. The standoff point is at (0. threedimensional elements. threedimensional elements.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Decay amplitude with spherical wavefront. The single element for each case is placed along the x-axis with end points at (0. twodimensional elements. whereas the pipe has an outer diameter of 1.

0 × 106 Pa and = 1000 kg/m3 . is located at (0.7 N at each of the end nodes and 666. due to an under water explosion.inp iw_1d_b23_dyl_s_pp. B22 element. Results and discussion The results exactly match the expected values for all cases. B23H element.inp iw_1d_b23h_dyl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_b22_dyl_s_pp. B23H element. B22 element. placed along the x-axis with end points (−50. B21H element. a beam comprised of 50 beam (B31) or pipe (PIPE31) elements.0) and (50.inp B21 element.−5.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING 1.inp iw_1d_b22h_dyl_s_pp.1 m is used.0.16–7 . For quadratic elements the expected reaction force is 166. B23 element. The source of the spherical wave.inp iw_1d_b21h_dyl_s_pp.0) is used.inp iw_1d_b22_dyl_p_pp. Boundary conditions on the beam disallow any axial displacement and rotations along the y. B21 element.5 m and a thickness of 0.inp iw_1d_b21h_dyl_p_pp.1s. B23 element. B22H element. NLGEOM=YES: iw_1d_b21_dyn_p_pp. The solution is computed for 0. B22H element.0 × 1011 Pa and = 10000 kg/m3 .7 N at the mid node.0). The reaction forces at the element nodes are compared.0). The loading is applied as a ramp function with a maximum value of 1000 Pa attained at the end of the step at 0.inp iw_1d_b22h_dyl_p_pp. The material properties for the beam are = 2. The properties of the surrounding medium are the same as those used in the previous section.inp Planar wavefront. and the stand-off point is located at (0. NLGEOM=NO: iw_1d_b21_dyl_p_pp. The wave load is applied over a cylindrical skin modeled with surface membrane elements (SFM3D4R) that is tied to the outer surface of the beam. 0. The bubble loading is also tested but with water used as the material instead of air. In the case of three-dimensional modeling for veriﬁcation on three-dimensional beam and pipe elements in Abaqus/Explicit. B21 element.5 ms.−30.4. B21H element.and z-axis. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files Planar wavefront.inp iw_1d_b23_dyl_p_pp. In both cases a cross-section of type pipe with an outer diameter of 2. The expected reaction force at each of the end nodes is 500 N for the linear elements. 1.inp iw_1d_b23h_dyl_p_pp. NLGEOM=NO: iw_1d_b21_dyl_s_pp.inp Spherical wavefront.

inp Bubble-loading amplitude: iw_1d_b21_dyl_b_pp.inp iw_1d_b21_xpl_s_pp. 10) for the planar shells and at (0.inp iw_1d_b21h_dyn_s_pp. −10) for the axisymmetric shells for the planar waves.inp IV.5.inp iw_1d_b23_dyn_s_pp.inp Spherical wavefront.inp iwt_1d_b21_xpl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_b23h_dyn_p_pp.inp p31_sfm_iw.inp iw_1d_p21_xpl_p_pp. PIPE21 element with planar wavefront. 0.16–8 . The planar shell 1. Problem description These are single-element tests that model a sound source at (0.inp iw_1d_b22_dyn_p_pp. B23 element.5. B23H element. B22 element. For the spherical waves the source is moved to (0. PIPE31 element with spherical wavefront. −100000) for the axisymmetric shells.inp iw_1d_b23h_dyn_s_pp.inp Bubble-loading amplitude: iw_1d_b21_xpl_b_pp.inp iwt_1d_b21_xpl_s_pp.5. B22H element. B23 element.5. B31 element with spherical wavefront.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files B21H element. 100000) for the planar shells and to (0. B21 element.inp iw_1d_b22_dyn_s_pp.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING iw_1d_b21h_dyn_p_pp. B22 element. B21 element with planar wavefront.inp iw_1d_b22h_dyn_s_pp. B21 element. B21 element with spherical wavefront.inp iw_1d_b22h_dyn_p_pp. B23H element. B22H element.inp iw_1d_b23_dyn_p_pp. SHELL ELEMENT TESTS B21 element with planar wavefront. B21 element with spherical wavefront. B21H element. NLGEOM=YES: iw_1d_b21_dyn_s_pp. 0. B21 element. Elements tested S3R S3RS S4R SAX1 SAX2 Feature tested S4R5 S4RS S4RSW S8R S8R5 S9R5 STRI3 STRI65 Incident wave loading on shell elements in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit. iw_1d_b21_xpl_p_pp.inp b31_sfm_iw.4.

S9R5 element.inp iw_1d_stri3_dyl_s_pp. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files Planar wavefront. The shell material properties are the same as those of the beam in the previous section.inp Spherical wavefront.16–9 . S4R5 element.inp iw_1d_s9r5_dyl_p_pp. NLGEOM=NO: iw_1d_s3r_dyl_p_pp. The standoff point is located at (0. S8R5 element.inp iw_1d_s4_dyl_p_pp.5.inp iw_1d_sax2_dyl_p_pp.inp S3R element.inp iw_1d_stri65_dyl_s_pp. STRI3 element. STRI65 element.inp iw_1d_stri3_dyl_p_pp. SAX2 element. 0). S4R5 element. 1. NLGEOM=NO: iw_1d_s3r_dyl_s_pp. STRI3 element.inp iw_1d_s4r5_dyl_p_pp. S4 element.inp iw_1d_s4r5_dyl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_s4r_dyl_p_pp. In the axisymmetric case the shell is oriented along the radial direction and the standoff point is at (0. The properties of the surrounding medium are kept the same as those used in the previous cases.inp iw_1d_s9r5_dyl_s_pp. S8R5 element. SAX2 element. S9R5 element.inp iw_1d_s8r5_dyl_s_pp.5 ms. The reaction forces are compared with the expected values. A similar model is also created to test the bubble loading. 0.inp iw_1d_s8r_dyl_s_pp. S4 element.inp iw_1d_s8r5_dyl_p_pp.4. All nodes are ﬁxed completely. The shell thickness is 10−4 m.inp iw_1d_sax2_dyl_s_pp. SAX1 element.inp iw_1d_sax1_dyl_p_pp. which when summed should produce a total force of 1000 N.inp iw_1d_stri65_dyl_p_pp. S8R element. SAX1 element.inp iw_1d_sax1_dyl_s_pp. 0).inp iw_1d_s4r_dyl_s_pp. S3R element.5. with water used as the material instead of air. S8R element. S4R element.inp iw_1d_s8r_dyl_p_pp. Results and discussion The results for all tested elements exactly match the expected values. S4R element.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING is modeled to be in the X–Y plane with unit length on all sides. STRI65 element. The loading is applied as a ramp function attaining a maximum of 1000 Pa at the end of the step at 0.inp iw_1d_s4_dyl_s_pp.

S8R5 element.inp iw_1d_s4r_dyn_p_pp. S4R element.inp iw_1d_stri65_dyn_p_pp. S8R element.16–10 . S3RS element. S4R element. S3R element.inp iw_1d_stri65_dyn_s_pp.inp iw_1d_s8r_dyn_s_pp. SAX1 element.inp iw_1d_s4rsw_xpl_p_pp. S4RS element.inp iw_1d_s8r5_dyn_s_pp.inp Spherical wavefront: iw_1d_s3r_xpl_s_pp. S8R5 element. S4 element.inp iw_1d_sax2_dyn_s_pp. STRI65 element.inp iw_1d_s4_dyn_p_pp. Planar wavefront: iw_1d_s3r_xpl_p_pp.inp Spherical wavefront. S3R element.inp iw_1d_s4rs_xpl_p_pp. NLGEOM=YES: iw_1d_s3r_dyn_p_pp. STRI3 element.inp iw_1d_sax2_dyn_p_pp.inp iw_1d_sax1_dyn_p_pp. SAX2 element.inp S3R element. NLGEOM=YES: iw_1d_s3r_dyn_s_pp.inp iw_1d_sax1_dyn_s_pp. SAX1 element. SAX2 element.inp iw_1d_s4r_dyn_s_pp.inp iw_1d_s8r5_dyn_p_pp. 1.inp iw_1d_s9r5_dyn_s_pp. S9R5 element.inp iwt_1d_sax1_xpl_p_pp. STRI3 element.inp Bubble-loading amplitude: iw_1d_s4_dyl_b_pp.inp iw_1d_s3rs_xpl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_sax1_xpl_p_pp. S4 element. S4R5 element.inp iw_1d_stri3_dyn_p_pp.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files S3R element.inp iw_1d_s8r_dyn_p_pp. SAX1 element.inp iw_1d_s4r5_dyn_s_pp. SAX1 element.inp iw_1d_s4r_xpl_p_pp.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING Planar wavefront. STRI65 element. S4R5 element.inp iw_1d_s4r5_dyn_p_pp.inp iw_1d_stri3_dyn_s_pp. S4RSW element.inp iw_1d_s9r5_dyn_p_pp. S4R element. S4 element.inp iw_1d_s4_dyn_s_pp. S9R5 element.4. S8R element.

S4RSW element. SAX1 element. S4RS element. S3RS element. while the end nodes on the surface further away from the source are ﬁxed additionally in the x-direction.inp iw_1d_s4r_xpl_s_pp. respectively. 1.inp iw_1d_s4rsw_xpl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_s4rs_xpl_s_pp. SOLID ELEMENT TESTS S3RS element. S4R element. Results and discussion The solution is exactly the same as that obtained using the equivalent *DSLOAD option.16–11 . 0) for the spherical waves. Problem description These tests use exactly the same geometry as that used in the acoustic element tests.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING iw_1d_s3rs_xpl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_sax1_xpl_s_pp. S4R element. CPE4I elements. 0) for the planar waves and at (−100000. S4R element.inp V.inp iwt_1d_s4r_xpl_s_pp.4.1 m. The stresses in the elements are compared with those obtained using the equivalent *DSLOAD option. respectively. NLGEOM=NO: iw_1d_cpe3_dyl_p_pp. Consequently. except for the CPE6M element which gives a small percentage of error in the Abaqus/Explicit analysis. 10 and 20 ﬁrst-order elements are used in the quadrilateral and triangular cases.inp CPE3 elements. A similar model is also created to test the bubble loading. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files Planar wavefront.inp iwt_1d_s3rs_xpl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cpe4i_dyl_p_pp. with water used as the material instead of air. and 5 and 10 second-order elements are used for the quadrilateral and triangular cases.inp Bubble-loading amplitude: iw_1d_s4r_xpl_b_pp. 0. except that the length is reduced to 0. All nodes are ﬁxed in the y-direction. Elements tested CPE3 CPE4I CPE4R CPEG4I CPEG4R CPE6M CPEG6M CPS3 CPS4I CPS4R CPS6 CPS6M CPS8R C3D4 C3D6 C3D8I C3D8R C3D10M C3D15V C3D20 CAX3 CAX4R CAX6 CAX6M CAX8R Feature tested CPE8 CPEG8 Incident wave loading on solid elements in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit. The sound source is at (−10.

inp iw_1d_cps3_dyl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cps4r_dyl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cps6m_dyl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_c3d4_dyl_p_pp. C3D10M elements.inp iw_1d_cps6_dyl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cps8r_dyl_s_pp. CPS4R elements. CPEG4I elements. CPE4R elements. CAX8R elements.inp iw_1d_c3d6_dyl_p_pp. CPS6M elements. CPS6M elements.inp iw_1d_cpeg4r_dyl_s_pp. CPE3 elements. CPS8R elements.inp iw_1d_cpeg8_dyl_s_pp. CAX3 elements.inp iw_1d_cpe8_dyl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cax6m_dyl_p_pp. C3D15V elements. CPEG6M elements.inp iw_1d_cax6_dyl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cpe4i_dyl_s_pp. CPS3 elements. CPS4I elements. CPEG4R elements. CPS6 elements. CPS4R elements. CAX6 elements. 1.inp iw_1d_cpeg4r_dyl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cps6m_dyl_s_pp. CPS8R elements.inp iw_1d_cax3_dyl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cps4r_dyl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cpe6m_dyl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_c3d15v_dyl_p_pp. CPS3 elements. CAX6M elements.inp iw_1d_cps3_dyl_p_pp. C3D4 elements.inp iw_1d_cpeg4i_dyl_p_pp. C3D8I elements.4. CPEG6M elements.16–12 .inp Spherical wavefront. CPEG8 elements.inp iw_1d_cpeg6m_dyl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cps8r_dyl_p_pp. CAX4R elements.inp iw_1d_cax4r_dyl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cpe4r_dyl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_c3d20_dyl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cpe8_dyl_s_pp. CPE8 elements. C3D8R elements.inp iw_1d_cax8r_dyl_p_pp. CPEG4I elements.inp iw_1d_cpeg6m_dyl_s_pp. C3D20 elements. CPE8 elements. C3D6 elements. CPE6M elements.inp iw_1d_cpeg4i_dyl_s_pp.inp CPE4R elements.inp iw_1d_cpe6m_dyl_s_pp. CPS4I elements. CPS6 elements.inp iw_1d_c3d10m_dyl_p_pp. NLGEOM=NO: iw_1d_cpe3_dyl_s_pp. CPEG8 elements.inp iw_1d_cps4i_dyl_s_pp.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING iw_1d_cpe4r_dyl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cps4i_dyl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cps6_dyl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cpeg8_dyl_p_pp. CPEG4R elements.inp iw_1d_c3d8r_dyl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_c3d8i_dyl_p_pp. CPE4I elements. CPE6M elements.

C3D10M elements.inp iw_1d_c3d8i_dyn_p_pp. CPE4I elements. NLGEOM=YES: iw_1d_cpe3_dyn_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cax6m_dyn_p_pp.inp iw_1d_c3d15v_dyl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_c3d8r_dyn_p_pp.inp iw_1d_c3d8r_dyl_s_pp. C3D20 elements.inp iw_1d_cpe6m_dyn_p_pp. CPS4R elements. C3D8R elements. CAX8R elements. CPEG6M elements. CPS4I elements. C3D15V elements.inp Planar wavefront. CPEG4I elements. C3D15V elements.inp iw_1d_c3d8i_dyl_s_pp. CPS8R elements.inp iw_1d_cax8r_dyn_p_pp. CAX4R elements. C3D6 elements.inp iw_1d_cpe8_dyn_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cpeg4r_dyn_p_pp.inp iw_1d_c3d15v_dyn_p_pp. CPS3 elements. CAX4R elements.inp iw_1d_c3d20_dyl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cax3_dyl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cps6m_dyn_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cpeg6m_dyn_p_pp. CPEG8 elements.inp iw_1d_cps4i_dyn_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cax4r_dyn_p_pp. CPEG4R elements.inp iw_1d_c3d10m_dyn_p_pp. CAX3 elements. CPS6M elements.4. CAX6M elements. CAX3 elements. CAX6 elements. CAX8R elements. 1.inp iw_1d_cps4r_dyn_p_pp. CPE4R elements.inp iw_1d_cpeg8_dyn_p_pp. CAX6 elements.inp iw_1d_c3d4_dyn_p_pp. C3D8I elements. C3D4 elements.inp iw_1d_cpeg4i_dyn_p_pp. CPS6 elements.inp iw_1d_cax3_dyn_p_pp. CAX6M elements. C3D10M elements.inp iw_1d_cax8r_dyl_s_pp. CPE6M elements.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING iw_1d_c3d4_dyl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cps8r_dyn_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cax6_dyn_p_pp.inp C3D4 elements.inp iw_1d_c3d10m_dyl_s_pp. CPE8 elements.inp iw_1d_c3d6_dyl_s_pp. C3D20 elements.inp iw_1d_cpe4r_dyn_p_pp.inp iw_1d_c3d6_dyn_p_pp. CPE3 elements.16–13 . C3D8R elements.inp iw_1d_cpe4i_dyn_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cps6_dyn_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cps3_dyn_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cax4r_dyl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cax6m_dyl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_c3d20_dyn_p_pp. C3D6 elements. C3D8I elements.inp iw_1d_cax6_dyl_s_pp.

CPS3 elements.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING Spherical wavefront.inp iw_1d_cax3_dyn_s_pp. CPE6M elements.inp iw_1d_cpe4r_xpl_p_pp. CPS4R elements. CPS6 elements.16–14 . C3D20 elements. CPS4I elements. CAX6M elements.inp iw_1d_cpe4r_dyn_s_pp. C3D6 elements.inp iw_1d_c3d8r_dyn_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cpeg4i_dyn_s_pp. C3D4 elements. C3D8I elements.inp iw_1d_c3d4_xpl_p_pp. CPE4R elements.inp iw_1d_cps3_xpl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cps8r_dyn_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cax6m_dyn_s_pp.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files CPE3 elements. CPE4I elements. CPEG6M elements.inp iw_1d_cpe8_dyn_s_pp. Planar wavefront: iw_1d_cpe3_xpl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_c3d4_dyn_s_pp. 1.inp iw_1d_cps6_dyn_s_pp. CPEG4I elements.inp iw_1d_cps4i_dyn_s_pp.inp iw_1d_c3d10m_dyn_s_pp. CPE6M elements. CAX4R elements.inp iw_1d_cpe6m_dyn_s_pp.inp iw_1d_c3d15v_dyn_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cpeg8_dyn_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cps6m_dyn_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cpeg4r_dyn_s_pp. CAX8R elements.inp Bubble-loading amplitude: iw_1d_cpe4r_dyl_b_pp.inp iw_1d_cpe4i_dyn_s_pp. CPS4R elements. CAX6 elements. C3D10M elements.inp iw_1d_c3d20_dyn_s_pp.4.inp iw_1d_cps4r_xpl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cpe6m_xpl_p_pp. CPEG8 elements. CPE8 elements. CPS6M elements. CAX3 elements. C3D4 elements.inp CPE3 elements. CPS8R elements.inp iw_1d_cpeg6m_dyn_s_pp. C3D8R elements.inp iw_1d_c3d8i_dyn_s_pp. CPE4R elements.inp iw_1d_cax6_dyn_s_pp. CPEG4R elements. CPS3 elements. NLGEOM=YES: iw_1d_cpe3_dyn_s_pp. C3D15V elements.inp iw_1d_cps3_dyn_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cps4r_dyn_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cax4r_dyn_s_pp. C3D6 elements.inp iw_1d_c3d6_dyn_s_pp. CPE4R elements.inp iw_1d_c3d6_xpl_p_pp.inp iw_1d_cax8r_dyn_s_pp.

inp iwt_1d_c3d8r_xpl_s_pp.inp iwt_1d_c3d6_xpl_p_pp. CPS3 elements.inp iw_1d_cps3_xpl_s_pp. C3D8R elements. 0. CAX4R elements.inp iw_1d_cpe6m_xpl_s_pp.inp Bubble-loading amplitude: iw_1d_cpe4r_xpl_b_pp.inp Spherical wavefront: iw_1d_cpe3_xpl_s_pp. Elements tested AC2D3 AC2D4 AC2D4R AC2D6 AC2D8 AC3D6 AC3D8 ACAX3 ACAX4 ACAX6 B21 B21H B22 B22H B23 S3R S4R S4RS STRI3 SAX1 SAX2 C3D6 CAX3 CPE4R CPE6M CPEG4R CPS4R CPS8R Feature tested AC3D8R Incident wave loading in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit with solid-ﬂuid coupling using the *TIE option. CAX3 elements.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING iw_1d_c3d8r_xpl_p_pp. C3D6 elements.inp iw_1d_c3d8r_xpl_s_pp. CAX3 elements.inp iw_1d_cps4r_xpl_s_pp. C3D10M elements. COUPLED TESTS C3D8R elements.inp iwt_1d_cpe4r_xpl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_c3d6_xpl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_c3d4_xpl_s_pp. CPS4R elements.inp iw_1d_c3d10m_xpl_p_pp. C3D8R elements. CPE4R elements. C3D4 elements.inp iwt_1d_cax3_xpl_p_pp. CAX3 elements. CPE4R elements.inp iw_1d_cax4r_xpl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cax4r_xpl_p_pp. For coupling with shell elements the 1. C3D10M elements. Problem description One-dimensional incident wave loading is tested for coupled analysis in this veriﬁcation set. 0) for the planar waves and at (−100000. the sound source is located at (−10.inp iw_1d_cax3_xpl_s_pp. CPE4R elements. CPE3 elements.inp iw_1d_c3d10m_xpl_s_pp.inp iw_1d_cpe4r_xpl_s_pp. 0) for the spherical waves.4. 0. CAX4R elements. CPE6M elements. When solid and beam elements are coupled with the acoustic elements.16–15 .inp VI. C3D6 elements.inp iw_1d_cax3_xpl_p_pp.

inp iw_1d_sac_c_dyl_p_aa. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files Planar wavefront. they are placed adjacent to the acoustic elements. 1.inp AC2D4/B23 elements. 1. The three-dimensional acoustic element has unit length on all sides. One acoustic element is used for the coupling analysis. 5 bulk modulus.21 kg/m3 . Two similar models are also created to test the bubble loading. Solid elements are modeled with the length direction as the x-axis and the other two directions parallel to the y. −10) for the planar waves and at (0. 0.0755 Pa at the end of the step at 5 ms. pressure is applied for the solid and structural elements as a ramp function with a maximum of 5 Pa at the end of the step.424 × 10 Pa. ACAX4/SAX1 elements.inp iw_1d_sac_s_dyl_s_pa. AC3D8/STRI3 elements. In axisymmetric cases the elements are oriented in the axial direction. The standoff point is located at (0. AC2D4/CPE4R elements.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING sound source is located at (0. 0. AC2D4/CPE4R elements.inp iw_1d_sac_s_dyl_p_aa. The results are compared with the expected values of reaction forces and POR. and NLGEOM=NO: iw_1d_sac_b_dyl_s_pa. The planar shells are modeled in the X–Y plane with a surface lying on one face of the acoustic element. and the nodes that are further away from the tied surface are ﬁxed additionally in the x-direction.inp AC2D4/B23 elements. The beam has a square cross-section area of 10−4 m2 . For the solid elements all nodes are ﬁxed in the y-direction. acceleration amplitude. −100000) for the spherical waves. 100000) for the spherical waves. The material properties of the surrounding medium are the same as those of the ﬂuid.inp iw_1d_sac_c_dyl_p_pa. Spherical wavefront. Additionally. All nodes are kept ﬁxed for the beam and shell elements. 0). and NLGEOM=NO: iw_1d_sac_b_dyl_p_aa. 1. with water used as the material instead of air.inp iw_1d_sac_c_dyl_s_pa. 0. The material properties of the solid and structural elements are the same as those used in the previous cases. pressure amplitude. pressure amplitude. 10) for the planar waves and at (0.16–16 .4. For the acoustic elements the loading is applied as a ramp function attaining a maximum of 2. AC3D8/C3D8 elements. Results and discussion The results exactly match the expected values for all cases. ACAX4/SAX1 elements.and z-axes. The two-dimensional acoustic element has a length and width of 1 m and a thickness of 10–4 m. The shell element thickness is 10–4 m.inp iw_1d_sac_s_dyl_p_pa. Planar wavefront.inp AC2D8/B22H elements. The material properties for the acoustic elements are as follows: density. and NLGEOM=NO: iw_1d_sac_b_dyl_p_pa. For all the axisymmetric cases the sound source is located at (0. The beam elements are modeled parallel to the y-direction and lying on one edge of the two-dimensional acoustic element.

AC2D3/CPEG4R elements.inp iw_1d_sac_c_xpl_p_aa. acceleration amplitude: iw_1d_sac_b_xpl_p_aa. pressure amplitude. AC2D6/CPE6M elements.16–17 . AC3D8R/S3R elements. and NLGEOM=YES: iw_1d_sac_b_dyn_s_pa.inp AC2D4/B21H elements. AC3D8/S4R elements.inp iw_1d_sac_s_xpl_p_aa.inp AC2D8/B22 elements.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files AC2D8/B22 elements. acceleration amplitude.inp iw_1d_sac_s_xpl_s_pa.inp Spherical wavefront. AC2D4/CPS4R.inp iw_1d_sac_s_dyn_p_aa. pressure amplitude: iw_1d_sac_b_xpl_p_pa. AC3D8R/S3R elements.inp Bubble-loading amplitude: iw_1d_sac_b_dyl_b_pa.inp iw_1d_sac_c_dyn_s_pa.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING Planar wavefront. Planar wavefront.inp iw_1d_sac_c_dyn_p_pa. AC3D8/C3D8 elements.inp iw_1d_sac_c_dyl_b_pa. AC2D3/B21 elements. INCIDENT WAVE REFLECTION: SPHERICAL WAVES Elements tested S4R AC3D8 AC3D8R 1.inp iw_1d_sac_c_dyn_p_aa.inp iw_1d_sac_s_dyn_p_pa. AC2D3/B21 elements. pressure amplitude.4. and NLGEOM=YES: iw_1d_sac_b_dyn_p_pa. ACAX6/SAX2 elements. Spherical wavefront.inp Planar wavefront. pressure amplitude: iw_1d_sac_b_xpl_s_pa. AC2D4R/B21 elements. AC2D3/CPEG4R elements. and NLGEOM=YES: iw_1d_sac_b_dyn_p_aa.inp iw_1d_sac_c_xpl_p_pa. AC2D8/B22H elements.inp iw_1d_sac_s_xpl_p_pa.inp iw_1d_sac_s_dyn_s_pa. Planar wavefront. AC3D8R/S4RS elements. AC2D4/CPS4R elements. AC3D8/S4R elements. ACAX3/CAX3 elements.inp VII.inp iw_1d_sac_c_xpl_s_pa.

inp iwr_1d_4_xpl_s_pp. For planar shells the reaction forces are compared with the expected values. 1.inp iwr_1d_4_dyl_s_pa. The material properties are the same as those used in the previous case.inp iwtr_1d_1_xpl_s_pp.0. The loading is a step function with pressure magnitude of 1000 Pa for planar shells and 415. S4R element with 1/ >> 1/ .09517 Pa for acoustic elements.16–18 . S4R element with 1/ =0.5. 0.inp iwr_1d_3_dyl_s_pa. 0. iwr_1d_1_xpl_s_pp. S4R element with 1/ =1/ . AC3D8R element with 1/ =0. =108 Pa.0). The standoff point is located at (0. All nodes are ﬁxed for the planar shells. AC3D8R element with 1/ >> 1/ . Input files Abaqus/Standard input files iwr_1d_1_dyl_s_pp. AC3D8 element with 1/ =0.inp iwr_1d_2_dyl_s_pp.5.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files S4R element with 1/ =0.inp iwr_1d_3_xpl_s_pp. AC3D8 element with 1/ =0. The surrounding medium has the following material properties: density. Results and discussion The results exactly match the expected values for all cases.0. The shell thickness is 10–4 m. The shell material properties are as follows: E=106 Pa and =1000 kg/m3 . Four different properties of the reﬂecting surface are considered for the tests.inp iwr_1d_3_xpl_s_pa. 10. S4R element with 1/ =0. For acoustic elements POR values are compared.inp iwr_1d_1_dyl_s_pa.inp iwr_1d_3_dyl_s_pp. Problem description These are single-element tests that model a sound source at (0. S4R element with 1/ >> 1/ .inp iwr_1d_4_dyl_s_pp. The three-dimensional acoustic element is modeled with one face of the element on the X–Y plane and has unit length on all sides.inp S4R element with 1/ =0.4.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING Feature tested Incident wave reﬂection in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit with solid-ﬂuid coupling using the *INCIDENT WAVE REFLECTION option. AC3D8R element with 1/ =1/ . =100 kg/m3 .0. S4R element with 1/ =1/ . The planar shell is modeled in the X–Y plane with unit length on all sides.inp iwr_1d_2_dyl_s_pa. AC3D8 element with 1/ >> 1/ . bulk modulus. AC3D8 element with 1/ =1/ .inp iwr_1d_2_xpl_s_pp.inp iwr_1d_2_xpl_s_pa. S4R element with 1/ =0.5.0.0) for the spherical waves and a reﬂecting surface 5 m directly above the sound source. 0.inp iwr_1d_1_xpl_s_pa.

total wave formulation. The acoustic medium has the following material properties: density.0. The planar shell is modeled in the X–Y plane with unit length on all sides. The three-dimensional acoustic element is modeled with one face of the element on the X–Y plane and has unit length on all sides. AC3D8R element with 1/ >> 1/ .16–19 . Input files Abaqus/Standard input files iwr_1d_1_dyl_p_pp. 10. The shell material properties are as follows: E=106 Pa and =1000 kg/m3 . AC3D8R element with 1/ =0. Problem description These are single-element tests that model a sound source at (0. The shell thickness is 10–4 m.0 Pa for the acoustic elements. AC3D8R element with 1/ =0. S4R element with 1/ =0. 0.0. Results and discussion The results exactly match the expected values for all cases.6 × 10 5 Pa. The standoff point is located at (0.0 kg/m3 .inp Abaqus/Explicit input files S4R element with 1/ =0. bulk modulus. All nodes are ﬁxed for the planar shells.inp VIII. AC3D8R element with 1/ =0.inp iwr_1d_1_dyl_p_pa. The loading amplitude is a step function with pressure magnitude of 1000 Pa for the planar shells and 1.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING iwr_1d_4_xpl_s_pa. =1. resulting in a speed of sound of 400 m/s.inp S4R element with 1/ =0. 1.4. 10.0). =1.0.inp iwtr_1d_1_xpl_p_pa.inp iwtr_1d_1_xpl_s_pa.0.inp iwtr_1d_1_xpl_p_pp. AC3D8R element with 1/ =0. total wave formulation.5.inp iwr_1d_1_xpl_p_pa.inp iwtr_1d_3_xpl_s_pa. For planar shells the reaction forces are compared with the expected values. For acoustic elements POR values are compared. iwr_1d_1_xpl_p_pp. INCIDENT WAVE REFLECTION: PLANAR WAVES Elements tested S4R AC3D8 AC3D8R Feature tested Incident wave reﬂection in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit using the *INCIDENT WAVE REFLECTION option. 0. AC3D8 element with 1/ =0.0) for the direct-path waves and a reﬂecting surface 20 m directly below the sound source.

inp ac3d8_iwissdd2.inp ac3d8_iwissds. and diffuse incident wave ﬁelds in steady-state dynamics.inp ac3d8_iwissdd_lc. AC3D8 element using the subspace-based steady-state dynamic procedure. AC3D8 and S4R elements. S4R element with diffuse loading. Results and discussion The results match the expected values for all cases. C3D8 element using the subspace-based steady-state dynamic procedure.inp c3d8_iwissdd2. spherical.inp stl_case1.inp c3d8_iwissdd.inp c3d8_iwissdd_lc.inp stl_case2. AC3D8 element using the direct-solution steady-state dynamic procedure and the *LOAD CASE option.inp c3d8_iwissds.inp iwi_diffuse_s4. C3D8 element using the direct-solution steady-state dynamic procedure and the *LOAD CASE option. Problem description These are simple tests to verify the application of planar.INCIDENT WAVE LOADING IX. 1. C3D8 element using the direct-solution steady-state dynamic procedure.16–20 . AC3D8 element using the direct-solution steady-state dynamic procedure.4. AC3D8 and S4R elements. INCIDENT WAVE INTERACTION IN STEADY-STATE DYNAMICS Elements tested S4R C3D8 AC3D8 AC3D8R Feature tested Incident wave interaction in Abaqus/Standard. C3D8 element using the direct-solution steady-state dynamic procedure.inp AC3D8 element using the direct-solution steady-state dynamic procedure. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files ac3d8_iwissdd.

The resultant forces at the kinematic reference nodes are output to verify that distributed loads are properly applied to each element. and EDTRA using the *DLOAD and *DSLOAD options. EDNOR. EDSHR. the elements are held ﬁxed by kinematic coupling constraints as each face of each element is loaded with a combination of distributed general tractions and shear tractions. DISTRIBUTED SHEAR AND GENERAL TRACTION LOADS Elements tested CPS3 CPE3 CPS4 CPE4 CPS6 CPE6 CPS6M CPE6M CPS8 CPEG3 CPEG4 CPEG6 CPEG6M CPEG8 CAX3 CAX4 CAX6 CAX6M CAX8 CGAX3 CGAX4 CGAX6 CGAX6M CGAX8 C3D4 C3D8R C3D6 C3D10 C3D10M C3D15 C3D20 C3D27 CCL9 CCL12 CCL18 CCL24 S3R STRI3 S4R S4R5 STRI65 S8R S8R5 S9R5 SC6R SC8R SAX1 SAX2 RAX2 M3D3 M3D4 M3D6 M3D8 M3D9 MAX1 MAX2 MGAX1 MGAX2 MCL6 MCL9 SFMCL6 SFMCL9 SFM3D3 SFM3D4 SFM3D6 SFM3D8 SFMAX1 SFMAX2 SFMGAX1 SFMGAX2 R2D2 R3D3 R3D4 RAX2 Problem description CPE8 The analyses in this section test the traction load labels TRVEC and TRSHR using the *DLOAD and *DSLOAD options.17–1 . One-element and two-element tests are performed to verify the loading options on all the faces of supported elements.4.TRACTION AND EDGE LOADING 1. I. In both Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit tests. Results and discussion The results for each combination indicate that the loads are applied correctly. 1.17 DISTRIBUTED TRACTION AND EDGE LOADS Products: Abaqus/Standard Features tested Abaqus/Explicit This section provides basic veriﬁcation tests for the traction load labels TRVEC and TRSHR and the edge load labels EDLD.4.

Traction loading of shell.inp tracloadccl. Traction loading of axisymmetric membrane elements with twist.inp tracloadsfmax. Traction loading of cylindrical elements.inp tracloadmax. Traction loading of two-dimensional rigid elements. and surface elements. Traction loading of axisymmetric shell elements and axisymmetric rigid link elements. Traction loading of axisymmetric membrane elements.inp tracloadsc_xpl.inp tracloadcgax. Elements tested S3R STRI3 S4R S4R5 STRI65 S8R S8R5 S9R5 1.inp tracloadmcl. Traction loading of three-dimensional membrane and surface elements.inp tracloadrsax.inp tracloadm3d. Traction loading of three-dimensional elements. Traction loading of continuum shell elements. Traction loading of generalized plane strain elements.inp tracloadcpeg.inp tracloadmgax.inp tracloadcax_xpl.inp tracloadsfmgax. Traction loading of shell elements.inp tracloadr3d.inp tracloadr2d.17–2 . Traction loading of continuum shell elements.inp tracloadshl_xpl. tracload2d_xpl.inp tracloadr2d2_xpl.inp tracloadcax. Traction loading of axisymmetric surface elements with twist.TRACTION AND EDGE LOADING Input files Abaqus/Standard input files tracload2d. Traction loading of axisymmetric elements. Traction loading of cylindrical membrane elements. Traction loading of axisymmetric surface elements.inp tracload3d_xpl. membrane.inp tracloadrsax_xpl.4. Traction loading of axisymmetric elements. Traction loading of axisymmetric shell elements and axisymmetric rigid link elements.inp II. DISTRIBUTED EDGE LOADS Traction loading of two-dimensional elements. Traction loading of three-dimensional elements. Traction loading of three-dimensional rigid elements. Traction loading of axisymmetric elements with twist.inp tracload3d.inp tracloadshl.inp tracloadsc. Traction loading of two-dimensional rigid elements.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Traction loading of two-dimensional elements.

TRACTION AND EDGE LOADING Problem description The analyses in this section test the edge load labels EDLD. the elements are held ﬁxed by kinematic coupling constraints as each edge of each element is loaded with a combination of distributed edge loads.inp III. This load is kept constant as the elements are rotated by the kinematic coupling reference node. Input files Abaqus/Standard input file tracloadedge. Some of the models in the tests have cylindrical geometry. General traction or shear 1. The resultant forces at the kinematic reference nodes are output to verify that distributed loads are properly applied to each element. A traction load is applied to another face. In the tests where elements undergo large rigid body rotations. DISTRIBUTED SHEAR AND GENERAL TRACTION LOADS IN GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR ANALYSES Elements tested CPS3 CPE3 CPS4 CPE4 CPS6 CPE6 CPS6M CPE6M C3D4 C3D8R C3D6 C3D10 C3D10M C3D15 C3D20 CCL9 CCL12 CCL18 CCL24 S3R STRI3 S4R S4R5 STRI65 S8R S8R5 S9R5 SC6R SC8R SAX1 SAX2 Problem description CPS8 CPE8 The analyses in this section test the traction load labels TRVEC and TRSHR using the *DLOAD and *DSLOAD options in geometrically nonlinear analyses. Different combinations of the FOLLOWER and CONSTANT RESULTANT parameters are also used. One-element and two-element tests are performed to verify the loading options on all the edges of supported shell elements. EDSHR. one facet is coupled to a kinematic coupling reference node. EDNOR.4. Edge loading of shell elements.inp Abaqus/Explicit input file Edge loading of shell elements. In both Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit tests. Tests include models under large rigid body rotations and large deformations. The reaction forces at the kinematic reference node are used to verify that the loads are properly applied and rotated with the element. and EDTRA using the *DLOAD and *DSLOAD options. Results and discussion The results for each combination indicate that the loads are applied correctly.17–3 . tracloadedge_xpl.

A traction load is applied to another face.inp traclarge_rotation_3d. EDNOR.inp traclarge_rotation_3d_usub.inp tracnlgeom_sax.4. Traction loading of three-dimensional elements. Traction loading of two-dimensional elements.inp tracnlgeom_ccl12. and EDTRA using the *DLOAD and *DSLOAD options in geometrically nonlinear analyses.inp traclarge_rotation_m3d. One facet is coupled to a kinematic coupling reference node. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files traclarge_rotation_2d. Traction loading of 12-node cylindrical element CCL12.inp tracnlgeom_ccl24. Traction loading of 24-node cylindrical element CCL24.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Traction loading of two-dimensional elements. Traction loading of 9-node cylindrical element CCL9.inp.inp trac_cylori_xpl. User subroutine used in traclarge_rotation_3d_usub.inp trac_cylori.inp IV. Traction loading of axisymmetric shell element.TRACTION AND EDGE LOADING loadings are applied on the cylindrical surface by deﬁning a local cylindrical coordinate system with the ORIENTATION paremeter. Traction loading of three-dimensional shell elements.inp traclarge_rotation_3d_usub. This load is kept constant as the elements are rotated by the kinematic coupling reference node.f tracnlgeom_ccl18. Traction loading of three-dimensional membrane elements. Traction loading of 18-node cylindrical element CCL18. traclarge_rotation_2d_xpl. User-deﬁned traction loading of 12-node cylindrical element CCL12.f traclarge_rotation_shl. User subroutine used in tracnlgeom_ccl12_usub.inp. Traction loading of a three-dimensional cylinder.17–4 . DISTRIBUTED EDGE LOADS IN A GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR ANALYSIS Elements tested S3R STRI3 S4R S4R5 STRI65 S8R S8R5 S9R5 Problem description The analyses in this section test the edge load labels EDLD. Results and discussion The results for each combination indicate that the loads are applied correctly. Traction loading of a three-dimensional cylinder. EDSHR.inp tracnlgeom_ccl9.inp tracnlgeom_ccl12_usub. The reaction forces at the kinematic reference node are used to verify that the loads are properly applied and rotated with the 1.inp tracnlgeom_ccl12_usub. User-deﬁned traction loading of three-dimensional elements.

respectively. By default. A uniform dead traction load (of magnitude 4) is applied in the negative -direction. Different combinations of the FOLLOWER and CONSTANT RESULTANT parameters are also used. The constant resultant method has certain advantages when a traction is used to model a distributed load with a known constant resultant.f Abaqus/Explicit input file Edge loading of shell elements. This could be considered a simple model of a sloped roof with a snow load.4.inp.TRACTION AND EDGE LOADING element. the traction vector is integrated over the surface in the reference conﬁguration.17–5 . If you choose to have a constant resultant. the total integrated load on the plate. where is the normal in the current conﬁguration. The analysis in this section consists of a unit planar membrane structure that is held ﬁxed at the edges by a kinematic coupling constraint. User subroutine used in tracnlgeom_edge_usub.inp tracnlgeom_edge_usub. A live uniform normal surface traction integrated over the current surface is equivalent to applying a uniform pressure load. User-deﬁned edge loading of shell elements. The total resultant due to a pressure load depends on the surface area in the current conﬁguration. The most common example of a traction that should be integrated over the current conﬁguration is a live pressure load deﬁned as . Input files Abaqus/Standard input files tracedgelarge_rotation. The normal of the ﬂat structure is in the direction. the traction vector is integrated over the surface in the current conﬁguration. If you choose not to have a constant resultant. . Results and discussion The results for each combination indicate that the loads are applied correctly.inp tracnlgeom_edge_usub.inp V. the traction vector is integrated over the surface in the current conﬁguration. is 1. Let and S denote the total surface area of the plate in the reference and current conﬁgurations. DEAD LOAD ANALYSIS OF A MEMBRANE STRUCTURE USING THE CONSTANT RESULTANT PARAMETER Element tested M3D4 Problem description This section provides basic veriﬁcation of the CONSTANT RESULTANT parameter in a dead load analysis. which is constant. Edge loading of shell elements. a surface that in general deforms in a geometrically nonlinear analysis. traclarge_rotation_edge_xpl. With no constant resultant.

1. With the constant resultant method. In the second step the structure is unloaded. The magnitude of the reaction force at the kinematic coupling reference node at the end of the third step is 4.inp Testing the CONSTANT RESULTANT parameter.f Abaqus/Explicit input file Testing the CONSTANT RESULTANT parameter.inp tracresultant_m3d4_usub. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files tracresultant_m3d4. User subroutine used in tracresultant_m3d4_usub. User-deﬁned traction loading with the CONSTANT RESULTANT parameter.17–6 .TRACTION AND EDGE LOADING In this case a uniform traction leads to a resultant load that increases as the surface area of the plate increases.4. Results and discussion The magnitude of the reaction force at the kinematic coupling reference node at the end of the ﬁrst step is 4. which is not consistent with a ﬁxed snow load.inp. A reaction force greater than 4.59.0 as expected.inp tracresultant_m3d4_usub. In the third step the load is applied with CONSTANT RESULTANT=YES.0 reﬂects the fact that the surface area of the membrane is increasing with the load. the total integrated load on the plate is In the ﬁrst step the load is applied with CONSTANT RESULTANT=NO. tracresultant_m3d4_xpl.

9 “Patch test for acoustic elements.7 “Patch test for heat transfer elements.5.” Section 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.2 “Patch test for cylindrical elements.5.4 “Patch test for axisymmetric elements with twist.6 “Patch test for beam elements.5.” Section 1.” Section 1.5.5.” Section 1.5.5.5.” Section 1.3 “Patch test for axisymmetric elements.5 Patch tests • • • • • • • • • • “Membrane patch test.PATCH TESTS 1.10 1.” Section 1.1 “Patch test for three-dimensional solid elements.5 “Patch test for plate bending.” Section 1.5.” Section 1.5.5–1 .8 “Patch test for thermal-electrical elements.

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24 Model: Thickness. Poisson’s ratio = 0.12 x 0. t=0. For shell elements.1 MEMBRANE PATCH TEST Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit CPE3 CPE3H CPE3T CPE4 CPE4H CPE4I CPE4IH CPE4R CPE4RH CPE4RHT CPE4RT CPE6 CPE6H CPE6M CPE6MH CPE6MHT CPE6MT CPE8 CPE8H CPE8R CPE8RH CPEG3 CPEG3H CPEG4 CPEG4H CPEG4I CPEG4IH CPEG4R CPEG4RH CPEG6 CPEG6H CPEG6M CPEG6MH CPEG8 CPEG8H CPEG8R CPEG8RH CPS3 CPS3T CPS4 CPS4I CPS4R CPS4RT CPS6 CPS6M CPS6MT CPS8 CPS8R M3D3 M3D4 M3D4R M3D6 M3D8 M3D8R M3D9 M3D9R S3 S3R S4 S4R S4R5 S8R S8R5 S9R5 STRI3 STRI65 Problem description y 0. Material: Linear elastic.001.25. Loading/boundary conditions for Step 1: 10−3 (( 2). 10−3 ( 2) at all exterior nodes. In the Abaqus/Explicit simulations this step is followed by an intermediate step in which the model is returned to its unloaded state.1–1 . 1. Uniform edge pressure = 10000. For the coupled temperature-displacement elements dummy thermal properties are prescribed to complete the material deﬁnition.5. Young’s modulus = 1.5. 0 at all nodes. Loading/boundary conditions for Step 2: Rigid body motion is constrained.0 × 106 .MEMBRANE PATCH TEST 1.

Step 2: NLGEOM Element Category Plane strain Plane stress Membrane Shell F. This. where x and y are the nodal coordinates of the undeformed geometry. The use of the NLGEOM parameter implies that the nodal coordinates will change for each element. This strain measure is intended for large displacements and rotations but small strains.56 The hand-calculated solutions will differ because of the various assumptions made for each category of element.MEMBRANE PATCH TEST Loading/boundary conditions for Step 3: 10−3 ( 2). of course. 10−3 ( 2) at all exterior nodes.5. is Green’s strain. use logarithmic strain. and membrane elements. in the Abaqus/Explicit simulations a velocity boundary condition that gives rise to the perturbation is speciﬁed instead. which is intended for large-strain analyses. Step 1: PERTURBATION 1333 for plane stress. in turn. Reference solution The analytical results for each step are presented below. implies that the cross-sectional area of the elements will change. This change in 1. including ﬁnite-strain shells.62 7. The strain measure used for shells. is assumed to remain constant. The two that cause signiﬁcant differences in the results of this step are the strain measure used and the elemental cross-sectional area used to calculate the edge load and output stresses. The thickness of the plane strain elements. for example. This is not the case for the thickness. For shell elements 0 at all nodes. In the Abaqus/Standard simulations this step is deﬁned as a perturbation step.56 7.1–2 . The assumptions made correspond to those that are implemented in Abaqus. The change of length and width is taken into account for all elements. 800 for plane strain elements. The remainder of the elements. shell. 10−3 . 400 for all elements.44 7.S. however.25 7. excluding ﬁnite-strain shells. The thickness is also assumed to remain constant for the shell elements. The remainder of the elements take into account a change in thickness determined by assuming constant elemental volume. 1600 for plane strain elements. Shells Strain Measure Log Log Log Green’s Log Edge Thickness Original New New Original New 10000 10153 10076 9926 10076 (10−3 ) 6.

This result indicates that the nondefault thickness is being used correctly. These elements are recommended only for analyses with large displacements and/or large rotations and small strains. The results from the third step in the Abaqus/Explicit simulations must be subtracted from the results of the fourth step to obtain the perturbation about the loaded state. shell. 1. The strain energy.5. results in a cross-sectional area that differs from the initial area. 397. shell. In the Abaqus/Explicit simulations this is the fourth step. the edge load will vary because of the variation in the cross-sectional area. 9. CPE8H.5 for plane strain elements.94 × 10−3 for plane strain elements. Equivalent concentrated nodal forces are applied to these elements in this step. This result affects the output stress calculations. 9. and membrane elements.0 for plane stress. and CPEG4I elements require a convergence tolerance that is tighter than the default. To obtain the exact solution.) Step 3: PERTURBATION 1323 for plane stress. CPEG4. which differ from the analytical solution by about 2%. In the Abaqus/Explicit simulations this is the third step. respectively. Since the edge load is calculated as the pressure divided by the area. 795 for plane strain elements. the patch tests of the CPEG3. and as a result the load remains constant. and membrane elements. and membrane elements. 397. was calculated from the previously veriﬁed values of the stress and strain and successfully compared to the Abaqus variable ALLIE.MEMBRANE PATCH TEST thickness. as well as the applied edge load. which is dependent on the element thickness. combined with a change in length and width. The *SECTION FILE and *SECTION PRINT output requests are used in some of the input ﬁles with CPE3. The necessary tolerance is set with the *CONTROLS option. These tests also verify the speciﬁcation of a nondefault thickness for plane stress elements and membrane elements by means of the *SOLID SECTION and *MEMBRANE SECTION options. and CPEG4RH elements to output accumulated quantities in different sections through the model. (The second step in the Abaqus/Explicit simulations returns the model to its unloaded state.92 × 10−3 for plane stress. Results and discussion All elements yield exact solutions except for the three-dimensional shells (other than the ﬁnite-strain shells). shell. Edge loads are presently not available for shells and membranes. The ﬁnite-strain shells are recommended for analyses that experience large strains. 1590 for plane strain elements.1–3 .

5.inp CPE3 elements.inp ecg6sfp1. CPEG6 elements.inp ecg6shp1. CPE6MH elements. CPE3H elements.inp ece8syp1. CPS4 elements.inp ecg4syp1.inp ece4trp1. CPE6MT elements.inp ecg4sfp1.inp ecg3sfp1. CPE4 elements.inp ece4shp1. CPE4I elements.inp ece4typ1.inp ecg4sip1.inp ecs4sfp1. CPE4RH elements.inp ece6tlp1.inp ece6slp1.inp ecg8shp1.inp ecs3sfp1.inp ecg4shp1. CPEG6H elements. CPE6M elements. 1.inp ece4srp1.inp ece4sfp1.inp ece3shp1. CPEG8R elements.1–4 . CPEG6MH elements. CPEG8H elements.inp ece6shp1. CPEG4IH elements. CPEG3 elements.inp ecg4srp1.MEMBRANE PATCH TEST Input files Abaqus/Standard input files ece3sfp1. CPEG4RH elements.inp ecg4sjp1. CPE4R elements.inp ece8sfp1.inp ece6skp1.inp ecg3shp1. CPE4IH elements. CPEG3H elements.inp ecg8srp1. CPEG6M elements.inp ece4sjp1.inp ece4syp1. CPE6 elements.inp ece6sfp1. CPE8R elements.inp ecg8sfp1.inp ece8srp1. CPE4RT elements. CPEG8RH elements. CPEG4 elements. CPE4RHT elements. CPE6MHT elements.inp ecg6skp1. CPS3 elements.inp ece8shp1. CPE8H elements. CPEG4H elements. CPE6H elements.inp ecg8syp1. CPEG4I elements.inp ece6tkp1.inp ece4sip1. CPE8RH elements. CPEG4R elements. CPEG8 elements. CPE4H elements. CPE8 elements.inp ecg6slp1.

inp. M3D4R elements.MEMBRANE PATCH TEST ecs4sfp1.inp stresspatch_xpl_cps6mt.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files User subroutine DLOAD used in ecs4sfp1.1–5 .inp es63sxp1.inp em38sfp1.inp em34srp1. CPS4RT elements.inp es56sxp1.inp stresspatch_xpl_cps4rt. stresspatch_xpl_cpe3t.inp em39sfp1. STRI3 elements.inp em38srp1.5. CPS3T elements.inp es54sxp1.f ecs4sip1. CPS6M elements.inp es58sxp1.inp esf3sxp1.inp em34sfp1.inp ecs8srp1. STRI65 elements.inp em33sfp1.inp em39srp1. CPE6MT elements. CPE4RT elements.inp esf4sxp1.inp ecs8sfp1. M3D9 elements. S3/S3R elements. CPS8 elements. S8R5 elements. M3D8 elements. S4R5 elements. CPS6 elements. CPS6MT elements.inp ese4sxp1.inp ecs6sfp1. 1.inp CPE3T elements. M3D6 elements. S4 elements. S9R5 elements. S8R elements.inp ecs6skp1.inp es68sxp1.inp stresspatch_xpl_cps3t. CPS4R elements. M3D3 elements. M3D9R elements.inp es59sxp1. S4R elements.inp em36sfp1. CPS4I elements.inp stresspatch_xpl_cpe4rt.inp ecs4srp1. M3D4 elements. CPS8R elements. M3D8R elements.inp stresspatch_xpl_cpe6mt.

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5.2–1 . −3 −3 10 ( 2 )/2. Poisson’s ratio = 0. Young’s modulus = 1.0 × 106 . 1.25. In the Abaqus/Explicit simulations this step is followed by an intermediate step in which the model is returned to its unloaded state.3-D SOLIDS PATCH TEST 1. 10 ( 2z)/2. Loading for Step 1: Displacement boundary conditions at all exterior nodes: 10−3 (2 )/2. For coupled temperature-displacement elements dummy thermal properties are prescribed to complete the material deﬁnition.2 PATCH TEST FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLID ELEMENTS Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit C3D4 C3D4H C3D4T C3D6 C3D6H C3D6T C3D8 C3D8H C3D8I C3D8IH C3D8R C3D8RH C3D8RT C3D8T C3D10 C3D10H C3D10I C3D10M C3D10MH C3D10MHT C3D10MT C3D15 C3D15H C3D15V C3D15VH C3D20 C3D20H C3D20R C3D20RH C3D27 C3D27H C3D27R C3D27RH Problem description y 1 x 1 1 z Material: Linear elastic.5.

leading to small discrepancies in the results. 5. (Rigid body motion is constrained. Step 2: NLGEOM 10000. Step 1: PERTURBATION 2000. 0. and z are the coordinates of the undeformed The analytical results for each step are presented below.0.0 × 10−3 . 10−3 .) Step 3: PERTURBATION 1990.95 × 10−4 . Reference solution 10−3 (2 )/2. The results from the third step in the Abaqus/Explicit simulations must be subtracted from the results of the fourth step to obtain the perturbation about the loaded state. 9. 9. (The second step in the Abaqus/Explicit simulations returns the model to its unloaded state. in the Abaqus/Explicit simulations a velocity boundary condition that gives rise to the perturbation is speciﬁed instead. where x. In the Abaqus/Standard simulations this step is deﬁned as a perturbation step. 2z)/2. The wedge elements and the quadratic reduced-integration brick elements 1. 10 ( geometry. In the Abaqus/Explicit simulations this is the third step. 0. 398. The stiffness matrix is not integrated exactly with the employed integration rule. Results and discussion All elements except C3D27R and C3D27RH yield exact solutions.95 × 10−4 . In the Abaqus/Explicit simulations this is the fourth step. y.) Loading for Step 3: Displacement boundary conditions at all exterior nodes: −3 −3 10 ( 2 )/2.5. These elements use a special 14-point reduced-integration scheme since Gaussian 2 × 2 × 2 integration leaves too many kinematic nodes. 400. 10−3 .2–2 .3-D SOLIDS PATCH TEST Loading for Step 2: Uniform pressure load: 10000.

C3D15V elements. C3D6T elements.inp ec36sfp2.inp ec3aslp2.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files C3D4 elements.. C3D10 elements.inp ec3atlp2. C3D4T elements.inp ec38syp2. C3D10MHT elements.3-D SOLIDS PATCH TEST pass only a restricted patch test.inp stresspatch_xpl_c3d8rt.inp stresspatch_xpl_c3d8t. C3D20R elements.e. and C3D27RH elements to output accumulated quantities in different sections through the model.5. C3D27H elements. The *SECTION FILE and *SECTION PRINT output requests are used in the input ﬁles with C3D8H. C3D10MT elements. C3D8H elements.inp ec34shp2.inp ec38sjp2.inp ec3ksyp2. C3D27R elements. C3D27RH elements.inp ec3rsyp2. C3D15H elements.inp ec3askp2. C3D8I elements. C3D20 elements. C3D8T elements. i.inp ec38sip2. C3D8RH elements.inp ec3asfp2. C3D10M elements. C3D10I elements.inp stresspatch_xpl_c3d6t.inp ec3kshp2.inp ec38shp2. such elements with midside nodes on any edges will pass the patch test only if those edges are straight.inp ec3ashp2. C3D27 elements. C3D20H elements.inp ec3atkp2. C3D10MH.inp ec38sfp2.inp ec3rsfp2.inp ec3isfp2.inp ec3asip2. C3D15VH elements. C3D10MH elements. C3D6 elements. stresspatch_xpl_c3d4t. C3D8 elements.inp ec3rsrp2.2–3 .inp ec3fsfp2.inp ec36shp2.inp 1. C3D20RH elements. C3D8IH elements. C3D10H elements. C3D4H elements.inp ec38srp2. C3D15 elements.inp ec3ishp2.inp ec3ksfp2.inp ec3fshp2. C3D6H elements. C3D8R elements.inp ec3rshp2. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files ec34sfp2. C3D8RT elements.inp ec3ksrp2.

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where r is the radius of the integration point.3 PATCH TEST FOR CYLINDRICAL ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested CCL12 CCL24 CCL24R Problem description 0. 10−3 . Loading: Displacement boundary conditions applied to all exterior nodes: −3 10−3 r. BZNU. Reference solution The analytical results for each step are presented below. 1. Step : PERTURBATION 2000. Results and discussion All elements yield exact solutions.25. Nonuniform body force: To maintain a constant shear stress 400 and preserve equilibrium. Poisson’s ratio = 0. 10 . 400.3–1 .12 z r 1.0 0. 10−3 .5. Young’s modulus = 1.24 Material: Linear elastic.5. an equilibrating body force.0 × 106 .CYLINDRICAL ELEMENT PATCH TESTS 1. is deﬁned in user subroutine DLOAD as BZNU −400 .

f eccrgrp1.f CCL12 elements. User subroutine DLOAD used in eccrgrp1.inp ecccgfp1.3–2 .f eccrgfp1.5. 1. User subroutine DLOAD used in ecccgfp1.inp eccrgrp1. CCL24R elements. CCL24 elements. User subroutine DLOAD used in eccrgfp1.inp.inp.inp eccrgfp1.inp.CYLINDRICAL ELEMENT PATCH TESTS Input files Abaqus/Standard input files ecccgfp1.

12 z r 1.24 Material: Linear elastic. is deﬁned in user subroutine DLOAD as BZNU −400 .AXISYMMETRIC PATCH TESTS 1. Loading for Step 2: Displacement boundary conditions applied to all exterior nodes: 10−2 r.0 0. in the Abaqus/Explicit simulations a velocity boundary condition that gives rise to the perturbation is speciﬁed instead. For coupled temperature-displacement elements dummy thermal properties are prescribed to complete the material deﬁnition. 10−3 .0 × 106 . Nonuniform body force: To maintain a constant shear stress 400 and preserve equilibrium.4–1 .5.4 PATCH TEST FOR AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENTS Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit CAX3 CAX4 CAX6 CAX8 CAX3H CAX4H CAX6H CAX8H CAX3T CAX4I CAX4IH CAX4R CAX6M CAX6MH CAX8R CAX8RH CAX4RH CAX4RHT CAX4RT Problem description 0. Loading for Step 1: Displacement boundary conditions applied to all exterior nodes: 10−3 r. 10−3 .25.5. Young’s modulus = 1. BZNU. 1. an equilibrating body force. Poisson’s ratio = 0. Loading for Step 3: Displacement boundary conditions applied to the deformed geometry of Step 2 at all exterior nodes: 10−3 r. −2 10 z. Nonuniform body force (as described for Step 1): BZNU −400 . In the Abaqus/Explicit simulations this step is followed by an intermediate step in which the model is returned to its unloaded state. In the Abaqus/Standard simulations this step is deﬁned as a perturbation step. where r is the radius of the integration point.

1 × 10−3 . 10−3 .inp eca4sfp5.f eca3shp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca4sfp5. 10−3 . CAX3H elements.inp.) Step 3: PERTURBATION 2000. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca3shp5. 1. 1 × 10−3 . CAX4 elements.4–2 .AXISYMMETRIC PATCH TESTS Reference solution The analytical results for each step are presented below. (The second step in the Abaqus/Explicit simulations returns the model to its unloaded state. In the Abaqus/Explicit simulations this is the third step. 400. The results from the third step in the Abaqus/Explicit simulations must be subtracted from the results of the fourth step to obtain the perturbation about the loaded state.inp eca3sfp5.inp eca3shp5. Step 1: PERTURBATION 2000.f CAX3 elements. 0 9.inp. In the Abaqus/Explicit simulations this is the fourth step.95 × 10−3 . Input files Abaqus/Standard input files eca3sfp5. 0. Results and discussion All elements yield exact solutions. 400.5.inp.f eca4sfp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca3sfp5. Step 2: NLGEOM 19900.

f eca4srp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca6slp5.inp. CAX4RT elements.f eca4sjp5.inp eca8syp5.inp. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca8shp5. CAX6H elements.inp.f eca4trp5.inp eca8srp5.inp. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca4syp5.f Abaqus/Explicit input files CAX4H elements.f eca4syp5.inp.inp eca4typ5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca6skp5.inp.inp.inp. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca8srp5. CAX8RH elements.f eca8srp5.5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca4srp5.f eca6shp5.inp eca4trp5. CAX4R elements. User subroutine VDLOAD for the Abaqus/Explicit simulations.f eca4typ5. CAX4IH elements.inp eca6shp5.inp eca4syp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca4trp5.inp eca6slp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca4typ5. CAX4RHT elements.inp eca4shp5.inp eca8shp5.f eca8syp5.inp stresspatch_xpl_cax.inp eca4srp5. CAX6M elements.f eca8sfp5.inp. CAX8 elements. 1.inp eca8sfp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca6sfp5.inp eca6skp5.inp stresspatch_xpl_cax4rt.inp.4–3 . CAX8H elements.f eca4sip5.inp.inp. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca6shp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca8syp5.inp eca6sfp5.f eca6skp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca4sjp5.AXISYMMETRIC PATCH TESTS eca4shp5. CAX6MH elements. CAX6 elements. stresspatch_xpl_cax3t. CAX8R elements. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca8sfp5.f CAX3T elements.f eca8shp5.inp.f eca6slp5.inp eca4sip5.inp.inp. CAX4RT elements.inp eca4sjp5.f eca6sfp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca4shp5. CAX4RH elements. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca4sip5. CAX4I elements.

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Nonuniform body force: To maintain a constant shear stress 400 and preserve equilibrium.25.5 PATCH TEST FOR AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENTS WITH TWIST Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested CGAX3 CGAX4 CGAX6 CGAX8 CGAX3H CGAX4H CGAX6H CGAX8H CGAX3HT CGAX3T CGAX4HT CGAX4R CGAX4RH CGAX6M CGAX6MH CGAX8HT CGAX8R CGAX8RH CGAX4T CGAX8RHT CGAX8RT CGAX8T Problem description axis of symmetry C D 1. 1.0 × 106 .0 × 10−2 .01 per unit length applied to face CD. 0. conductivity = 4. where r is the radius of the integration point.5–1 .0 B Material: Linear elastic. is deﬁned in user subroutine DLOAD as BZNU = −400 . 0. an equilibrating body force. 1. Poisson’s ratio = 0. −3 10 . Loading for Step 3: Displacement boundary conditions applied to all exterior nodes: 10−2 r. −2 10 z. Loading for Step 1: A twist of 0. Young’s modulus = 1. BZNU.0 z r A a = 1.85 × 10−4 .TWIST PATCH TESTS 1. Loading for Step 2: Displacement boundary conditions applied to all exterior nodes: 10−3 r.5.5.

Step 1: PERTURBATION Shear stress.2. where r is the radial distance from the axis of symmetry and G is the shear modulus. Temperatures are prescribed at every node along the boundary of the mesh. Stresses and strains are the same as in Step 3. 10−3 . 0. and are arbitrary constants. 1 × 10−3 . a distributed heat ﬂux. 1. Loading for Step 5: The displacement boundary conditions are the same as those applied in Step 3.TWIST PATCH TESTS Loading for Step 4: Displacement boundary conditions applied to the deformed geometry of Step 2 at all exterior nodes: 10−3 r. 9.5. Nonuniform body force (as described for Step 2): BZNU = −400 .95 × 10−3 . 0. 10−3 . Step 5: *COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT This step is applied only in tests of coupled temperature-displacement elements (CGAXxT). . q. 400. 10 . Step 2: PERTURBATION 2000. Step 4: PERTURBATION 2000. 1 × 10−3 . . 400. where T is the temperature. Resultant moment. . 0. is deﬁned in user subroutine DFLUX as BFNU = . Reference solution The analytical results for each step are presented below. Step 3: NLGEOM −3 19900. . and r. 2 = 6283. BFNU. where r is the radius of the integration point and k is the conductivity.5–2 . Nonuniform distributed ﬂux: To maintain a uniform heat ﬂux. z denote spatial location.

inp. used in used in used in used in 1. CGAX4 elements. CGAX4HT elements. User subroutines DLOAD and DFLUX eca3hhp5. CGAX6MH elements.inp eca3ghp5.inp eca4hfp5.f CGAX3 elements.f eca3hfp5.inp.5. CGAX6 elements.inp eca8gfp5.inp eca6glp5.inp. CGAX8 elements.f eca6gkp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca6glp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca4gfp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca3gfp5. CGAX4H elements. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca4grp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca4gyp5.inp.inp eca6ghp5. Input files eca3gfp5.f eca6ghp5.inp eca4gyp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca6ghp5. The *SECTION FILE and *SECTION PRINT output requests are used in the input ﬁles with CGAX8RH elements to output accumulated quantities in different sections through the model.inp.f eca4gyp5.f eca4grp5.inp.f eca4ghp5.inp. CGAX3HT elements. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca8gfp5. User subroutines DLOAD and DFLUX eca4hhp5. CGAX6H elements.f eca3hhp5.inp. CGAX3H elements. User subroutines DLOAD and DFLUX eca4hfp5. CGAX3T elements. User subroutines DLOAD and DFLUX eca3hfp5.inp eca3hfp5.inp eca4ghp5.inp.f eca4hfp5.inp. CGAX6M elements.inp eca4gfp5.inp.f eca3ghp5.f eca4gfp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca6gfp5.TWIST PATCH TESTS Results and discussion The results agree well with the analytical solution for all elements. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca3ghp5.f eca4hhp5.f eca6gfp5. CGAX4RH elements.inp eca6gfp5. CGAX4T elements.inp eca4grp5.5–3 . User subroutine DLOAD used in eca4ghp5.inp eca4hhp5.inp.f eca8gfp5.f eca6glp5.inp.inp eca3gfp5.inp. CGAX4R elements.inp. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca6gkp5.inp eca3hhp5.inp eca6gkp5.

CGAX8R elements.inp eca8gyp5. User subroutines DLOAD and DFLUX used eca8hfp5.f CGAX8H elements.TWIST PATCH TESTS eca8ghp5. CGAX8T elements.inp.inp.inp eca8hhp5.f eca8gyp5.inp eca8hfp5.inp.f eca8hfp5.inp. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca8gyp5. User subroutines DLOAD and DFLUX used eca8hhp5. CGAX8HT elements. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca8ghp5.f eca8hhp5.inp eca8grp5.inp.5.inp eca8ghp5.5–4 .f eca8grp5. User subroutine DLOAD used in eca8grp5. CGAX8RH elements. in in 1.

24 Model: Thickness. but they fail the test for general quadrilaterals.inp es68sxp3.6–1 . 0.6667. −10−3 ( /2).5.12 x 0.inp ese4sxp3. 10−3 ( /2). t = 0. Poisson’s ratio = 0.PLATE PATCH TESTS 1.inp S3/S3R elements. Boundary conditions: (applied to all exterior nodes) 0. 1.6 PATCH TEST FOR PLATE BENDING Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested S3 S3R S4 S4R S4R5 S8R S8R5 S9R5 STRI3 STRI65 Problem description y 0. S4 elements.5. Material: Linear elastic. Reference solution 10−3 ( )/2.inp es54sxp3. S4R elements.20.001. Stress: Results and discussion 0. Young’s modulus = 1. All elements yield exact solutions except S8R.0 × 106 .inp esf4sxp3. S8R elements. S4R5 elements. Input files esf3sxp3.25. S8R will pass the patch test if the element shapes are rhombic.

inp es56sxp3. STRI65 elements.6–2 .inp es63sxp3. S9R5 elements.inp S8R5 elements.PLATE PATCH TESTS es58sxp3.5. STRI3 elements.inp es59sxp3. 1.

0. Loading and boundary conditions for Step 3: 0. 0 at 10.01 + 0. Loading and boundary conditions for Step 1: 0. The analytical results for each step are presented below.01 + 0.5. Solution is computed at time 1. where x is the value of the coordinates in the undeformed geometry. Young’s modulus = 30.3.0 × 106 . Loading and boundary conditions for Abaqus/Explicit: The node at 0 is ﬁxed. Loading and boundary conditions for Step 2: The node at 0 is ﬁxed.0 at 0. 0. 1.BEAM PATCH TESTS 1. displacement boundary conditions applied at the end nodes: 0.7–1 . displacement boundary conditions applied at the end nodes: 0.0 at 10. including geometric nonlinearity. Poisson’s ratio = 0. Reference solution Material: Linear elastic.01x.0.7 PATCH TEST FOR BEAM ELEMENTS Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit B21 B21H B22 B22H B23 B23H B31 B31H B31OS B31OSH B32 B32H B32OS B32OSH B33 B33H PIPE21 PIPE21H PIPE22 PIPE22H PIPE31 PIPE31H PIPE32 PIPE32H Problem description z y 10 x Model: Area.0 at 10.01.5.0 at 0. concentrated load at the free end: 3000. A = 0. concentrated load at the free end: 3000 using a smooth step amplitude deﬁnition.01x. 0 at 10.

inp eb32rxp6. B23H elements. B33H elements. Section forces: axial force Step 3: PERTURBATION 3000.inp eb2irxp6. B32 elements.inp ep2ipxp6. PIPE22 elements. PIPE21H elements. PIPE31 elements. tip displacement: 1. B32OS elements.0 × 10−1 . B31H elements. B32H elements.inp eboiixp6.inp B21 elements.inp eb2jrxp6.inp ep22pxp6. The elements are recommended only for linear analysis. tip displacement: 1.inp ep23pxp6.inp ebo3ixp6. B21H elements.inp ep2hpxp6.inp eb3hrxp6.inp eb3jrxp6. which differ from the analytical solution by about 2% for the NLGEOM step and the subsequent perturbation step.inp ebohixp6.inp eb23rxp6. All elements yield exact solutions except the cubic beams.90 × 10−2 . Section forces: axial force Results and discussion 3000. B23 elements.inp eb33rxp6. 1.inp ebo2ixp6.inp eb3irxp6. PIPE21 elements. B31 elements. B22 elements. Section forces: axial force Dynamic Step in Abaqus/Explicit: 2970. B33 elements. Input files eb22rxp6. The results for pipe elements in Abaqus/Explicit are the same as those in Abaqus/Standard. PIPE22H elements.inp ep32pxp6. B32OSH elements. B22H elements. B31OSH elements.5.BEAM PATCH TESTS Step 1: PERTURBATION Section forces: axial force Step 2: NLGEOM 3000.005 × 10−1 . tip displacement: 9.inp eb2arxp6.inp eb2hrxp6.inp eb3arxp6. B31OS elements.7–2 .005 × 10−1 . tip displacement: 1.

PIPE32 elements. PIPE21 elements in Abaqus/Explicit.inp ebmod1p6. External ﬁle used to store common portions of the input ﬁles for this problem. PIPE31 elements in Abaqus/Explicit. PIPE32H elements.inp patch_pipe3d_xpl.inp PIPE31H elements.inp ep3ipxp6.inp patch_pipe2d_xpl.inp ebmod2p6.BEAM PATCH TESTS ep3hpxp6. External ﬁle used to store common portions of the input ﬁles for this problem. 1.7–3 .inp ep33pxp6.5.

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The total simulation time for the Abaqus/Explicit analysis is 20 units. Temperatures are prescribed at every node along the boundary of the mesh. Reference solution Fluxes: Since the temperature ﬁeld is chosen to be linear. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files ec12dfp4.8 PATCH TEST FOR HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit DC1D2 DC1D3 DC2D3 DC2D4 DC2D6 DC2D8 DC3D4 DC3D6 DC3D8 DC3D10 DC3D15 DC3D20 DCAX3 DCAX4 DCAX6 DCAX8 DS3 DS4 DS6 DS8 C3D4T C3D6T C3D8RT C3D8T C3D10MHT C3D10MT SC8RT CAX3T CAX4RHT CAX4RT CAX6MT CGAX4RHT CGAX4RT CPE3T CPE4RHT CPE4RT CPE6MHT CPE6MT CPEG4RHT CPEG4RT CPEG6MHT CPEG6MT CPS3T CPS4RT CPS6MT Problem description The meshes used for the heat transfer tests are the same as those used for the corresponding stress elements. y. z denote spatial location.inp DC1D2 elements. where T is the temperature. Boundary conditions: . Results and discussion All elements yield exact solutions. thus.HEAT ELEMENT PATCH TESTS 1. For coupled temperature-displacement elements dummy mechanical properties are prescribed to complete the material deﬁnition. has constant ﬂuxes at every integration point. through are arbitrary constants.5.8–1 . 1. For shell elements z denotes the normal direction to the shell surface. except that the axisymmetric heat transfer elements use a larger radius. it has constant spatial gradients and.5. and x. This provides enough time for the transient solution to reach steady-state conditions in this problem.

C3D8RT elements.inp ec3adfp4.inp eca4trp4.8–2 . DC2D6 elements.inp ec3fdfp4. heatpatch_xpl_c3d4t. CGAX4RT elements.5.inp es36dxp4.inp ecs6tkp4. DC3D20 elements.inp eca6dfp4. DCAX6 elements. CAX4RT elements. DS3 elements. DC2D8 elements.inp ece6tkp4. CPE6MHT elements. SC8RT elements.inp es38dxp4.HEAT ELEMENT PATCH TESTS ec13dfp4.inp ec23dfp4. DS6 elements. C3D8T elements.inp ecs4trp4. DS8 elements. C3D10MT elements.inp ecg4typ4. DC3D15 elements.inp ec3atkp4.inp heatpatch_xpl_c3d8rt.inp C3D4T elements.inp eca8dfp4. CAX4RHT elements.inp ec34dfp4.inp ec26dfp4.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files DC1D3 elements.inp ecg6tlp4. CPE4RT elements. CPEG4RHT elements. DCAX3 elements. DC3D4 elements. C3D10MHT elements.inp ec3kdfp4. CPS6MT elements.inp heatpatch_xpl_sc8rt. CPEG6MHT elements.inp es34dxp4.inp eca4dfp4. DC3D8 elements. CPE6MT elements. C3D8RT elements.inp ece4trp4. C3D6T elements.inp ec28dfp4. DC2D4 elements.inp ec36dfp4.inp eca4typ4. DS4 elements. CPS4RT elements. DCAX8 elements.inp ece6tlp4. CPEG4RT elements.inp ec38trp4.inp ecg6tkp4. DC3D6 elements. DCAX4 elements.inp ec24dfp4. DC2D3 elements.inp ec3atlp4.inp heatpatch_xpl_c3d6t. 1.inp heatpatch_xpl_c3d8t.inp eca4hyp4.inp ecg4trp4. DC3D10 elements. CPEG6MT elements. CGAX4RHT elements.inp ec38dfp4.inp es33dxp4.inp eca4hrp4.inp eca3dfp4.

inp heatpatch_xpl_cax4rt. CPE6MT elements.inp heatpatch_xpl_cpe4rt.inp heatpatch_xpl_cpe6mt.8–3 .inp heatpatch_xpl_cps6mt. CPS6MT elements. CAX6MT elements. CPE3T elements. CPS4RT elements.inp heatpatch_xpl_cps4rt.5. CAX3T elements.HEAT ELEMENT PATCH TESTS heatpatch_xpl_c3d10mt.inp heatpatch_xpl_cax6mt. CPE4RT elements.inp heatpatch_xpl_cax3t. 1.inp heatpatch_xpl_cps3t.inp heatpatch_xpl_cpe3t. CAX4RT elements. CPS3T elements.inp C3D10MT elements.

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5.9–1 . DCAX4E elements.inp eca4vfpj.inp ec26vfpj. . DC3D15E elements. DC3D10E elements. DC2D3E elements.5. and x.THERMAL-ELECTRICAL PATCH TESTS 1. DCAX8E elements. Results and discussion All elements yield exact solutions.inp eca6vfpj.inp ec24vfpj. DC2D4E elements. y. have constant ﬂuxes at every integration point.9 PATCH TEST FOR THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested DCAX3E DCAX4E DCAX6E DCAX8E DC2D3E DC2D4E DC2D6E DC2D8E DC3D4E DC3D6E DC3D8E DC3D10E DC3D15E Problem description DC3D20E The meshes used for the thermal-electrical element tests are the same as those used for the corresponding heat transfer elements. Temperature and electrical potentials are prescribed at every node along the boundary of the mesh.inp ec23vfpj. DC3D6E elements. Input files eca3vfpj.inp DCAX3E elements. DC2D8E elements. DC3D20E elements. y. z denote spatial location. 1. through are arbitrary constants. thus. they have constant spatial gradients and. DCAX6E elements. and x. DC3D4E elements.inp ec28vfpj. Boundary conditions: .inp ec3kvfpj. DC3D8E elements. DC2D6E elements.inp eca8vfpj. z denote spatial location.inp ec3avfpj. through are arbitrary constants. Reference solution Fluxes: Since the temperature and electrical potential ﬁelds are chosen to be linear.inp ec36vfpj. where is the electrical potential.inp ec3fvfpj.inp ec38vfpj. where T is the temperature.inp ec34vfpj.

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ACAX6 elements.10–1 . Acoustic pressures (DOF 8) are prescribed at every node along the boundary of the mesh. is requested. 0. Boundary conditions: Reference solution It is currently not possible to report the pressure gradients for acoustic elements in Abaqus. Results and discussion All elements yield exact values of P at the interior nodes of the models.inp eca8afp7. 1.inp eca6afp7. AC2D3 elements.01 Hz. However. ACAX4 elements.inp eca3afp7. it is possible to compare the acoustic pressures at the interior nodes of the mesh to the values that are analytically calculated from the above expression for P.5. where P is the acoustic pressure. y.inp ec13afp7.inp AC1D2 elements. Note: The models are analyzed via *STEADY STATE DYNAMICS procedures in which a small frequency. z denote spatial location. ACAX3 elements.5. .ACOUSTIC ELEMENT PATCH TESTS 1.inp ec23afp7.inp eca4afp7. AC1D3 elements. In Abaqus/Explicit the steady-state results are obtained by performing a long-term transient simulation. and x. through are arbitrary constants. ACAX8 elements.10 PATCH TEST FOR ACOUSTIC ELEMENTS Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit AC1D2 AC1D3 ACAX3 ACAX4 ACAX4R ACAX6 ACAX8 AC2D3 AC2D4 AC2D4R AC2D6 AC2D8 AC3D4 AC3D6 AC3D8 AC3D8R AC3D10 AC3D15 Problem description AC3D20 The meshes used for the acoustic element patch tests are the same as those used for the corresponding heat transfer elements. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files ec12afp7.

AC2D4R elements. AC3D10 elements.inp ec3fafp7. acousticpatch_xpl_acax3. AC3D20 elements. AC3D8R elements.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files AC2D4 elements. AC2D6 elements.inp ACAX3 elements. 1. AC3D4 elements.inp acousticpatch_xpl_acax4r. AC3D15 elements. AC2D3 elements.10–2 .inp ec38afp7.inp ec34afp7. AC3D4 elements.inp ec28afp7.inp ec3kafp7. AC3D8 elements.inp acousticpatch_xpl_ac3d4.inp acousticpatch_xpl_ac2d3.inp ec3aafp7.inp ec36afp7.5.inp acousticpatch_xpl_ac2d4r.inp acousticpatch_xpl_ac3d6.inp acousticpatch_xpl_ac3d8r. AC2D8 elements. AC3D6 elements. ACAX4R elements.inp ec26afp7.ACOUSTIC ELEMENT PATCH TESTS ec24afp7. AC3D6 elements.

6.” Section 1.6.9 “Beam impact on cylinder.” Section 1.20 “Contact controls.6.” Section 1.6.18 “Contact surface extensions.10 “Contact with time-dependent prescribed interference values.” Section 1.6.6.” Section 1.1 “Small-sliding contact between coupled temperature-displacement surfaces.” Section 1.” Section 1.6.26 “General contact in Abaqus/Standard.” Section 1.” Section 1.23 “Automated contact patch algorithm for ﬁnite-sliding deformable surfaces.6.” Section 1.6 “Finite-sliding contact between coupled temperature-displacement elements.8 “Rolling of steel plate.6 Contact tests • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • “Small-sliding contact between stress/displacement elements.” Section 1.24 “Surface-to-surface approach for ﬁnite-sliding contact.6.” Section 1.6.” Section 1.” Section 1.6.6.5 “Finite-sliding contact between a deformable body and a meshed rigid surface.6.” Section 1.CONTACT TESTS 1.6.13 “Automatic element conversion for surface contact.” Section 1.16 “Automatic surface deﬁnition and surface trimming.” Section 1.6.19 “Adjusting contact surface normals at symmetry planes.17 “Self-contact of ﬁnite-sliding deformable surfaces.6.6.” Section 1.21 “Contact searching for analytical rigid surfaces.” Section 1.6.7 “Finite-sliding contact between coupled pore pressure-displacement elements.27 1.22 “Multiple surface contact with penalty method.6.” Section 1.” Section 1.6.” Section 1.6–1 .15 “Small-sliding contact with speciﬁed clearance or overclosure values.6.6.” Section 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.6.6.” Section 1.4 “Finite-sliding contact between a deformable body and a rigid surface.6.11 “Contact between discrete points.12 “Finite sliding between concentric cylinders—axisymmetric and CAXA models.6.25 “Surface smoothing for surface-to-surface contact.14 “Contact with initial overclosure of curved surfaces.” Section 1.6.3 “Finite-sliding contact between stress/displacement elements.2 “Small-sliding contact between coupled pore pressure-displacement elements.

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which is nonlinear.2 5.SMALL-SLIDING STRESS/DISPLACEMENT CONTACT 1.1 SMALL-SLIDING CONTACT BETWEEN STRESS/DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested C3D4 C3D8 C3D8H C3D10 C3D10I C3D10M C3D10MH CAX4 CAX4H CAX6M CAX6MH CGAX3 CGAX4 CGAX6 CGAX6M CGAX6MH CGAX8 CPE4 CPE4H CPE6M CPE6MH CPE8 CPE8H CPS4 CPS6M CPS8 CPS8R CPEG6M CPEG6MH CCL9 CCL12 CCL18 CCL24 MCL6 MCL9 R2D2 RAX2 Features tested C3D20 C3D20H C3D27 *CONTACT PAIR. SHRINK Problem description The models consist of elements with their contact surfaces initially overclosed. except that Step 4 is a linear perturbation step. SMALL SLIDING *CONTACT INTERFERENCE. wherein relative frictional sliding is performed between the two surfaces. The third step is a linear perturbation step. The ﬁrst and second steps are the same as mentioned earlier. In the sixth step the natural frequencies are extracted. The second step is a linear perturbation step. Anisotropic friction is used throughout the test. The value of friction is changed in the third nonlinear step. The fourth step is a linear perturbation step. wherein relative sliding is performed between the two surfaces.0 1. wherein relative twisting is performed between the two surfaces. This initial overclosure is removed in the ﬁrst step. Only a four-step test is carried out for cylindrical-type elements. Steps 4 and 5 are similar. In these steps both relative sliding and twisting are performed between the two surfaces.1–1 . A ﬁve-step test is carried out for generalized axisymmetric elements. Model: Gap clearance Gap clearance for cylindrical-type elements Truss length 0. which are then used in the seventh step to conduct a subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis. The ﬁfth step is a direct-solution steady-state dynamic analysis of the two surfaces in contact.01 0.6.6.

inp ei34sish.inp ei36sisc. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei36sisc_auglagr_surf_c3d10i. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. C3D10 elements.6. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei34sisc_surf. augmented Lagrangian contact model. Input files ei33sisc. C3D10I elements.0 × 1.inp ei36sisc_auglagr_surf.SMALL-SLIDING STRESS/DISPLACEMENT CONTACT Truss area 2-D solid element dimensions Inner radius of axisymmetric solids and cylindrical-type elements 3-D solid element dimensions Material: 0.0 × 5. augmented Lagrangian contact model.inp ei33sisc_surf.1–2 .inp ei39sisc_c3d10m. C3D10M elements.inp C3D4 elements.0 unit in each direction Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Gap friction Density Results and discussion 30 × 106 0.0 1. C3D10I elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. C3D10 elements.0 1. C3D8H elements.inp ei34sish_surf. 1. C3D8 elements. C3D10 elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei36sisc_surf.inp ei36sisc_auglagr_c3d10i.0 7700. C3D8 elements.inp ei36sisc_c3d10i. C3D8H elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. C3D10 elements. augmented Lagrangian contact model. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.5 1.inp ei36sisc_surf_c3d10i.3 0.inp ei36sisc_auglagr.0 The contact pressure and tractions agree with the analytical results. C3D10I elements. augmented Lagrangian contact model. C3D4 elements. C3D10I elements.inp ei34sisc.

surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei39sisc_c3d10mh_surf.inp ei38sish_surf.inp eia2sira_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.SMALL-SLIDING STRESS/DISPLACEMENT CONTACT ei39sisc_c3d10m_surf.inp eia3sira_cax6m_surf. CGAX3 elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. C3D27 elements. CAX6M elements.inp eia2sisg3. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei38sisc.inp eia2sira. CAX6MH elements.inp ei39sisc.inp eia2sirh.inp eia2sish.inp eia2sirh_surf.inp ei39sisc_surf.inp eia3sira_cax6mh.inp C3D10M elements. 1.inp eia2sirg3.inp ei38sisc_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eia3sisa_cax6m_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eia3sira_cax6m. CAX4 elements. CAX6M.6. CAX4H. CAX4. RAX2 elements. CAX4 elements. RAX2 elements. RAX2 elements. CAX4H elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eia2sish_surf. CAX6M. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eia2sisg3_surf. C3D20H elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CAX6MH elements. RAX2 elements. CAX4H. C3D27 elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CAX4. C3D20H elements. CAX4H elements.inp ei39sisc_c3d10mh. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. RAX2 elements.inp eia3sisa_cax6mh_surf. CAX6M elements. C3D10MH elements.inp eia3sisa_cax6mh. CAX6MH. CGAX3. RAX2 elements. C3D20 elements.inp eia2sisa_surf.inp ei38sish.1–3 . CGAX3 elements. RAX2 elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. RAX2 elements.inp eia2sisa.inp eia3sisa_cax6m. C3D10MH elements. C3D20 elements.

CPE4. CGAX6 elements. R2D2 elements.inp eia2sirg4. CGAX6.inp eia3sisg6_cgax6m_surf.inp eia2sirg4_surf.inp ei22sise_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPE4 elements. RAX2 elements.inp ei22sire.inp eia3sirg6. RAX2 elements.inp eia3sirg8.inp eia3sisg6. CGAX8. CGAX8 elements. CGAX6.inp eia3sirg8_surf.inp ei22sish. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eia2sisg4_surf. CGAX6MH. CPE4H elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eia3sirg6_cgax6mh_surf.inp ei22sire_surf. CGAX4. CGAX4 elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CGAX6 elements. RAX2 elements.inp ei22sish_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eia3sirg6_cgax6m_surf. CGAX6MH elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. RAX2 elements.inp eia3sisg8_surf.SMALL-SLIDING STRESS/DISPLACEMENT CONTACT eia2sirg3_surf. RAX2 elements. CGAX4 elements. CPE4H elements. CGAX4. RAX2 elements.inp eia3sisg6_cgax6mh.6. CPE4. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eia3sisg6_cgax6mh_surf. CGAX6M. R2D2 elements. RAX2 elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eia3sisg8. CGAX8. CGAX6M elements. CPE4 elements.inp eia3sirg6_cgax6m.inp CGAX3. RAX2 elements.1–4 .inp eia3sisg6_cgax6m. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eia3sisg6_surf.inp eia2sisg4.inp ei22sise. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. 1. CPE4H. RAX2 elements. CGAX6MH. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. RAX2 elements. CGAX6M.inp eia3sirg6_cgax6mh. CGAX8 elements. CGAX6M elements. CGAX6MH elements.inp eia3sirg6_surf. R2D2 elements.inp ei22sirh. RAX2 elements.

inp ei23sise_cpe6mh_surf.inp ei23sise_cpe6m_surf.inp ei23sise_cpe6m. CPE6M.inp ei23sire_cpe6m_surf.inp ei23sirh.inp ei23sise_cpe6mh.inp ei22sirs.inp ei23sirh_surf. CPE8H elements. CPE8H.inp ei23sire_surf. CPE6MH elements. R2D2 elements. R2D2 elements. R2D2 elements.1–5 .inp ei23sire. CPE6MH.inp ei23sise_cpe6m_auglagr. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. R2D2 elements.inp ei23sireimport_auglagr_surf. R2D2 elements.inp ei23sise_auglagr. CPE6M elements. augmented Lagrangian contact model.inp ei23sise.inp ei22siss_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPE8. CPE6M. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPE6M elements. CPE8 elements. R2D2 elements.inp ei23sire_auglagr. CPS4.inp ei23sise_auglagr_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPE8 elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPE8. CPS4 elements. R2D2 elements. CPE6M elements.inp ei23sire_cpe6m. R2D2 elements. CPS4 elements. CPE8. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei23sish_surf. R2D2 elements. 1. import analysis.inp ei22siss. CPE8 elements.inp CPE4H. CPE8.inp ei23sire_cpe6mh_surf.inp ei23sish. CPE8H elements.SMALL-SLIDING STRESS/DISPLACEMENT CONTACT ei22sirh_surf. CPE6MH elements. augmented Lagrangian contact model. CPE8.inp ei23sise_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei23sire_cpe6mh.inp ei23sise_cpe6m_auglagr_surf. R2D2 elements. import analysis. CPE8 elements.inp ei23sire_auglagr_surf.6. R2D2 elements.inp ei23sireimport_auglagr. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPE6MH. R2D2 elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-tosurface constraint enforcement method. CPE8. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. R2D2 elements. CPE8H. R2D2 elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPE6M elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.

CCL12. CPS6M. 1. MCL9 elements. CCL12 elements. surface thickness effects ignored. CPEG6M.inp ei23sirs_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CCL9. CCL9 elements. CPS6M. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CCL9 elements.SMALL-SLIDING STRESS/DISPLACEMENT CONTACT ei22sirs_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.6. CPEG6MH elements. CPS8. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. R2D2 elements. R2D2 elements. R2D2 elements. CPEG6M. CCL9. MCL9 elements.inp ei23sirs.inp ei23sise_cpeg6m_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei36sirc_ccl9_surf. CPS8 elements. R2D2 elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei23siss_cps6m_surf. CCL12. CCL9.inp ei36sisc_ccl12_surf. MCL9 elements. CCL9. CPS6M elements.inp ei36sirc_ccl9.inp ei36sisc_ccl12_thick.inp ei36sisc_ccl9_surf. MCL9 elements.inp ei36sisc_ccl12.inp ei23sire_cpeg6m_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei23sise_cpeg6mh_surf. MCL9 elements. CPEG6MH elements. R2D2 elements. thickness is considered. CCL12. CPS8 elements.1–6 .inp ei22siss_surf.inp ei23siss_cps6m. MCL9 elements. R2D2 elements.inp ei23sirs_cps6m_surf.inp ei36sisc_ccl9_thick. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei23sirs_cps6m. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CCL18. CCL12 elements.inp ei23sise_cpeg6mh. CPS6M elements.inp CPS4.inp ei39sisc_ccl18_surf.inp ei36sirc_ccl12. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CCL18. MCL9 elements.inp ei36sisc_ccl9. CPS8.inp ei36sisc_ccl9_surf_nothick.inp ei36sirc_ccl12_surf.inp ei22siss. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. thickness is considered. CPEG6M elements.inp ei23sire_cpeg6m.inp ei39sisc_ccl18. R2D2 elements.inp ei23sise_cpeg6m. CPEG6M elements. MCL9 elements. MCL9 elements.

CCL24.SMALL-SLIDING STRESS/DISPLACEMENT CONTACT ei39sirc_ccl18.inp ei39sisc_mcl9. MCL9 elements. MCL6. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei39sisc_ccl24_surf. CCL18 elements.inp ei39sisc_mcl9_surf.inp ei36sisc_mcl6. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. MCL9 elements.inp ei39sirc_mcl9_surf. MCL9 elements. CCL24. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei39sirc_ccl24_surf. MCL9 elements.inp ei36sirc_mcl6_surf. MCL6 elements. CCL24 elements.1–7 .inp CCL18 elements. 1. CCL24 elements. MCL9 elements.inp ei36sirc_mcl6. MCL9 elements.6.inp ei39sirc_ccl18_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei39sirc_ccl24. MCL9 elements.inp ei39sisc_ccl24. MCL6 elements.inp ei39sirc_mcl9.

.

TIED option is veriﬁed by deﬁning one of the deformable bodies with this feature. For the continuum elements we initiate heat ﬂow in the ﬁrst step by applying different constant temperature ﬁelds to each solid body. heat transfer occurs due to gap conductance and gap radiation. Only heat transfer via gap conductance and gap radiation is tested for the shells. In addition. 1.6. The *SECTION FILE and *SECTION PRINT options are used to output the total force and the total heat ﬂux across the contact surfaces. In addition.SMALL-SLIDING TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT CONTACT 1. The gap closes due to thermal expansion of the two bodies. Heat transfer across the gap between the two bodies can take place via gap conductance. The steady-state temperature along both sides of the interface is used to verify the numerical solutions. in Abaqus/Standard the *CONTACT PAIR.6. In Abaqus/Standard a fourth step is also included. The upper body is displaced back to its original position in the third step. SMALL SLIDING *GAP RADIATION *GAP CONDUCTANCE *GAP HEAT GENERATION Problem description The models consist of two bodies lying next to each other. This step is a linear perturbation step. In the second step the top block is displaced relative to the bottom block to generate heat due to frictional sliding. or gap radiation. wherein a load of sufﬁcient magnitude to open the gap is applied.2–1 .2 SMALL-SLIDING CONTACT BETWEEN COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT SURFACES Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit C3D4T C3D6T C3D8HT C3D8RT C3D8RHT C3D8T C3D10MT C3D10MHT C3D20HT C3D20T CAX3T CAX4HT CAX4RT CAX4RHT CAX4T CAX6MT CAX6MHT CAX8HT CAX8T CGAX4HT CGAX4RT CGAX4RHT CGAX4T CGAX6MT CGAX6MHT CGAX8HT CGAX8T CPE3T CPE4HT CPE4RT CPE4RHT CPE4T CPE6MT CPE6MHT CPE8HT CPE8T CPEG3HT CPEG3T CPEG4HT CPEG4RT CPEG4RHT CPEG4T CPEG6MT CPEG6MHT CPEG8HT CPEG8RHT CPEG8T CPS3T CPS4RT CPS4T CPS6MT CPS8T S3RT S3T S4RT S4T S8RT SAX2T SC6RT SC8RT Features tested *CONTACT PAIR. gap heat generation. the results match the output of similar output quantities obtained using the *CONTACT FILE option.

2–2 . C3D6T elements. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files coupledtempsmslcont_s_c3d4t.0 1 × 10−9 1 × 10−9 0. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.01 7700. C3D8T elements. 1. C3D8RT elements. C3D8HT elements. C3D8RT elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. 1. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.6. C3D8RHT elements. Conductivity Speciﬁc heat Gap conductance 30 × 106 0. C3D8RHT elements.inp ei34tisy. heat ﬂow is initiated by applying different constant temperatures to degree of freedom 15 of the top body and to degree of freedom 11 of the bottom body.inp ei34tisr. The steady-state temperature along both sides of the interface is used to verify the numerical solutions.SMALL-SLIDING TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT CONTACT For the shells.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_c3d6t. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei34tish_surf.inp ei34tish.inp ei34tisy_surf.inp C3D4T elements.inp ei34tisc.inp ei34tisr_surf. Material: Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Gap friction Density Thermal expansion coeff.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_c3d6t_surf. C3D6T elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.3 0. C3D4T elements. C3D8HT elements.5 Results and discussion The ﬁnite element results agree with the analytical results.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_c3d4t_surf.0 600. 10 × 10−6 43.

C3D10MT elements. CAX4RT elements. CAX8HT elements.inp ei36tish. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eia2tish. CAX6MT elements. C3D10MHT elements.inp eia2tisa_surf. CAX3T elements.inp eia2tisy_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CAX4HT elements.inp eia3tish_surf. 1.inp eia3tisa. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eia2tisr.inp eia2tisy.inp eia3tisa_cax6mt.inp ei38tisc_auglagr.inp ei36tish_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. augmented Lagrangian contact model. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei38tisc. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_cax3t. CAX4HT elements. CAX6MT elements.SMALL-SLIDING TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT CONTACT ei34tisc_surf. C3D20HT elements.inp eia3tisa_cax6mht_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CAX4T elements. C3D20T elements.inp eia3tish.inp eia3tisa_cax6mt_surf. CAX8T elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.6. C3D10MHT elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eia3tisa_cax6mht. CAX4RT elements. C3D10MT elements.inp ei36tisc. augmented Lagrangian contact model. CAX4RHT elements. CAX4RHT elements.inp C3D8T elements.inp ei36tisc_surf.inp eia2tish_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.2–3 . CAX3T elements. C3D20T elements.inp ei38tish_surf. C3D20T elements. C3D20HT elements.inp ei38tisc_auglagr_surf. C3D20T elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_cax3t_surf. CAX8HT elements.inp eia2tisr_surf. CAX6MHT elements.inp ei38tish.inp ei38tisc_surf.inp eia2tisa. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CAX6MHT elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CAX4T elements.

SMALL-SLIDING TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT CONTACT eia3tisa_surf. CPE4HT elements. CGAX8T elements. CGAX8T elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CGAX6MHT elements.inp ei23tise_cpe6mt. CGAX4RT elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CGAX6MT elements.inp eig2tish_surf.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_cpe3t_surf. CGAX4RHT elements.inp eig3tisa_cgax6mt.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_cpe3t.inp eig2tisa.inp ei22tise_cpe4rt. CGAX4RT elements. CGAX4T elements.inp eig2tisr_surf.inp eig3tisa_cgax6mht.inp CAX8T elements.6. CPE4RHT elements.inp ei22tish_surf.inp ei22tish. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei22tise_cpe4rht. CGAX8HT elements. CPE4T elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. 1. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CGAX4HT elements.inp ei22tise_cpe4rht_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPE4RT elements. CGAX8HT elements.inp eig2tish. CGAX4RHT elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eig3tisa_cgax6mt_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eig3tish.inp eig2tisy. CPE3T elements.inp eig2tisa_surf. CGAX4T elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.2–4 . surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPE4HT elements. CPE3T elements.inp eig3tisa.inp eig2tisy_surf.inp ei22tise.inp ei22tise_surf.inp eig2tisr.inp eig3tisa_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CGAX6MT elements. CPE4RT elements. CPE4RHT elements. CPE4T elements. CPE6MT elements.inp eig3tisa_cgax6mht_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CGAX6MHT elements.inp ei22tise_cpe4rt_surf. CGAX4HT elements.inp eig3tish_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.

CPEG4RT elements. CPE8T elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPEG3HT elements.inp ei23tise_auglagr. CPEG4RHT elements.inp ei23tise_cpe6mht. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eip3tise_cpeg6mht_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eit2tise. CPE8T elements.SMALL-SLIDING TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT CONTACT ei23tise_cpe6mt_surf.inp ei23tish.inp eip2tise_surf. CPEG3T elements. 1.inp eip2tisx. CPE8HT elements.inp eip3tish.2–5 . CPEG4T elements. CPE8HT elements.inp ei23tise_auglagr_surf. CPEG8HT elements. CPEG6MHT elements. CPE8T elements.inp eip2tise. CPEG4RHT elements. CPEG6MT elements.inp ei23tish_surf. CPEG4T elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eip2tish_surf. CPEG3T elements. CPEG4HT elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eit2tish_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPEG4RT elements. CPE6MHT elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eip3tise_cpeg6mt.inp eip3tish_surf. CPEG6MHT elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eit2tise_surf. CPE6MHT elements.6. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPEG6MT elements.inp eip2tish. CPEG3HT elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei23tise_surf.inp eip3tise_cpeg6mht.inp eip2tisr.inp ei23tise_cpe6mht_surf.inp eip3tisx.inp eip3tise_cpeg6mt_surf.inp CPE6MT elements.inp eip2tisr_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eit2tish. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPEG4HT elements. CPE8T elements. CPEG8RHT elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei23tise.inp eip2tisx_surf. CPEG8HT elements.

CPS4RT elements. CPS8T elements. augmented Lagrangian contact model. CPS4T elements.inp CPEG8RHT elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_s4rt. CPEG8T elements. S3T elements. 1. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. S4RT elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_s3rt_surf. CPS4T elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_cps3t. augmented Lagrangian contact model. S3RT elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_s3rt.inp ei22tiss.inp ei22tiss_surf.inp ei22tisr. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPS6MT elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. S8RT elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_cps3t_surf. CPS8T elements. CPS6MT elements.inp eip3tise_surf. S4RT elements.inp ei23tiss_auglagr. CPEG8T elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_s3t.inp ei38tiss_surf.inp ei23tiss_surf.inp ei23tiss_auglagr_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.6.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_s4t.SMALL-SLIDING TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT CONTACT eip3tisx_surf. CPS4RT elements.inp ei23tise_cps6mt. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei23tiss. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. S4T elements.inp eip3tise. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_s4t_surf.inp ei38tiss. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. Postprocessing to recover additional output from the restart ﬁle of the analysis testing S8RT elements. CPS8T elements. CPS3T elements. CPS8T elements. S8RT elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_s4rt_surf.inp ei23tise_cps6mt_surf. S4T elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_s3t_surf. S3RT elements.inp ei22tisr_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.2–6 .inp ei38tissp. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. S3T elements. CPS3T elements.

inp coupledtempsmslcont_x_c3d8t. CPS3T elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_x_cps4rt.inp coupledtempsmslcont_x_c3d6t. C3D6T elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp coupledtempsmslcont_x_cpe6mt.inp eiu1tgc1_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp coupledtempsmslcont_x_cps3t.inp coupledtempsmslcont_x_cps6mt. CAX3T elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_x_c3d8rt.SMALL-SLIDING TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT CONTACT ei38tissp_surf. CPS6MT elements. CPE6MT elements.inp eiu1tgc1. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp C3D4T elements. CPE4RT elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_sc6rt. SC6RT elements. C3D8T elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_x_cax6mt.2–7 .inp eia3tiss_surf_nothick. SC6RT elements. CPE3T elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_x_c3d10mt. T3D2T elements with GAPUNIT elements. CAX4RT elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_sc8rt.inp eia3tiss. SC8RT elements. T3D2T elements with GAPUNIT elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_x_cpe4rt. CAX6MT elements. surface thickness effects ignored.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_sc8rt_surf. SC8RT elements. C3D8RT elements. SAX2T elements.inp eia3tiss_surf. 1.inp coupledtempsmslcont_x_cpe3t. coupledtempsmslcont_x_c3d4t. SAX2T elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp coupledtempsmslcont_x_cax3t. C3D10MT elements.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Postprocessing to recover additional output from the restart ﬁle of the analysis testing S8RT elements.6. CPS4RT elements. SAX2T elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. SC8RT elements.inp coupledtempsmslcont_x_cax4rt.inp coupledtempsmslcont_s_sc6rt_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp coupledtempsmslcont_x_sc8rt.

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TYPE=PORE PRESSURE option works with the *CONTACT PAIR option. Analysis tests There are four different tests. The permeability of the soil = 1 × 10−4 . All nodes in the model are initialized to a pore pressure of −50. SMALL SLIDING Problem description 14 18 11 Variable Clearance 4 8 y x 1 3 5 7 3 6 2 1 17 CPE8P or CAX8P 15 12 ∗CONTACT PAIR 13 16 Figure 1.3–1 . Model: The out-of-plane thickness for all elements is 0. Initial conditions test This test veriﬁes that the *INITIAL CONDITIONS.0. Material: The elastic properties of the soil are Young’s modulus = 1 × 108 and Poisson’s ratio = 0. The initial void ratio = 1.6. 1.0 for all tests.5.SMALL-SLIDING PORE PRESSURE-DISPLACEMENT CONTACT 1.0.3–1 Element topology for all tests. Boundary conditions: In all tests.6.3 SMALL-SLIDING CONTACT BETWEEN COUPLED PORE PRESSUREDISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested CAX8P CPE8P Feature tested *CONTACT PAIR.6. nodes are restrained in the 1-direction.

SMALL-SLIDING PORE PRESSURE-DISPLACEMENT CONTACT Consolidation test The consolidation test veriﬁes that the *CONTACT PAIR option works properly with the *SOILS. 5.6. The problem is the same one that is modeled in the consolidation test. As points C and B move toward each other. Point A in the ﬁgure corresponds to nodes 1. Using the unsymmetric solver improves convergence in steady-state analyses.0. Interference test The interference test veriﬁes that a combination of interface overclosure and pore pressure gradient is handled correctly by the *CONTACT PAIR option. A pore pressure ﬁeld develops to balance out the effective stresses. 7. The test is essentially a one-dimensional problem where two surfaces start with an interference ﬁt and a pore pressure gradient exists across the two bodies. therefore. Results and discussion Most of the input ﬁles used for these tests include the UNSYMM=YES parameter on the *STEP option.6.3–2. After the surfaces have stopped moving toward each other. From equilibrium of tractions we ﬁnd that the pore pressure distribution is as shown in Figure 1. Initial conditions test The pore pressure at every node should be −50.3–4.6. Consolidation test From Darcy’s law we ﬁnd that during the ﬁrst step of the analysis the effective stress proﬁle is as shown in Figure 1.3–5.6. This is modeled in the second step of the analysis. and 3. the stresses and pore pressure quickly drop to zero.3–2 . the use of the *CONTROLS option is necessary to avoid convergence difﬁculties as a result of the fact that both the time average force and the force residuals are practically zero. and so on. Steady-state test The steady-state test veriﬁes that the *CONTACT PAIR option works properly with the *SOILS procedure. as shown in Figure 1. 1. The steady-state equilibrium is sought. and 2. point B corresponds to nodes 4. There is zero stress and zero pore pressure at steady state. ﬂuid rushes out through points A and D. Steady-state test The steady-state result is zero stress and zero pore pressure. CONSOLIDATION procedure. The test is essentially a one-dimensional problem where two surfaces are brought together at a constant rate. This gives rise to a compressive stress state in the soil segments AB and CD.

inp ei13psi1_auglagr_surf. Consolidation test. 1. Interference test. Initial conditions test. Input files ei13psi1.3–3 . CAX8P elements.inp ei13psni. Steady-state test. CPE8P elements. CAX8P elements.inp Initial conditions test. CPE8P elements.inp ei13psns_surf.inp eia3psnc_surf.inp eia3psni_surf. CPE8P elements. CPE8P elements.inp eia3psi1. Consolidation test.inp ei13psni_auglagr.6.SMALL-SLIDING PORE PRESSURE-DISPLACEMENT CONTACT Interference test This problem can be analyzed as a linear superposition of two states. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPE8P elements.inp ei13psnc_auglagr. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei13psi1_surf. CPE8P elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. Interference test. CPE8P elements. CPE8P elements. Interference test. as shown in Figure 1.inp ei13psns. Initial conditions test.inp ei13psi1_auglagr. Initial conditions test.inp ei13psns.inp eia3psni. surface-tosurface constraint enforcement method. surface-tosurface constraint enforcement method. CAX8P elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CAX8P elements.inp eia3psi1_surf. Consolidation test. CPE8P elements.inp ei13psns_surf. CPE8P elements. Interference test. CPE8P elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. Interference test. Consolidation test. CAX8P elements. CPE8P elements.inp ei13psni_auglagr_surf.3–6. CPE8P elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp eia3psnc.inp ei13psnc. Consolidation test. Consolidation test. CPE8P elements. Initial conditions test. CPE8P elements. CAX8P elements. surface-tosurface constraint enforcement method.inp ei13psni_surf. Interference test. Steady-state test.6.inp ei13psnc_auglagr_surf. Initial conditions test. Steady-state test. CPE8P elements.inp ei13psnc_surf. Steady-state test. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.

3–2 One-dimensional consolidation test.3–3 Interference test.6. D 0 0.1 B σ=0 V0 A P=0 Figure 1.3–4 .6.SMALL-SLIDING PORE PRESSURE-DISPLACEMENT CONTACT D P=0 C 0. 1.01 B C P A 100 Figure 1.6.

1.6.3–5 .6.3–4 Effective stress proﬁle for the ﬁrst step of the consolidation test.SMALL-SLIDING PORE PRESSURE-DISPLACEMENT CONTACT 500 σ 0 0 σ 500 D C B A Figure 1.3–5 Pore pressure distribution for the consolidation test.6. D 0 P C B 500 500 P A 0 Figure 1.

8885 x 105 C B σ = 5 x 105 + C B P = 50 σ=0 = C B P = 50 σ = 5 x 105 A σ = 5 x 105 A P = 100 σ = 50 A P = 100 σ = 5.SMALL-SLIDING PORE PRESSURE-DISPLACEMENT CONTACT D σ = 5 x 105 D P=0 σ = 50 D P=0 σ = 4.3–6 .0005 x 105 Interference fit Pressure gradient Steady-state Figure 1.6. 1.3–6 Linear superposition of two states used to solve the interference test problem.6.

A coefﬁcient of friction of 0. In most tests Step 1 results in contact and Step 2 initiates sliding.inp eia04faz_surf. Most tests are run with and without friction.inp eig08fcz.inp ei320fcz_surf. C3D8 elements. C3D4 elements using surface-to-surface contact. C3D8/C3D8H elements using surface-to-surface contact.6. C3D10M elements using surface-to-surface contact. CAX4 elements using surface-to-surface contact.4–1 .inp ei308fhz_surf.inp eia04faz.inp C3D4 elements.inp ei310fmz. node-based surface. CAX4 elements.6. Results and discussion The contact pressure and tractions agree with the analytical results.inp ei308fhz.inp ei310fmz_surf.inp ei304fcz_surf. C3D8/C3D8H elements.inp eia08faz. CAX8 1.2 is used in all tests with isotropic friction. C3D20 elements using surface-to-surface contact. C3D20 elements.inp ei320fcz. C3D10M elements. Input files Zero friction: ei304fcz. Several tests conduct direct-integration and subspace-based steady-state dynamic analyses.4 FINITE-SLIDING CONTACT BETWEEN STRESS/DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested C3D4 CAX4 CPE4 CCL12 MCL6 ITT21 C3D8 C3D8H C3D10M C3D20 CAX8 CGAX3 CGAX4 CGAX6 CPE6M CPE6MH CPE8 CPS6M CCL24 MCL9 ITT31 CGAX6M CGAX8 Feature tested *CONTACT PAIR Problem description This section deals with the surface-based approach to contact between stress/displacement elements.FINITE-SLIDING STRESS/DISPLACEMENT CONTACT 1.

1. CCL12.inp eia03fgf. CGAX6 elements. C3D20 elements.inp ei308fcf_surf. CPE8 elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei206fsz_surf.inp ei320fcf_auglagr_surf. C3D10M elements. CPE6MH elements.inp ei208fef_auglagr. CPE6M elements. CPE8 elements. CGAX8 elements.inp eia06fgf.inp eia04faf.inp eia08fgf.inp ei208fez.inp ei308fcf.inp eia06fgf_surf. C3D8/C3D8H elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp eia04fgf.inp ei208fez_surf. CPS6M elements using surface-to-surface contact. CPE6M elements.inp ei206fmz.inp ei206fhf.inp ei206fmz_surf. C3D8 elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei308fhf.inp eia08faf_auglagr. CAX4 elements. CPE6M elements using surface-to-surface contact. MCL6 elements. CPS6M elements. C3D20 elements using surface-to-surface contact. CGAX6M elements.inp eia06fgmf. C3D4 elements using surface-to-surface contact. CGAX3 elements.inp ei320fcf_auglagr.inp Friction: ei304fcf.inp eia08faf.inp ei204fez.inp ei204fef. CPE4 elements using surface-to-surface contact. C3D8 elements.inp ei304fcf_surf.inp CAX8 elements using surface-to-surface contact CPE4 elements.inp ei320fcf_surf. C3D8/C3D8H elements. node-based surface.inp eig08fcf. C3D4 elements. CAX8 elements.6.inp ei310fmf. CGAX6 elements using surface-to-surface contact. CPE6MH elements. CPE8 elements. CAX8 elements. CPE8 elements.inp ei206fhz.4–2 .inp ei206fsf.inp ei206fsz. CPS6M elements. CGAX4 elements.inp ei320fcf.inp ei208fef. C3D20 elements using surface-to-surface contact. C3D10M elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei204fez_surf. C3D8 elements.inp ei308fhf_surf. CPE4 elements.FINITE-SLIDING STRESS/DISPLACEMENT CONTACT eia08faz_surf.inp ei310fmf_surf.inp ei206fmf. C3D20 elements.inp ei312fcf.

MCL9 elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei324fcf. MCL6. CCL24.inp ei31stce. MCL6 elements. Veriﬁcation of the tube-tube interface element approach: ei21stce. MCL9 elements. ITT31 elements.inp ei21stci. external contact.inp CCL12.inp ei31stci.inp ei309fcf.inp ITT21 elements. CCL24.inp ei309fcf_surf.inp ei306fcf. MCL9 elements using surface-to-surface contact. MCL9 elements. ITT31 elements. ITT21 elements.FINITE-SLIDING STRESS/DISPLACEMENT CONTACT ei312fcf_surf. internal contact. 1. MCL6 elements using surface-to-surface contact. internal contact.inp ei324fcf_surf.6. external contact. MCL6.4–3 . MCL6 elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei306fcf_surf.

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The deformable cylinder. Initially the solid element interferes with the rigid surface. RSURF ASURF is either an element-based surface or a node-based surface on a deformable body. Problem description The Abaqus/Standard models consist of a solid or beam element that is resting on a rigid surface. In the latter case a displacement is applied in the ﬁrst step to bring the body in contact with the rigid surface. a natural frequency extraction analysis. resulting in contact pressures and stresses in the solid elements. For axisymmetric elements with twist the test consists of ﬁve steps. which is meshed with cylindrical membrane elements. The following nonlinear step combines relative sliding and twisting between the two surfaces. Frictionless contact is assumed.5–1 .6. has a radius of one unit. In the last three steps three linear perturbation analyses are conducted: a direct-solution steady-state dynamic analysis of the two bodies in contact subjected to a harmonic distributed loading. and RSURF is a rigid surface. The contact pressure (CPRESS) should balance the applied pressure load in both steps. wherein relative sliding and/or twisting is performed between the two contact surfaces. The rigid 1. or in the case of three-dimensional solid elements. whereas the second step invokes the NLGEOM parameter.CONTACT WITH A RIGID SURFACE 1. The ﬁrst step is a geometrically linear analysis. This overclosure is removed in the ﬁrst step. Two pressure load steps are performed. For cylindrical membrane elements the models consist of two concentric cylinders. The next three steps are linear perturbation steps.6. a downward pressure is applied on the deformable elements. a distance of one unit away from the rigid surface. and a subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis. which is a nonlinear step. With contact established. which takes the increased contact area into account.5 FINITE-SLIDING CONTACT BETWEEN A DEFORMABLE BODY AND A RIGID SURFACE Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit B21 B22 B31 B32 PIPE21 PIPE31 C3D6 C3D8 C3D8P C3D8RP C3D10M C3D10MH C3D10MP C3D10MPH CAX4 CAX4RP CAX6M CAX6MH CAX6MP CAX8 CGAX3 CGAX4 CGAX6 CGAX6M CGAX8 CPE4 CPE4P CPE6M CPE6MH CPE6MP CPE8 CPEG6M CPEG6MH MCL6 MCL9 Feature tested C3D27 *CONTACT PAIR ASURF.

inp ei34srsc_surf.inp ei23srsb_surf.inp ei22srsb_surf.inp ei33srsc_surf. using node-based surfaces on the deformable beam.inp ei34srsc. B32 elements. Model: Length of beams 2-D solid element dimensions 3-D solid element dimensions C3D8 (contact node set) C3D6 C3D8 C3D27 Material: 1. This overclosure is removed in the ﬁrst step. C3D6 elements using surface-to-surface contact. C3D8 elements. the contact pressure balances the applied downward pressure load on the deformable elements exactly. The Abaqus/Explicit model consists of a single beam element contacting an analytically rigid surface.inp eib3srsb.5–2 .inp ei33srsc.2 units. B21 elements using surface-to-surface contact. and the beam is made to slide over the analytically rigid surface. The value of friction is changed in the second nonlinear step. 1. has a radius of 1. modeled using an analytical rigid surface.inp eib2srsb. In the ﬁnal step relative sliding is performed between the two contact surfaces. In the next step the contact pair is redeﬁned with friction. B22 elements using surface-to-surface contact.3 For tests with applied pressure.6. Initially the cylindrical membrane elements interfere with the rigid surface. The tests consist of three steps.CONTACT WITH A RIGID SURFACE cylinder.inp ei23srsb. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files ei22srsb.0 5×5 contact area = 5 × 1 irregular: contact area = 3 irregular: contact area = 4 contact area = 3 × 2 Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Results and discussion 30 × 106 0. B31 elements. Consistent contact stresses are obtained for beam and pipe elements. which is a linear step.inp B21 elements. In the ﬁrst step the contact is established. C3D6 elements. B22 elements. The analysis has two steps. with a frictionless contact pair deﬁnition. C3D8 elements using surface-to-surface contact.

CPE4 elements. C3D8RP elements. CAX4 elements. CPEG6MH elements.6.inp ei39srsc_c3d10mp. C3D27 elements.inp ei23srse_cpe6m.inp eia2srsg3_surf. CPE6MH elements.inp C3D8 elements.inp eia3srsg8. C3D10MPH elements. CGAX3 elements using surface-to-surface contact. MCL6 elements.inp eia2srsa.inp eia3srsgm6.inp ei39srsc.5–3 . CAX6MH elements.inp eia3srsa_surf.inp ei39srsc_c3d10m.inp eia3srsa. CGAX6 elements. CGAX6 elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei34srsp_c3d8rp.inp eia3srsa_auglagr.inp eia2srsg4. CAX4 elements using surface-to-surface contact. C3D8P elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp eia3srsa_cax6m. CPE6MP elements.inp ei23srse. CPE8 elements. 1.inp eia3srsa_cax6mp.inp eia3srsg8_surf.inp eia3srsgm6_surf. CPE4P elements.inp ei23srsp_cpe6mp.inp eia2srsa_surf. CAX4RP elements. CGAX3 elements.inp eia3srsg6_surf. CGAX4 elements.inp ei22srsp.inp ei23srse_surf. CGAX8 elements. three-dimensional node-based surface.inp ei23srse_cpe6mh. CPE8 elements using surface-to-surface contact. CGAX6M elements. CGAX8 elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei39srsc_mcl9. two-dimensional node-based surface. CGAX6M elements using surface-to-surface contact. CAX8 elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei36srsc_mcl6. CAX8 elements.inp eia2srsg3. MCL9 elements.inp eia2srsa_cax4rp.inp eia3srsg6. C3D10MH elements. CPE6M elements.inp ei39srsc_mcl9_surf.inp ei23srse_cpeg6m. CAX6M elements. CPEG6M elements. MCL6 elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei22srse. MCL9 elements using surface-to-surface contact. C3D10M elements. CPE4 elements. C3D10MP elements.inp ei34srsp_surf. CAX8 elements.inp ei36srsc_mcl6_surf.inp eip1srse.inp eia3srsa_cax6mh.inp ei39srsc_c3d10mph. CAX6MP elements.CONTACT WITH A RIGID SURFACE eig1srsc.inp ei39srsc_c3d10mh.inp ei23srse_cpeg6mh.

inp cpair_pipe2d_xpl. PIPE21 elements using contact pair in Abaqus/Explicit.5–4 .6. B31 elements using contact pair in Abaqus/Explicit.inp cpair_pipe3d_xpl.CONTACT WITH A RIGID SURFACE Abaqus/Explicit input files cpair_beam2d_xpl.inp cpair_beam3d_xpl. PIPE31 elements using contact pair in Abaqus/Explicit. 1.inp B21 elements using contact pair in Abaqus/Explicit.

CONTACT WITH A MESHED RIGID SURFACE 1.6 FINITE-SLIDING CONTACT BETWEEN A DEFORMABLE BODY AND A MESHED RIGID SURFACE Product: Abaqus/Standard Feature tested *CONTACT PAIR DSURF. Its original position with respect to the ﬁrst rigid surface is shown in Figure 1.6. 1. The second problem is similar to the ﬁrst but with user-deﬁned normals. and RSURF is a rigid surface meshed with either rigid elements or deformable elements declared as rigid. RSURF DSURF is a surface on the deformable body.6. It is assumed to be elastic with a Young’s modulus of 30.6–1 . I. 2 3 1 Figure 1. is modeled with 20 CPS4R solid elements. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MESHED RIGID SURFACES Elements tested B21 CPS4R R2D2 T2D2 Problem description These tests verify that two-dimensional meshed rigid surfaces are properly generated and that the surface orientation and normal smoothing are correct.6–1. The beam. which is 6 inches long and 0. The ﬁrst problem involves forming an elastic beam around a closed meshed rigid surface.6. is meshed with 2-node rigid elements. The surface.6.05 inches wide.0 × 106 lb/in2 and a Poisson’s ratio of 0. which is assumed to be rigid. This closed surface can be thought of as a pipe cross-section.6–1 Original position of the beam with respect to the rigid surface.3. Surfaces deﬁned on the deformable body and the rigid body are paired together to enforce contact.

Input files ei22ssr1.6.) Two-dimensional rigid surface consisting of beam elements declared as rigid with default Abaqus-generated normals. The second part involves releasing the beam end constraints and applying a pressure load to the bottom surface of the beam to mold it ﬁrmly around the pipe section. while a pressure of 2000 lb/in2 is applied in the second problem.inp ei22srb2_surf.inp ei22ssr1_surf. The cylinder is assumed to be rigid and has a radius of 5 inches. Two-dimensional rigid surface consisting of rigid elements with default Abaqus-generated normals using surface-to-surface contact. Two-dimensional rigid surface consisting of beam elements declared as rigid with user-speciﬁed normals. Bèzier rigid surfaces used to model contact.) Bèzier rigid surfaces used to model contact with surface-to-surface approach.6. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MESHED RIGID SURFACES Elements tested R3D3 S3R S4 S4R Problem description This test veriﬁes that three-dimensional meshed rigid surfaces are properly generated and that the search algorithm used to determine the closest distance to such surfaces is robust. Two-dimensional rigid surface consisting of rigid elements with user-speciﬁed normals. The problem consists of the forming of an elastic sheet around a cylinder. (This capability is no longer supported. Results and discussion The deformable body conforms to the shape of the rigid body.inp ed22ssr1. (This capability is no longer supported.6–2 .6–2. A pressure of 1000 lb/in2 is applied in the ﬁrst problem. 1.inp Two-dimensional rigid surface consisting of rigid elements with default Abaqus-generated normals. The original mesh with the meshed rigid surface is shown in Figure 1. II. The ﬁrst part establishes contact between the beam and the rigid surface by moving the two ends of the beam upward so that contact is ﬁrmly established while constraining the beam ends horizontally.CONTACT WITH A MESHED RIGID SURFACE The analysis is made up of two parts.inp ei22srb2.inp ed22ssr2.inp ei22ssr2.

3.) Three-dimensional rigid surface meshed with shell elements declared as rigid. Surface-to-surface contact with S4R elements. Surfaces deﬁned on the rigid cylinder and deformable sheet are paired together to enforce contact. Three-dimensional rigid surface meshed with rigid elements. Contact with S4R elements.6. The sheet has dimensions 10 inches by 5 inches and is modeled with ﬁfty 4-node S4R or S4 shell elements.6.inp edg1ssr3. Input files eig1ssr3. Contact with S4R elements. Contact with S4 elements. Contact with S4 elements.6–3 . (This capability is no longer supported. ENCASTRE-type boundary conditions are applied to the sheet on one side.6–2 Original deﬁnition of cylinder. A pressure load of 700 lb/in2 is applied on its surface to form it around the cylinder.inp eig1ssr3_surf.inp Three-dimensional rigid surface meshed with rigid elements.25 inches thick. Bèzier rigid surfaces used to model contact.CONTACT WITH A MESHED RIGID SURFACE 3 2 1 Figure 1. 1. Three-dimensional rigid surface meshed with rigid elements. Three-dimensional rigid surface meshed with shell elements declared as rigid.inp edg1ssr4.inp eig1srb3. Results and discussion The deformable body conforms to the shape of the rigid body.inp eig1ssr4. The sheet is 0. The sheet is assumed to be elastic with Young’s modulus of 3 × 106 lb/in2 and Poisson’s ratio of 0.

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Material: Solid Linear elastic.0. The mesh in Figure 1.0 × 106 . conductivity = 10.THERMALLY COUPLED SLIDE LINES/PLANES 1. Interface Friction coefﬁcient (nonzero only for the frictional heat generation tests).7 FINITE-SLIDING CONTACT BETWEEN COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit C3D4T C3D6T C3D8RHT C3D8RT C3D8T C3D10MT CAX3T CAX4RHT CAX4RT CAX4T CAX6MHT CAX6MT CAX8T CGAX4RHT CGAX4RT CGAX4T CGAX6MHT CGAX6MT CGAX8T CPE3T CPE4RHT CPE4RT CPE4T CPE6MHT CPE6MT CPE8HT CPE8T CPEG4RHT CPEG4RT CPEG4T CPEG6MHT CPEG6MT CPEG8T CPS3T CPS4RT CPS6MT SC8RT SC6RT S8RT SAX2T Features tested *CONTACT PAIR *GAP CONDUCTANCE *GAP RADIATION *GAP HEAT GENERATION Problem description The planar tests and three-dimensional tests consist of a small block pressed against a larger block that is ﬁxed on the bottom. For the three-dimensional tests a three-dimensional model with width 1.6.7–1. The smaller block slides horizontally on the larger block according to the prescribed loading and displacement history.0 is used.6. The width of the bottom block is chosen slightly larger to ensure that the upper block contacts the lower block.05 is used on the contact pairs.6. The axisymmetric tests are essentially the same except that the sliding structures are rings. A smoothing factor of 0.3. used for planar tests.001.7–1 . density = 1000. Young’s modulus = 30. is representative of all meshes used in these tests. 1. =0. Poisson’s ratio = 0. speciﬁc heat = 0. Relative motion in the axisymmetric tests is in the axial direction for the tests of axisymmetric elements or has axial and circumferential components for the tests of axisymmetric elements with twist. the outer ring is shorter axially than the inner ring.1.0.

This step is used to check the gap conductivity. Gap conductance (for the frictional heat generation tests). This allows for a more exact check on thermal equilibrium of the assembly because the heat conducted across the interface must equilibrate the heat passed into the assembly by the applied ﬂux.0 × 10−6 .7–2 . back and forth. over the bottom block to assure that the formulation does not fail under large relative sliding. Step 2.16. The heat conducted away from the larger block via the ﬁlm condition should nearly equal the heat conducted through the interface—they need not be exactly equal because transient effects are included in this step. 1. = =1.0. In the tests of axisymmetric elements with twist.0. the top block slides with circumferential motion as well. TRANSIENT: A downward pressure of 100 is applied on top of the smaller block. and thermal equilibrium must be satisﬁed. k(p=200) = 5. Gap radiation constants (for the interface radiation tests only). The center element of the large block has a ﬁlm condition with a ﬁlm coefﬁcient of 10.6. and a ﬂux of 100 is applied into the smaller block through its surface. Loading history for interface conductance tests (Abaqus/Standard) Step 1.7–1 Representative mesh.THERMALLY COUPLED SLIDE LINES/PLANES 111 113 115 11 101 13 103 105 15 17 y x 1 3 5 7 Figure 1.0.inp illustrates the use of the FILM AMPLITUDE parameter with the *FILM option to specify a time-dependent variation of the ﬁlm coefﬁcient. The results are consistent with thermal equilibrium. k(p=100) = 20. with absolute zero at =−273. Step 3. Results should be symmetric about an axis that is parallel to the line joining the centers of the two blocks.6.0 and sink temperature of 0. TRANSIENT: The top block is made to slide horizontally. STEADY STATE: The top block is in the same conﬁguration as at the end of Step 1 but is brought to steady state to eliminate transient effects.0 at the bottom face. 20. Gap conductance varies with pressure for the interface conductance tests. Input ﬁle eia2tssc.

The temperature change across the interface should be four times that at the end of Step 3 because the interface conductivity is reduced by one-fourth. Since the radiative properties are not pressure dependent. In these tests this would cause the generated heat to be underestimated by about 0.THERMALLY COUPLED SLIDE LINES/PLANES Step 4. Virtually no heat generation occurs. Step 1: A downward force of 200 is applied to the top surface to establish contact (an inward force of 275 is applied for the axisymmetric tests). Loading history for interface radiation tests (Abaqus/Standard) The loading is the same for these tests as for the interface conductance tests.6. This is to test that the interface heat transfer is eliminated when a slave node slides off the end of the corresponding master surface. Step 5. STEADY STATE: The pressure is increased on the top surface. Loading history for frictional heat generation tests (Abaqus/Standard) In this analysis the top (outer) surface of the smaller block is constrained to remain straight and nonrotating via constraint equations speciﬁed with the *EQUATION option. Results are consistent with thermal equilibrium. Because the assembly is adiabatic. STEP 3: The assembly sits without thermal loading to reach steady state. These problems are designed to test radiation heat transfer in the interface. and the temperature is constant throughout the block. it should attain a constant temperature. allowing small relative motions without dissipation. In the tests of axisymmetric elements with twist. TRANSIENT: The applied ﬂux is ramped down quickly.7–3 . Step 2: The top block is made to slide back and forth with friction.68 for the axisymmetric case. In this analysis the LAGRANGE friction formulation is used. 1. Of this generated heat 60 units are absorbed by the contacting bodies because the fraction of frictional dissipation converted to heat is speciﬁed to be 0. Based on the amount of heat generated and the heat capacity of the material. a total of 120 units of heat is generated. The default friction algorithm uses an automatic penalty method. The magnitude of the relative motion and the resulting heat generation is the same as in the remaining tests. The smaller block becomes insulated. the ﬁnal temperature of the assembly should be 7. the results for Step 4 are identical to Step 3 in these runs. and the small block is made to slide off the larger block. the top block slides with both axial and circumferential components of motion. Assuming Coulomb friction.7%. With this formulation all relative motion is converted into heat.5.5 for the planar case and 0. This is designed to test pressure-dependent interface conductivity.

Input files Abaqus/Standard input files Interface conductance tests: coupledtemplgslcont_c_c3d4t_s. CGAX4RHT elements.inp eig2tssc.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_cax3t_s. the amount of relative sliding between the two blocks (and.inp ei34tpsc_c3d8rht_surf. CAX8T elements.6.inp eig2tssc_cgax4rt. CAX6MHT elements. the amount of frictional heat generation. CAX4T elements. CGAX4T elements.inp C3D4T elements. C3D8T elements.inp eig2tssc_surf. C3D8RHT elements.inp eia3tssc_surf.inp eia3tssc_cax6mht. CGAX4RT elements. CGAX4RHT elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei34tpsc_c3d8rt. Results and discussion The results agree with the analytically obtained values.inp eig2tssc_cgax4rht_surf.inp ei34tpsc_c3d8rht. 1.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_c3d6t_s.inp eia2tssc_surf. CAX4RHT elements. CAX4T elements using surface-to-surface contact. CAX3T elements.inp ei34tpsc_c3d8rt_surf. SAX2T elements. C3D8RT elements using surface-to-surface contact. C3D8T elements using surface-to-surface contact. The rate at which the top block is forced to slide over the bottom block is reduced to ensure a quasi-static response.inp eia2tssc.inp eig2tssc_cgax4rht.inp eia2tssc_cax4rht. CAX6MT elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp eia2tssc_cax4rt. C3D6T elements.7–4 . for example) is unaffected by this change. CAX8T.inp eia3tssc_cax6mt_surf. CGAX4T elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp eia3tslc. Mass scaling is used to obtain an efﬁcient solution.inp eia3tssc.THERMALLY COUPLED SLIDE LINES/PLANES Simulation with Abaqus/Explicit A transient simulation is performed for each step.inp ei34tpsc. Both kinematic and penalty mechanical contact are considered. CAX8T elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei34tpsc_surf. CAX4RT elements.inp eia3tssc_cax6mt. CAX6MT elements. therefore. C3D8RHT elements using surface-to-surface contact. The simulation time for those steps where Abaqus/Standard performs a steady-state analysis is chosen so that enough time is allowed for the Abaqus/Explicit solution to reach steady-state conditions. C3D8RT elements.

inp ei23tssc_cpe6mt.inp ei23tssc_cpeg6mht.THERMALLY COUPLED SLIDE LINES/PLANES eig3tssc_cgax6mht.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_cps3t_s.inp ei23tssc. CPEG4T elements.inp eia2tssr_cax4rht. CPE4T elements. CPS4RT elements. CPS6MT elements.inp eip2tssc. C3D8RHT elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei23tssc_cps6mt.inp ei23tssc_surf. CPEG8T elements. CPS3T elements. CPE4RHT elements.inp ei23tssc_cpe6mht.inp ei34tpsr_surf.inp ei28tssc. CPE8T elements.inp eia2tssr. C3D6T elements. CPEG6MHT elements. CPE6MHT elements. CAX3T elements.inp ei22tssc. CPE3T elements.inp eip3tssc. CPEG4RT elements.inp eip2tssc_cpeg4rht. CGAX6MT elements. *POST OUTPUT analysis.inp ei34tpsr_c3d8rht_surf.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_c3d6t_s.inp ei22tssc_cpe4rt. CGAX6MT elements using surface-to-surface contact. CGAX8T elements. CPE4RT elements. CPE8T elements. C3D8RT elements. CPE4T elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_cax3t_s. C3D8RHT elements.inp ei22tssc_surf. CPEG6MT elements. C3D8T elements. CPE6MT elements. 1.inp eig3tssc_cgax6mt. C3D8RT elements using surface-to-surface contact. CPE8T elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei34tpsr_c3d8rt.inp eip3tssc_surf.inp ei34tpsr.inp eia2tssr_surf.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_cpe3t_s. C3D4T elements.inp ei34tpsr_c3d8rt_surf. CAX4RHT elements. CPEG4RHT elements. CPEG6MT elements using surface-to-surface contact. CPE8HT elements.inp eia2tssr_cax4rt.inp ei22tssc_cps4rt. CPEG8T elements using surface-to-surface contact. CAX4T elements.inp ei34tpsr_c3d8rht.7–5 .inp ei23tssc_auglagr.inp eig3tssc.inp ei23tssc_cpeg6mt.inp eip2tssc_cpeg4rt.inp ei23tssc_cpeg6mt_surf.inp eig3tssc_cgax6mt_surf.inp ei22tssc_cpe4rht. C3D8T elements using surface-to-surface contact.6. CAX4RT elements.inp Interface radiation tests: coupledtemplgslcont_r_c3d4t_s.inp eip2tssc_cpeg4rht_post.inp CGAX6MHT elements. CAX4T elements using surface-to-surface contact.

CAX6MT elements using surface-to-surface contact. C3D8RHT elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei23tssr_cpe6mt. CGAX4T elements. CPE6MT elements.inp ei22tssr_surf.inp CAX6MHT elements.inp ei23tssr_cpe6mht. CPE8T elements. CPE8T elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei23tssr_cpeg6mt. CAX8T elements. CPEG4RT elements. CGAX6MT elements. CPE8T elements.inp eip2tssr_cpeg4rt.THERMALLY COUPLED SLIDE LINES/PLANES eia3tssr_cax6mht. CPEG8T elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei34tpsf_c3d8rht_surf.inp ei23tssr_auglagr. CPS6MT elements. CPEG6MHT elements. CPEG4RHT elements. CGAX4RT elements.6.inp ei22tssr_cps4rt. CPE4RHT elements.inp eig3tssr_cgax6mt.inp ei23tssr_cps6mt_surf. C3D8RHT elements.inp eip2tssr_cpeg4rht. CPE4RT elements.inp ei38tssr. C3D8T elements. CGAX8T elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_cpe3t_s.inp eia3tslr. CPE4T elements. C3D4T elements. CPS3T elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_cps3t_s. CGAX6MHT elements.inp ei23tssr_cps6mt.inp ei22tssr.inp ei34tpsf_surf.inp eia3tssr. C3D6T elements.inp ei23tssr_surf. CPE4T elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp eig3tssr. 1.inp eig2tssr.inp ei34tpsf. CPEG4T elements.inp ei22tssr_cpe4rt.inp ei34tpsf_c3d8rht. SAX2T elements.inp eip3tssr_surf.inp eig2tssr_cgax4rt.inp ei38tssr_surf.inp ei22tssr_cpe4rht. CAX6MT elements.inp eia3tssr_cax6mt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_c3d6t_s.inp ei23tssr. CPE3T elements. S8RT elements using surface-to-surface contact. CPEG8T elements. CPS4RT elements.inp eip2tssr.inp eip3tssr. CPEG6MT elements.inp Frictional heat generation tests: coupledtemplgslcont_f_c3d4t_s.inp ei34tpsf_c3d8rt. C3D8RT elements.inp eia3tssr_cax6mt_surf.7–6 . CAX8T.inp ei23tssr_cpeg6mht. CPE6MHT elements. S8RT elements. CPS6MT elements using surface-to-surface contact. C3D8T elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp eig3tssr_cgax6mht.

inp Abaqus/Explicit input files CAX3T elements.inp eia3tssf_cax6mt. Interface conductance tests.inp eip3tssf. CPEG4T elements.inp ei23tssf_cps6mt. CGAX4T elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_cps3t_s. C3D4T elements. CPS6MT elements.inp eig3tssf.inp eia3tssf_cax6mht. CPE3T elements. CPS6MT elements. CPE4T elements using surface-to-surface contact. SAX2T elements. CPS4RT elements. CAX4RT elements.inp eig2tssf_surf.inp CAX3T elements. CAX6MHT elements. C3D8RT elements. CPE3T elements. CPE6MT elements. CPE8T elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_cpe3t. CGAX8T elements. CPE4RHT elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_cps6mt.7–7 . CAX4RT elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_cps3t.inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_cpe3t_s. CGAX6MT elements. CAX6MT elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_cpe4rt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_c3d8t. CPS4RT elements. CAX4T elements.inp ei23tssf. CAX4RHT elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_cax6mt. CPE4RT elements.inp ei22tssf_surf.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_cax4rt.inp eig2tssf. CAX6MT elements.inp eia2tssf_cax4rht. kinematic mechanical contact: coupledtemplgslcont_c_cax3t.inp eia2tssf.inp eia2tssf_cax4rt. CPE6MHT elements.6. CPE4RT elements.inp eia3tslf. C3D8T elements. CPE6MT elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_c3d4t.inp ei22tssf_cpe4rht.inp ei22tssf_cpe4rt.inp eig3tssf_cgax6mt. CPS3T elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_c3d6t.THERMALLY COUPLED SLIDE LINES/PLANES coupledtemplgslcont_f_cax3t_s.inp ei23tssf_cpe6mht. CPE4T elements.inp eia3tssf. CPS3T elements.inp ei23tssf_auglagr. C3D6T elements.inp eip2tssf. CAX8T elements. CPEG8T elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_c3d8rt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_cps4rt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_cpe6mt. CPE8T elements. 1.inp ei23tssf_cpe6mt. CAX8T. CGAX4T elements.inp ei22tssf.inp ei22tssf_cps4rt.

C3D8RT elements. CPS4RT elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_cps6mt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_cax6mt. Interface radiation tests. CPE6MT elements. CPE3T elements. CPS4RT elements. C3D6T elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_cps3t.inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_cpe3t. C3D4T elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_c3d4t. C3D4T elements. Interface radiation tests. CAX4RT elements. kinematic mechanical contact: coupledtemplgslcont_f_cax3t. CAX6MT elements.THERMALLY COUPLED SLIDE LINES/PLANES coupledtemplgslcont_c_c3d10mt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_cps4rt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_cax4rt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_c3d4t. SC8RT elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_cpe4rt. CAX6MT elements. CPS3T elements. C3D4T elements. C3D10MT elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_c3d10mt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_c3d6t. CPE6MT elements. CPS4RT elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_cpcpe4rt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_cax4rt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_cpc3d4t. Interface conductance tests.6. Frictional heat generation tests. C3D8T elements. CPE6MT elements. CAX4RT elements. penalty mechanical contact: coupledtemplgslcont_rpcax4rt.inp CAX3T elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_cpe4rt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_c_sc8rt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_rpc3d6t. kinematic mechanical contact: coupledtemplgslcont_r_cax3t.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_c3d8rt. CPS6MT elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_rpcps6mt.inp C3D10MT elements.inp CAX3T elements. penalty mechanical contact: coupledtemplgslcont_cpcax3t.inp coupledtemplgslcont_rpcps4rt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_cax6mt. SC8RT elements. 1. CPS3T elements. CPE4RT elements. CPE4RT elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_cpe6mt. CPE3T elements.inp CAX3T elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_cpcpe6mt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_c3d8t. C3D6T elements.inp CAX4RT elements. CPE4RT elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_cpe6mt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_cpe3t.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_cps3t.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_cps6mt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_cps4rt.7–8 .inp coupledtemplgslcont_r_sc8rt. CPS6MT elements. CPS6MT elements.

inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_c3d10mt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_sc8rt.inp coupledtemplgslcont_fpc3d8rt. C3D8T elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_c3d8t. C3D8T elements.7–9 . CPE3T elements.inp C3D6T elements. 1. CAX6MT elements. Frictional heat generation tests. C3D10MT elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_fpcax6mt. C3D8RT elements.6. SC8RT elements.inp CAX4RT elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_f_c3d8rt.THERMALLY COUPLED SLIDE LINES/PLANES coupledtemplgslcont_f_c3d6t. C3D8RT elements.inp coupledtemplgslcont_fpc3d8t.inp coupledtemplgslcont_fpcpe3t. penalty mechanical contact: coupledtemplgslcont_fpcax4rt.

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6. which is used to test element CPE4P. In the second series of tests two identical blocks are pressed against each other while no sliding occurs.6. is representative of all meshes used in these tests.8–2. Young’s modulus = 30.0. the outer ring is shorter axially than the inner ring. Material: Linear elastic. permeability = 1. which is used to test element CPE4P.0 × 10−4 .0 × 106 . The smaller block slides horizontally on the larger block according to the prescribed loading and displacement history to test the formulation in large relative sliding. In the ﬁrst series a small block is pressed against a larger block that is ﬁxed on the bottom. Fixed boundary conditions for the pore pressure degrees of freedom on the edges away from the contact interface enable the exact calculation of the pore pressure on the contact interface. The axisymmetric tests are essentially the same except that the sliding structures are rings. 111 113 115 11 101 13 103 105 15 17 y x 1 3 5 7 Figure 1.6. The mesh shown in Figure 1.6. and the sliding is in the axial direction.8–1.6. Poisson’s ratio = 0. is representative of all meshes used in these tests.8–1 Representative mesh for the sliding tests.PORE PRESSURE COUPLED FINITE-SLIDING 1. The mesh shown in Figure 1.8–1 . 1.8 FINITE-SLIDING CONTACT BETWEEN COUPLED PORE PRESSUREDISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested CPE4P CPE6MP CPE8P C3D8P CAX4P CAX4RP CAX6MP Feature tested C3D8RP C3D10MP C3D20P *CONTACT PAIR Problem description Two series of tests each consisting of ﬁve input ﬁles are documented.

A coupled pore pressure analysis is conducted. The total pore ﬂuid volume ﬂux through the contact interface should be 3.PORE PRESSURE COUPLED FINITE-SLIDING 108 107 105 104 106 103 y x 101 102 Figure 1. For the axisymmetric tests a pore ﬂuid volume ﬂux of 1 × 10−4 is applied into the smaller block through its outer surface (area is 12 ). Loading history for the nonsliding tests A downward pressure of 10.and three-dimensional tests and 1.5 units) over the bottom block. Results and discussion The results agree with the analytically obtained values.and three-dimensional tests a pore ﬂuid volume ﬂux of 3 × 10−4 is applied into the smaller block through its upper surface (area is two units).6. The pore pressure on the bottom surface of the lower block is ﬁxed and equal to 1.6.0. 1. and a pore ﬂuid volume ﬂux of 1 × 10−4 is applied out of the larger block inner surface (area is 12 ). a pore ﬂuid volume ﬂux of 1 × 10−4 is applied out of the larger block lower surface (area is six units).5 for the two. To create a constant ﬂux through the contact interface. For the two. and the total pore ﬂuid volume ﬂux through the contact interface should be 6 × 10−4 . TRANSIENT: The top block is made to slide horizontally (1.0 is applied on top of the upper block. TRANSIENT: A downward pressure of 100 is applied on top of the smaller block.375 for the axisymmetric case.8–2 Representative mesh for the nonsliding tests.and three-dimensional tests and 3. and the pressure on the contact interface should be 1. Step 2. The pore pressure is ﬁxed and equal to 2.8–2 .76 × 10−3 in the axisymmetric cases. Results should be symmetric about an axis that is parallel to the line joining the centers of the two blocks.0 on the top surface of the upper block. Loading history for sliding tests Step 1.76 × 10−3 . The total pore ﬂuid volume ﬂux through the contact interface should remain 6 × 10−4 in the two.

CPE8P elements.inp ei34pfss. CPE6MP elements.inp ei22pfss_surf. C3D10MP elements using surfact-to-surface contact. CPE6MP elements. CAX4P elements.inp ei38pfsn_auglagr. CAX6MP elements. CPE4P elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp eia3pfss_cax6mp. CAX4P elements using surface-to-surface contact. CAX4P elements. CPE8P elements.inp ei23pfss_auglagr.inp Nonsliding tests: ei22pfsn.inp ei38pfss. C3D8P elements. C3D10MP elements. CAX4RP elements. CPE4P elements.inp ei38pfsn.inp eia2pfss_surf.inp ei38pfss_auglagr. CPE8P elements.6. C3D20P elements.inp CPE4P elements.inp ei23pfss_cpe6mp_surf.PORE PRESSURE COUPLED FINITE-SLIDING Input files Sliding tests: ei22pfss. CAX4RP elements. C3D8RP elements.8–3 .inp eia2prss.inp ei23pfsn_cpe6mp. CPE8P elements. 1.inp ei23pfss_cpe6mp. C3D20P elements.inp ei39pfsn.inp eia2prsn.inp ei34pfsn.inp ei34pfss_surf.inp eia2pfss.inp ei39pfss. C3D10MP elements.inp eia2pfsn.inp ei23pfsn_auglagr. C3D20P elements. C3D20P elements.inp ei23pfss.inp ei34pfss_c3d8rp. C3D8P elements.inp ei39pfss_surf. CPE6MP elements using surface-to-surface contact. C3D8P elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei23pfsn.

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” Section 1.” Section 4. multiple steps.6.PLATE ROLLING 1.6. It also tests the adiabatic heat generation capability using the *DYNAMIC. plane strain case of the rolling problem is considered with a much coarser mesh for the steel plate. The radius of each roller is 50 mm. the *EXPANSION option. perfectly plastic material model speciﬁed with the *ELASTIC and *PLASTIC options.9–1 . EXPLICIT. along with user subroutine VUMAT. The speciﬁc heat for this material is 460. or 144. The initial temperature for all nodes in the model is 294°C. ADIABATIC option. and the *INELASTIC HEAT FRACTION option. The model takes advantage of half-symmetry. In the ﬁrst step only the ﬁrst roller has a prescribed rotational velocity. a two-dimensional. adding contact surfaces and boundary conditions after the ﬁrst step. Poisson’s ratio 0. Here. adiabatic heat generation. yield stress 250 MPa. However. each of which achieves a reduction in the thickness of the plate of 10 mm.46 joule/kg/°C. In the three-dimensional model all out-of-plane degrees of freedom are prescribed as zero to represent a state of plane strain. Problem description This veriﬁcation problem is similar to the problem described in “Rolling of thick plates. The maximum traction due to friction is assumed to be . The steel plate has a total thickness of 40 mm and a length of 100 mm. The rotating cylinder problem of “VUMAT: rotating cylinder. the *SPECIFIC HEAT option. This model can be selected by specifying the material name ABQTEST1 on the *MATERIAL option. friction.3. this example problem tests the user material only for the case of perfect plasticity and veriﬁes the results by comparison with the results obtained with the standard plasticity model with no hardening (for the three-dimensional case).6 of the Abaqus Example Problems Manual. The three-dimensional model uses the standard elastic. veriﬁes the hardening case for the user material. The plate is modeled using plane strain elements (CPE4R) and 8-node brick elements (C3D8R). The rolling process is analyzed in two steps. The coefﬁcient of friction between the rollers and the plate is 0.9 ROLLING OF STEEL PLATE Product: Abaqus/Explicit Elements tested CPE4R R2D2 C3D8R R3D4 Features tested Large deformation kinematics.37. analytical rigid surfaces. The two-dimensional case uses the *USER MATERIAL option. The user subroutine has the option to include kinematic hardening. At this time a prescribed velocity boundary condition is added that determines the rotational velocity of the second roller. This analysis simulates the rolling of the plate through two roller stands. perfectly plastic material with Young’s modulus 210 GPa. kinematic contact. penalty contact.1. The second step begins just as the plate is about to reach the second roller. and density 7500 kg/m3 . The material is modeled as an elastic. 1.3 MPa. user material.30.3.

Figure 1. For this analysis all three approaches to enforcing the contact constraints are used: kinematic contact with contact pair.6.9–8 shows contours of equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) at the end of the second step for the three-dimensional model. Figure 1.6. for a detailed discussion of the choice of rolling speeds. because the contact penetrations with penalty contact will tend to be small.11 of the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual).” Section 1.” Section 1. and general contact.9–4 shows contours of equivalent plastic strain (SDV5) at the end of the second step for the two-dimensional model. Kinematic contact gives strict enforcement of the constraints. penalty contact with contact pair.6. Figure 1. See “Rolling of thick plates. the contact deﬁnitions do not need to be modiﬁed from step to step.3.6.6. a second contact pair is introduced that contains the surface of the second roller and the outer surface of the plate.9–9 shows contours of temperature at the end of the second step for the three-dimensional model. the default internally generated all-inclusive contact surface is referenced using the *CONTACT INCLUSIONS option.9–7 shows contours of shear stress at the end of the second step for the three-dimensional model.1. when only the ﬁrst roller has a prescribed rotational velocity. the contact penetrations can be signiﬁcant if the penalty method is used. Figure 1. hence.9–2 shows contours of shear stress at the end of the ﬁrst step for the two-dimensional model.9–3 shows contours of shear stress at the end of the second step for the two-dimensional model.6. contour plots are generated by the use of the variable SDV5. only one contact pair is deﬁned. For the analysis using general contact. Figure 1. For problems in which the material remains elastic (see “The Hertz contact problem. In the ﬁrst step of the analyses involving contact pairs. Note that the ﬁrst roller has rotated during the ﬁrst step.6. While kinematic contact is available only with the contact pair capability. This is related to the fact that the default penalty stiffness is about 10% of the elastic stiffness in the elements along the contact interface. Figure 1. This contact pair contains the surface of the ﬁrst roller and the outer surface of the plate. Figure 1. The roller speed used for both rollers in this example is 600 rad/s.6.9–5 contains a wire frame drawing of the original mesh for the three-dimensional model. It is simply used to calculate the temperature ﬁeld obtained from the dissipated plastic work.6 of the Abaqus Example Problems Manual.6. Since the user subroutine stores the values of equivalent plastic strain as the ﬁfth state variable. Figure 1. Results and discussion Figure 1. so the penetrations will be rather insigniﬁcant. whereas penalty contact will allow some penetration. 1.6. However. When the material yields. At the start of the second step.PLATE ROLLING The contact constraints can be enforced either kinematically or with a penalty method in Abaqus/Explicit. the two constraint methods will usually give nearly the same results for problems that involve plastic deformation (such as rolling problems).9–6 shows contours of shear stress at the end of the ﬁrst step for the three-dimensional model.9–2 . when the plate is just about to reach the second roller. the penalty stiffness will typically be much larger than the effective stiffness of the material.9–1 shows the original mesh for the two-dimensional model. penalty contact is available with both the contact pair capability and the general contact capability in Abaqus/Explicit. Note that the use of the ADIABATIC parameter in this example does not have an effect on the overall solution because none of the material properties are temperature dependent. whereas the second roller remains motionless.

9–1 Undeformed mesh for the two-dimensional model.inp roll3dapa_rev_anl. Two-dimensional kinematic contact analysis using rigid elements. 1.inp roll3dapa_cyl_anl_gcont.PLATE ROLLING Input files roll2dapa_anl.inp roll3dapa_gcont. Two-dimensional penalty contact analysis using an analytical rigid surface. Three-dimensional kinematic contact analysis using an analytical rigid surface of TYPE=CYLINDER. Roller 1 Roller 2 Steel Plate Symmetry Plane Figure 1.inp roll2dapa_anl_pnlty. Three-dimensional kinematic contact analysis using an analytical rigid surface of TYPE=REVOLUTION. Three-dimensional general contact analysis using an analytical rigid surface of TYPE=CYLINDER.inp roll3dapa_rev_anl_gcont.inp Two-dimensional kinematic contact analysis using an analytical rigid surface. Three-dimensional penalty contact analysis using an analytical rigid surface of TYPE=REVOLUTION.9–3 .6. Three-dimensional general contact analysis using an analytical rigid surface of TYPE=REVOLUTION.inp roll3dapa_cyl_anl.6.inp roll3dapa. Three-dimensional general contact analysis using rigid elements.inp roll2dapa. Three-dimensional kinematic contact analysis using rigid elements.inp roll3dapa_rev_pnlty.

00E+07 -2.9–2 Contours of shear stress at the end of Step 1 for the two-dimensional model.6.9–3 Contours of shear stress at the end of Step 2 for the two-dimensional model. 1.00E+07 -1.00E+07 -4.08E-07 +2.00E+07 -2.00E+07 +4.6.00E+07 -4.00E+07 +1.33E+08 -6.00E+07 +8.00E+08 +INFINITY Figure 1.00E+07 +1.PLATE ROLLING S12 VALUE -1.00E+07 +6.07E+08 Figure 1.00E+08 +1.00E+07 +4.00E+07 +8.08E-07 +2.00E+07 +6.9–4 .6.02E+08 -6. S12 VALUE -1.00E+07 -1.

47E-01 +3.9–5 .00E-02 +1.50E-01 +8.99E-01 +5.66E-01 +7. 1.00E+00 +8.6.6.PLATE ROLLING SDV5 VALUE +0. Figure 1.48E-01 Figure 1.9–4 Contours of equivalent plastic strain at the end of Step 2 for the two-dimensional model.31E-01 +4.6.64E-01 +2.15E-01 +4.82E-01 +6.9–5 Undeformed mesh for the three-dimensional model.

00E+07 -2.00E+08 +1.00E+07 +4.00E+07 +6.00E+07 +1. 1.00E+07 +1.00E+07 -1.00E+07 -2.00E+08 +1.08E-07 +2.18E+08 -6.00E+07 +6.9–6 Contours of shear stress at the end of Step 1 for the three-dimensional model.00E+07 -4.00E+07 +4.9–6 . S12 VALUE -1.13E+08 Figure 1.00E+07 -1.16E+08 Figure 1.08E-07 +2.00E+07 -4.6.PLATE ROLLING S12 VALUE -1.9–7 Contours of shear stress at the end of Step 2 for the three-dimensional model.00E+07 +8.00E+07 +8.6.6.22E+08 -6.

64E-01 +2.82E-01 +6.6.92E+02 +2.99E-01 +5.6.30E+02 +3.97E+02 +3.08E+02 +3.9–7 .47E-01 +3.00E+00 +8.61E-01 Figure 1.15E-01 +4.46E+02 Figure 1.13E+02 +3. TEMP VALUE +2.03E+02 +3.00E-02 +1.6.9–8 Contours of equivalent plastic strain at the end of Step 2 for the three-dimensional model. 1.19E+02 +3.66E-01 +7.PLATE ROLLING PEEQ VALUE +0.50E-01 +8.24E+02 +3.40E+02 +3.9–9 Contours of temperature at the end of Step 2 for the three-dimensional model.31E-01 +4.35E+02 +3.

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3 of the Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual).6. Problem description This problem involves the analysis of the dynamic response of a cantilever beam subjected to a sudden. These penetrations may be signiﬁcant if the slave surface is coarsely discretized. rigid cylinder of radius 40 mm is introduced.” Section 34. pressure loading. Analytical rigid surfaces are typically the preferred means for representing simple rigid geometries such as this in terms of both accuracy and computational performance. the response of the cantilever beam is determined.10–1 . The density is 7800 kg/m3 . with a Young’s modulus of 200 GPa and a Poisson’s ratio of 0. Kinematic contact is the default. and penetrations of a master surface into regions between slave nodes can occur without generating contact forces (see “Contact constraint enforcement methods in Abaqus/Explicit. perfectly plastic material model is used with a yield stress of 250 MPa. The beam is 500 mm long and 100 mm wide and has a thickness of 2.5 mm.10–2.3. as shown in Figure 1.10–1. The beam is subjected to a constant downward pressure of 0.6. A von Mises elastic.1 MPa applied instantaneously at the beginning of the step. Two approaches for modeling the cylindrical surface are tested: using rigid elements and using analytical rigid surfaces.10 BEAM IMPACT ON CYLINDER Product: Abaqus/Explicit Elements tested S4R R3D4 Features tested Distributed loads. Contact surfaces are deﬁned on the lower surface of the beam and the outer surface of the cylinder. Additional reﬁnement of the rigid surface in the cylindrical direction has been used for the model in which the rigid surface nodes act partially as slave nodes so that penetrations of the rigid surface into the 1. In the second case a rigid cylinder is introduced beneath the beam and the beam strikes it.BEAM IMPACT ON CYLINDER 1. rigid bodies. In the second case a ﬁxed.2.6. The beam is made of steel. Two cases are considered. penalty contact is invoked by specifying MECHANICAL CONSTRAINT=PENALTY on the *CONTACT PAIR option. First. In these cases it may be preferable to use an element-based rigid surface and balanced master-slave penalty contact. analytical surfaces always act as a pure master surface. However. In this case the beam responds in the ﬁrst bending mode. Weighting of a rigid surface as a slave surface is allowed only if it is element-based (not an analytical surface) and penalty contact is used. analytical rigid surfaces. kinematic contact. penalty contact. as shown in Figure 1. Half of the beam is modeled with a 20 × 3 mesh of shell elements using symmetry boundary conditions along the centerline of the beam. impulsively applied. Tests are conducted with both kinematic enforcement and penalty enforcement of the contact constraints.6.

The rigid surface is modeled as analytical and acts as a pure master surface in the Abaqus/Standard analysis.6.10–5 and Figure 1.6. For the problem with the cylinder.6.10–2 compare tip displacements. In both of these cases the analytical surface is the pure master surface of the contact pair.10–8.6.6. Figure 1. The Abaqus/Standard analyses use 5-point Simpson integration only and a HAFTOL value of 1. Corresponding components of displacement and velocity at the tip of the beam are within 0.6. and there is some penetration of the rigid surface into the shell.BEAM IMPACT ON CYLINDER deformable surface are detected. tip velocities. The ﬁnal position of the tip is slightly different in Figure 1. Figure 1.10–7 through Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. so this type of reﬁnement is not used in these cases. The contact constraints account for the shell thickness in the Abaqus/Explicit analyses only.10–4 shows the corresponding plot for the Abaqus/Standard analysis. respectively.10–1 and Table 1.5%. Figure 1.10–8 corresponds to an analysis with an analytical rigid surface and penalty contact.1% and 0.6.6. respectively.6. which is attributable to impacts being perfectly plastic with kinematic contact and elastic with penalty contact (see “Contact constraint enforcement methods in Abaqus/Explicit.08 seconds a plastic hinge has formed at the ﬁxed end of the beam for both cases. Figure 1.6. After 0.10–10 show the ﬁnal conﬁguration near the rigid cylinder for four Abaqus/Explicit analyses. The results from the Abaqus/Explicit analyses using Simpson (5-point) and Gauss (3-point) integration through the thickness of the shell demonstrate slight sensitivity of the response to the choice of the integration rule. Results and discussion Veriﬁcation for this problem is provided by comparing the values of signiﬁcant problem variables with the values produced by an equivalent model in Abaqus/Standard. but it does not affect the stable time increment.10–7 and Figure 1.” Section 34.6. between the Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard results with Simpson integration. Cylindrical reﬁnement would not inﬂuence the contact compliance when the rigid surface acts as a pure master surface. Figure 1.10–7 corresponds to an analysis with an analytical rigid surface and kinematic contact. This reﬁnement adds some computational cost. A further comment on rigid surface modeling is that complex three-dimensional surface geometries that often occur in practice must be modeled with element-based rigid surfaces.6. respectively. the signiﬁcant components of displacement and velocity are within 2% and 8%. The Abaqus/Explicit results shown below are for an element-based rigid surface with kinematic enforcement of contact constraints.10–2 . Figure 1.0 × 103 .3 of the Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual). Tip displacements and velocities are averaged over the four nodes at the tip of the beam.10–9 corresponds to an analysis with an element-based rigid surface and kinematic contact. Contact is enforced at the slave nodes accounting for the shell thickness.6.10–10 corresponds 1.10–3 shows contours of equivalent plastic strain on the bottom surface of the beam for the Abaqus/Explicit analysis using Simpson integration without the rigid cylinder. The contours are plotted on the deformed shapes of the beam. and whole model energies at several points along the beam’s symmetry axis. The Abaqus/Explicit analyses are run with 5-point Simpson integration and 3-point Gauss integration.6.6. Table 1.10–6 show contours of equivalent plastic strain on the bottom surface of the beam impacting the rigid cylinder for the Abaqus/Explicit analysis with Simpson integration and the Abaqus/Standard analysis. except where noted otherwise. for the Abaqus/Explicit (Simpson integration) and Abaqus/Standard analyses without the cylinder.2.

6.10–10.inp beamimpac2_rev_pnlty.inp beamimpac2_cyl_anl.inp beamimpac2_gauss.inp beamimpac1_gauss. because this is the only case in which the rigid surface nodes are weighted at all as slave nodes. Explicit dynamic analysis using an analytical rigid surface and penalty contact. Explicit dynamic analysis using an element-based rigid surface and penalty contact. Implicit dynamic analysis of the case with the rigid cylinder using the augmented Lagrangian contact model.inp beamimpac2.BEAM IMPACT ON CYLINDER to an analysis with an element-based rigid surface and penalty contact.inp beamstandard1. Input files beamimpac1.inp Simpson integration case without the rigid cylinder. Explicit dynamic analysis of the case with the rigid cylinder that demonstrates the effects of shell offset and rigid thickness on contact surfaces. 1. Explicit dynamic analysis using an analytical rigid surface.inp beamstandard2. Simpson integration case with the rigid cylinder. Gauss integration explicit dynamic analysis of the case with the rigid cylinder. Gauss integration explicit dynamic analysis of the case without the rigid cylinder. Penetration of the rigid surface into the shell surface is repelled only in Figure 1.inp beamstandard2_auglagr.10–3 .inp beamimpac2_offset. Explicit dynamic analysis using an analytical rigid surface. Implicit dynamic analysis of the case with the rigid cylinder using the hard contact model. Explicit dynamic analysis using an element-based rigid surface and the general contact capability.inp beamimpac2_gcont.inp beamimpac2_rev_anl. Implicit dynamic analysis of the case without the rigid cylinder.6.inp beamimpac2_pnlty.

4 −64.0 114 0.10–2 Comparison of results for case with rigid cylinder (results obtained on an SGI R4600 using single precision).6.0 −56.528 (Simpson) −248 −141 −38.5 −64.654 Variable (mm) (mm) (m/s) (m/s) ALLKE (joules) ALLIE (joules) ETOTAL (joules) 1.6 −65.0 83.6. Abaqus/Explicit (Gauss) −115 −292 −45.95 × 10 −1.0 −56.2 82.8 428 31.9 86. Abaqus/Explicit (Gauss) −253 −122 −20.58 Table 1.8 112 −0.BEAM IMPACT ON CYLINDER Table 1.3 7.3 × 10 −2 Variable (mm) (mm) (m/s) (m/s) ALLKE (joules) ALLIE (joules) ETOTAL (joules) Abaqus/Standard (Simpson) −114 −293 −45.7 434 29.380 Abaqus/Standard (Simpson) −250 −143 −41.10–4 .7 6.0 429 31.6.10–1 Comparison of results for case without rigid cylinder (results obtained on an SGI R4600 using single precision).8 −77.8 112 0.6 −2 (Simpson) −114 −293 −45.

10–5 .BEAM IMPACT ON CYLINDER ρ = 7800 kg/m E = 200 GPa υ = 0.6.1 MPa 500 mm z y x 50 mm 50 mm C L t = 2.3 σyd = 250 MPa (perfectly plastic) 3 Applied Pressure = 0.5 mm Figure 1.10–2 Cantilever beam impacting on a rigid cylinder.6.6.10–1 Impulsively loaded cantilever beam.1 MPa C L Figure 1. 500 mm 300 mm 70 mm 50 mm 50 mm z y x r = 40mm 70 mm Applied Pressure = 0. 1.

00E-03 +9.010 Figure 1.31E-02 +5.10–6 .004 T = .10–3 Plastic strain on bottom surface of beam.78E-02 +2.47E-02 +4. Abaqus/Standard analysis.42E-03 +1.15E-02 +6.010 Figure 1. T = 0.004 T = .008 T = . Abaqus/Explicit analysis.00E-02 +INFINITY T = .6.31E-02 +5.47E-02 +4.006 T = .00E-02 +INFINITY T = .00E-03 +9.6.15E-02 +6. SECTION POINT 1 PEEQ VALUE +0.62E-02 +3.42E-03 +1.62E-02 +3.6.BEAM IMPACT ON CYLINDER T = 0.78E-02 +2.00E-00 +1.10–4 Plastic strain on bottom surface of beam. 1. SECTION POINT 1 PEEQ VALUE +0.006 T = .008 T = .00E-00 +1.

14E-03 +2.10–5 Plastic strain on bottom surface of beam.00E-02 -3.004 T = .14E-03 +7. T = . T = .006 Figure 1.00E-02 -3.6.14E-03 +2.10–6 Plastic strain on bottom surface of beam.6.57E-02 -2.14E-02 -7.006 Figure 1.00E-02 +INFINITY T = 0.10–7 .010 T = .14E-03 +7.00E-02 +INFINITY T = 0.57E-02 +5.57E-02 +5. SECTION POINT 1 PEEQ VALUE -INFINITY -5.BEAM IMPACT ON CYLINDER SECTION POINT 1 PEEQ VALUE -INFINITY -5.57E-02 -2.008 T = .004 T = .14E-02 +3. Abaqus/Standard analysis.14E-02 -7. Abaqus/Explicit analysis.6.010 T = . 1.008 T = .14E-02 +3.

6.10–8 Deformed conﬁguration near rigid cylinder for an analytical rigid surface and penalty contact.6.6.10–7 Deformed conﬁguration near rigid cylinder for an analytical rigid surface and kinematic contact.10–8 . 3 2 1 Figure 1.BEAM IMPACT ON CYLINDER 3 2 1 Figure 1. 1.

1.10–9 Deformed conﬁguration near rigid cylinder for an element-based rigid surface and kinematic contact.6.BEAM IMPACT ON CYLINDER 3 2 1 Figure 1.6.10–9 .6. 3 2 1 Figure 1.10–10 Deformed conﬁguration near rigid cylinder for an element-based rigid surface and penalty contact.

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The *CONTACT INTERFERENCE option with a magnitude of 0. The solid elements are either 4-node quads or 8-node bricks. Either a simple amount of allowable interference is speciﬁed. In this latter case Abaqus initializes the amount of allowable interference at each contact point with the penetration it calculates at the beginning of the analysis.11 CONTACT WITH TIME-DEPENDENT PRESCRIBED INTERFERENCE VALUES Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested CPE4 C3D8 Feature tested *CONTACT INTERFERENCE SLAVE. or the automatic shrink ﬁt procedure is invoked.CONTACT WITH INTERFERENCE 1. Most of the models consist of two elements lying next to each other with their contact surfaces initially interfering by an amount of 0.5.11–1 .6.5 produces interferences of up to 0.2. The *CONTACT INTERFERENCE option with an amount of 0.6.5 is used to resolve the interference. V is the magnitude of allowable interference. an allowable interference along a prescribed direction is speciﬁed. and MASTER is a surface on a deformable body or a rigid surface. Problem description The tests exercise the three ways in which the *CONTACT INTERFERENCE option can be used.2 is used to resolve the interference in (typically) ﬁve increments. MASTER. An initial tube clearance of 0. V SLAVE is a surface on a deformable body. and the other is ﬁxed only axially. as a substrate for the appropriate contact elements. One is totally ﬁxed. Rigid Surface 4 11 1 3 12 2 4 1 3 2 In the case of tube within tube elements (ITT) the model consists of two beams at a variable transverse distance from each other. In the case of rigid surfaces there is only one element initially interfering with a straight rigid surface. 1.

0 × 105 0.11–2 . C3D8 elements.CONTACT WITH INTERFERENCE Tube Clearance 3 4 1 Material: Solid 2 Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Conductivity Density Speciﬁc heat Interface 1. analytical rigid surface.inp ei34srid. CPE4 elements. CPE4 elements. small-sliding.inp ei22siis. small-sliding. 1. C3D8 elements.0 5. R3D4 elements.0 2. small-sliding. CPE4 elements.inp C3D8 elements. Input files Surface-based contact Allowable interference: ei34siis.inp ei31siisf. ﬁnite-sliding. node-based surface. ﬁnite-sliding. ﬁnite-sliding.inp ei34siisf. node-based surface.5 0.inp eig1siis. Allowable interference along a prescribed direction: ei34siid.0 0.inp C3D8 elements.3 Friction coefﬁcient Gap conductance Results and discussion 0. C3D8 elements. C3D8.0 (coupled temperature-displacement elements) The interference is resolved in ﬁve increments.inp ei22ssis.6. small-sliding.inp eip1sris.

CPE4 elements. ﬁnite-sliding. C3D8. GAPSPHER elements.inp ei34siiff. ﬁnite-sliding. CPE4 elements.inp Automatic shrink ﬁt: ei22siif. small-sliding. analytical rigid surface. small-sliding.inp Contact element approach (undocumented) C3D8 elements.inp eis1sgvs. CPE4 elements.6. Allowable interference: ei21stvs. node-based surface.inp ei34siidf. ﬁnite-sliding. small-sliding. GAPSPHER elements. ﬁnite-sliding.inp ei22ssif.inp B21. GAPUNI elements.inp B21.inp eiu1sgvs. C3D8 elements. CPE4 elements. ITT21 elements. C3D8 elements. CPE4.11–3 . Allowable interference along a prescribed direction: ei21stvd.inp eiu1sgvd. CPE4. C3D8. CPE4 elements.inp ei31siidf. node-based surface.inp ei22siid. GAPUNI elements. ﬁnite-sliding.inp eis1sgvd. C3D8 elements.inp eip1srid. 1.CONTACT WITH INTERFERENCE eig1siid.inp ei22ssid. ITT21 elements.

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Z direction cosine of the closure direction = (0.6.). GAPUNI with positive gap clearance: y 5 F 1 4 x 7 10 GAP data: Initial clearance = 0. X.12–1 . and spherical gap elements. 1.DISCRETE POINT CONTACT 1.6.5..12 CONTACT BETWEEN DISCRETE POINTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested GAPUNI GAPCYL GAPSPHER Problem description Simple beam models are used to verify unidirectional.. Loading case 2: = −100 at node 4. −1. and node 10 is ﬁxed in the x. cylindrical. Boundary conditions: node 1 is clamped. Y.and y-directions. Loading case 1: = −50 at node 4. 0.

0 × 104 at node 16... GAPCYL with negative gap clearance: Uy 22 y 12 5 11 21 10 x GAP data: Initial clearance = −1. Boundary conditions: nodes 11 and 12 are clamped.)... 0.0 at node 22.). X. GAPSPHER with positive gap clearance: y 5 11 z 21 121 Fy x Fz 1. node 121 is ﬁxed in the x-. 0. Y. X.0 × 104 at node 16. Loading: Step 1: = 2.0 (negative gap clearance).DISCRETE POINT CONTACT GAPCYL with positive gap clearance: y F 11 16 21 121 F 5 x z GAP data: Initial clearance = 0. Z direction cosine of the cylinder axis = (1.and z-directions. Boundary conditions: node 11 is clamped.0208 (positive gap clearance).6.12–2 . 0. = −5. 0. Step 2: = 3. Z direction cosine of the cylinder axis = (1. y. Y.

inp eic1sgcp.inp eic1sgcn. Results and discussion = 4.2080.inp eis1sgcp.0 × 104 and The contact constraints are satisﬁed properly.0 × 10 at node 21.inp GAPUNI element with positive gap clearance.0 × 104 at node 21. Loading case 2: 4 = 6.6. Boundary conditions: nodes 11 and 121 are clamped. Input files eiu1sgcp. 1. GAPSPHER element with positive gap clearance. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE.12–3 .0 × 104 and = 3. Loading case 1: = 2. The NLGEOM parameter is used. GAPCYL element with positive gap clearance. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE. GAPCYL element with negative gap clearance.DISCRETE POINT CONTACT GAP data: Initial clearance = 0.

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the middle cylinder deﬁned by points . During the second step the pressure is maintained. MASTER *SLIDE LINE *ASYMMETRIC-AXISYMMETRIC Problem description This example illustrates the use of Abaqus slide line elements and contact surface deﬁnitions in an axisymmetric structure that may undergo nonlinear.6. This contact problem involves the relative motion of two outer cylinders with respect to one another and with respect to an inner. In addition. An additional perturbation step is created to test the *LOAD CASE option. In the CGAX4 model the same steps and boundary conditions that were applied in the CAX4 model are used.1 radians about the z-axis while the innermost cylinder is prevented from twisting. An additional third step is added in which the outermost cylinder is twisted by 0. In the axisymmetric model the inner cylinder is restrained from motion in the z-direction along lines and . node B is restrained from radial motion. and a second along the outer edge of the middle cylinder.6.AXISYMMETRIC FINITE SLIDING 1. and then the two outer cylinders are forced to slide down the cylinder. 1. Axisymmetric contact elements for ﬁnite sliding (slide line elements) deﬁned along edge of the middle cylinder are associated with the ﬁrst slide line. from node H through node O. from node L through node D.13 FINITE SLIDING BETWEEN CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS—AXISYMMETRIC AND CAXA MODELS Product: Abaqus/Standard Element tested ISL21A Features tested *CONTACT PAIR SLAVE. while node J is displaced in the same direction by 114. constrained cylinder. while nodes L and J are restrained vertically.3 mm (4. Two slide lines are used in this model: one along the outer edge of the inner cylinder. In the ﬁrst step a pressure of 207 MPa (30 × 103 lb/in2 ) is applied to edge of the outer cylinder.0 in). where the three cylinders are identiﬁed: the inner cylinder deﬁned by the points .5 in).13–1.13–1 . and node L is displaced in the negative z-direction by 127 mm (5. The axisymmetric model is shown in Figure 1. These loading conditions are deﬁned in two separate steps (pressurization followed by sliding). and the outer cylinder deﬁned by points .6. nonaxisymmetric deformation. Axisymmetric slide line elements deﬁned along edge of the outer cylinder are associated with the second slide line. The structure is subjected to localized pressurization to initiate contact between the surfaces in the three bodies.

The actual moment due to frictional shear stresses transmitted by the slave/master surface contact pair BSURF/ASURF about the z-axis in Step 3 is 40600 lb-in. The ANGLE parameter of the *INTERFACE option is used to deﬁne the angular position (measured in degrees) of the slide line elements. In the CAXA model the boundary conditions that were applied in the axisymmetric model are kept and are extended in the -direction. Axisymmetric model with ISL21A and CAX4 elements.6. In Step 3 of the CGAX4 analysis (in which the outermost cylinder is twisted by 0.2 0. The *ASYMMETRIC-AXISYMMETRIC suboption of the *INTERFACE option is used to deﬁne the area of integration for the slide line elements. which is within 1% of the predicted value from Step 2. Any axisymmetric or nonaxisymmetric loading can be applied to the CAXA model after the second step. Relative slip is prevented by the friction that develops between the slave/master contact pair DSURF/CSURF.inp eia2sscn. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE.inp eia2sssg. the middle cylinder does slip with respect to the innermost cylinder. However. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE. Input files eia2sssa. Material: Solid: Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefficients of friction: 207 GPa (30 × 106 lb/in2 ) 0. Axisymmetric model with CGAX4 elements using the contact surface approach. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE.inp eia2ssca.AXISYMMETRIC FINITE SLIDING The nonaxisymmetric model is made up of CAXA elements and additional slide line elements at various locations in the -direction.6 The results from the axisymmetric and three-dimensional models match.1 radians) the middle cylinder rotates with the outermost cylinder without slipping. where 0. Nonaxisymmetric model with ISL21A and CAXA41 elements.2*CTRQ=41000 lb-in. 1. The loading conditions are the same as the axisymmetric model.2 is the friction coefﬁcient for the contact pair.3 Inside edge of middle cylinder Outer cylinder Results and discussion 0. At the end of Step 2 the computed maximum torque that can be transmitted by the slave/master surface contact pair BSURF/ASURF about the z-axis is computed to be 0.13–2 .inp Axisymmetric model with CAX4 elements using the contact surface approach.

3 in) (1.01524 m l4 = 0.8 in) (2.17780 m l2 = 0.0 in) (2.13–1 Cylinder sliding model (schematic).04572 m r4 = 0.0 in) Slide line # 1: defined along H–O Slide line #2: defined along L–D l1 z O A B r Figure 1.03302 m r2 = 0.1 in) (7.04064 m r3 = 0.05080 m l3 = 0.6 in) (1.0 in) (0.05334 m l1 = 0.02540 m (1.13–3 .AXISYMMETRIC FINITE SLIDING r4 r3 K L r2 l4 G H r1 E F CD I J l3 l2 Geometry: r1 = 0. 1.6.6.6 in) (1.

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6.14–1 . C3D15V.ELEMENT CONVERSION FOR CONTACT 1. Problem description These tests verify the automatic element conversion feature of Abaqus.inp ei39sisx. user-deﬁned nodes. C3D15. With this feature if a quadratic element is speciﬁed as part of a slave surface deﬁnition and there is no midface node on the contacting face. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. and S8R5 elements into C3D27.inp Finite-sliding contact between deformable bodies and a rigid surface. The solution is compared to an identical model composed of C3D27.6.3. and S9R5 elements is tested for the case of contact between a deformable body and a rigid surface. The elements then undergo uniform compression via contact with a frictionless rigid surface. Abaqus automatically generates a midface node and modiﬁes the element deﬁnition appropriately.inp ei39sfsx. C3D15V. Input files ei39srsx. The results at the completion of Step 3 for the model with converted elements agree with the results for the model in which no elements undergo conversion. Results and discussion In the ﬁrst test all elements experience a uniform thermal strain of 5 × 10−5 . Temperatures and predeﬁned ﬁeld variables at the automatically generated nodes are determined by interpolation from the existing. The second and third tests verify contact between pairs of deformable bodies in which the elements of the slave surface undergo automatic conversion. Finite-sliding contact between two deformable bodies.inp ei39sisx_surf. Small-sliding contact between two deformable bodies. 1. and S9R5 elements deﬁned explicitly in the input ﬁle (no conversion is necessary). In the ﬁrst test a uniform temperature change of 50° is ﬁrst applied to all of the elements to verify the temperature interpolation of the automatic conversion procedure. Poisson’s ratio of 0. and a thermal expansion coefﬁcient of 1 × 10−6 .14 AUTOMATIC ELEMENT CONVERSION FOR SURFACE CONTACT Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested C3D15 C3D15V C3D20 C3D27 S8R5 S9R5 Features tested Conversion of C3D20. and S8R5 elements. as well as contact between two deformable bodies. Small-sliding contact between two deformable bodies. In all three cases the material is assumed elastic with Young’s modulus of 3 × 106 lb/in2 . The conversion of C3D20. C3D15.

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Material: Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Interface friction coefﬁcient Results and discussion 206800 0.inp ei24siso_surf. 1. and the three-dimensional model consists of two 32-element rings.6.inp CPS4 elements. small-sliding. In Abaqus/Explicit the initial overclosure is resolved during a *DYNAMIC step.INITIAL OVERCLOSURE 1.0 The interference is resolved for models using hard contact. The elements of the inner and outer rings are perfectly aligned.6. small-sliding. In Abaqus/Standard the initial overclosure is resolved during a *STATIC step.15–1 . surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.32 8. In the case of softened contact the interference is reduced until equilibrium is reached. The two-dimensional model consists of two 16-element rings.01 × 10−6 0. any residual overclosure at the end of the step can be reduced by increasing the stiffness of the pressure-overclosure relationship. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files ei24siso. CPS4 elements.15 CONTACT WITH INITIAL OVERCLOSURE OF CURVED SURFACES Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit C3D8 C3D8R CPS4 CPS4R Features tested *CONTACT DAMPING *CONTACT PAIR *SURFACE BEHAVIOR Problem description The model consists of two concentric rings with a small initial overclosure.

surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. ﬁnite-sliding penalty contact. ﬁnite-sliding kinematic contact.15–2 . C3D8 elements.inp ei34sfso_5. *SURFACE BEHAVIOR with NO SEPARATION. ﬁnite-sliding. *CONTACT DAMPING with DEFINITION=DAMPING COEFFICIENT.inp CPS4R elements.inp ei34sfso_1. ﬁnite-sliding. C3D8 elements. ﬁnite-sliding. C3D8 elements. C3D8R elements.inp interference3d_xpl_ﬁnite_c3d8. C3D8 elements.inp ei34sfso_3.inp interference2d_xpl_ﬁnite_pnlty.inp ei34sfso_4. ﬁnite-sliding kinematic contact. BEHAVIOR with PRESSURE*SURFACE OVERCLOSURE=TABULAR and NO SEPARATION. ﬁnite-sliding kinematic contact. DAMPING with *CONTACT DEFINITION=CRITICAL DAMPING FRACTION.inp ei38siso.inp CPS4 elements. small-sliding. ﬁnite-sliding with HCRIT and SMOOTH parameters. ﬁnite-sliding penalty contact. ﬁnite-sliding penalty contact. C3D8 elements.6. BEHAVIOR with PRESSURE*SURFACE OVERCLOSURE=TABULAR.inp interference3d_xpl_ﬁnite_pnlty. C3D8 elements. C3D8 elements.inp ei34sfso_2.inp interference3d_xpl_nosep_cdf. C3D8R elements. *SURFACE BEHAVIOR with PRESSURE-OVERCLOSURE=EXPONENTIAL. BEHAVIOR with PRESSURE*SURFACE OVERCLOSURE=TABULAR. ﬁnite-sliding. C3D8 elements.inp ei34sfso. ﬁnite-sliding.INITIAL OVERCLOSURE ei24ssso. C3D8R elements.inp ei38siso_surf. BEHAVIOR with PRESSURE*SURFACE OVERCLOSURE=TABULAR. C3D8 elements. BEHAVIOR with PRESSURE*SURFACE OVERCLOSURE=TABULAR. 1. small-sliding. ﬁnite-sliding.inp interference3d_xpl_ﬁnite_pnlty_c3d8. BEHAVIOR with PRESSURE*SURFACE OVERCLOSURE=TABULAR. CPS4R elements. ﬁnite-sliding kinematic contact. *SURFACE BEHAVIOR with PRESSURE-OVERCLOSURE=TABULAR. *CONTACT INTERFERENCE with SHRINK. C3D8 elements. Abaqus/Explicit input files interference2d_xpl_ﬁnite.inp interference3d_xpl_ﬁnite. BEHAVIOR with PRESSURE*SURFACE OVERCLOSURE=TABULAR.

ﬁnite-sliding kinematic contact. DAMPING with *CONTACT DEFINITION=DAMPING COEFFICIENT. BEHAVIOR with PRESSURE*SURFACE OVERCLOSURE=TABULAR.INITIAL OVERCLOSURE interference3d_xpl_nosep_dc.6.15–3 . 1.inp interference3d_xpl_small.inp C3D8R elements. small-sliding kinematic contact. C3D8R elements. BEHAVIOR with PRESSURE*SURFACE OVERCLOSURE=TABULAR and NO SEPARATION.

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SMALL SLIDING Problem description The Abaqus/Standard model consists of two bodies with their contact surfaces initially overclosed.16 SMALL-SLIDING CONTACT WITH SPECIFIED CLEARANCE OR OVERCLOSURE VALUES Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit C3D8 CPE4 CPE4R R2D2 R3D4 S4R Features tested *CLEARANCE *CONTACT INTERFERENCE *CONTACT PAIR. A two-dimensional model is considered with the deformable bodies modeled using CPE4R elements and the rigid body modeled using rigid elements. Results and discussion In all cases the results are correct throughout the analysis.0 unit in each direction 20 units in diameter Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Friction coefﬁcient 30 × 106 0. 1.INITIAL CONTACT CLEARANCE 1.16–1 . Model: 2-D solid element dimensions 3-D solid element dimensions 3-D shell element dimensions Material: 1.0 × 1.0 0.0 × 1.6. In these cases the initial overclosure is resolved before the load is applied. R2D2. except when the *CONTACT INTERFERENCE option is used.0 The Abaqus/Explicit model consists of three deformable bodies that are in contact with a rigid surface. This initial overclosure is maintained throughout the analysis by using the *CLEARANCE option and specifying a zero clearance value.0 1. Three different methods are used to deﬁne initial clearance values: using the VALUE parameter or specifying slave nodes and their corresponding initial clearance values on data lines that either follow the keyword line or are read from an input ﬁle.6.

CPE4 elements. contact directions redeﬁned. analytical rigid surface. CPE4. R2D2 elements. contact directions redeﬁned. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPE4 elements. *CONTACT INTERFERENCE.inp ei22sism.inp ei22sirm_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.6. contact directions calculated by Abaqus.inp ei22sino_surf.inp ei22siso. CPE4 elements.16–2 . surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. analytical rigid surface. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei22siro_surf. node-based surface. CPE4 elements.inp ei22siam_surf. 1. *CONTACT INTERFERENCE. CPE4 elements.inp ei22siao_surf. R2D2 elements. CPE4 elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. CPE4. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. contact directions calculated by Abaqus. contact directions calculated by Abaqus. contact directions redeﬁned.inp CPE4 elements. contact directions redeﬁned. node-based surface. node-based surface. R2D2 elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. contact directions calculated by Abaqus. node-based surface. CPE4. CPE4 elements. contact directions calculated by Abaqus.inp ei22sinm_surf.inp ei22sinm.inp ei22sism_surf. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. R2D2 elements.inp ei22sirc_surf.inp ei22siso_surf. CPE4 elements. CPE4 elements. contact directions redeﬁned. contact directions redeﬁned. contact directions redeﬁned. contact directions calculated by Abaqus. CPE4 elements. CPE4. surface-tosurface constraint enforcement method. R2D2 elements. R2D2 elements.inp ei22sirm.inp ei22siao. contact directions redeﬁned. CPE4.inp ei22sirc. CPE4.inp ei22sino. contact directions calculated by Abaqus. analytical rigid surface. analytical rigid surface.INITIAL CONTACT CLEARANCE Input files Two-dimensional Abaqus/Standard models ei22siam. CPE4 elements. contact directions calculated by Abaqus.inp ei22siro.

contact directions calculated by Abaqus.inp ei34sino_surf. C3D8. C3D8 elements.inp ei34sism_surf. analytical rigid surface.inp ei34siao. surface-tosurface constraint enforcement method. analytical rigid surface. contact directions redeﬁned.inp ei34siro. contact directions calculated by Abaqus. *POST OUTPUT analysis. C3D8 elements.INITIAL CONTACT CLEARANCE Three-dimensional Abaqus/Standard models ei34siam.inp ei34sino. C3D8. C3D8 elements.inp ei34siro_surf. 1. analytical rigid surface. R3D4 elements.6. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. contact directions redeﬁned. C3D8 elements.inp ei34sisc_surf. C3D8 elements. analytical rigid surface. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. C3D8. R3D4 elements. R3D4 elements.inp ei34sism. *POST OUTPUT analysis.inp ei34sirc_surf. C3D8 elements. contact directions redeﬁned. C3D8. *CONTACT INTERFERENCE. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. C3D8. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei34sinm_surf.inp ei34sinm. contact directions calculated by Abaqus. node-based surface.16–3 .inp C3D8 elements. *CONTACT INTERFERENCE.inp ei34siao_surf. node-based surface. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei34siro_po_surf. node-based surface.inp ei34sisc. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. R3D4 elements. C3D8. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. C3D8 elements. *CONTACT INTERFERENCE. contact directions redeﬁned. contact directions calculated by Abaqus.inp ei34sirc. C3D8 elements. C3D8 elements. *CONTACT INTERFERENCE. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. contact directions calculated by Abaqus.inp ei34sirm_surf. node-based surface. contact directions calculated by Abaqus.inp ei34siam_surf. contact directions redeﬁned. R3D4 elements.inp ei34siro_po. contact directions redeﬁned. C3D8 elements. C3D8 elements. contact directions redeﬁned. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei34sirm. contact directions redeﬁned. R3D4 elements.

INITIAL CONTACT CLEARANCE ei34siso. contact directions redeﬁned by specifying the thread geometry data and the two points on the axis of the bolt/bolt hole. contact directions redeﬁned by specifying the components of the vectors directly. C3D8 elements. 1.inp contact2D_clear_data. S4R elements. S4R elements. contact directions calculated by Abaqus. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. File containing a list of slave nodes and their corresponding initial clearance values.inp Two-dimensional contact analysis with three contact pairs with speciﬁed initial clearances. contact directions calculated by Abaqus.16–4 .inp contact_s4r_clear_bolt.inp C3D8 elements.inp contact_s4r_clear.inp ei34siso_surf. Abaqus/Explicit model contact2D_clear.6.

6.6. trim all contact surfaces except master surfaces involved in a ﬁnite-sliding contact pair.inp verify the automatic surface generation capability and trimming of surfaces. the faces in the element set that are on the exterior (free) surface of the model form the surface. Figure 1. Abaqus will.SURFACES AND TRIMMING 1.17–4 show trimming of surfaces for two-dimensional triangular elements.inp and ele_trim3d.17–7 and Figure 1. Any face that includes an end node and a corner node is removed during trimming.17–5 and Figure 1.6. ﬁnite-sliding.and ﬁnite-sliding contact pairs. Default trimming of contact surfaces The default trimming option was investigated for surfaces involved in small-sliding. and both small.6.17–1 and Figure 1. Figure 1.17–8 show how trimming of surfaces works for three-dimensional tetrahedron elements.17–6 show the trimming of surfaces for three-dimensional brick elements. Trimming of two-dimensional surfaces Figure 1. The input ﬁle ele_trimdef.inp tests the default trimming option.6.6. Trimming of three-dimensional surfaces Figure 1.17–1 .6. The automatic surface generated and the surface generated by trimming are shown separately.6.17–3 and Figure 1. Trimming has no effect on closed surfaces (ones with no ends or edges). Results and discussion Some of the examples from the tests are shown below.6.17 AUTOMATIC SURFACE DEFINITION AND SURFACE TRIMMING Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested C3D4 C3D8 CPS3 CPS4 Problem description The input ﬁles ele_trim2d.6.17–2 show how trimming of surfaces works for two-dimensional quadrilateral elements. This deﬁnition may result in the inclusion of unwanted faces. They illustrate the recursive elimination of the ends of two-dimensional surfaces and the edges of three-dimensional surfaces. by default. 1. In each example the shaded elements in the model are used as the element set in the surface deﬁnition. Surface trimming provides the user with some basic control over the extent of open surfaces created on solid element meshes. When a surface is deﬁned without specifying the face identiﬁers of elements.

6. 1. Trimming of three-dimensional surfaces.17–1 Quadrilateral elements—Example 1.6.inp ele_trim3d.inp Trimming of two-dimensional surfaces.17–2 Quadrilateral elements—Example 2.6. model ⇒ without trim ⇒ with trim Figure 1. Default trimming of contact surfaces. model ⇒ without trim ⇒ with trim Figure 1.SURFACES AND TRIMMING Input files ele_trim2d.inp ele_trimdef.17–2 .

6. 1.17–3 Triangular elements—Example 1.17–3 .SURFACES AND TRIMMING model ⇒ without trim ⇒ with trim Figure 1.6.6. model ⇒ without trim ⇒ with trim Figure 1.17–4 Triangular elements—Example 2.

6. model ⇒ without trim ⇒ with trim Figure 1.17–5 Brick elements—Example 1. 1.6.SURFACES AND TRIMMING model ⇒ without trim ⇒ with trim Figure 1.17–4 .17–6 Brick elements—Example 2.6.

17–8 Tetrahedron elements—Example 2. 1.6.6.17–5 .6. model ⇒ without trim ⇒ with trim Figure 1.SURFACES AND TRIMMING model ⇒ without trim ⇒ with trim Figure 1.17–7 Tetrahedron elements—Example 1.

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In the Abaqus/Explicit simulations both CPE3T and CPE4RT elements are used to model the ring.18–2).0 and an outside radius of 3. The ring rests on a ﬂat rigid surface. and the bottom half is given an initial temperature of 0. In the Abaqus/Standard simulations the elements use a hybrid formulation to accommodate an incompressible neo-Hookean hyperelastic material. The ring is modeled with plane strain elements: 4-node quadrilaterals.SELF-CONTACT 1. Contact pairs deﬁne contact between the outside surface of the ring and the two rigid surfaces and between the inside surface of the ring and itself.5 for the rigid surface interfaces.18–3). The top half is given an initial temperature of 100.0 units each.0 around its center) in such a way that it makes the ring roll along the ﬂat rigid surface (Figure 1.18 SELF-CONTACT OF FINITE-SLIDING DEFORMABLE SURFACES Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit CPE3T CPE4H CPE4RT CPE6MH CPE8H CPE8HT C3D4H C3D8H C3D10H C3D10I C3D10MH C3D20H Features tested *CONTACT PAIR SINGLE_SURFACE where SINGLE_SURFACE is a surface on a deformable body that may contact itself. A circular indenter. The ring is divided in two halves. represented by another analytical rigid surface. Although the inside surface of the ring is closed.6. In the second step the indenter is simultaneously translated (−10.18–1 . This is the only case that is also solved with Abaqus/Explicit. This produces a continuously changing region of contact. The two steps map into a time of 100.6. four elements are used through the thickness of the ring. or 8-node quadrilaterals.0 in the horizontal direction) and rotated (−8. and 72 elements are used around its circumference. as shown in Figure 1. The models consist of a deformable ring with an inside radius of 2. 6-node modiﬁed triangles.6.6.0. One case tests coupled thermal-mechanical interfaces.0. Traction is provided by setting the coefﬁcient of friction to 0.6.18–1. A small amount of compressibility is added to the material deﬁnition. In the ﬁrst step the indenter moves down enough to produce self-contact of the inside surface (Figure 1. Problem description The tests exercise the self-contact capability that is available for ﬁnite-sliding surfaces by declaring a single surface name in conjunction with the *CONTACT PAIR option. This indenter has a radius of 1. The loading consists of two steps.0. Heat transfer is allowed at the interface involving the inside surface. and mass scaling 1.0 and is diametrically opposed to the ﬂat surface. open surfaces are tested by eliminating one element of the inside perimeter from the surface deﬁnition. is initially in contact with the ring at a point.

inp ei28tssc. CPE6MH elements. CPE8H elements.0 × 10−4 1. C3D4H elements. CPE8H elements. open surface. 1. closed surface.SELF-CONTACT is used to obtain an efﬁcient solution. CPE4H elements.0 × 10−3 (Abaqus/Explicit only) 5. CPE6MH elements. CPE8HT elements.inp ei28sssc. closed surface.inp ei26sssc.18–2 . CPE4H elements. CPE8H elements.inp ei28sssu.inp ei24sssc_surf.inp ei24sssu.0 × 10−4 (coupled temperature-displacement elements) rough Self-contact is established and evolves over large portions of the single surface.0 0. closed surface using surface-to-surface contact. Material: Solid: Self-contact interface: Conductivity Density Speciﬁc heat Friction coefﬁcient Gap conductance Friction coefﬁcient Rigid surface interfaces: Results and discussion 1.6.0 × 103 1. closed surface using surface-tosurface contact. closed surface using surface-to-surface contact. CPE6MH elements.inp ei28sssc_surf. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files ei24sssc. The temperature results for the coupled thermal-mechanical interface tests obtained with Abaqus/Explicit agree with those obtained with Abaqus/Standard. This class of problems would be difﬁcult to analyze with portions of the inside surface deﬁning a conventional contact pair.inp ei26sssc_surf.0 5.inp ei34sssc. closed surface. The stresses predicted by the two analysis products differ slightly in this case since a fully incompressible material is modeled in Abaqus/Standard while a slightly compressible one is modeled in Abaqus/Explicit.inp CPE4H elements. closed surface. open surface. closed surface. Nondefault hourglass control is also used to control element hourglassing.1 0. open surface.inp ei26sssu.

C3D10I elements. C3D8H elements. with 4-node quads and an open surface. C3D10MH elements.inp CPE3T elements. closed surface.inp ei310msssc_surf. kinematic mechanical contact. closed surface using surface-tosurface contact.inp ei38sssc_surf. closed surface using surface-to-surface contact. kinematic mechanical contact. selfcontact_xpl_cpe3t. 1.inp ei38sssc. closed surface. CPE4RT elements. closed surface.inp ei320sssc_surf. C3D10I elements.inp ei320sssc.inp ei310isssc_surf. closed surface.18–3 . penalty mechanical contact.6. closed surface using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei310msssc. C3D8H elements. closed surface using surface-tosurface contact. C3D20H elements. closed surface using surface-to-surface contact.inp ei310sssc_surf.inp selfcontact_xpl_p_cpe4rt. Figure 1.6.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files C3D4H elements. closed surface. C3D20H elements. closed surface. C3D10H elements.18–1 Self-contact model. closed surface using surface-tosurface contact.SELF-CONTACT ei34sssc_surf. C3D10H elements. C3D10MH elements.inp selfcontact_xpl_cpe4rt. closed surface. closed surface.inp ei310sssc.inp ei310isssc. CPE4RT elements.

1.SELF-CONTACT Figure 1.18–2 Deformation of Step 1.6.6.18–3 Deformation of Step 2. Figure 1.18–4 .6.

C3D10 elements. The ﬁnite-sliding models are similar to the small-sliding models. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.CONTACT SURFACE EXTENSION 1. The contact clearances.19–1 .6. The small-sliding models consist of a stacked block arrangement in which the nodes of the slave surface extend beyond the perimeter of the master surface at the start of the analysis.0 × 106 Poisson’s ratio 0. small-sliding.19 CONTACT SURFACE EXTENSIONS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested C3D8 C3D10 C3D10I C3D20 CPE3 CPE4 CPE6 CPE8 ISL21A ISL22A Features tested Contact surface and slide line extensions for small. Material: Young’s modulus 3.inp ei3tsfsx. A second step moves the slave surface beyond the perimeter of the master surface but within the extension zone. C3D8 elements. 1. In ﬁnite-sliding contact extending the master surface can prevent nodes from “falling-off” or getting trapped behind the master surface. slip distances.inp ei38sisx_surf.2 Results and discussion The small-sliding tests verify that an intersection is found and that the proper contact clearance is calculated at the start of an analysis. small-sliding. except that the slave surface lies within the perimeter of the master surface at the start of the analysis. small-sliding. ﬁnite-sliding. and contact pressures are used to verify the ﬁnite-sliding results when a slave node enters the extension region.inp C3D8 elements. ﬁnite-sliding. C3D8 elements. Input files ei38sfsx.inp ei38sisx.and ﬁnite-sliding. C3D10 elements.inp ei3tsisx.6. Problem description In small-sliding contact extending the master surface allows the slave node to ﬁnd an intersection with the master surface when the slave node lies slightly outside the perimeter of the master surface at the start of the analysis.

C3D10I elements. ﬁnite-sliding. CPE8 elements.inp ei21sﬁx.inp ei28sfsx.inp ei24sisx_surf. CPE6 elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. small-sliding. ﬁnite-sliding.inp ei26sisx. CPE4 elements. ISL21A elements. ﬁnite-sliding. small-sliding. small-sliding.inp ei28sisx.inp ei3tsisx_c3d10i. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. small-sliding. small-sliding. 1.inp ei26sisx_surf.inp ei3ssisx_surf.6.inp ei3tsfsx_c3d10i. small-sliding. C3D10I elements.inp ei22sﬁx. CPE6 elements.CONTACT SURFACE EXTENSION ei3tsisx_surf.inp ei24sisx.19–2 . small-sliding. CPE4 elements. CPE3 elements. small-sliding. ﬁnite-sliding. ISL22A elements. CPE8 elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. small-sliding. C3D20 elements. C3D10I elements.inp C3D10 elements. ﬁnite-sliding. ﬁnite-sliding. small-sliding. small-sliding.inp ei23sisx.inp ei24sfsx. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. small-sliding. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.inp ei23sisx_surf. CPE3 elements.inp ei26sfsx.inp ei3ssfsx.inp ei3ssisx. small-sliding. C3D20 elements.inp ei3tsisx_surf_c3d10i.inp ei28sisx_surf. C3D20 elements. CPE6 elements. CPE8 elements.inp ei23sfsx. CPE3 elements. CPE4 elements. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.

C3D10M elements. It also veriﬁes that the proper clearance is calculated at the symmetry plane.6. A quarter-symmetry model is used.inp ei3tsisn. For ﬁnite-sliding contact the tests verify that the surface normals are properly adjusted and that the end segments of a two-dimensional contact surface are properly smoothed at the symmetry plane. C3D10M elements. Material: Young’s modulus 3.inp ei38sisn_surf.inp ei23sfsn.inp ei3tsisn_surf.inp C3D8 elements.CONTACT SURFACE NORMALS 1. ﬁnite-sliding. small-sliding.2 Results and discussion The clearances and contact pressures were veriﬁed analytically. The initial clearance between both cylinders is 0.0 × 103 Poisson’s ratio 0.6.1. small-sliding.20–1 . The loading consists of two steps. small-sliding. Input files ei38sisn. CPE3 elements. Some input ﬁles use a local nodal coordinate system to ensure that the surface normals are properly adjusted for the local system. The models consist of two concentric deformable cylinders. The clearances for the ﬁnite-sliding test cases are slightly greater than the discretized clearance because of the smoothed master surface. 1.6. small-sliding. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method. C3D8 elements. Problem description For small-sliding contact the tests verify that the surface normals are properly adjusted such that a slave node ﬁnds an intersection with a curved master surface at the symmetry plane (see Figure 1.and ﬁnite-sliding contact.20–1). In the second step the pressure is released such that the elastic model returns to its original state. In the ﬁrst step a pressure of 100 is applied on the outer cylinder such that the surface comes into contact with the inner cylinder. surface-to-surface constraint enforcement method.20 ADJUSTING CONTACT SURFACE NORMALS AT SYMMETRY PLANES Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested C3D8 C3D10M CPE3 CPE4 CPE8 Features tested Contact surface normals are tested at symmetry planes for small.

small-sliding. constraint enforcement method.6. small-sliding.inp ei28sisn. small-sliding.inp ei28sfsn_auglagr.inp ei24sisn. CPE8 elements.inp ei24sisn_surf.20–1 Adjusted normal at the symmetry plane.inp ei28sisn_auglagr. CPE8 elements. constraint enforcement method. CPE4 elements.20–2 . ﬁnite-sliding. CPE4 elements. ﬁnite-sliding. 1.inp ei28sfsn. small-sliding.CONTACT SURFACE NORMALS ei23sisn.inp ei28sisn_auglagr_surf. CPE3 elements. small-sliding. small-sliding. small-sliding. surface-to-surface surface-to-surface surface-to-surface surface-to-surface slave surface master surface symmetry plane master surface slave surface unadjusted normal N 1 adjusted normal N 1 symmetry plane 1 100 Figure 1. CPE4 elements.inp ei23sisn_surf.6.inp CPE3 elements. CPE8 elements. constraint enforcement method. constraint enforcement method. CPE8 elements. CPE8 elements.inp ei24sfsn. ﬁnite-sliding. small-sliding. CPE8 elements.inp ei28sisn_surf.

PERRMX.2 0. In this test various combinations of tolerance controls are tested in a multistep analysis with multiple contact pairs. RESET Problem description The *CONTACT CONTROLS option with the MAXCHP. The surfaces are repeatedly brought together and separated to verify the normal contact constraints. and UERRMX parameters provides the user with control over the contact logic by allowing the contact criteria to be violated to prescribed tolerances at any number of contact points.3.21–1 . Tolerance controls can be deﬁned for a speciﬁc contact pair or for the entire model.6.2 0. but the values of the tolerance parameters are calculated automatically. UERRMX=value *CONTACT CONTROLS. The controls speciﬁed with this option remain in effect until they are either changed by another *CONTACT CONTROLS option or reset to their default values by the *CONTACT CONTROLS. Further description of the tolerance controls can be found in “Adjusting contact controls in Abaqus/Standard. The model consists of eight contact surfaces (some of which have interface properties deﬁned with the *SURFACE BEHAVIOR option) and a slider block arrangement.0 1. or to both. CONTACT TOLERANCES Elements tested CPS4 SPRING1 Features tested *CONTACT CONTROLS. MAXCHP=value. AUTOMATIC TOLERANCES *CONTACT CONTROLS. RESET option.21 CONTACT CONTROLS Product: Abaqus/Standard I.CONTACT CONTROLS 1. Material: Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Friction coefﬁcient Clearance at zero pressure Pressure at zero clearance 3 × 106 0. The slider block arrangement tests the tangential contact constraints. PERRMX=value. to individual contact surfaces.15 100.” Section 32.6. The *CONTACT CONTROLS option with the AUTOMATIC TOLERANCES parameter works in a similar fashion.6 of the Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual. There are 13 steps in which the tolerance controls are applied either to the entire model.

In addition. Further description of the stabilization controls can be found in “Adjusting contact controls in Abaqus/Standard. RESET option. and the motion of the blocks is controlled with boundary conditions. Input file eicontrols. the range over which the damping works. frictional properties are prescribed for one contact pair.6 of the Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual. In these tests various combinations of stabilization controls are tested in multistep analyses with multiple contact pairs. STABILIZE Problem description The *CONTACT CONTROLS option with the STABILIZE parameter can be used to control rigid body motions that may exist in a model before contact is fully developed. By default. and the ratio between normal and tangential damping. CONTACT STABILIZATION Input ﬁle for this analysis. subjected to tangential sliding in Step 2. and pulled apart in Step 3. and some restarts are made to test the restart functionality. but it is possible to modify the damping coefﬁcient. The stabilization parameters vary from step to step. The option adds viscous damping in both the normal and tangential directions.CONTACT CONTROLS Results and discussion Contact penetration distances. normal pressures.6. The ﬁrst group of analyses consists of six pairs of blocks that are pushed together in Step 1.21–2 . and pulled apart in Step 3.3. The controls speciﬁed with this option remain in effect until they are either changed by another *CONTACT CONTROLS option or reset to their default values by the *CONTACT CONTROLS. and shear stresses are used to verify the correct behavior deﬁned by the active controls. The second group of analyses consists of three blocks that are pushed together in Step 1. Different contact stabilization parameters are used for each contact pair. and the top and bottom blocks are controlled with boundary conditions. 1. Contact stabilization parameters are speciﬁed for the whole model and are overridden by different parameters for several individual contact pairs. Elements tested C3D8 CPE4 Feature tested *CONTACT CONTROLS. The blocks are elastic.inp II. whereas the middle block is completely free and held in place by contact stabilization. The blocks are elastic. A restart ﬁle is written. subjected to tangential sliding in Step 2. the damping is calculated automatically. the variation of the damping coefﬁcient over the step. Contact stabilization can be deﬁned for a speciﬁc contact pair or for the entire model. This group contains two-dimensional and three-dimensional static analyses as well as a dynamic analysis.” Section 32.

In addition.inp controlsstab_restart1. thus. Natural frequencies 1. Setting this parameter to a value greater than unity results in a larger-than-default penalty stiffness and. with a nonzero friction coefﬁcient in effect. PERTURBATION TANGENT SCALE FACTOR=factor Problem description During linear perturbation steps.inp controlsstab_free_2d.21–3 . Dynamic analysis with two ﬁxed and one free block in three dimensions. stick conditions are not enforced for contact nodes for which a velocity differential is imposed by the motion of the reference frame or the transport velocity.6. The model consists of two blocks of different sizes in contact.. with a “closed” status) are assumed to be sticking if friction is present. TANGENTIAL CONTACT CONTROLS Elements tested C3D20R C3D27R Feature tested *CONTACT CONTROLS. However. setting this parameter to zero will result in zero penalty stiffness.inp controlsstab_dyn. and the PERTURBATION TANGENT SCALE FACTOR parameter can be used to scale the penalty stiffness. For example. in the second group of problems the rigid body motions of the middle block are controlled and no solver messages are observed.inp Static analysis with six pairs of blocks and different control parameters. Restart from the results of the analysis with six pairs of blocks. III. Restart from the results of the ﬁrst restart analysis.CONTACT CONTROLS Results and discussion The results show contact damping pressures CDPRESS as well as contact damping shear stresses CDSHEAR1 and CDSHEAR2 that are in agreement with expectations.inp controlsstab_free_3d. Stick conditions are enforced with a penalty method by default.e.inp controlsstab_restart2. stricter enforcement of stick conditions during the perturbation step. In the ﬁrst and second general steps we establish contact and apply a tangential displacement boundary condition such that the small block slips along the larger block. Static analysis with two ﬁxed and one free block in three dimensions. Input files controlsstab_3d. such that the stick conditions are not enforced during the perturbation step. Static analysis with two ﬁxed and one free block in two dimensions. all points in contact (i.

0 (same as frictionless) Set to 106 Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Friction coefﬁcient Results and discussion 2 × 107 0. as expected.0) Set to 1. consistent with frictionless behavior. Step 5 (step name “Frequency3) has three zero-frequency eigenmodes corresponding to relative sliding between the two blocks.6. Strict enforcement of stick conditions is apparent in the eigenmodes for Step 6 (step name “Frequency4”).3 0. 1.0 (same as default) Set to 0. Input file pertbcntctrl.inp Input ﬁle for this analysis.21–4 .CONTACT CONTROLS are computed in subsequent perturbation steps for the following settings of the PERTURBATION TANGENT SCALE FACTOR parameter on the *CONTACT CONTROLS option: Step Name Frequency1 Frequency2 Frequency3 Frequency4 Material: PERTURBATION TANGENT SCALE FACTOR Not speciﬁed (default setting is 1.2 Steps 3 and 4 (step names “Frequency1” and “Frequency2”) provide identical results.

Three-dimensional problem.22–1 shows the conﬁguration of the point masses at various times. The time increment size is 0.inp Two-dimensional problem.5 s. due to the inﬂuence of gravity.6. 1. The robustness of the global contact tracking algorithm is tested as Abaqus/Explicit must correctly determine throughout the analysis which master segment interacts with each slave node.ANALYTICAL CONTACT SEARCHING 1. which results in very large relative displacements for each point mass during each increment.22–1 .inp glb_cyl_anl.22 CONTACT SEARCHING FOR ANALYTICAL RIGID SURFACES Product: Abaqus/Explicit Element tested MASS Feature tested Contact search for analytical rigid surfaces. Input files glb_seg_anl.6. circular. Results and discussion Figure 1. The contact search successfully determines the correct contact surface interactions throughout the analysis. onto a complex analytical rigid surface. The surface consists of line. Problem description A number of point masses are shot horizontally at various initial speeds and fall. and parabolic segment types and includes several deep valleys to trap the point masses.6.

2.6. 1.6. 11. respectively. and 25 seconds.5.ANALYTICAL CONTACT SEARCHING Figure 1.22–2 .22–1 Conﬁguration of the model after 0. 1. 3.

A deformable surface is deﬁned over the shell body.6. Element-based rigid surfaces can act as slave surfaces with the penalty method. and an originally ﬂat shell. The penalty method is a nondefault alternative to kinematic enforcement of contact constraints.6. An element-based rigid surface deﬁned by R3D4 elements is used to model the rigid sphere. The initial velocity of the shell body causes the sphere to be pinched between the other two bodies. such as between the rigid plate and the rigid sphere in this example. since an element-based approximation to a smooth surface can contribute to noise 1. An analytical rigid surface is used to model the rigid plate. therefore.6. It is generally preferable to use an analytical rigid surface whenever possible. The rigid plate is fully constrained.23 MULTIPLE SURFACE CONTACT WITH PENALTY METHOD Product: Abaqus/Explicit Elements tested S4R R3D4 Features tested Three-dimensional penalty contact. Problem description This example illustrates characteristics of penalty contact. In this example the penalty method is used to enforce contact between three bodies: a rigid plate. the sphere must be modeled with elements. the sphere would have to be weighted as a pure master surface and the sphere nodes would be allowed to penetrate the shell facets. rather than an elementbased rigid surface. It would be preferable to model the sphere as an analytical surface. If kinematic contact were used to model contact between the sphere and the shell. and deformation of the shell eventually leads to contact between the shell and the rigid plate. as a slave surface often will improve contact enforcement for rigid-to-deformable contact because nodes of a pure master surface can penetrate slave facets without generating contact forces. Having a rigid surface act.23–1 . at least partially. analytical surfaces can act as master surfaces only. and it is invoked by specifying MECHANICAL CONSTRAINT=PENALTY on the *CONTACT PAIR option.23–1. and this example requires the sphere to act as a slave surface. This aspect of the penalty method allows contact modeling between rigid surfaces. Contact between each combination of these surfaces is deﬁned with three contact pairs.MULTIPLE SURFACE CONTACT WITH PENALTY METHOD 1. threedimensional shell thickness in contact. This problem tests the features listed but does not provide independent veriﬁcation of the response. since the element-based surface is a non-smooth approximation to the shape. unlike with the kinematic contact method. However. In this example balanced master-slave weighting is used for contact between the rigid sphere and the shell. The rigid sphere is initially motionless. a rigid sphere. accounting for penalty stiffness in the stable time increment. The initial conﬁguration is shown in Figure 1.

History plots of the displacement of the rigid sphere for the two analyses are shown in Figure 1. Displacement of the rigid sphere exceeding 2.23–2.6. Hence. which can inﬂuence the stable time increment. but this mass is signiﬁcant with respect to numerical stability considerations.23–5. but “pinching” of the sphere between the other two surfaces causes the penetration to be moderately signiﬁcant in this example.23–2 . The frequency of this oscillation is much higher for the analysis with the lighter sphere. SCALE PENALTY=10. The stable time increment is affected by penalty contact only while the surfaces are in contact. The mass of the rigid sphere does not inﬂuence the deformation of the shell signiﬁcantly.6.6. The maximum penalty stiffness allowed for numerical stability is directly proportional to the contact mass and has a complex inverse dependence on the time increment.23–3 and Figure 1.23–6.0 has been speciﬁed for contact pairs involving the rigid sphere in the analysis with the lighter sphere. this type of sliding is not signiﬁcant in this problem. a displacement exceeding 2. Two sphere masses are considered for this example: 10−2 and 10−4 . If the default penalty stiffnesses had been used for the analysis with the lighter sphere.MULTIPLE SURFACE CONTACT WITH PENALTY METHOD in a solution if slave nodes from other surfaces slide across the element facets. The SCALE PENALTY parameter on the *CONTACT CONTROLS option can be used to modify the penalty stiffnesses by scaling the default values. In most analyses the contact penetrations will not be signiﬁcant with the default penalty stiffnesses.6. Contour plots of the vertical displacement of the shell for the two analyses are shown in Figure 1. This type of rebound would not occur if kinematic contact were used. The ﬁnal shell conﬁguration is nearly the same in the two models.6. Results and discussion The deformed conﬁguration for the ﬁrst analysis is shown in Figure 1. The penetration of the element-based sphere into the plate is plotted in Figure 1. By default.6.6. History plots of the time increment for the two analyses are shown in Figure 1. The ELEMENT BY ELEMENT parameter has been speciﬁed on the *DYNAMIC option to demonstrate the effect of penalty contact on the stable time increment of the elements. Penetrations in a given problem can be reduced by increasing the SCALE PENALTY parameter at a cost of decreasing the stable time increment. The contact mass corresponds approximately to the mass of the lighter rigid body or node of a deformable body involved in a contact constraint. because shell nodes have rebounded after hitting the rigid plate. since kinematic contact assumes “perfect plastic” impact. For the analysis that uses 1. viscous contact damping is activated for penalty contact. These plots demonstrate that energy stored in penalty contact is recoverable.38 × 10−3 corresponds to penetration of the element-based rigid sphere into the rigid plate. so we can expect that penalty contact will have a greater inﬂuence on the time incrementation in that analysis. the default penalty stiffness will tend to decrease as the contact mass decreases. The penalty stiffnesses that are chosen by default to enforce contact between rigid bodies do not inﬂuence the time increment. Default penalty stiffnesses for contact involving one or two deformable surfaces are chosen to have a small effect (about 4% at most) on the element-by-element stable time increment for parent elements along the surface. so a small amount of the energy stored in the penalty contact constraints is dissipated. For a smooth sphere of radius 10−2 . However. The rigid sphere bounces back and forth between the other surfaces. The penetration is on the same order of magnitude for the two analyses.0 × 10−3 would correspond to penetration.23–7. the penetrations would have been an order of magnitude larger.23–4.

0 speciﬁed.inp multi1_gcont.inp multi_kin_gcont.inp multi3_gcont.inp multi4_gcont. External ﬁle containing the node data for these analyses. General contact analysis with the sphere mass equal to 10−2 and the time increment based on the global estimate. and the number of increments for the analysis is nearly twice that of the analysis with the heavier sphere. In this case the time increment is cut by nearly a third in many increments in which the surfaces are in contact.inp sphere_e.23–3 .inp multpenaltycont4. Analysis with the sphere mass equal to 10−4 and the time increment based on the global estimate. the time increment reductions associated with contact are more signiﬁcant. Analysis testing both general contact and kinematic contact pairs.inp sphere_n. For the analysis with SCALE PENALTY=10. 1. General contact analysis with the sphere mass equal to 10−2 and the time increment based on the element-byelement estimate. The effect of the SCALE PENALTY parameter on the time increment is somewhat less signiﬁcant for contact between deformable surfaces.MULTIPLE SURFACE CONTACT WITH PENALTY METHOD the default penalty stiffnesses.inp Analysis with the sphere mass equal to 10−2 and the time increment based on the element-by-element estimate. Analysis with the sphere mass equal to 10−2 and the time increment based on the global estimate. When the SCALE PENALTY parameter applies to contact pairs involving rigid surfaces. as expected. General contact analysis with the sphere mass equal to 10−4 and the time increment based on the element-byelement estimate.6. the time increment dips by about 4% for increments in which the shell surface contacts either or both rigid surfaces.inp multi2_gcont. General contact analysis with the sphere mass equal to 10−4 and the time increment based on the global estimate. Analysis with the sphere mass equal to 10−4 and the time increment based on the element-by-element estimate.inp multpenaltycont2. the time increment is reduced by roughly the square root of the SCALE PENALTY value during increments in which contact occurs.inp multpenaltycont3. Input files multpenaltycont1. External ﬁle containing the element data for these analyses.inp multpnltykincont. Analysis testing both penalty and kinematic contact pairs.

MULTIPLE SURFACE CONTACT WITH PENALTY METHOD Rigid Plate Rigid Sphere Deformable Shell 3 1 2 Figure 1.6.23–4 . 1.6.6.23–2 Final conﬁguration.23–1 Initial conﬁguration. 3 1 2 Figure 1.

49E-02 +1.91E-02 +2.23E-03 +1.39E-03 +7.29E-03 +1.06E-02 +2.69E-03 +5.05E-02 +2.23–3 Deformed conﬁguration of shell for analysis with larger sphere mass.21E-02 +1.63E-02 +1.6.89E-03 +9. 1.20E-02 3 1 2 Figure 1.23–4 Deformed conﬁguration of shell for analysis with smaller sphere mass.77E-02 +1.23–5 .92E-02 +2.07E-02 +1.63E-02 +1.81E-03 +9.77E-02 +1.06E-02 +1.09E-03 +6.MULTIPLE SURFACE CONTACT WITH PENALTY METHOD U3 VALUE +3.55E-03 +4.35E-02 +1. U3 VALUE +3.21E-02 +1.49E-02 +1.19E-02 3 1 2 Figure 1.6.6.49E-03 +7.97E-03 +6.35E-02 +1.

5 0.15 PENET_M1_599991 PENET_M2_599991 PENETRATION XMIN 0.0 DISPLACEMENT .10 0.U3 XMIN XMAX YMIN YMAX 0.10 0.20 0.000E-04 0.000E-04 YMIN -2. [ x10 -3 ] 0.6.380E-03 YMAX 1.23–6 Penetration distance of sphere into rigid plate versus time.15 TOTAL TIME 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.6. 1.5 [ x10 -3 ] U3_M1_599991 U3_M2_599991 2.05 0.00 0.30 [ x10 -3 ] Figure 1.23–5 Sphere displacement versus time.MULTIPLE SURFACE CONTACT WITH PENALTY METHOD 2.5 1.555E-03 1.20 0.30 [ x10 -3 ] Figure 1.15 TOTAL TIME 0.6.0 0.745E-04 0.000E+00 XMAX 3.10 0.000E+00 3.05 0.23–6 .05 0.000E+00 2.0 0.25 0.

0 0.002E-07 6.3 0.23–7 History of the time increment magnitude.5 0.30 [ x10 -3 ] Figure 1.1 0.05 0.DT XMIN XMAX YMIN YMAX 0.2 0.25 0.15 TOTAL TIME 0.321E-07 0.00 0. 1.10 0.6 [ x10 -6 ] DT_M1 DT_M2 0.6.4 .000E+00 3.MULTIPLE SURFACE CONTACT WITH PENALTY METHOD 0.000E-04 2.6.23–7 .20 0.

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1. Material: The following elastic properties are used: Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio 3 × 106 0. The base block consists of 300 C3D10M elements for the ﬁrst mesh and 60 C3D8 elements for the second mesh. In addition. element. and the dimension of each slider block is 1 × 1 × 1. The slider blocks are moved independently by prescribing a velocity in the subsequent steps. A total of 18 contact elements are generated by Abaqus.6. element to deﬁne the base block. Mesh: Two meshes are deﬁned.6. The dimension of the base block is 10 × 6 × 1.24 AUTOMATED CONTACT PATCH ALGORITHM FOR FINITE-SLIDING DEFORMABLE SURFACES Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested C3D8 C3D10M SC8R Feature tested The automatic contact patch and element reordering algorithm. C3D10M.6. The ﬁrst mesh uses the 10-node modiﬁed tetrahedron. A uniform pressure of 100 and 200 is applied to the slider blocks in the second step. element stresses in the slider blocks.CONTACT PATCH ALGORITHM 1. The slider block consists of four C3D8R elements. C3D8. Problem description These tests exercise the automatic contact patch and element reordering algorithm used to minimize the wavefront for three-dimensional deformable-to-deformable ﬁnite-sliding simulations. The master surface is deﬁned on the top of the base block. Model: The model consists of a base block and two slider blocks resting on the base block. The model is illustrated in Figure 1.0 Boundary conditions: The base block is fully restrained on the bottom. Contact is established in the ﬁrst step by placing the slider blocks onto the base block with a prescribed boundary condition. and nodal displacements are veriﬁed. and the second mesh uses the 8-node solid. Results and discussion Contact stresses. and the slave surface is deﬁned on the bottom of each slider block.24–1 .24–1. restart and post analysis jobs exist to verify that the correct analysis databases are accessed.

*POST OUTPUT ﬁle for contactpatch_c3d8.inp. Restart ﬁle for contactpatch_c3d8.inp contactpatch_c3d8_postoutput.inp contactpatch_sc8r_postoutput. *POST OUTPUT ﬁle for contactpatch_c3d10m.6. 2 3 1 Figure 1.24–2 .CONTACT PATCH ALGORITHM Input files contactpatch_c3d10m.inp.24–1 Model using the 10-node modiﬁed tetrahedral elements.inp contactpatch_sc8r_restart. C3D8 element test.6.inp.inp.inp contactpatch_c3d10m_restart.inp contactpatch_c3d8.inp.inp.inp contactpatch_c3d10m_surf.inp contactpatch_sc8r.inp C3D10M element test. *POST OUTPUT ﬁle for contactpatch_sc8r. Restart ﬁle for contactpatch_c3d10m.inp contactpatch_c3d8_restart. C3D10M element test using surface-to-surface contact. SC8R element test.inp contactpatch_c3d10m_postoutput. 1. Restart ﬁle for contactpatch_sc8r.

inp slide-shells_surf.25 SURFACE-TO-SURFACE APPROACH FOR FINITE-SLIDING CONTACT Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested C3D4 C3D8 CPE4H S4R B31 C3D8R Feature tested CPE8H GK3D6 S4R5 CGAX3T STRI65 Surface-to-surface contact with ﬁnite sliding. STRI65 elements modeling a slider with surface-tosurface contact.inp CPE4H elements modeling a slider with surface-tosurface contact. GK3D6 elements contacting a slider using surface-tosurface contact.6.inp Beam with B31 elements sliding on a shell surface with S4R elements modeled using surface-to-surface contact.inp slider_cpe8h_mpc_surf.SURFACE-TO-SURFACE FINITE-SLIDING CONTACT 1.inp edg1s4r5_surf.6. Input files Slider example: slider_cpe4h_surf. The tests also illustrate examples in which different facet types are involved for master and slave surfaces. 1. Examples for facet type of the master surface different from the slave: beam-shell_surf.25–1 . CPE8H elements modeling a slider with surface-tosurface contact. Results and discussion These results illustrate the accuracy and the robustness of the surface-to-surface formulation for ﬁnitesliding contact. The tests utilize different surface behavior and surface interactions with the surface-to-surface approach for modeling ﬁnite-sliding contact. S4R5 elements modeling a slider with surface-to-surface contact. Problem description This section deals with ﬁnite-sliding surface-to-surface contact involving stress/displacement elements.inp gasket_surf.

1.inp S4R slider in contact with C3D8R element-based surface modeled using surface-to-surface contact. C3D8 elements using surface-to-surface contact and the unsymmetric solver to handle additional compression. C3D4 elements using surface-to-surface contact and the unsymmetric solver to handle additional compression.inp block_c3d8_b_surf.inp block_c3d4_b_surf.SURFACE-TO-SURFACE FINITE-SLIDING CONTACT slide-shell-on-solid_surf.inp block_c3d8_b_surf_ntrack. Examples using the “path-based” tracking algorithm: rollcyl_test. Compressing and twisting one three-dimensional block on another: block_c3d4_a_surf.inp block_c3d8_a_surf.6. Compressed and twisted blocks. C3D8 elements using surface-to-surface contact.25–2 .inp C3D4 elements using surface-to-surface contact.inp Paper rolling model using double-sided shell and discrete rigid surfaces.

Push down of an inner cone piece against an outer cone piece.inp surfsmooth_rings_sslide. 1.6. which helps to improve contact stress accuracy.26 SURFACE SMOOTHING FOR SURFACE-TO-SURFACE CONTACT Product: Abaqus/Standard Feature tested Surface smoothing technique for surface-to-surface contact. Shrink ﬁt of two concentric rings.SURFACE SMOOTHING FOR SURFACE-TO-SURFACE CONTACT 1. ﬁnite-sliding. ﬁnite-sliding. Results and discussion These results show signiﬁcant accuracy improvement for models subject to relatively small deformation compared to equivalent analyses without the surface smoothing technique.inp surfsmooth_spheres. Shrink ﬁt of two concentric rings.inp Shrink ﬁt of two concentric rings. Shrink ﬁt of two concentric spheres. ﬁnite-sliding.inp surfsmooth_cone. small-sliding.inp surfsmooth_rings_3d. two-dimensional. two-dimensional. three-dimensional. small-sliding. Problem description Examples are given to verify the behavior of the surface smoothing technique.26–1 . three-dimensional. Shrink ﬁt of two concentric rings. Input files surfsmooth_rings.inp surfsmooth_rings_sslide3d.6. three-dimensional. The method applies to both ﬁnite-sliding and small-sliding surface-to-surface contact.

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inp gcontact_shell_op_ss5.inp gcontact_shell_op_ssSPOS8.GENERAL CONTACT IN Abaqus/Standard 1.inp gcontact_shell_op_ssSPOS7. 1.inp gcontact_shell_op2. Shells with S4R and S3 elements with initial overclosure: default behavior. Results and discussion These results illustrate the accuracy of the general contact formulation in Abaqus/Standard.inp Shells with S4R and S3 elements with initial opening: default behavior. Problem description This section deals with the general contact capability in Abaqus/Standard.27 GENERAL CONTACT IN Abaqus/Standard Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested S3 S4R C3D4 C3D8 C3D8R CAX4R CPE4H CPE8H GK3D6 Feature tested General contact formulation in Abaqus/Standard.27–1 . Shells with S4R and S3 elements with initial opening and single-sided surfaces 2 and 4 (SPOS). Shells with S4R and S3 elements with initial opening and single-sided surfaces SPOS (all surfaces). surface-to-surface contact formulation.6. which uses the ﬁnite-sliding.inp gcontact_shell_op_ss4.6. These examples utilize different type of elements and test different features used in general contact.inp gcontact_shell_op_ssSPOS6.inp gcontact_shell_op3. Input files Examples for contact initialization assignment: gcontact_shell_op1. Shells with S4R and S3 elements with initial opening and single-sided surface: resolve opening. Shells with S4R and S3 elements with initial opening: remain open. Shells with S4R and S3 elements with initial opening: resolve opening. Shells with S4R and S3 elements with initial opening and single-sided surface: remain open. Shells with S4R and S3 elements with initial opening and single-sided surfaces 1 and 6 (SPOS).inp gcontact_shell_ov9.

Shrink ﬁt of two concentric spheres. GK3D6 elements contacting a slider using general contact Paper rolling model using general contact formulation. three-dimensional. C3D8R elements with initial overclosure: default behavior. Examples of surface smoothing technique for general contact: surfsmooth_rings_gcont. Shrink ﬁt of two concentric rings.inp slider_cpe4h_gcont. C3D8R elements with initial overclosure: resolve overclosure.inp rollcyl_test_gcont.inp gcontact_solid_op17. C3D8R elements with initial opening and single-sided surface: resolve opening. C3D8 elements using general contact and the unsymmetric solver to handle additional compression.inp Miscellaneous: block_c3d4_b_std_gcont.inp surfsmooth_spheres_gcont.inp gcontact_solid_ov21. Cross shells with S4R elements: default behavior.inp gcontact_cross-shell_ss13. Three-dimensional analysis using general contact formulation containing a gasket modeled with gasket elements. CPE8H elements modeling a slider with general contact. two-dimensional. Shrink ﬁt of two concentric rings. CPE4H elements modeling a slider with general contact.6.inp Shells with S4R and S3 elements with initial overclosure: retain overclosure.27–2 .inp boltpipeﬂange_3d_gk3d18_gcont.inp gcontact_solid_ov20.inp surfsmooth_rings_3d_gcont.inp 1. C3D8R elements with initial opening: resolve opening.inp slider_cpe8h_mpc_gcont. Cross shells with S4R elements: single-sided surface. Shells with S4R and S3 elements with initial overclosure: resolve overclosure. Balanced master-slave formulation with general contact for the spherical indentation problem.inp surfsmooth_cone_gcont.inp gcontact_solid_op15. C3D8R elements with initial opening: default behavior. Push down of an inner cone piece against an outer cone piece.inp gcontact_solid_op18. C3D8R elements with initial opening: remain open.GENERAL CONTACT IN Abaqus/Standard gcontact_shell_ov10.inp gcontact_solid_op16.inp gcontact_cross-shell_def12.inp C3D4 elements using general contact and the unsymmetric solver to handle additional compression. C3D8R elements with initial overclosure: retain overclosure.inp block_c3d8_b_gcont.inp sphere_ﬁnite_std_gcont_balanc.inp gcontact_shell_ov11. C3D8R elements with initial opening and single-sided surface: remain open.inp gcontact_solid_op14.inp gcontact_solid_ov19. gasket_surf_gcont.

inp sphere_ﬁnite_std_gcont_adj2.27–3 .inp Initial contact openings with strain-free adjustments for the spherical indentation problem.6. Initial contact overclosures with strain-free adjustments for the spherical indentation problem.GENERAL CONTACT IN Abaqus/Standard sphere_ﬁnite_std_gcont_adj1. 1.

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4 “Friction models in Abaqus/Explicit.7 Interface tests • • • • • • “Thermal surface interaction.” Section 1.1 “Coupling of acoustic and structural elements.” Section 1.” Section 1.5 “Cohesive surface interaction.7.7.7.3 “Friction models in Abaqus/Standard.” Section 1.” Section 1.6 1.2 “Coupled thermal-electrical surface interaction.INTERFACE TESTS 1.7.7.7–1 .7.” Section 1.

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0 Conductivity in solid Gap conductance Radiation constants of surfaces Absolute zero 1. In Abaqus/Explicit the steady-state result is obtained by performing a long-term transient simulation.1%) from the analytical results due to the severe nonlinearity of the radiation problem. The steady-state temperature at the surface near the heat source is used to verify the numerical solutions. the reaction ﬂuxes for radiation problems show slight differences (0.1 THERMAL SURFACE INTERACTION Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit DC1D2 DC2D4 DC2D8 DC3D8 DC3D20 DCAX4 DCAX8 DS3 DS4 DS6 DS8 DSAX1 DSAX2 CAX3T CAX4RT CPE3T CPE4RT CPS3T CPS4RT C3D4T C3D6T C3D8RT SC8RT SC6RT Features tested *CONTACT PAIR *GAP RADIATION *GAP CONDUCTANCE Problem description A solid material is placed near a heat source whose temperature stays constant. isothermal discrete rigid elements. Model: Element size Inner radius of axisymmetric solids Material: 1 unit in each direction 10. Both kinematic and penalty mechanical contact are considered.7.THERMAL SURFACE INTERACTION 1. We initiate unidirectional heat ﬂow by applying a constant temperature that is higher than that of the heat source itself to the solid surface away from the heat source.1–1 . or an isothermal analytical rigid surface.0 1.0 10.0 5 × 10−10 −460.7. The constant temperature heat source is modeled three different ways: with either deformable elements. Heat transfer across the gap between the solid surface and the heat source can take place via gap conductance or gap radiation (thus. Using the default convergence tolerances in Abaqus/Standard. there are two tests for each element type).

inp ei23discc.inp ei34disrc.inp ei22disrc. DS3 elements.1–2 .inp Gap radiation tests: eiu1dgcrc. DCAX4 elements. DS8 elements.inp eia3disrs. DSAX1 elements.7. DCAX8 elements. 1.inp eia2discc.inp ei22discc. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files Gap conductance tests: eiu1dgccc. DCAX4 elements.inp ei23disrc.inp DC1D2. DC3D8 elements.inp eia2disrc.inp eia3discs. Results and discussion The steady-state temperatures agree with the analytical. DSAX2 elements. DS4 elements.inp ei38disrc.inp ei34disrs.inp ei34discc. DC3D8 elements. DS3 elements.inp ei33discs. DC2D8 elements.inp ei36discs.inp eia3disrc.inp ei34discs. DC3D20 elements.THERMAL SURFACE INTERACTION In Abaqus/Explicit dummy mechanical and capacitance properties are speciﬁed to complete the material deﬁnition. DSAX1 elements. DC3D20 elements.inp ei38discc. DS6 elements.inp ei38discs.inp ei38disrs. DS6 elements.inp eia2discs. DGAP elements. DSAX2 elements. DC1D2. DS4 elements. DS8 elements.inp ei33disrs. DGAP elements. DC2D8 elements.inp ei36disrs. DC2D4 elements. DC2D4 elements.inp eia3discc. one-dimensional heat transfer results.inp eia2disrs. DCAX8 elements.

inp gapheattrans_c_x_df_c3d4t. Solid and heat source modeled with CAX4RT elements. Solid and heat source modeled with C3D8RT elements. constant temperature heat source modeled with R3D3 elements.inp gapheattrans_c_x_dr_c3d4t. deformable-deformable with penalty mechanical contact: Gap conductance tests.inp gapheattrans_c_x_dr_cps4rt. constant temperature heat source modeled with R3D4 elements. Solid and heat source modeled with C3D6T elements.inp gapheattrans_c_x_df_cps3t. Solid and heat source modeled with CPS3T elements.inp Solid and heat source modeled with CAX3T elements. Solid modeled with SC8RT elements. Solid and heat source modeled with C3D8RT elements.inp gapheattrans_c_xp_df_cpe4rt. constant temperature heat source modeled with R3D4 elements.inp gapheattrans_c_x_df_cpe3t. discrete rigid-deformable with penalty mechanical contact: gapheattrans_c_xp_dr_cax4rt. constant temperature heat source modeled with RAX2 elements.inp gapheattrans_c_x_df_cps4rt. Solid and heat source modeled with SC8RT elements.inp gapheattrans_c_xp_df_cax4rt. constant temperature heat source modeled with R3D4 elements.inp 1.inp gapheattrans_c_x_df_c3d6t.7.inp gapheattrans_c_x_df_sc8rt. Solid modeled with SC8RT elements. constant temperature heat source modeled with R3D4 elements.inp gapheattrans_c_xp_df_c3d8rt. constant temperature heat source modeled with R2D2 elements. Solid modeled with C3D8RT elements.inp gapheattrans_c_xp_dr_c3d8rt. Solid modeled with CPS4RT elements. Solid and heat source modeled with CPE3T elements. Gap conductance tests. constant temperature heat source modeled with R2D2 elements.inp gapheattrans_c_xp_dr_cps4rt.inp gapheattrans_c_x_dr_cax4rt. Solid modeled with C3D4T elements. Solid modeled with CAX4RT elements. Solid and heat source modeled with CAX4RT elements. discrete rigid-deformable with kinematic mechanical contact: Gap conductance tests. deformable-deformable with kinematic mechanical contact: gapheattrans_c_x_df_cax3t.THERMAL SURFACE INTERACTION Abaqus/Explicit input files Gap conductance tests. constant temperature heat source modeled with RAX2 elements.inp gapheattrans_c_x_dr_sc8rt.1–3 .inp gapheattrans_c_x_df_c3d8rt. Solid and heat source modeled with C3D4T elements.inp gapheattrans_c_xp_dr_sc8rt.inp gapheattrans_c_xp_df_sc8rt. constant temperature heat source modeled with R2D2 elements. Solid and heat source modeled with CPS4RT elements. Solid modeled with CPS4RT elements. Solid and heat source modeled with CPE4RT elements. Solid and heat source modeled with SC8RT elements.inp gapheattrans_c_x_df_cpe4rt. Solid modeled with CAX4RT elements.inp gapheattrans_c_x_dr_c3d8rt.inp gapheattrans_c_x_dr_cpe3t. Solid and heat source modeled with CPE4RT elements.inp gapheattrans_c_x_df_cax4rt. Solid modeled with C3D8RT elements. Solid modeled with CPE3T elements.

Solid modeled with C3D4T elements.inp Solid and heat source modeled with CAX3T elements. analytical rigid-deformable with penalty mechanical contact: gapheattrans_c_xp_ar_cax4rt.inp gapheattrans_r_x_df_cpe3t.inp Solid and heat source modeled with CAX3T elements. gapheattrans_c_xp_ar_cpe3t.inp Solid modeled with CAX4RT elements.inp gapheattrans_r_x_df_sc8rt. Solid and heat source modeled with C3D6T elements. constant temperature heat source modeled with an analytical rigid surface. Solid and heat source modeled with CAX4RT elements.inp gapheattrans_r_x_df_cax4rt.1–4 . Solid and heat source modeled with CPS4RT elements.THERMAL SURFACE INTERACTION Gap conductance tests. temperature heat source modeled with an rigid surface.inp Gap radiation tests.inp gapheattrans_c_x_ar_c3d4t. 1. temperature heat source modeled with an rigid surface. Solid and heat source modeled with CPS3T elements. Solid and heat source modeled with CPE3T elements.inp gapheattrans_r_x_df_c3d6t. Solid and heat source modeled with SC8RT elements. temperature heat source modeled with an rigid surface. constant analytical constant analytical constant analytical constant analytical gapheattrans_c_x_ar_cpe3t. deformable-deformable with kinematic mechanical contact: gapheattrans_r_x_df_cax3t.inp gapheattrans_r_x_df_c3d8rt. Solid modeled with CPE3T elements. Solid and heat source modeled with CPE4RT elements.inp gapheattrans_r_xp_df_c3d4t.inp gapheattrans_r_x_df_cpe4rt.inp gapheattrans_r_xp_df_cpe3t.inp gapheattrans_r_x_df_cps4rt.inp gapheattrans_r_x_df_c3d4t. constant temperature heat source modeled with an analytical rigid surface.inp gapheattrans_r_x_df_cps3t. Solid and heat source modeled with CPE3T elements.7. Solid modeled with CPS4RT elements. Solid modeled with CPE3T elements. Solid and heat source modeled with C3D8RT elements. analytical rigid-deformable with kinematic mechanical contact: gapheattrans_c_x_ar_cax4rt. Solid and heat source modeled with C3D4T elements.inp Gap conductance tests. Solid modeled with C3D4T elements.inp gapheattrans_c_xp_ar_c3d4t.inp Solid modeled with CAX4RT elements. constant temperature heat source modeled with an analytical rigid surface. temperature heat source modeled with an rigid surface. Gap radiation tests. Solid and heat source modeled with C3D4T elements.inp gapheattrans_c_x_ar_cps4rt. deformable-deformable with penalty mechanical contact: gapheattrans_r_xp_df_cax3t.

constant temperature heat source with an analytical rigid surface. constant temperature heat source modeled with an analytical rigid surface. gapheattrans_r_x_ar_cps3t.1–5 . constant temperature heat source modeled with R3D4 elements.inp gapheattrans_r_x_ar_cpe4rt. Solid modeled with SC6RT elements.inp gapheattrans_r_x_dr_cps3t. Solid modeled with CPE4RT elements. constant temperature heat source modeled with RAX2 elements.THERMAL SURFACE INTERACTION Gap radiation tests. constant temperature heat source modeled with an analytical rigid surface. Gap radiation tests. 1.inp Solid modeled with CAX3T elements.inp Solid modeled with CAX3T elements.inp gapheattrans_r_x_ar_c3d6t. discrete rigid-deformable with kinematic mechanical contact: gapheattrans_r_x_dr_cax3t. constant temperature heat source modeled with RAX2 elements. constant temperature heat source with an analytical rigid surface. Solid modeled with CPS3T elements. analytical rigid-deformable with penalty mechanical contact: gapheattrans_r_xp_ar_cax3t. Gap radiation tests. constant temperature heat source modeled with R2D2 elements. constant temperature heat source modeled with an analytical rigid surface.inp gapheattrans_r_xp_dr_cps3t.inp Solid modeled with CAX3T elements. constant temperature heat source modeled with R2D2 elements.inp Gap radiation tests.inp gapheattrans_r_x_dr_cpe4rt.inp gapheattrans_r_x_ar_sc6rt. Solid modeled with CPS3T elements. discrete rigid-deformable with penalty mechanical contact: gapheattrans_r_xp_dr_cax3t.inp Solid modeled with CAX3T elements. constant temperature heat source modeled with R2D2 elements. constant temperature heat source modeled with R3D4 elements. Solid modeled with CPE4RT elements. Solid modeled with C3D8RT elements. constant temperature heat source modeled with an analytical rigid surface.inp gapheattrans_r_xp_dr_c3d6t. analytical rigid-deformable with kinematic mechanical contact: gapheattrans_r_x_ar_cax3t. Solid modeled with C3D6T elements.inp gapheattrans_r_x_dr_c3d6t. Solid modeled with C3D6T elements. Solid modeled with CPS3T elements. constant temperature heat source modeled with an analytical rigid surface. Solid modeled with C3D6T elements.inp gapheattrans_r_x_ar_c3d8rt.7.

constant temperature heat source modeled with an analytical rigid surface.inp Solid modeled with CPE4RT elements. constant temperature heat source modeled with an analytical rigid surface. Solid modeled with C3D8RT elements.1–6 .inp gapheattrans_r_xp_ar_c3d8rt.THERMAL SURFACE INTERACTION gapheattrans_r_xp_ar_cpe4rt. 1.7.

0 Acoustic element size Three-dimensional acoustic element model: 11. thus representing a free surface.0 × 20.0 20. A dynamic analysis is performed during which a sinusoidal acceleration is applied to the base of the ﬂuid column via the interface element. 1.7. The pressure distribution throughout the ﬂuid column is determined after one unit of dynamic time has elapsed. The base of the column is connected to structural degrees of freedom via an acoustic-structural interface element.7. Material: Bulk modulus Density 2 × 109 1000.0 × 20.0 at node 1 is the same for all tests.0 Acoustic link element model: Link length Link area Two-dimensional acoustic element model: 20.2–1 . ﬁve high and one in the cross-section.0 Acoustic element dimensions Results and discussion 20.0 Acoustic element size Element thickness Axisymmetric acoustic element model: 20.28379 × 20.0 × 20.2 COUPLING OF ACOUSTIC AND STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested ASI1 ASI2 ASI2A ASI3 ASI3A ASI4 ASI8 Problem description The model consists of a column of ﬂuid 100 units high with a cross-sectional area of 400.ACOUSTIC-STRUCTURAL COUPLING 1.0 400. The ﬂuid column is modeled with ﬁve acoustic elements. The top of the column has a zero pressure boundary condition applied.

inp ei23aca2. ASI1.2–2 .inp eia2aca1. ASI3. 1. AC3D20 elements.inp ei34aca1. ASI2A. ASI8. AC2D4 elements.inp eia3aca2. ACAX8 elements. ACAX4 elements.inp ei22aca1. ASI3A.inp ei11aca2.inp ei38aca2. ASI4. AC2D8 elements. AC1D2 elements.7. ASI2. AC3D8 elements.inp ASI1. AC1D3 elements.ACOUSTIC-STRUCTURAL COUPLING Input files ei11aca1.

7.0 0.7.0 10.5 5 × 10−10 0.3 COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRICAL SURFACE INTERACTION Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested DC2D4E DC2D8E DC3D8E DC3D20E DCAX4E DCAX8E Features tested *CONTACT PAIR *GAP RADIATION *GAP CONDUCTANCE *GAP ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE *GAP HEAT GENERATION Problem description A solid material is placed near a heat source whose temperature and electrical potential remain constant. Electrical current is conducted between the two closely adjacent surfaces forming the gap. No Joule heating occurs in the model as a result of electrical conduction. there are two tests for each element type).0 10.0 Thermal conductivity in solid Electrical conductivity in solid Gap thermal conductance Gap electrical conductance Gap heat generation Radiation constants of surfaces Joule heat fraction 1. Half of the electrical energy resulting from this conductance is released as heat and is distributed equally to the two adjacent surfaces. therefore. Heat transfer across the gap between the solid body and the heat source can take place via gap conductance or gap radiation (thus.0 1.3–1 . For simplicity we initiate a unidirectional heat ﬂow and current in the solid by applying a higher temperature and electrical potential to the face farthest from the heat source. The steady-state temperatures and electrical potentials of the solid face closest to the heat source are veriﬁed with the analytical solution.0 1. Model: Element size Inner radius of axisymmetric solids Material: 1 unit in each direction 10. electrical energy does not act as an internal heat source within the continuum elements.THERMAL-ELECTRICAL SURFACE INTERACTION 1.

THERMAL-ELECTRICAL SURFACE INTERACTION Results and discussion The steady-state temperatures and electrical potentials agree with the analytical.inp ei34vsjr.inp eia2vsjc. DC3D8E elements. DC2D8E elements. one-dimensional coupled thermal-electrical results.inp ei23vsjr. DC3D20E elements.inp ei34vsjc.inp ei38vsjr.inp ei38vsjc. DCAX8E elements. DCAX4E elements.inp DC2D4E elements.inp Gap radiation tests: ei22vsjr.3–2 . DCAX8E elements. DCAX4E elements.inp eia3vsjc. DC3D20E elements. DC2D8E elements.inp eia3vsjr.inp eia2vsjr.inp ei23vsjc. Input files Gap conductance tests: ei22vsjc. DC2D4E elements. 1. DC3D8E elements.7.

The temperature of the slave node is speciﬁed as 20° and that of the rigid surface.4 FRICTION MODELS IN Abaqus/Standard Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested B21 B31 Features tested *FRICTION *CHANGE FRICTION Problem description The model consists of two rods perpendicular to a ﬁxed rigid surface forced into contact with the rigid surface by a concentrated load applied in the axial direction at the top of each rod. In Step 3 the normal force is increased to 400. shear forces are applied.4–1 . In Step 5 the friction model for rod 1 is modiﬁed. to verify the “stick” condition. such that .5 Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Coulomb friction model 30 × 106 0. and a shear force is applied to the ﬁrst rod such that and the rod remains sticking. hence. The shear forces are removed in Step 6. TYPE=NODE option and has a contact area of unity. Model: Average length of all contact elements Material: 0. as 0°.Abaqus/Standard FRICTION MODELS 1. The contact between the bottom end of the rod and the rigid surface is modeled by specifying a master-slave contact pair.7. During the analysis the friction models are modiﬁed with the *CHANGE FRICTION option.7. the average surface temperature is 10° when contact is established.3 The ﬁrst two steps of the analysis establish contact between each rod and the rigid surface and set up an equilibrium solution in which each beam element is compressed by a force of 300. The bottom end of the rod constitutes the slave surface created with the *SURFACE. In Step 7 the original friction model is speciﬁed with the RESET parameter on 1. The shear force is removed in Step 4. and a shear force is applied such that and the rod still remains sticking. Each rod has its separate surface interaction created with the *SURFACE INTERACTION option and the *FRICTION option. Subsequently. therefore. Afterward. The normal force is increased to 550. prescribed displacements are applied to the rods to force them to slide around the surface. the normal force applied on the rod is equal to the contact pressure.

0. The pressure on rod 1 is increased to 850. Step 8 0. In Step 3 a shear force is applied to rod 1 such that and the rod remains sticking. In Step 7 the original friction model is speciﬁed with the RESET parameter on the *CHANGE FRICTION option.002 + 3. In Step 9 a slip is applied to rod 2 in which the slip rate is varied by prescribing the displacement with an amplitude curve during the static step. where 0. 0. 2.4–2 .5 × 10−4 ( − 100). Step 8 for for 0. Surface interaction for rod 1: Step 1 0.7.0 and 0.5 × 10−4 ( − 500) for 500 Step 7 900.0 for the elastic slip formulation. The ﬁrst two steps of the analysis establish contact between each rod and the rigid surface and set up an equilibrium solution in which each beam element is compressed by a force of 300.005 + 2. 2. The shear forces are removed in Step 6.3 × 10−4 ( − 100).3 × 10−4 for 100 500. and a slip is applied.0 for 0 2. The shear force is removed in Step 4.0.2 and 0. A shear force is applied such that and the rod remains sticking. Rough friction model for the Lagrange multiplier formulation.4 and Exponential decay model 0. (Anisotropic model only for case with 2 slip directions. In Step 5 the friction model for rod 1 is modiﬁed by providing test data.) Step 5 0. Rough friction model for the Lagrange multiplier formulation.0 for the elastic slip formulation. Surface interaction for rod 2: Step 1 0.1650 + 0.0 for 100. A slip is applied to rod 1.002 + 5. Same as speciﬁed in Step 1. The pressure is kept constant throughout the analysis. In Step 8 a slip velocity–dependent friction model is introduced for rod 2. In Step 8 a new 1.2 for 500. 0.Abaqus/Standard FRICTION MODELS the *CHANGE FRICTION option.005 + 3.0.

0. Step 8 Test data input: 0. Surface interaction for rod 1: Step 1 0. Step 5 Test data input: 0. 0. 4. Lagrange multiplier formulation. 1. 0. Step 8 0. 1 slip direction. Surface interaction for rod 2: Step 1 0. 0.inp Elastic slip formulation.3.5. shear forces.1. Rough friction model for the Lagrange multiplier formulation.inp eifricc1l. 0. Step 7 Same as speciﬁed in Step 1.3.1.0 for the elastic slip formulation. 0.0 for the elastic slip formulation. Input files Coulomb friction model: eifricc1e. 0.2.4–3 .7. Contact pressure. It is assumed that Results and discussion 0.0.2. 0.2. 0. 1 slip direction.3. . In Step 9 a slip is applied to rod 2 in which the slip rate is varied by prescribing the displacement with an amplitude curve during the static step.05.Abaqus/Standard FRICTION MODELS friction model is introduced for rod 2. and slip were veriﬁed.

4–4 . Lagrange multiplier formulation. Lagrange multiplier formulation. Elastic slip formulation. 2 slip directions. 2 slip directions. 2 slip directions. 1 slip direction. Lagrange multiplier formulation. Elastic slip formulation. 2 slip directions.inp Elastic slip formulation.inp Exponential decay model: eifrice1e. 1.7.inp eifrice2e.inp eifrice1l.inp eifricc2l.inp eifrice2l.Abaqus/Standard FRICTION MODELS eifricc2e. 1 slip direction.

according to the exponential form. the tabular synthesized to approximate the exponential decay model. To facilitate comparison of the analyses. The amount of elastic slip. While under the condition of sticking friction.Abaqus/Explicit FRICTION MODELS 1. .5–1 . to as the simulate slip rate data are 1. While under the condition of slipping friction.5 FRICTION MODELS IN Abaqus/Explicit Product: Abaqus/Explicit Elements tested CPE3 MASS Feature tested Friction surface interaction.7. The second example uses the classical Coulomb friction model explained above with softened tangential behavior. The coefﬁcient of friction is deﬁned as a function of the and the normal contact pressure. generating “elastic” slip. . Problem description The friction models provided in Abaqus/Explicit are tested on a simple problem. decays to the kinetic friction coefﬁcient. The third example uses a rate-dependent friction model in which the static friction coefﬁcient. is given by where is the slope of the shear stress versus elastic slip curve and is the shear stress calculated from the friction law. the surfaces are allowed to slip. . The fourth example uses the Coulomb friction model with dependencies to slip-rate-dependent friction. This model is referred exponential decay friction model. The ﬁrst example uses the classical Coulomb friction model.7. and the results are compared to analytical solutions. at which surfaces begin to slide with respect to each other is given by where is the coefﬁcient of friction and p is the normal pressure. The critical shear stress. . where is a user-deﬁned decay parameter and is the slip rate. the behavior is identical to the classical Coulomb friction model without softened tangential behavior.

and 1 inch thick. the block should come to rest after sliding a distance of 4. Given the initial velocity and the acceleration.866 × 10−4 s. 0. Results for the classical Coulomb friction model with softened tangential behavior As in the preceding example.338 × 10−2 inches. and 0.7. Elastic slip will be generated until the frictional stress exceeds the critical stress. VFRIC_COEF. With this model. which assumes the block to be rigid. even after the block stops sliding.5–2 . The differences are caused by the oscillations in the shear mode of the ﬁnite element model. This model differs from the second example in that the shear stress is no longer limited by . all tangential motion is in the form of elastic slip. This corresponds to a negative acceleration of 4. A uniform pressure of 2000 psi is applied on the top face of the block.704 × 10−4 s and 6. respectively. since the frictional stress opposes the motion of the block.878 × 10−4 s.7.” Section 4. respectively. The corresponding values for sliding distance and time period obtained with the Coulomb ﬁnite element model are 4. 1 inch high. to the average velocity of the contacting nodes in the ﬁnite element model. and an initial velocity of 200 in/s is prescribed at each node of the block. there is some oscillation of the block in a shear mode.05.866 × 10−2 inches over a time period of 4.Abaqus/Explicit FRICTION MODELS The ﬁfth example uses a rough friction model with softened tangential behavior. The problem consists of a rectangular block of two CPE3 elements sliding on a rigid surface. The analysis using penalty contact has additional differences due to the default viscous contact damping. for the models including softened tangential behavior 104 psi/in. so no frictional slip can occur. The corresponding values for time and distance from the ﬁnite element model are 5.15. Table 1.15. The same problem is used to test user subroutine VFRIC in “VFRIC.866 × 10−2 inches and 4. The block then slows to zero velocity due to the frictional dissipation and reverses direction as the stored elastic slip is converted back into kinetic energy. The block is 5 inches long. which contributes to the contact forces opposing the motion of the block. Results for the classical Coulomb friction model The prescribed external load produces a normal pressure of 2000 psi and a frictional stress of 300 psi.638 × 10−4 s at a distance of 6. The elastic modulus is 3 × 107 psi.01 s/in. Results and discussion The results for all ﬁve examples are discussed below.1.110 × 105 in/s2 in the tangential direction. and frictional slip will be initiated. and VFRICTION. The numerical results show some oscillations in the normal reactions and frictional forces caused by the inertial effect of nodes on the top of the block. For the classical Coulomb friction model 0. the critical frictional stress between the block and rigid surface is 300 psi. 1. Results for the exponential decay friction model In this model the velocity of a node in contact corresponds to the slip rate for the friction model. for the exponential decay friction model 0. and the density is 7.5–1 compares the velocity values obtained from a closed-form solution.3 × 10−4 lbf s2 /in4 .367 × 10−2 inches.30. The analytical solution for a rigid block with the given initial velocity predicts that the block will reverse its direction of travel at a time of 5.

403 × 10−2 inches and 4. Table 1.Abaqus/Explicit FRICTION MODELS Results for the Coulomb friction model with dependencies The tabular data for this model are chosen to approximate the exponential decay model described in the previous subsection.5–2 compares the average velocities of the contacting nodes in the ﬁnite element model with the velocity values obtained from a closed-form solution based on a rigid block. pressure dependencies. Rough friction model with softened tangential behavior and kinematic contact.234 × 10−4 s.404 × 10—2 inches and the time at which the slip direction ﬁrst reverses to be 4. Exponential decay friction model. The analytical solution to a point mass oscillating on a linear spring without damping gives the amplitude of the oscillation in slip to be 5. Results for the rough friction model with softened tangential behavior With rough frictional behavior and tangential softening (without viscous contact damping). Small differences occur as a result of oscillations in the ﬁnite element model and the linear interpolation of the tabular data. Both slip rate and pressure dependence are included in the model to verify the code.inp Coulomb friction model.7. The corresponding values for the amplitude and time from the ﬁnite element model using kinematic contact are 5.244 × 10−4 s.inp fric_exponential_decay. Input files fric_coulomb. 1.inp fric_coulomb_dep. respectively. Coulomb friction model with softened tangential behavior.5–3 .inp fric_coulomb_soft.273 × 10−4 s.inp fric_rough_pnlty. respectively.inp fric_rough. The pressure dependence is deﬁned such that the interpolated values at a pressure equal to 2000 psi correspond to the exponential decay model considered previously. and penalty contact.378 × 10−2 inches and 4.7.inp fric_coulomb_deppnlty. Coulomb friction model with slip rate. this model essentially behaves like an undamped oscillator. Coulomb friction model with slip rate and pressure dependencies. Rough friction model with softened tangential behavior and penalty contact. The corresponding values for amplitude and time from the ﬁnite element model using penalty contact are 5.

7.0000 6.0301 2.5–4 .5–1 Comparison of velocity values for the exponential decay friction model.6 144.931 s 1.0042 3.0064 5.1 100.7. Time 10 −4 Velocity (analytical) in/s 181.5 75.0017 8.6 74.8 164.0000 6.88 4.1 123.6 144.0042 3.87 12.0022 8.054 Velocity (model) in/s 182.73 46.5 123.4 143.7.Abaqus/Explicit FRICTION MODELS Table 1.0064 5. Velocity (analytical) in/s 181.0284 7.1 75.9 124.0017 8.9 100.0 164.2289 1.0022 8.6 74.5–2 Comparison of velocity values for the Coulomb friction model with dependencies.454 Time 10 −4 s 1.88 4.98 11.25 4.1 100.93 13.87 12.2 47.85 2.98 48.73 46.2289 Table 1.0284 7.7 163.7 163.1 123.054 Velocity (model) in/s 181.0001 4.2 143.4 101.0001 4.0301 2.

7. Case 2 has cohesive behavior deﬁned with the ELIGIBILITY parameter set to ORIGINAL CONTACTS. each of which illustrate one of the usages of the *COHESIVE BEHAVIOR option listed above. ELIGIBILITY=ORIGINAL CONTACTS *COHESIVE BEHAVIOR. Since there is an initial gap between some nodes of the slave surface and the master surface. COHESIVE BEHAVIOR OPTIONS Problem description The following usages of surface-based cohesive behavior are veriﬁed in these tests: *COHESIVE BEHAVIOR *COHESIVE BEHAVIOR. In all cases except Case 2 the initial conﬁguration is fully compliant. hence. Progressive failure of the cohesive bond is modeled using the maximum stress damage initiation criterion and damage evolution with linear displacement–based softening behavior. Case 3 is similar to Case 1. In addition. thus. Uncoupled nondefault cohesive stiffness values are prescribed on the data line. TYPE=COUPLED Model: This test consists of four cases. with the slave and master surfaces touching each other exactly without any overclosures or gaps. REPEATED CONTACTS *COHESIVE BEHAVIOR. these nodes are not in contact in the initial conﬁguration and. and postfailure cohesive behavior is not deﬁned.6–1 . 1. Case 1 has cohesive behavior deﬁned with default parameters. In Case 2 there is an initial gap between some nodes of the slave surface and the master surface that is not resolved at the start of the analysis. Each case comprises two blocks of solid elements bonded together with cohesive surfaces deﬁned at the interface between the blocks.6 COHESIVE SURFACE INTERACTION Products: Abaqus/Standard Features tested Abaqus/Explicit This section provides veriﬁcation for the following options: *COHESIVE BEHAVIOR *DAMAGE INITIATION *DAMAGE EVOLUTION I.7. cohesive behavior is not enforced at these nodes. No damage model is deﬁned for this case.COHESIVE SURFACE INTERACTION 1. There are no data line values prescribed. so the cohesive bond does not degrade and fail. the ELIGIBILITY parameter assumes the default value of CURRENT CONTACTS. so the default cohesive stiffness values calculated by Abaqus are used to enforce cohesive behavior. postfailure cohesive behavior is enforced by using the REPEATED CONTACTS parameter.

cohesive constraints are reinforced when the surfaces reenter contact following the ﬁrst debonding. 1. and ﬁnally they are again pulled apart. For Case 1 once the cohesive bond breaks.6–2 . Veriﬁcation test for different cohesive behavior options in three dimensions.inp gcont_cohesive_options_std_3d.inp Abaqus/Standard input files Veriﬁcation test for different cohesive behavior options. Coupled cohesive stiffness values are prescribed on the data line. then they are brought into contact. Results and discussion The response of the cohesive surface is correct in all cases. II. The dependence of damage evolution on the mode mix measure speciﬁed in tabular. The damage variable evolves according to the evolution law speciﬁed in terms of displacement or energy dissipation. gcont_cohesive_options_std_2d. and tabular softening laws are deﬁned to specify the nature of the evolution of the damage variable. Each damage model is veriﬁed for damage in pure normal and two pure shear modes (one shear mode for two-dimensional and axisymmetric elements). DAMAGE MODELING WITH COHESIVE SURFACES IN Abaqus/Explicit Problem description This test veriﬁes damage modeling with cohesive surfaces using different damage initiation criteria and damage evolution laws to simulate the failure of cohesive layers. Linear. exponential. no further cohesive constraints are enforced. or Benzeggagh-Kenane form is also considered in this test. In Case 3. Damage evolution is deﬁned based on either effective displacement or energy dissipated. Results and discussion Degradation of the response of the cohesive surfaces begins when the speciﬁed damage initiation criterion is met.COHESIVE SURFACE INTERACTION Case 4 has cohesive behavior with the TYPE parameter set to COUPLED. Progressive failure of the cohesive bond is modeled using the maximum stress damage initiation criterion and damage evolution with linear displacement–based softening behavior.7.inp Veriﬁcation test for different cohesive behavior options in two dimensions. Input files Abaqus/Explicit input file gcont_cohesive_options. Loading: The loading is the same in the ﬁrst three cases: the blocks are ﬁrst pulled apart in pure normal mode by applying displacement boundary conditions. power law. The MAXU and QUADS damage initiation criteria are used. In the fourth case a mixed mode loading is applied. which allows postfailure cohesive behavior.

1. QUADS damage initiation. Displacement-based damage evolution with tractiondependent mode mix measure for cohesive surfaces.inp gcont_qds_damdisp_softtab_xpl.inp gcont_damener_mixener_xpl. MAXU damage initiation. Abaqus/Standard input files gcont_mxe_damdisp_softlin_std. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for cohesive surfaces. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for cohesive surfaces. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for cohesive surfaces. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for cohesive surfaces.inp gcont_qds_damdisp_softexp_xpl. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for cohesive surfaces.inp gcont_damener_mixtrac_xpl. Displacement-based damage evolution with energydependent mode mix measure for cohesive surfaces. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for cohesive surfaces.6–3 . QUADS damage initiation. Energy-based damage evolution with energy-dependent mode mix measure for cohesive surfaces. MAXU damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for cohesive surfaces. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for cohesive surfaces.inp gcont_damdisp_mixtrac_xpl. MAXU damage initiation. MAXU damage initiation.inp gcont_mxe_damener_softlin_xpl.7. QUADS damage initiation.inp gcont_mxe_damener_softexp_xpl. QUADS damage initiation. QUADS damage initiation.inp gcont_damdisp_mixener_xpl.inp gcont_qds_damener_softlin_xpl.inp gcont_qds_damener_softexp_xpl.inp gcont_mxe_damdisp_softtab_xpl. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for cohesive surfaces.COHESIVE SURFACE INTERACTION Input files Abaqus/Explicit input files gcont_mxe_damdisp_softlin_xpl. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for cohesive surfaces. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for cohesive surfaces.inp gcont_qds_damdisp_softlin_xpl.inp MAXU damage initiation.inp gcont_mxe_damdisp_softexp_xpl.inp MAXU damage initiation. Energy-based damage evolution with traction-dependent mode mix measure for cohesive surfaces.

QUADS damage initiation.inp gcont_mxe_damdisp_softexp_std. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for cohesive surfaces.inp gcont_mxe_damener_softlin_std.inp gcont_qds_damdisp_softexp_std. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for cohesive surfaces. energy-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for cohesive surfaces.inp gcont_damener_mixtrac_std. Energy-based damage evolution with traction-dependent mode mix measure for cohesive surfaces. MAXU damage initiation. Default cohesive behavior options are used.inp gcont_mxe_damdisp_softtab_std. displacement-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for cohesive surfaces. III.inp gcont_qds_damener_softexp_std. are tied together via cohesive behavior at the interface. energy-based damage evolution with LINEAR softening for cohesive surfaces. A box and its lid. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for cohesive surfaces. both modeled with solid elements.inp gcont_qds_damdisp_softtab_std.7. MAXU damage initiation.inp gcont_damdisp_mixtrac_std.6–4 . displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for cohesive surfaces. QUADS damage initiation. displacement-based damage evolution with TABULAR softening for cohesive surfaces. Displacement-based damage evolution with energydependent mode mix measure for cohesive surfaces. while the lid is pulled apart via prescribed displacements applied through a kinematic coupling acting on the top surface of the lid.inp QUADS damage initiation. 1. The bottom of the box is ﬁxed using prescribed boundary conditions.inp gcont_mxe_damener_softexp_std. displacement-based damage evolution with EXPONENTIAL softening for cohesive surfaces. MAXU damage initiation.inp gcont_damdisp_mixener_std.inp gcont_damener_mixener_std. QUADS damage initiation. Energy-based damage evolution with energy-dependent mode mix measure for cohesive surfaces. QUADS damage initiation.COHESIVE SURFACE INTERACTION gcont_qds_damdisp_softlin_std. MAXU damage initiation. BREAKABLE TIES WITH COHESIVE SURFACES Problem description This test veriﬁes modeling “breakable ties” using cohesive behavior and progressive damage.inp gcont_qds_damener_softlin_std. Displacement-based damage evolution with tractiondependent mode mix measure for cohesive surfaces.

Results and discussion This test veriﬁes modeling of “breakable ties” using cohesive surfaces. and Ball C) is described below. The box is completely ﬁxed. Ball B. since no cohesive behavior is prescribed for the interaction between this ball and the bottom wall.COHESIVE SURFACE INTERACTION The MAXS damage initiation criteria are used.inp IV. contains three balls that are modeled using shell elements. Damage evolution is deﬁned using effective displacement with a linear softening law. No Damage Ball C.7. No cohesive stiffness is speciﬁed. Ball A. A box. and the default values are used. Cohesive with Bottom. are given identical initial velocities resulting in their simultaneous impact with the bottom wall of the box. the balls. The damage variable evolves according to the evolution law speciﬁed. initially suspended in the gap between the top and bottom walls of the rigid box.inp Abaqus/Standard input file Veriﬁcation test for tie break using cohesive surfaces. Degradation of the response of the cohesive surfaces begins when the speciﬁed damage initiation criterion is met. Veriﬁcation test for tie break using cohesive surfaces. Repeated Contacts Ball A has cohesive behavior without progressive damage deﬁned between its surface and the top wall of the box. The behavior of each of the balls (Ball A. Input files Abaqus/Explicit input file gcont_cohbehv_tiebreak. Cohesive with Bottom Ball B. STICKY CONTACT WITH COHESIVE SURFACES Problem description This test veriﬁes modeling “sticky contact” using cohesive behavior and progressive damage.6–5 . it does not experience any cohesive forces. The ball rebounds and strikes the top wall of the 1. When this ball impacts the bottom wall. gcont_cohbehv_tiebreak_std. modeled as a rigid body. Cohesive with Top.

6–6 . The ball rebounds again and keeps bouncing back and forth between the top and bottom walls throughout the rest of the analysis. 1. cohesive forces are not activated when the ball attempts to rebound following the second impact with the bottom wall. eventually damage initiates. However. the momentum and kinetic energy of the ball is considerably less than during ﬁrst impact. since the elastic energy of the collision is high. Ball C has exactly the same cohesive behavior and progressive damage deﬁned between its surface and the bottom wall as Ball B. Since postfailure cohesive behavior is allowed. It then goes on to hit the top wall.inp First ﬁle for the sticky contact veriﬁcation test. and the ball breaks free. Degradation of the response of the cohesive surfaces begins when the speciﬁed damage initiation criterion is met. There is no cohesive behavior deﬁned with the top wall.COHESIVE SURFACE INTERACTION box. The damage variable evolves according to the evolution law speciﬁed. There is no cohesive behavior deﬁned with the top wall. and the default values are used. Ball B has cohesive behavior with progressive damage deﬁned between its surface and the bottom wall of the box. and the ball remains stuck to the bottom wall for the rest of the analysis. When this ball impacts the bottom wall and tries to rebound. It then goes on to hit the top wall. the cohesive forces act to restrain it from rebounding. eventually damage initiates.inp Veriﬁcation test for sticky contact. The damage model uses the MAXS damage initiation criteria and has damage evolution deﬁned based on effective displacement with a linear softening law.7. Input files Abaqus/Explicit input file gcont_cohbehv_stickycont. ultimate failure occurs. However. The cohesive forces this time are sufﬁciently high to restrain it from rebounding again. on second impact. However. since the elastic energy of the collision is high. In addition. cohesive forces reactivate when the ball attempts to rebound again. when this ball impacts the bottom wall and tries to rebound. Input files required for both Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard tennis_ef1. gcont_cohbehv_stickycont_std. so Ball C does not experience any cohesive forces and bounces back and impacts the bottom wall again.inp tennis_ef2. Since no postfailure cohesive behavior is allowed. Second ﬁle for the sticky contact veriﬁcation test.inp Abaqus/Standard input file Veriﬁcation test for sticky contact. postfailure cohesive behavior is allowed by using the REPEATED CONTACTS parameter on the cohesive behavior option. As with Ball B. No cohesive stiffness is speciﬁed. and the ball breaks free. owing to the dissipation that occurred due to the damage work done during ﬁrst impact. where cohesive forces act to prevent it from rebounding again and ensure that it remains stuck to the top wall for the rest of the analysis. Results and discussion This test veriﬁes modeling of “sticky contact” using cohesive surfaces. the cohesive forces act to restrain it from rebounding. so Ball B does not experience any cohesive forces and bounces back and impacts the bottom wall again. ultimate failure occurs.

RIGID BODY VERIFICATION 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.8–1 .5 1.1 “Tie and pin node sets.8.” Section 1.8 Rigid body verification • • • • • “Rigid body mass properties.4 “Including deformable element types in a rigid body.8.” Section 1.8.” Section 1.2 “Rigid body as an MPC.8.8.3 “Rigid body constraint.

.

repositioning of the rigid body reference node at the center of mass of the rigid body. Problem description This suite of problems tests the mass property computations of rigid bodies consisting of continuum and structural elements in Abaqus/Standard analyses and continuum. membrane. and truss elements (and rigid elements in Abaqus/Explicit analyses). and rigid elements in Abaqus/Explicit analyses. A three-dimensional rigid body consisting of beam. 1.RIGID BODY MASS TESTS 1. 4. and truss elements. An axisymmetric rigid body consisting of continuum and shell elements (and rigid elements in Abaqus/Explicit analyses). Five different rigid body geometry cases are considered: 1. A three-dimensional rigid body consisting of beam.8.1–1 .8. structural. A two-dimensional planar rigid body consisting of beam. continuum. 3. and truss elements (and rigid elements in Abaqus/Explicit analyses).1 RIGID BODY MASS PROPERTIES Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit B21 B21H B22 B31 B31H B31OS B31OSH B32 B32H CAX3 CAX3H CAX4 CAX4H CAX4I CAX4IH CAX4R CAX6 CAX6M CAX6MH CAX8 CAX8H CPE3 CPE3H CPE4 CPE4H CPE4I CPE4IH CPE4R CPE4RH CPE6 CPE6M CPS3 CPS4 CPS4I CPS4R CPS6 CPS6M CPS8 C3D6 C3D6H C3D8 C3D8H C3D8R C3D8RH C3D10 C3D10M C3D15 C3D15H C3D15V C3D20 C3D20H C3D20R FRAME2D FRAME3D M3D3 M3D4 M3D4R M3D6 M3D8 MAX1 MAX2 PIPE21 PIPE31 PIPE31H R2D2 R3D4 R3D3 RAX2 S3R S4 S4R S8R SAX1 SAX2 T2D2 T2D3 T2D3H T3D2 T3D3 T3D3H Features tested CPE8 Computation of rigid body mass properties. 2. shell. continuum.

inp rigmass1c_std. for the concentrated force loading. Case 1 for the moment loading. In the ﬁrst analysis each geometry case is subjected to a concentrated force of magnitude 1.RIGID BODY MASS TESTS 5.inp rigmass1a_std. The reference node for each rigid body is located at the center of mass by specifying POSITION=CENTER OF MASS on the *RIGID BODY option. center of mass. 3. Input files Abaqus/Standard analyses rigmass1_std.1–1 and Figure 1.inp rigmass11a_std.inp rigmass2f_std. Case 2 for the force loading.inp rigmass2_std.inp rigmass11_std.8. Case 2 for the force loading.1–2 . 1. Case 2 for the force loading. Further quantitative and qualitative veriﬁcation is accomplished by performing two analyses.inp rigmass2a_std. which veriﬁes that the reference node has been positioned at the center of mass of the rigid body. Case 2 for the force loading. as well as a point mass element located at the rigid body reference node. The moment loading in each case causes large rigid body rotations about the reference node. Case 2 for the moment loading.0 × 108 acting about the z-axis at the rigid body reference node. The mass. Case 2 for the force loading. Results and discussion For each geometry case the mass and inertia properties of the rigid body are found to match their analytical values closely.inp rigmass1b_std. and 5.inp rigmass2d_std.1–2. and rotary inertia of each rigid body are computed automatically by Abaqus to take into account the section properties and densities of each of the constituent elements.inp Case 1 for the force loading.8.inp rigmass22_std. Case 1 for the force loading. In the second analysis each geometry case is subjected to a concentrated moment of magnitude 1. Case 2 for the force loading. Case 1 for the force loading.8. The ﬁnal rotated conﬁguration in each case is found to be consistent with the geometry of the problem and the magnitude of the applied moment. Similarly for Cases 2. y-.inp rigmass2b_std.inp rigmass22a_std.0 × 106 in the x-direction acting at the rigid body reference node. there are no rotations observed about either the global x-. A three-dimensional rigid body consisting of all of the elements included in geometry Cases 2 and 3. The original and ﬁnal conﬁgurations of the rigid body in Case 1 for the moment load case are shown in Figure 1. or z-axes. Case 1 for the force loading. Case 2 for the moment loading. Case 1 for the moment loading.inp rigmass2c_std. The computed mass properties of rigid bodies can be veriﬁed by checking the printed quantities in the data (. Case 2 for the force loading.inp rigmass2e_std. In Cases 1 and 4 the application of a concentrated force at the rigid body reference node does not cause any rotation of the rigid body about the out-of-plane axis.dat) ﬁle.

inp rigmass1a. Case 3 for the moment loading on linear elements.inp rigmass22b.inp rigmass33a. Case 3 for the force loading on quadratic beam elements.inp rigmass2b. Case 5 for the force loading.inp rigmass11_pipe. Case 4 for the force loading. Case 3 for the force loading.inp rigmass2a.inp rigmass33a_std.inp rigmass22. Case 4 for the force loading.inp rigmass2_pipe. Case 4 for the force loading. Case 3 for the moment loading.inp rigmass4c_std.inp rigmass44_std.inp rigmass11a. Case 1 for the moment loading on quadratic elements.inp rigmass44a_std.inp rigmass4a_std. Case 3 for the moment loading on quadratic beam elements.inp rigmass3a. Case 5 for the moment loading.inp rigmass4_std.RIGID BODY MASS TESTS rigmass3_std.inp rigmass2.8. Case 1 for the moment loading on linear elements including pipe elements.inp rigmass22a. Case 2 for the force loading on quadratic elements. Case 3 for the force loading.inp rigmass3b_std. Case 2 for the moment loading on linear elements. Case 3 for the moment loading.1–3 . Case 1 for the moment loading on linear elements. Case 2 for the moment loading on elements without reduced integration. Case 2 for the moment loading on linear elements including pipe elements.inp rigmass3.inp rigmass4d_std.inp rigmass55_std. Case 4 for the force loading.inp 1. Case 2 for the force loading on linear elements. Case 4 for the force loading. Case 4 for the moment loading. Case 3 for the force loading on linear elements. Case 4 for the moment loading.inp rigmass3a_std.inp rigmass33.inp rigmass22_pipe. Case 2 for the force loading on linear elements including pipe elements.inp Abaqus/Explicit analyses Case 3 for the force loading.inp rigmass33_std.inp rigmass11. Case 1 for the force loading on quadratic elements. rigmass1.inp rigmass1_pipe. Case 1 for the force loading on linear elements. Case 2 for the moment loading on quadratic elements.inp rigmass5_std.inp rigmass3b. Case 3 for the force loading on elements without reduced integration. Case 2 for the force loading on elements without reduced integration.inp rigmass4b_std. Case 1 for the force loading on linear elements including pipe elements.

Case 4 for the moment loading on elements without reduced integration.inp rigmass44.inp Case 3 for the moment loading on elements without reduced integration.RIGID BODY MASS TESTS rigmass33b. 1.inp rigmass44a.inp rigmass55b. Case 4 for the force loading on linear elements. Case 5 for the force loading on elements without reduced integration.inp rigmass5. Case 5 for the force loading on linear elements.inp rigmass4a.8.8.inp rigmass5a. Case 5 for the moment loading on quadratic elements.inp rigmass55. Case 4 for the force loading on elements without reduced integration.inp rigmass4.inp rigmass5b.1–4 . Case 5 for the moment loading on elements without reduced integration.1–1 Original conﬁguration for Case 1. Case 4 for the moment loading on linear elements. 2 3 1 Figure 1. Case 5 for the force loading on quadratic elements.inp rigmass55a. Case 5 for the moment loading on linear elements.

1–2 Final conﬁguration for Case 1 subjected to applied torque about reference node.RIGID BODY MASS TESTS 2 3 1 Figure 1. 1.1–5 .8.8.

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However. this PIN NSET speciﬁcation is not necessary (redundant) in this case since node 8 is by default a pin node because of the underlying R3D4 elements.8. generate tie nodes on the rigid body by default. To ensure that there is a pin connection at node 8.8. These elements have only translational degrees of freedom and. Results and discussion The original and ﬁnal conﬁgurations for Cases 1 and 2 are shown in Figure 1.2–3 shows the angular rotation about the z-axis at the 1. this TIE NSET speciﬁcation is not necessary in this case since node 6 is. Problem description A square rigid sheet is connected by one node at each of two opposite edges to deformable rectangular plates consisting of S4R elements. A ROTARYI element with 10 is attached to the rigid body reference node. For this model the TIE NSET parameter is also used with a node set containing node 6. Two representations for the square rigid sheet are considered: 1.2 TIE AND PIN NODE SETS Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit R3D4 S4R Feature tested Use of TIE NSET and PIN NSET to deﬁne connections between rigid bodies and deformable elements. by default. Figure 1.8. a tie node because of the underlying S4R elements.2–2. The connection to the ﬁrst plate at node 6 of the rigid body is assumed to be a tie connection where it is desired to transmit moment and rotation. A moment of magnitude 1000 is applied to the rigid body reference node about the global z-axis. The rigid sheet is modeled with R3D4 elements. For this model the PIN NSET parameter is also used with a node set containing node 8.8. generate pin nodes on the rigid body by default.2–1 and Figure 1.8. To ensure that there is a tie connection at node 6.RIGID BODY CONNECTIONS 1. The connection to the second plate at node 8 is assumed to be a pin connection. The rigid sheet is modeled with S4R elements. However. This results in large relative motions between the rigid sheet and the deformable plate at the pin nodes. It is clear from the results that at tie connections the plate rotates with the rigid body since there is transfer of moment from the rigid sheet to the rectangular plate at the connecting node. These elements have both translational and rotational degrees of freedom and. At pin connections moments are not transferred at the connecting node since the rigid body at the connecting node has only translational degrees of freedom. 2. therefore.2–1 . the TIE NSET parameter is used with a node set containing node 6. the PIN NSET parameter is used with a node set containing node 8. therefore.

rigcon1. Deformation magniﬁcation factor = 3.inp Case 1. node 8. The angular rotation at the pin node. Case 2.2–2 . 2 3 1 6 8 8 100 6 Figure 1.inp Abaqus/Explicit analysis Case 1.inp rigcon2_std.RIGID BODY CONNECTIONS connecting nodes for Case 1. is negative in response to the applied positive moment.8. 1. which is the physically intuitive result.0.inp rigcon2. Input files Abaqus/Standard analysis rigcon1_std.2–1 Original and ﬁnal conﬁgurations for Case 1.8. Case 2.

10 0.0 ROTATION Z XMIN 5.392E-02 YMAX 5.8.05 0.8.4 0.8.2–2 Original and ﬁnal conﬁgurations for Case 2.50 TOTAL TIME Figure 1.0.45 0.30 0.35 0. Deformation magniﬁcation factor = 3.15 0. TIE NSET_6 PIN NSET_8 0. 1.2–3 .2–3 Rotation about the z-axis at the connecting nodes for Case 1.785E-02 -0.25 0.000E-01 YMIN -7.2 -0.40 0.007E-02 XMAX 5.20 0.RIGID BODY CONNECTIONS 2 3 1 8 8 100 6 6 Figure 1.

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RIGID BODY AS AN MPC 1. The results obtained using rigid body node sets closely match those obtained from solving the corresponding MPC problem. Input files Abaqus/Standard analysis rigmpc2_std. The bottom plate moves with the top plate so that the ﬁnal conﬁguration is similar to the original conﬁguration except for a uniﬁed rotation and translation. node 4 of the bottom plate and node 40 of the top plate—are combined to form three distinct rigid bodies by including each pair in a TIE NSET. The differences observed in the -rotation between Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard are due to the different formulations used in the respective codes. In the MPC problem three BEAM-type MPCs are deﬁned between the corresponding nodes of the top and bottom plates. Corresponding MPC problem.8.8.8. This is because the rigid body TIE NSET constrains both the displacements and the rotations of the nodes that belong to it. the -displacement.3–5 it is clear that the leading characteristics of the solution—the -displacement. The results are compared to the solution of the corresponding MPC problem.8.inp rigmpc21_std. Concentrated loads of magnitude 1. 1. Figure 1. and Figure 1. 70.0 × 105 N are applied in the positive z.3–3. Each plate is modeled with S4R elements.8. and 30 of the top plate. Problem description The model consists of two identical rectangular plates that lie parallel to the x–z plane and are initially separated by a distance of 1 m in the y-direction (see Figure 1.3–2.and positive x-directions at nodes 20. Three pairs of nodes along the edges—node 1 of the bottom plate and node 10 of the top plate.8. From Figure 1. and the -rotation—are almost identical for the problem solved with rigid bodies and the corresponding BEAM MPC problem.3–1 .inp Input ﬁle with rigid body deﬁnitions that include TIE NSETs.8. Results and discussion The ﬁnal conﬁguration for the problem is shown in Figure 1.3–4.3 RIGID BODY AS AN MPC Products: Abaqus/Standard Element tested Abaqus/Explicit S4R Feature tested Use of rigid body with TIE node set to deﬁne MPC between deformable elements. node 9 of the bottom plate and node 90 of the top plate.3–1).

3–2 Final conﬁguration. 40 90 10 50 60 70 30 80 2 1 3 9 1 4 20 8 5 6 7 2 3 Figure 1. 10 90 40 60 50 80 2 1 3 1 9 4 6 5 8 2 20 70 30 7 3 Figure 1.3–1 Original conﬁguration. 1.3–2 .inp rigmpc21.8.8.RIGID BODY AS AN MPC Abaqus/Explicit analysis rigmpc2.8.inp Input ﬁle with rigid body deﬁnitions that include TIE NSETs. Corresponding MPC problem.

ZDSP_RIGMPC2 ZDSP_RIGMPC21 ZDSP_RIGMPC21_STD ZDSP_RIGMPC2_STD Figure 1.RIGID BODY AS AN MPC XDSP_RIGMPC2 XDSP_RIGMPC21 XDSP_RIGMPC21_STD XDSP_RIGMPC2_STD Figure 1.8.3–3 .3–3 -displacement versus time at node 9.8.8. 1.3–4 -displacement versus time at node 9.

8.RIGID BODY AS AN MPC XROT_RIGMPC2 XROT_RIGMPC21 XROT_RIGMPC21_STD XROT_RIGMPC2_STD Figure 1.3–4 . 1.3–5 -rotation versus time at node 9.8.

Starting at 0 m/s.4 RIGID BODY CONSTRAINT Products: Abaqus/Standard Element tested Abaqus/Explicit S4R Feature tested Use of rigid bodies with TIE and PIN node sets to deﬁne boundary conditions for a deformable body. Results and discussion The plate displaces in response to the applied velocities at the boundary nodes and continues vibrating after the velocities at the boundary nodes have been ramped down to zero.and -displacements.RIGID BODY CONSTRAINT 1. The results are compared to the solution of the same problem with the rigid body PIN NSET replaced with equivalent boundary conditions applied at the edge nodes.0 × 10−3 s and is ramped back to 0 m/s at time 6. A saw-tooth velocity pattern acting in the z-direction is applied at the reference node of the rigid body.4–2 for Case 2 and Figure 1.8. The results are compared to the solution of the same problem with the rigid body TIE and PIN node sets replaced with equivalent boundary conditions applied at the edge nodes.4–1 for Case 1.4–3 for Case 3. Similar conclusions can be drawn from Figure 1. the analysis is continued up to time 48. the velocity is ramped down to −10 m/s at time 2. Following an initial lag.8. The solution obtained using rigid body TIE NSET is found to match closely with the results of the same problem solved with the rigid body TIE NSET replaced by equivalent boundary conditions speciﬁed directly at the edge nodes.0 × 10−3 s.8.0 × 10−3 s. A rigid body TIE NSET is deﬁned to contain all the nodes along two opposite edges of the plate. A rigid body TIE NSET is deﬁned to contain all the edge nodes. 2. The time variation of the -displacement at node 205 at the center of the plate is plotted in Figure 1. Problem description Rigid body node sets are deﬁned to contain all nodes along the edges of a rectangular plate modeled with shell elements. A rigid body PIN NSET is deﬁned to contain all the edge nodes.8. the center node vibrates in response to the boundary motion. Thereafter. The remaining edge nodes are included in a PIN NSET. The results are compared to the solution of the same problem with the rigid body TIE NSET replaced with equivalent boundary conditions applied at the edge nodes. 1.8. The following three cases are considered: 1. 3.4–1 . The rigid body reference node is constrained against all rotations and .

U3 XMIN 0. Comparison test of Case 2.000E+00 XMAX 4.inp rigboun3_std.013E-03 -0. Case 3.inp rigboun3. 20. Comparison test of Case 1. 4.4–2 . 48. Case 2. rigboun1.inp Abaqus/Explicit analysis Case 1. 1.01 Z_DISPRB_205 Z_DISPBC_205 0.inp rigboun3bc.RIGID BODY CONSTRAINT Input files Abaqus/Standard analysis rigboun1_std. 40.inp rigboun3bc_std. Comparison test of Case 3. 12. Comparison test of Case 2.05 0.01 DISPLACEMENT .inp rigboun2bc.inp rigboun2bc_std. TOTAL TIME [ x10 -3 ] Figure 1.inp rigboun2. 36. Case 2.8.04 -0. Case 3. 16. Comparison test of Case 3. 28.800E-02 YMIN -4. 8. 24. Comparison test of Case 1.inp rigboun1bc.4–1 -displacement at node 205 versus time for Case 1.8.886E-02 YMAX 9.00 -0. 0.inp rigboun1bc_std.03 -0.02 -0.inp Case 1.inp rigboun2_std. 32. 44.

000E+00 XMAX 4. 40.8.800E-02 YMIN -5.00 DISPLACEMENT .04 0. TOTAL TIME [ x10 -3 ] Figure 1. TOTAL TIME [ x10 -3 ] Figure 1.8.4–3 -displacement at node 205 versus time for Case 3. 12. 36. 32.4–3 .311E-02 YMAX 1.U3 XMIN 0.00 -0. 20. 48.02 -0.843E-03 -0. 32. 44.025E-02 YMAX 8. 4. 36.4–2 -displacement at node 205 versus time for Case 2.U3 XMIN 0. 1. 8. 28.8. 0.01 Z_DISPRB_205 Z_DISPBC_205 0.04 -0. 44.RIGID BODY CONSTRAINT Z_DISPRB_205 Z_DISPBC_205 0. 20. 24.000E+00 XMAX 4.05 0.266E-02 -0. 8.01 DISPLACEMENT .800E-02 YMIN -5.02 -0. 16. 16. 24. 4. 40. 48. 12.03 -0. 28.

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1. The frame of the tennis racket is assumed to be rigid and is modeled using solid and structural elements of type C3D8R.” Section 2.8. Input files tennis_rig.8.8. which is speciﬁed using the *INITIAL CONDITIONS option.706 m/sec (264 in/sec) at an angle of 15°.” Section 2. and the racket impacts the ball at 6.8. The density of the elements representing the racket is chosen such that the mass of the racket is nearly 10 times that of the ball. The tennis ball is subjected to an initial internal pressure using hydrostatic ﬂuid elements of type F3D4 to model the gas in the ball. and S4R as part of a rigid body by referencing them on the *RIGID BODY option. A deformation magniﬁcation factor of two has been used in plotting the ﬁgures. rotating slightly due to the distance between the point of impact and the racket center of mass. The strings are initially in tension.5–1. B31.5 of the Abaqus Example Problems Manual. The complete model is shown in Figure 1.inp tennis_rig_gcont.inp tennis_rig1.5 INCLUDING DEFORMABLE ELEMENT TYPES IN A RIGID BODY Product: Abaqus/Explicit Elements tested C3D8R B31 S4R T3D2 F3D4 Feature tested Deﬁning deformable elements as part of a rigid body. A coefﬁcient of friction is speciﬁed between the ball and the strings. The details of the material model used for the strings can be found in “Tennis racket and ball. simulates the oblique impact of a tennis racket onto a stationary ball. External ﬁle referenced by both analyses. The tennis racket frame can be seen to be moving as a rigid body. The tennis ball is modeled as a sphere using S4R elements and is assumed to be made of rubber.inp Analysis using contact pair approach.5–4.8. In this example the ball is initially at rest. Problem description This example.8.5 of the Abaqus Example Problems Manual. The strings on the tennis racket are modeled using T3D2 truss elements.INCLUDING DEFORMABLE ELEMENTS IN A RIGID BODY 1.1.inp tennis_rig2. External ﬁle referenced by both analyses.5–1 . Analysis using the general contact capability. Results and discussion Figure 1.5–2 through Figure 1.5–1 shows the position of the ball with respect to the strings in the undeformed conﬁguration. The deformed shapes at different stages of the analysis are shown in Figure 1. which is similar to “Tennis racket and ball. 1.

External ﬁle referenced by both analyses.8.8.0 msec 3 2 1 Figure 1. External ﬁle referenced by both analyses.inp tennis_rig4.8.inp tennis_rig5.5–1 Original position of racket and ball.INCLUDING DEFORMABLE ELEMENTS IN A RIGID BODY tennis_rig3.inp External ﬁle referenced by both analyses.5–2 Conﬁguration at 5 milliseconds.5–2 . Original Position 3 2 1 Figure 1. 1. T = 5.

8.INCLUDING DEFORMABLE ELEMENTS IN A RIGID BODY T = 10 msec 3 2 1 Figure 1.8.5–4 Conﬁguration at 15 milliseconds. T = 15 msec 3 2 1 Figure 1.5–3 .5–3 Conﬁguration at 10 milliseconds. 1.8.

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1 “Sinusoidal excitation of a damped spring-mass system.4 “Connector elements in perturbation analyses.3 “Individual connector option tests.2 “Multiple instances of connector elements.9–1 .” Section 1.9.9.CONNECTOR ELEMENT VERIFICATION 1.” Section 1.9.5 “Tests for special-purpose connectors.9.9.9.9 Connector element verification • • • • • • “Damped free vibration with initial conditions.” Section 1.” Section 1.6 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.

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9. 2-node connector element models verify the connections described in Table 1. Table 1. The Abaqus/Explicit analysis uses the *CONNECTOR CONSTITUTIVE REFERENCE option to deﬁne reference lengths and angles for constitutive response that are different from those calculated from the initial geometry. The ﬁrst step in the Abaqus/Standard analysis uses the *CONNECTOR MOTION option with a *STATIC procedure to apply an initial displacement to the “free” end node of the connector.9. three-dimensional. In each case all available components of relative motion produce the same free. Axisymmetric 2-D.9. 3-D.1–1 . The initial displacements for the dynamic response are deﬁned as follows. Two-dimensional. In Abaqus/Standard linear geometry is used to avoid nonlinear coupling for ﬁnite rotation connection types.1–1 Connection types for damped. DOFs Affected Translational Basic Translational Basic Translational Basic Translational Basic Translational Basic Translational Basic Rotational Basic Rotational Basic Rotational Basic Dimensions 2-D. Axisymmetric 3-D 3-D 3-D 2-D. A series of simple.1 DAMPED FREE VIBRATION WITH INITIAL CONDITIONS Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description Translational and rotational basic connector components as well as translational-rotational combination connections are tested in damped. and axisymmetric cases are examined where appropriate. Axisymmetric 3-D 3-D 3-D Connection Type AXIAL CARTESIAN PROJECTION CARTESIAN RADIAL-THRUST SLIDE-PLANE SLOT CARDAN EULER FLEXION-TORSION 1. 3-D. In the dynamic analysis the free node end of the connector element undergoes damped. The veriﬁcation analyses consist of two steps in Abaqus/Standard and one step in Abaqus/Explicit. free vibration in response to the initial displacement.1–1.9. free vibration veriﬁcation analyses. 3-D. free vibration analyses. damped sinusoidal response based on the initial displacements.DAMPED FREE VIBRATION 1.

0 Abaqus provides the expected solution for all cases.1–2 . 3-D. 3-D. Axisymmetric 3-D 3-D 3-D 2-D.1 Translational spring stiffness Translational damping coefﬁcient Mass Torsional spring stiffness Torsional damping coefﬁcient Rotary inertia (isotropic) Results and discussion 48.9.1 0. 3-D.0 480.0 120. 1.0 5.0 12.DAMPED FREE VIBRATION Connection Type PROJECTION FLEXIONTORSION REVOLUTE ROTATION UNIVERSAL AXIAL/EULER CARTESIAN/CARDAN CARTESIAN/ROTATION JOIN/FLEXION-TORSION LINK/UNIVERSAL RADIAL-THRUST/ CONSTANT VELOCITY SLIDE-PLANE/REVOLUTE SLOT/ALIGN PROJECTION CARTESIAN/ PROJECTION FLEXIONTORSION Model: DOFs Affected Rotational Basic Rotational Basic Rotational Basic Rotational Basic Combination Combination Combination Combination Combination Combination Combination Combination Combination Dimensions 3-D 3-D 2-D. Axisymmetric 3-D Initial relative displacement Initial relative rotation Material: 0. Axisymmetric 3-D 3-D 3-D 3-D 2-D.0 50.

Connector elements in axisymmetric analyses. Bushing element. Connector elements in three dimensions.1–3 .inp conn_std_free_bushing.inp conn_std_free_3d.9.inp conn_std_free_axi. Connector elements in three dimensions. Connector elements in axisymmetric analyses.inp conn_xpl_free_axi.inp Connector elements in two dimensions.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Connector elements in two dimensions.inp conn_xpl_free_3d.DAMPED FREE VIBRATION Input files Abaqus/Standard input files conn_std_free_2d. conn_xpl_free_2d. 1.

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Axisymmetric 2-D.9. and *CONNECTOR FRICTION options.9. In Abaqus/Standard a *DYNAMIC analysis procedure is employed in conjunction with the *STEP. *CONNECTOR DAMPING.SINUSOIDAL EXCITATION 1. Axisymmetric 3-D 3-D 3-D 2-D. Axisymmetric Connection Type AXIAL CARTESIAN PROJECTION CARTESIAN RADIAL-THRUST SLIDE-PLANE SLOT CARDAN EULER FLEXION-TORSION PROJECTION FLEXION-TORSION REVOLUTE ROTATION 1. 3-D. 3-D. 3-D. 3-D. In Abaqus/Explicit the usual *DYNAMIC. Table 1.9. DOFs Affected Translational Basic Translational Basic Translational Basic Translational Basic Translational Basic Translational Basic Rotational Basic Rotational Basic Rotational Basic Rotational Basic Rotational Basic Rotational Basic Dimensions 2-D. NLGEOM option.2–1 Connection types for sinusoidal excitation veriﬁcation analyses. The kinetic behavior in the connector elements is modeled using the *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY. 2-node connector elements simulating a damped spring-mass system verify the connections described in Table 1. The spring-mass system in each case is driven by using the *CONNECTOR LOAD option. A series of simple.2 SINUSOIDAL EXCITATION OF A DAMPED SPRING-MASS SYSTEM Products: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested Abaqus/Explicit CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description Translational and rotational basic connector components as well as translational-rotational combination connections are tested for sinusoidal excitation of a damped spring-mass connector system. Axisymmetric 3-D 3-D 3-D 3-D 3-D 2-D.2–1 . EXPLICIT procedure is used with the default NLGEOM=YES setting.9.2–1.

0 50. 1. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files conn_std_force_2d.2–2 .SINUSOIDAL EXCITATION Connection Type UNIVERSAL AXIAL/EULER CARTESIAN/CARDAN CARTESIAN/ ROTATION JOIN/ FLEXION-TORSION LINK/UNIVERSAL RADIAL-THRUST/ CONSTANT VELOCITY SLIDE-PLANE/REVOLUTE SLOT/ALIGN PROJECTION CARTESIAN/ PROJECTION FLEXION-TORSION Model: DOFs Affected Rotational Basic Combination Combination Combination Combination Combination Combination Combination Combination Combination Dimensions 3-D 3-D 3-D 3-D 3-D 3-D 3-D 3-D 3-D 3-D Connector load for relative translations Connector load for relative rotations Material: 4.0 120. Connection in two dimensions with friction. Connection in three dimensions.9.0 Translational spring stiffness Translational damping coefﬁcient Mass Torsional spring stiffness Torsional damping coefﬁcient Rotary inertia (isotropic) Results and discussion 48.inp conn_std_force_2d_fric.0 5.inp conn_std_force_3d.0 480.8 48.inp Connection in two dimensions.0 12.0 Abaqus provides the expected solution.

inp conn_xpl_force_3d_fric. conn_xpl_force_2d. Connection in an axisymmetric model.inp conn_xpl_force_2d_fric. Connection in two dimensions with friction.inp conn_xpl_force_axi.inp conn_xpl_force_3d. Connection in three dimensions.inp conn_xpl_force_axi_fric.2–3 . Connection in an axisymmetric model with friction. Connection in an axisymmetric model.inp Connection in two dimensions. Bushing element.inp conn_std_force_bushing. 1.inp conn_std_force_axi.SINUSOIDAL EXCITATION conn_std_force_3d_fric.9. Connection in three dimensions with friction.inp conn_std_force_axi_fric. Connection in an axisymmetric model with friction.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Connection in three dimensions with friction.

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the assembly closes down and reverts to its starting conﬁguration.MULTIPLE INSTANCES OF CONNECTOR ELEMENTS 1. cause the assembly to open up in a smooth sequence to form a riser crane.3–1 .3–1. Model: The model consists of rigid bodies and connector elements as described in the table below. modeled as rigid bodies connected together by means of connector elements.9. Each rigid body pair in the table is connected by rotational and translational basic connector types with connector motion deﬁnitions in each of the available relative components of motion. Table 1. Abaqus/Explicit ACTUATION OF CONNECTED RIGID BODIES Element tested CONN3D2 Problem description This veriﬁcation problem tests the *CONNECTOR MOTION option for prescribing the relative motions of an articulated structure.9. The actuating motions.3–1 Rigid bodies and connectors. is subjected to actuating motions that drive the kinematic connections by speciﬁed amplitude curves.3 MULTIPLE INSTANCES OF CONNECTOR ELEMENTS Products: Abaqus/Standard I. including relative sliding and a two-axes rotation. Tests are conducted both with no friction and with frictional effects in the connections.9. After a drilling and downward motion of the outermost body.9. Basic Connector Types Translational SLOT JOIN SLOT CARTESIAN SLOT JOIN JOIN CARTESIAN Rotational REVOLUTE REVOLUTE ALIGN CARDAN ALIGN REVOLUTE REVOLUTE CARDAN Body 1 Base Arm 1 Arm 1 Arm 2 Riser 1 Riser 2 Crane Chuck Body 2 Arm 1 Cover Arm 2 Riser 1 Riser 2 Crane Chuck Bit The complete model in the fully open conﬁguration with the rigid bodies labeled is shown in Figure 1. 1. A robotic-like crane assembly.

MULTIPLE INSTANCES OF CONNECTOR ELEMENTS chuck crane bit riser 2 riser 1 arm 2 cover arm 1 base 3 2 1 Figure 1. Input files conn_std_craneactuation. which is analyzed using only Abaqus/Explicit.9. Problem description This problem.3–1 Crane assembly in fully open conﬁguration.3–2 . tests the *CONNECTOR STOP option for multiple intermittent contacts. Abaqus/Standard input ﬁle with friction. MARBLES IN A JAR Abaqus/Standard input ﬁle.inp conn_std_craneactuation_fric. Abaqus/Explicit input ﬁle.inp conn_xpl_craneactuation.inp II. The 1.9.inp conn_xpl_craneactuation_fric. Eight rigid spheres (marbles) are dropped into a rigid container (jar). Abaqus/Explicit input ﬁle with friction. Results and discussion Abaqus provides the expected solution for all cases.

come to rest in an equilibrium position at the bottom of the jar.MULTIPLE INSTANCES OF CONNECTOR ELEMENTS marbles move down through the jar and. Model: The jar and marbles are each modeled as rigid bodies. it does not slip through the side walls or fall through the bottom of the jar) by using the *CONNECTOR STOP option. The interaction between the marbles is modeled by deﬁning a connector element for each marble pair. The marbles and jar in their initial and ﬁnal conﬁgurations are shown in Figure 1.9. These connectors constrain the motion of each marble so that the marble remains in the interior of the jar (i. 1.3–3. AXIAL connector types are deﬁned for each pair of marbles.3–2 Marbles and jar in initial conﬁguration.. with the *CONNECTOR STOP option used to constrain the motion of each pair so that the marbles in the pair do not overlap. Each marble is dropped into the jar by deﬁning an initial velocity in the direction of the axis of the jar and specifying a force on each rigid body reference node to simulate gravity. An analytical rigid surface of revolution is deﬁned for each marble to represent the spherical outer surface for visualization purposes only.3–2 and Figure 1. while the interaction between the marbles and the jar is modeled by deﬁning a connector element between each marble and the jar. after some jostling. marbles jar 3 1 2 Figure 1.e.3–3 . RADIAL-THRUST connector types are deﬁned between each marble and the jar.9.9.9.

Results and discussion Abaqus/Explicit provides the expected solution for all cases.inp III. The arms undergo a series of large translations and rotations before reaching their 1. tests the *CONNECTOR LOCK option for an articulated deformable structure. The satellite here consists of a core with large mass and rotary inertia and three comparatively light articulated arms. The complex sequence of motions analyzed is similar to that of a spinning satellite. Problem description This problem. SATELLITE DEPLOYMENT Abaqus/Explicit input ﬁle. with ﬂexible boom arms.9. which is analyzed using both Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard.3–4 . during its deployment. Input file conn_xpl_marblesinjar.3–3 Marbles and jar in ﬁnal conﬁguration.9.MULTIPLE INSTANCES OF CONNECTOR ELEMENTS 3 1 2 Figure 1.

The satellite core is connected to each inner arm by means of a JOIN and a REVOLUTE connection. The booms consist of three parts—the inner arm.9.3–4 and Figure 1. torsional springs are deﬁned in the connections between the inner arms and middle arms and between the middle arms and outer arms using the *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY option. 1. In addition.3–5.3–5 .9. and the outer arm—and are modeled with elastic beam elements. The complete model in the initial and ﬁnal conﬁgurations is shown in Figure 1. the middle arm. middle arm inner arm outer arm satellite core 2 3 1 Figure 1.MULTIPLE INSTANCES OF CONNECTOR ELEMENTS ﬁnal deployment position when they are locked into place. In each of the connections described above. Model: The satellite core is modeled as a rigid body. Tests are conducted both with no friction and with frictional effects in the connections. The torsional springs act in addition to the centrifugal force to help the arms reach their ﬁnal deployed conﬁguration. Each middle arm is connected similarly to its corresponding outer arm. Each inner arm in turn is connected to its corresponding middle arm using the same translational and rotational connection types. the rotations about the local 1-axis are constrained to lock into place once they reach their ﬁnal deployment value of 180° using the *CONNECTOR LOCK option.9. The connections between the components of each arm and between the arms and the satellite core are modeled with connector elements.9. An initial rotating velocity about the global z-axis is speciﬁed for the entire model.3–4 Satellite in initial conﬁguration.

Abaqus/Explicit input ﬁle with friction. Abaqus/Explicit input ﬁle. An abacus consisting of a frame and beads is 1. Abaqus provides the expected solution for all cases. which is analyzed using only Abaqus/Explicit.inp IV.inp conn_xpl_satellitedeploy_fric.MULTIPLE INSTANCES OF CONNECTOR ELEMENTS 2 3 1 Figure 1. tests the *CONNECTOR STOP option for multiple intermittent contacts and kinematic constraints.9.3–6 .9.inp conn_xpl_satellitedeploy. Abaqus/Standard input ﬁle with friction. Abaqus/Standard input ﬁle.3–5 Results and discussion Satellite in ﬁnal deployed conﬁguration. ABACUS SUBJECTED TO PRESCRIBED MOTION Problem description This problem.inp conn_std_satellitedeploy_fric. Input files conn_std_satellitedeploy.

Figure 1. the beads slide up and down the sliders in the frame. The *CONNECTOR STOP option is speciﬁed for the connector elements between the frame and the beads next to the separator.0 1 3 Figure 1.9. consisting of sliders and a separator. The abacus in its initial. ﬁnal.3–7.3–7 . These *CONNECTOR STOP options ensure that the beads slide only along the length of their respective sliders and prevent the beads from leaving the sliders. and two intermediate conﬁgurations is shown in Figure 1.3–6 Abacus at time t = 0.9. bead separator slider 2 t = 0. The frame is subjected to prescribed translations and rotations by means of speciﬁed amplitude curves. the contact interactions between the beads and the frame. and the kinematic constraints between the beads and the frame. Connector elements are used to model the contact interactions between the beads. The *CONNECTOR STOP option is also speciﬁed for the connector elements between the frame and the beads at the extreme end of each slider.3–6.9. AXIAL connector types are deﬁned between adjacent beads on the same slider.3–8. As the frame undergoes large motions. Model: The abacus frame. These elements ensure that each bead moves along its slider and rotates with the frame. is modeled as a single rigid body. Each of the beads is modeled as a rigid body. 1.9. with the *CONNECTOR STOP option used to constrain the relative sliding motion between adjacent beads so that the beads do not overlap. Each bead is also connected to the frame by deﬁning connector elements using the SLOT and ALIGN basic connection types.9. and Figure 1.3–9.9. Figure 1.0.MULTIPLE INSTANCES OF CONNECTOR ELEMENTS modeled. and an analytical rigid surface of revolution is used to model the surface of the bead for visualization purposes only.

1.695.MULTIPLE INSTANCES OF CONNECTOR ELEMENTS t = 1.3–8 Abacus at time t = 2.9.155.9.3–8 . 2 t = 2.9.3–7 Abacus at time t = 1.695 1 3 Figure 1.155 2 3 1 Figure 1.

Results and discussion Abaqus/Explicit provides the expected solution in all cases.9. Input file conn_xpl_abacusmotion. 1.50 2 3 1 Figure 1.MULTIPLE INSTANCES OF CONNECTOR ELEMENTS t = 3.50.9.3–9 .3–9 Abacus at time t = 3.inp Abaqus/Explicit input ﬁle.

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PERIODIC (no relevant temperature or ﬁeld variable dependencies) 5. For both the CARTESIAN and CARDAN connections the following *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY cases are tested: 1.0. *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY. Field variable 1 = 1.4 INDIVIDUAL CONNECTOR OPTION TESTS Products: Abaqus/Standard I.9. Field variable 1 = 2. ﬁeld variable 1 = 2. The behavior options are veriﬁed by applying a concentrated load with the *CONNECTOR LOAD option and achieving a resulting relative displacement (for *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY) or velocity (for *CONNECTOR DAMPING) that corresponds to an analytical solution.4–1 . NONLINEAR (no relevant temperature or ﬁeld variable dependencies) 4.0 b.9. COMPONENT=1 (CARTESIAN) or 4 (CARDAN).0 3. non-connector elements are included for comparison. DEPENDENCIES=2 (coupled) a. ﬁeld variable 1 = 2. Both CARTESIAN and CARDAN connections are employed in these veriﬁcation cases. Temperature = −10. *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY. 1. *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY. NONLINEAR. *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY.0 4 (CARDAN). ﬁeld variable 2 = 0. ﬁeld variable 2 = 0. Temperature = 90. COMPONENT=1 (CARTESIAN) or DEPENDENCIES=1. ﬁeld variable 1 = 1. INDEPENDENT COMPONENTS=POSITION.0. ﬁeld variable 1 = 1.INDIVIDUAL CONNECTOR TESTS 1.5 b.5 b. ﬁeld variable 2 = 1. or 4 (CARDAN).0 2. NONLINEAR with the following dependency settings: a. Temperature = 90. Abaqus/Explicit ELASTIC AND DAMPED CONNECTOR BEHAVIOR Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description These veriﬁcation cases test the performance of connector behavior options not routinely used in other veriﬁcation problems.0. COMPONENT=1 (CARTESIAN) DEPENDENCIES=2 with the following dependency settings: a. *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY. COMPONENT=1 (CARTESIAN) or 4 (CARDAN). This section focuses on spring or damper behaviors via the *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY and *CONNECTOR DAMPING options. INDEPENDENT COMPONENTS=CONSTITUTIVE MOTION.0. ﬁeld variable 2 =1. Equivalent. Temperature = −10.

PERIODIC (no relevant temperature or ﬁeld variable dependencies) 4. DEPENDENCIES=1 (coupled) with the following dependency settings: a. ﬁeld variable 1 = 1. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files misc_elascart_std_conn2d. COMPONENT=1 (CARTESIAN) or DEPENDENCIES=1. Temperature = −10.inp misc_dampcardan_std_conn3d.inp misc_dampcart_xpl_conn2d. Temperature = 90. Damping connector behavior. COMPONENT=1 (CARTESIAN) DEPENDENCIES=2 with the following dependency settings: a. INDEPENDENT COMPONENTS=POSITION. Damping connector behavior.inp misc_elascart_std_conn3d. for both the CARTESIAN and CARDAN connections the following *CONNECTOR DAMPING cases are tested: 1. misc_elascart_xpl_conn2d.5 b. Field variable 1 = 1.inp misc_elascart_xpl_conn3d.inp misc_elascardan_std_conn3d.INDIVIDUAL CONNECTOR TESTS Similarly. ﬁeld variable 1 = 1. COMPONENT=1 (CARTESIAN). Results and discussion Abaqus matches the analytical solution for all relevant dependency settings. ﬁeld variable 2 = 0.inp misc_dampcart_std_conn2d.inp Elastic connector behavior. Damping connector behavior.0 Model: The models consist of a series of independent. 1. ﬁeld variable 1 = 2.0.9.inp misc_dampcart_xpl_conn3d.inp misc_dampcart_std_conn3d. *CONNECTOR DAMPING. NONLINEAR with the following dependency settings: a. *CONNECTOR DAMPING. ﬁeld variable 1 = 2. Damping connector behavior. 4 (CARDAN). *CONNECTOR DAMPING.4–2 . Elastic connector behavior.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Elastic connector behavior. Elastic connector behavior.0 b. Field variable 1 = 2.inp misc_elascardan_xpl_conn3d. NONLINEAR.0. connector behaviors. Temperature = −10. Damping connector behavior.0 2. *CONNECTOR DAMPING.0 3.0 b. ﬁeld variable 2 = 1. Elastic connector behavior. Elastic connector behavior. Temperature = 90. 2-node connector elements with relevant or 4 (CARDAN).

RIGID option. RIGID option match the results from analyses using intrinsically constrained components. Equivalent models with intrinsically constrained components of relative motion are created. For the two-dimensional analyses. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files misc_rigcart_std_conn3d. and the results are compared. The behavior options are veriﬁed by applying a concentrated load via a nodal concentrated load option. Element tested CONN3D2 Problem description These veriﬁcation cases test the connector rigid behavior deﬁned using the *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY. Results and discussion The results from analyses using the *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY.4–3 . no regularization of tabular data.INDIVIDUAL CONNECTOR TESTS misc_dampcart_xpl_conn3d_irreg.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Rigid connector behavior.inp misc_dampcardan_xpl_conn3d. a CARTESIAN connection is used. Rigid connector behavior. Rigid connector behavior.inp II. An assembled connection using the basic connection types CARTESIAN and CARDAN is used.9. such that some force is created in the connector. misc_rigcart_xpl_conn3d. Both CARTESIAN and CARDAN connections are used.inp misc_rigcard_xpl_conn3d.inp III. Rigid connector behavior. CONNECTOR RIGID BEHAVIOR Damping connector behavior. Damping connector behavior. 1. CONNECTOR PLASTIC BEHAVIOR Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description These veriﬁcation cases test the connector elastic-plastic and rigid-plastic behavior deﬁned using the *CONNECTOR PLASTICITY and *CONNECTOR HARDENING options in association with the *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY and *CONNECTOR POTENTIAL options.inp misc_rigcard_std_conn3d.

inp misc_linelasplas_std_conn2d.4–4 .inp misc_rigplas_std_conn3d. For the two-dimensional analyses.inp misc_linelasplas_xpl_conn2d.inp misc_linelasplas_xpl_conn3d_irreg. An assembled connection using the basic connection types CARTESIAN and CARDAN is used for all cases except one case where the assembled connection type BUSHING is used. Linear elastic-plastic connector behavior. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files misc_linelasplas_std_conn3d.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Linear elastic-plastic connector behavior.inp misc_rigplas_xpl_conn3d. a CARTESIAN connection is used. Results and discussion Abaqus matches the analytical solution for all relevant settings. Results and discussion Abaqus matches the expected solutions for all relevant settings. no CONNECTOR DAMAGE BEHAVIOR Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description These veriﬁcation cases test the connector elastic (linear and nonlinear) and rigid-plastic behavior with damage deﬁned using the *CONNECTOR DAMAGE INITIATION and *CONNECTOR DAMAGE EVOLUTION options in association with the *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY. regularization of tabular data. and *CONNECTOR HARDENING options. *CONNECTOR PLASTICITY. Nonlinear elastic-plastic connector behavior. 1.inp misc_nonlinelasplas_xpl_conn3d. misc_linelasplas_xpl_conn3d.INDIVIDUAL CONNECTOR TESTS The behavior options are veriﬁed by applying a concentrated load with the *CONNECTOR LOAD option and achieving a resulting relative motion or relative plastic motion that corresponds to an analytical solution. Rigid-plastic connector behavior. Linear elastic-plastic connector behavior. Linear elastic-plastic connector behavior.inp misc_nonlinelasplas_std_conn3d. Linear elastic-plastic connector behavior.9. Rigid-plastic connector behavior.inp IV. Nonlinear elastic-plastic connector behavior.

linear extrapolation.inp misc_rigplas_dam_std_bushing. linear extrapolation. V. no regularization of tabular data.4–5 . misc_rigplas_dam_xpl_bushing. misc_rigplas_dam_xpl_bushing_xtrpl.inp misc_dam_sectcontrol_std. misc_rigplas_dam_xpl_irregxtrpl. Nonlinear elastic with damage connector behavior.inp misc_nonlinelas_dam_std_conn2d.inp Nonlinear elastic with damage connector behavior. Rigid-plastic with damage connector behavior using the BUSHING connection.9.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Nonlinear elastic with damage connector behavior. Section control options for connector damage.inp Nonlinear elastic with damage connector behavior.inp misc_rigplas_dam_std_conn3d. misc_elas_dam_mult_xpl_conn3d. linear extrapolation. misc_nonlinelas_dam_xpl_conn3d. Linear elastic with multiple damage mechanisms connector behavior. Rigid-plastic with damage connector behavior using the BUSHING connection.inp Rigid-plastic with damage connector behavior using the BUSHING connection.inp Rigid-plastic with damage connector behavior.inp Nonlinear elastic with damage connector behavior.inp misc_elas_dam_mult_std_conn3d. no regularization of tabular data.inp Rigid-plastic with damage connector behavior using the BUSHING connection. misc_nonlinelas_dam_xpl_conn2d_irreg. misc_rigplas_dam_xpl_conn3d. Plastic with damage connector behavior using the BUSHING connection. Rigid-plastic with damage connector behavior.inp Linear elastic with multiple damage mechanisms connector behavior.inp misc_conn_plasdamage_spotweld. misc_nonlinelas_dam_xpl_conn2d.INDIVIDUAL CONNECTOR TESTS Input files Abaqus/Standard input files misc_nonlinelas_dam_std_conn3d. CONNECTOR UNIAXIAL BEHAVIOR Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description These veriﬁcation cases test the connector uniaxial behavior deﬁned by prescribing the loading/unloading response for the component of relative motion using the *CONNECTOR UNIAXIAL BEHAVIOR 1.inp misc_rigplas_dam_std_bushing_xtrpl.inp Rigid-plastic with damage connector behavior using the BUSHING connection.

CONDITIONAL POSITION-DEPENDENT CONNECTOR BEHAVIOR Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description This section focuses on stopping and locking behaviors deﬁned with the *CONNECTOR STOP and *CONNECTOR LOCK options. misc_uniaxial_mixed_onset_xpl_conn3d.inp Connector uniaxial behavior models with permanent deformation. Input files Abaqus/Explicit input files misc_uniaxial_damage_xpl_conn3d. nonconnector elements are included for comparison.inp Combining different uniaxial behavior models in tension and compression.inp Connector uniaxial behavior models with damage. The behavior options are veriﬁed by applying a concentrated load and achieving a resulting relative motion that corresponds to the prescribed loading/unloading response.inp Combining different uniaxial behavior models in tension and compression. Results and discussion Abaqus matches the prescribed loading/unloading response for all relevant settings. For CARTESIAN connections the following *CONNECTOR LOCK cases are tested: 1. In Step 1 a concentrated load is applied with the *CONNECTOR LOAD option. misc_uniaxial_indepcomp_xpl_conn3d. misc_uniaxial_mixed_xpl_conn3d. An AXIAL connection type is employed in these veriﬁcation cases.9.inp Rate-dependent connector uniaxial behavior.INDIVIDUAL CONNECTOR TESTS option in association with the *LOADING DATA and *UNLOADING DATA options. misc_uniaxial_ratedep. tensile behavior exhibiting permanent deformation after a speciﬁed onset of yield and compressive behavior with damage after a speciﬁed onset of damage. Both CARTESIAN and CARDAN connections are used. The behavior options are veriﬁed through a two-step load history.inp Connector uniaxial behavior where the loading/unloading response depends on relative motion in several component directions. VI. In the Abaqus/Standard tests a linear perturbation *STATIC analysis is performed in the third step. such that the resulting connector motion will exceed the prescribed motion limits for either the connector stop or lock. Equivalent. misc_uniaxial_permdeform_xpl_conn3d.4–6 . In Step 2 the load direction is reversed to conﬁrm the stopping or locking behavior.

the following *CONNECTOR LOCK cases are tested: 1. COMPONENT=3. Results and discussion Abaqus matches the analytical solution for all relevant settings. COMPONENT=4. the following *CONNECTOR STOP cases are tested: 1. The behavior option is veriﬁed by applying a concentrated load (with the *CONNECTOR LOAD option) or displacement (with the *CONNECTOR MOTION option) such that the connector failure limits are exceeded. the following *CONNECTOR FAILURE cases are tested: 1.9. FAILURE Lock connector behavior. LOCK=ALL 2. *CONNECTOR LOCK.INDIVIDUAL CONNECTOR TESTS 1.4–7 . *CONNECTOR STOP. LOCK=2 For CARDAN connections. Stop connector behavior. Stop connector behavior. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files misc_lock_std_conn3d. Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description This section focuses on failure behavior using the *CONNECTOR FAILURE option. LOCK=4 (with rotation criterion) or 6 (with moment criterion) For CARTESIAN and CARDAN connections. COMPONENT=2 (CARTESIAN) or 6 (CARDAN) Model: The models consist of a series of independent. *CONNECTOR STOP. COMPONENT=1 (CARTESIAN) or 4 (CARDAN) 2.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Lock connector behavior. *CONNECTOR LOCK. *CONNECTOR LOCK.inp misc_stop_std_conn3d. For CARTESIAN connections. LOCK=4 (with rotation criterion) or 6 (with moment criterion) 2. COMPONENT=1. misc_lock_xpl_conn3d.inp misc_stop_xpl_conn3d. 2-node connector elements with relevant connector behaviors. *CONNECTOR LOCK.inp VII. COMPONENT=4. Both CARTESIAN and CARDAN connections are employed in these veriﬁcation cases.

9. RELEASE=ALL 2. PLANAR. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files misc_fail_std_conn2d. COMPONENT=6. Both the predeﬁned and the user-customized friction behavior are tested. Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description This section focuses on Coulomb-like friction behaviors using the *CONNECTOR FRICTION. COMPONENT=3. The behavior options are veriﬁed by applying concentrated loads or displacements to create nonzero contact forces and some relative motion in the connectors. and relative slip) are monitored to assess the solution quality. The friction-related output quantities (friction forces.4–8 . RADIAL-THRUST. Most connection types for which friction can be deﬁned are tested. In the Abaqus/Standard tests both *STATIC and *DYNAMIC analyses are performed. In many of the Abaqus/Standard input ﬁles. FLEXION-TORSION. REVOLUTE. SLIDE-PLANE. and the *CONNECTOR POTENTIAL options. 2-node connector elements with relevant connector behaviors. UNIVERSAL. and *RANDOM RESPONSE) are also perfomed with or without the *LOAD CASE option. ROTATION. COMPONENT=4.inp misc_fail_xpl_conn3d. Various friction 1. and UJOINT. CARTESIAN. RELEASE=ALL 2. the following *CONNECTOR FAILURE cases are tested: 1. Results and discussion Abaqus matches the expected solutions for all cases. FRICTION Failure connector behavior. *CONNECTOR FAILURE. COMPONENT=1. *CONNECTOR FAILURE. *FREQUENCY. HINGE.INDIVIDUAL CONNECTOR TESTS 1. CYLINDRICAL. SLOT. *CONNECTOR FAILURE. misc_fail_xpl_conn2d. TRANSLATOR. EULER.inp misc_fail_std_conn3d. RELEASE=4 Model: The models consist of a series of independent. Failure connector behavior. the *CONNECTOR DERIVED COMPONENT. *CONNECTOR FAILURE.inp VIII. Failure connector behavior. perturbation procedures (*STEADY STATE DYNAMICS. contact forces.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Failure connector behavior. RELEASE=2 For CARDAN connections. including: AXIAL. CARDAN.

Friction connector behavior in the ball-in-socket-like connection types (JOIN and one of the following: CARDAN.inp misc_connfric_std_hard. Friction connector behavior in the AXIAL connection type (two-dimensional test).inp misc_connfric_std_hinge. or ROTATION).inp misc_connfric_std_cylindrical.inp misc_connfric_std_cartesian2d. or ROTATION) with constant contact force.inp misc_connfric_std_axial2d.inp misc_connfric_std_cartesian. FLEXION-TORSION. EULER.inp misc_connfric_std_bushing. Friction connector behavior in the PLANAR connection type. Friction connector behavior in the CARTESIAN connection type (two-dimensional test). Results and discussion Abaqus matches the expected solutions for all cases.inp misc_connfric_std_ballconst. Friction connector behavior in the HINGE connection type. Friction connector behavior in the HINGE and CYLINDRICAL connection types modeling hardening plasticity-like behavior. FLEXION-TORSION. Friction connector behavior in the ball-in-socket-like connection types (JOIN and one of the following: CARDAN.inp misc_connfric_std_ballinsocket. 2-node connector elements with relevant connector behaviors. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files misc_connfric_std_axial.inp misc_connfric_std_cart2d_lock.9. 1.inp Friction connector behavior in the AXIAL connection type (three-dimensional test). Friction connector behavior in the CARTESIAN connection type with *CONNECTOR LOCK (twodimensional test). Friction connector behavior in the bushing-like connection types (modeled here with CARTESIAN and FLEXION-TORSION). Friction connector behavior in the CYLINDRICAL connection type.INDIVIDUAL CONNECTOR TESTS models as deﬁned by the *FRICTION option under the *SURFACE INTERACTION or *CHANGE FRICTION options are tested as well.4–9 . Model: The models consist of a series of independent. Friction connector behavior in the CARTESIAN connection type (three-dimensional test).inp misc_connfric_std_planar.

inp misc_connfric_xpl_bushing. Friction connector behavior in the ball-in-socket-like connection types (JOIN and one of the following: CARDAN. Friction connector behavior in the bushing-like connection types (modeled here with CARTESIAN and FLEXION-TORSION).9.inp Friction connector behavior in the AXIAL connection type (three-dimensional test). or ROTATION). Friction connector behavior in the CARTESIAN connection type (three-dimensional test). Friction connector behavior in the SLOT connection type (three-dimensional test).inp misc_connfric_std_ujoint.INDIVIDUAL CONNECTOR TESTS misc_connfric_std_radialthrust.inp misc_connfric_std_slot2d. Friction connector behavior in the HINGE and CYLINDRICAL connection types modeling hardening plasticity-like behavior. Friction connector behavior in the UJOINT connection type. or ROTATION) with constant contact force. Friction connector behavior in the SLOT connection type (two-dimensional test).inp misc_connfric_std_translator. 1.inp misc_connfric_xpl_cartesian. EULER.inp misc_connfric_xpl_ballinsocket.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Friction connector behavior in the RADIAL-THRUST connection type. Friction connector behavior in the SLIDE-PLANE connection type. FLEXION-TORSION. misc_connfric_xpl_axial. Friction connector behavior in the CYLINDRICAL connection type.inp misc_connfric_xpl_cylindrical. Friction connector behavior in the CARTESIAN connection type (two-dimensional test). Friction connector behavior in the ball-in-socket-like connection types (JOIN and one of the following: CARDAN.inp misc_connfric_std_revolute. Friction connector behavior in the AXIAL connection type (two-dimensional test). Friction connector behavior in the SLOT connection type in a restart analysis.inp misc_connfric_std_slideplane.inp misc_connfric_std_slot.4–10 . Friction connector behavior in the TRANSLATOR connection type.inp misc_connfric_xpl_axial2d.inp misc_connfric_std_slot_res. Friction connector behavior in the REVOLUTE connection type.inp misc_connfric_xpl_hard.inp misc_connfric_xpl_ballconst.inp misc_connfric_xpl_cartesian2d. FLEXION-TORSION.

4–11 . In the Abaqus/Standard tests a linear perturbation *STATIC analysis is performed in the last step. *CONNECTOR MOTION. Friction connector behavior in the SLOT connection type (two-dimensional test). The *CONNECTOR MOTION. IX. USER 1. USER option is veriﬁed by applying a relative displacement between the connector nodes using user subroutine DISP. FIXED option is veriﬁed by inducing a relative displacement between the connector nodes in the ﬁrst step of the load history. Friction connector behavior in the SLOT connection type in a restart analysis.INDIVIDUAL CONNECTOR TESTS misc_connfric_xpl_hinge. Friction connector behavior in the UJOINT connection type.inp misc_connfric_xpl_ujoint. The *CONNECTOR MOTION cases tested are: 1. The *CONNECTOR MOTION. *CONNECTOR MOTION. Friction connector behavior in the TRANSLATOR connection type.inp misc_connfric_xpl_planar.9. *CONNECTOR MOTION.inp misc_connfric_xpl_slideplane. TYPE=ACCELERATION 4. Friction connector behavior in the PLANAR connection type. Friction connector behavior in the REVOLUTE connection type. CONNECTOR ACTUATION OPTIONS Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description This section focuses on actuation behaviors using the *CONNECTOR MOTION option. TYPE=VELOCITY or TYPE=ACCELERATION options are veriﬁed by applying a relative velocity or acceleration to the connector element and obtaining a resulting relative displacement and connector load that correspond to the analytical solution for the prescribed conditions. then ﬁxing the motion and applying a concentrated load to verify no motion occurs. The *CONNECTOR MOTION. TYPE=VELOCITY 3.inp misc_connfric_xpl_slot2d.inp Friction connector behavior in the HINGE connection type. Friction connector behavior in the SLOT connection type (three-dimensional test).inp misc_connfric_xpl_slot_res. CARTESIAN and CARDAN connections are used in these veriﬁcation cases.inp misc_connfric_xpl_slot. *CONNECTOR MOTION. Friction connector behavior in the SLIDE-PLANE connection type.inp misc_connfric_xpl_revolute. FIXED 2.inp misc_connfric_xpl_translator.

RESTART. misc_motionu_xpl_conn3d.inp misc_motionv_xpl_conn3d. Connector acceleration actuation.inp with connector elements in *RESTART Abaqus/Standard.inp misc_dam_restart_std. Results and discussion The analyses match the expected behavior. and *POST OUTPUT. AND *POST OUTPUT Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description These veriﬁcation cases test connector elements with options not routinely tested in other veriﬁcation problems: *RESTART.4–12 .inp misc_motiona_std_conn3d. Results and discussion Abaqus matches the expected solutions for all cases. Connector velocity actuation. Connector acceleration actuation.inp X. *MODEL CHANGE with connector elements in Abaqus/Standard.inp misc_motiona_xpl_conn3d. *POST OUTPUT with connector elements in Abaqus/Standard.inp misc_postout_std_conn3d.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Connector displacement actuation. 2-node connector elements with relevant connector behaviors.INDIVIDUAL CONNECTOR TESTS Model: The models consist of a series of independent.inp misc_motionv_std_conn3d. *RESTART with connector damage in Abaqus/Standard. 1. MODEL CHANGE. Connector velocity actuation. Connector displacement actuation. *MODEL CHANGE.9. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files misc_motionu_std_conn3d.inp misc_mdlch_std_conn3d. Input files misc_restart_std_conn3d.

Perturbation loads are applied via connector actuation using both the *CONNECTOR LOAD and *CONNECTOR MOTION options. When the load is applied with *CONNECTOR MOTION. and LOAD CASE=2 is used to deﬁne the connector motion for the buckling modes.9. CARTESIAN. Eigenvalue buckling analysis with CONN2D2 elements.CONNECTORS IN PERTURBATION ANALYSES 1. Input files buckle_conn2d. NATURAL FREQUENCY EXTRACTION Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description These veriﬁcation cases test the performance of connector elements in natural frequency extraction (*FREQUENCY) procedures. and CARDAN connections with elastic connector behavior are employed. Results and discussion Abaqus results match the expected solution for all cases. the LOAD CASE=1 parameter is used to deﬁne the connector motion for the application of loads. AXIAL. The column is modeled with beam elements. CARTESIAN.5 CONNECTOR ELEMENTS IN PERTURBATION ANALYSES Product: Abaqus/Standard I.5–1 .9. Elastic connector behavior is deﬁned with the *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY option. Elastic connector behaviors are deﬁned with the *CONNECTOR 1. Model: The models consist of a series of 2-node connector elements that support and actuate a column. Results are veriﬁed by comparison with either analytical solutions or numerical results from equivalent models without connector elements. Eigenvalue buckling analysis with CONN3D2 elements.inp buckle_conn3d. AXIAL.inp II. and CARDAN connections with elastic connector behavior are employed. EIGENVALUE BUCKLING ANALYSIS Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description These veriﬁcation cases test the performance of connector elements in eigenvalue buckling (*BUCKLE) procedures.

Input files freq_conn2d. Frequency extraction analysis with CONN3D2 elements. AXIAL. TRANSIENT MODAL DYNAMIC ANALYSIS Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description These veriﬁcation cases test the performance of connector elements in transient modal dynamic (*MODAL DYNAMIC) procedures.inp freq_conn3d. AND SUBSPACE Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 1.inp III. The column is modeled with beam elements. The column is modeled with beam elements. Elastic connector behavior is deﬁned with the *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY option. Results and discussion Abaqus results match the expected solution for all cases. MODAL. Results are veriﬁed by comparison with either analytical solutions or numerical results from equivalent models without connector elements.5–2 . Model: The models consist of a series of independent. 2-node connector elements that support and actuate a column.9.inp Transient modal dynamic analysis with CONN2D2 elements. Model: The models consist of a series of 2-node connector elements supporting a column that is subjected to a dynamic load. Results are veriﬁed by comparison with either analytical solutions or numerical results from equivalent models without connector elements. Results and discussion Abaqus results match the expected solution for all cases. and CARDAN connections with elastic connector behavior are employed.inp modal_conn3d.CONNECTORS IN PERTURBATION ANALYSES ELASTICITY option. Frequency extraction analysis with CONN2D2 elements. Input files modal_conn2d. Transient modal dynamic analysis with CONN3D2 elements. STEADY-STATE DYNAMIC ANALYSES: DIRECT. IV. CARTESIAN.

CARTESIAN connectors. Steady-state dynamics.9. ROTATION connectors. and CARDAN are tested in these procedures. Steady-state dynamics. The connection types AXIAL. Actuation is achieved using the *CONNECTOR LOAD and *CONNECTOR MOTION options. Elastic and damping connector behaviors are deﬁned for the connections using the *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY and *CONNECTOR DAMPING options. Input files ssd_conn2d_axi. Steady-state dynamics. CARDAN connectors.inp V. *STEADY STATE DYNAMICS and *STEADY STATE DYNAMICS.inp ssd_conn3d_cardan. ROTATION. The system is subjected to both a displacement and a velocity spectrum. DIRECT.inp ssd_conn3d_cart. AXIAL connectors. Elastic and damping connector behaviors are deﬁned for all connections using the *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY and *CONNECTOR DAMPING options. Both AXIAL and CARTESIAN connections are employed.inp ssd_conn2d_rot. Results are veriﬁed by comparison with either analytical solutions or numerical results from equivalent models without connector elements. respectively. and the modal based procedures. 1. Two connector elements are connected in series and actuated by the third connector. Model: The models consist of three connector elements with nodal masses. Abaqus offers the following steady-state dynamic procedures: the direct-solution procedure. The real and imaginary parts of the loading are speciﬁed with the REAL and IMAGINARY parameters. CARTESIAN.5–3 .CONNECTORS IN PERTURBATION ANALYSES Problem description These veriﬁcation cases test the performance of connector elements in steady-state dynamic analyses. RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description These veriﬁcation cases test the performance of connector elements in response spectrum (*RESPONSE SPECTRUM) analysis. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE. Model: The models consist of three connector elements with nodal masses. SUBSPACE PROJECTION. *STEADY STATE DYNAMICS. Steady-state dynamics. Results and discussion Abaqus results match the expected solution for all cases. Results are veriﬁed by comparison with either analytical solutions or numerical results from equivalent models without connector elements. Results and discussion Abaqus results match the expected solution for all cases.

CONNECTOR LOCK. Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description These veriﬁcation cases test the performance of connector elements in random response (*RANDOM RESPONSE) analysis. Two connector elements are connected in series and actuated by the third connector with a nondeterministic load. STOP. Random response analysis. PLASTICITY. ROTATION.inp conn_quake_dis.inp VI. Response spectrum analysis. DAMAGE. RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS Response spectrum analysis. Random response analysis. ROTATION connectors. and CARDAN connections are employed.inp random_conn3d_cardan. CARDAN connectors. Model: The models consist of three connector elements with nodal masses. CARTESIAN. The cross-spectral density frequency function of the random loading is speciﬁed with the *PSD-DEFINITION option.inp random_conn3d_cart. AXIAL connectors. Elastic and damping connector behaviors are deﬁned for the connections using the *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY and *CONNECTOR DAMPING options. AXIAL.inp random_conn2d_rot.inp rs_conn3d_cart.5–4 . Random response analysis. AND FRICTION BEHAVIOR IN PERTURBATION PROCEDURES Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 1. Input data for the velocity spectrum. Input data for the displacement spectrum.inp conn_quake_vel. Input files random_conn2d_axi. AXIAL connectors. CARTESIAN connectors. Random response analysis.9. The case considered here is uncorrelated white noise. Results are veriﬁed by comparison with either analytical solutions or numerical results from equivalent models without connector elements.inp VII. CARTESIAN connectors. Results and discussion Abaqus results match the expected solution for all cases.CONNECTORS IN PERTURBATION ANALYSES Input files rs_conn2d_axi. The system is exposed to a nondeterministic loading applied via the *CONNECTOR LOAD option.

CARDAN connector.inp plasdam_conn3d_cardan. or friction behavior are exceeded. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE. Friction connector behavior.CONNECTORS IN PERTURBATION ANALYSES Problem description These veriﬁcation cases test the performance of lock. CARDAN connectors.inp damage_conn3d_cardan. One of the connectors has the relevant lock. The perturbation steps are preceded by general static steps where a load is applied such that the corresponding prescribed limits for the locking. DIRECT procedures. plasticity. AXIAL connectors. Stop connector behavior. and friction connector behavior is tested in both *FREQUENCY and *STEADY STATE DYNAMICS.inp frict_conn3d_cardan. stop. For the lock and stop cases the load direction is reversed in a subsequent step to conﬁrm the locking or stopping behavior. deﬁned with the *CONNECTOR LOCK. AXIAL connectors. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE. Stop connector behavior. damage. The performance of lock.9. stopping. stop. Model: The models consist of three connector elements with nodal masses. The behavior options are veriﬁed through a multistep load history. CARDAN connector. Results and discussion Abaqus results match the expected solution for all cases.inp stop_conn3d_cardan. *CONNECTOR PLASTICITY and *CONNECTOR HARDENING. CARDAN connectors. Plastic relative motions do not change in linear perturbation procedures.5–5 . thus.inp frict_conn2d_axi. damage initiation. 1. the status of connector locks and stops cannot change during a linear perturbation analysis. Plasticity connector behavior. Frictional slipping is not allowed during linear perturbation procedures. respectively. damage.inp Lock connector behavior. stop. plasticity. These options are tested separately. *CONNECTOR STOP. Both AXIAL and CARDAN connections are employed.inp lock_conn3d_cardan. Friction connector behavior. and *CONNECTOR FRICTION options.inp plasdam_conn2d_axi. Plasticity connector behavior. AXIAL connectors. *CONNECTOR DAMAGE INITIATION and *CONNECTOR DAMAGE EVOLUTION. AXIAL connectors.inp stop_conn2d_axi. all available components of relative motion with connector friction behavior should remain ﬁxed and equal to the values from the base state. Input files lock_conn2d_axi. or friction behaviors. Damage connector behavior. Lock connector behavior. plasticity. Similarly. plasticity. and friction connector behaviors in perturbation analyses. CARDAN connectors.

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which is half the 2. 3. In each system one of the ends of the belt is fully ﬁxed. 2. System 1: a. 1. Apply velocity-type boundary conditions on degree of freedom 2 at the free end (to displace the node by 2. Apply boundary conditions to constrain degrees of freedom 1. 3. b. b. 2. and different sets of boundary conditions are applied at the other free end to displace the applied load by similar distance. and 10 (the material ﬂow degree of freedom) at the left end of the belt system. 2.9. The analysis compares the results of two separate pulley-belt systems.125 units in both systems. 1. c. Results and discussion The load displaces by 1. as described below. a well-known analytical result. half the 10 unit load applied to each system and again matching analytical results. each displacing similar loads though the same distance. A high elastic moduli is speciﬁed for the belt of the SLIPRING via the *CONNECTOR ELASTICITY option to achieve inextensible behavior.25 unit length of belt material pulled out at the free end. 3. Abaqus/Explicit FRICTIONLESS SLIPRING CONNECTORS Element tested CONN3D2 Problem description The SLIPRING connection type is veriﬁed via a frictionless pulley and inextensible belt system. and 10 at the left end of the belt system. System 2: a. Apply velocity-type boundary conditions on degree of freedom 10 at the free end (to pull out 2.25 units of belt material).SPECIAL-PURPOSE CONNECTORS 1. Each system models the belt passing over the pulley using two SLIPRING connector elements sharing a common node. Apply boundary conditions at the right end to constrain degrees of freedom 1. In all cases the material ﬂowing out of the ﬁrst connector element equals the material ﬂowing into the second connector element.9.6 TESTS FOR SPECIAL-PURPOSE CONNECTORS Products: Abaqus/Standard I. Apply boundary conditions at the right end to constrain degrees of freedom 1.25 units). Results are compared against well-known analytical results.6–1 . c. A load of 10 units is applied at the common node of the SLIPRING-type connector elements. The belt tension in each SLIPRING is 5 units. 2. and 3. Apply boundary conditions to constrain degrees of freedom 1. and 10.

Input files Abaqus/Standard input files misc_slipring3_fric_conn3d_std.inp II. A time varying amplitude is speciﬁed for these loads to cause the belt to slip in one direction ﬁrst and then reverse and slip in the opposite direction. FRICTIONAL SLIPRING CONNECTORS Element tested CONN3D2 Problem description Frictional behavior in the SLIPRING connection types is veriﬁed by comparing computed results with the analytical reference solution.inp Abaqus/Explicit input file SLIPRING with linear elastic connector behavior. Linear elastic connector behavior with connector friction. Concentrated nodal loads are applied at the two free ends. Both linear elastic and nonlinear elastic connector behaviors have been veriﬁed in separate tests. Nonlinear elastic connector behavior with connector friction.inp misc_slipring3_nlelasfric_conn3d_xpl. Nonlinear elastic-plastic connector behavior with connector friction. misc_elasslipring_xpl_conn3d.1.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Linear elastic connector behavior with connector friction. It is veriﬁed that for linear and nonlinear elastic behavior. The coefﬁcient of friction µ is 0. The angle α between adjacent SLIPRING connections is held constant at 90°. the belt tension ratio changes from to as the belt reverses in slip direction.SPECIAL-PURPOSE CONNECTORS Input files Abaqus/Standard input file misc_elasslipring_std_conn3d.9. Results and discussion When the belt slips. which is modeled using three SLIPRING connections.inp misc_slipring_nlelasplas_conn3d_std.inp Linear elastic connector behavior with connector friction.inp misc_slipring3_fric_conn2d_std. the ratio of the belt tensions in the adjacent SLIPRING connections in given by when and when . 1. SLIPRING with linear elastic connector behavior. misc_slipring3_fric_conn3d_xpl.6–2 . The test consists of a system of two pulleys and a belt passing over the pulleys.

TYPE=VELOCITY of magnitude V in the local 2 direction.inp misc_slipringretractor_conn3d_std. The angular velocity at node 1 of the BEAM connector.inp misc_ﬂowconverter_std_conn2d. Retractor-type connection.and retractor-type connection. ACCELEROMETER CONNECTORS Element tested CONN3D2 Problem description These veriﬁcation cases test the ACCELEROMETER and ROTATION-ACCELEROMETER connection types.inp Abaqus/Explicit input file Retractor-type connection. Node 2 of the accelerometer is moved via *CONNECTOR MOTION. misc_ﬂowconverter_xpl_conn3d.inp IV. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files misc_ﬂowconverter_std_conn3d. is V/R. Two sets of RETRACTOR connections are used. where R is the length of the BEAM connector. Results and discussion The measured material ﬂow and rotations agree with the applied boundary conditions. 2. In the second case degree of freedom 6 at node a is driven via boundary condition and degree of freedom 10 is measured at node b (all other degrees of freedom at the nodes are held ﬁxed). In the ﬁrst case an ACCELEROMETER connection is used in conjunction with a BEAM connector. about the axis of rotation. In the ﬁrst case the material ﬂow degree of freedom (10) at node b is driven via boundary condition and the degree of freedom 6 is measured at node a (all other degrees of freedom at the nodes are held ﬁxed). 1. RETRACTOR CONNECTORS Elements tested CONN2D2 CONN3D2 Problem description These veriﬁcation cases test the RETRACTOR (FLOW-CONVERTER) connection types.9.SPECIAL-PURPOSE CONNECTORS III. SLIPRING. and 3. Node 1 of the accelerometer is fully constrained.6–3 . Retractor-type connection. Node 1 of the BEAM connector is constrained in degrees of freedom 1. and node 2 of the accelerometer is constrained to move radially by the BEAM connector.

SPECIAL-PURPOSE CONNECTORS The conﬁguration of the second case is identical to that in case 1. 1. Node 2 of accelerometer moves along the radial path with a velocity of constant magnitude .inp Accelerometer-type connection. a ROTATION-ACCELEROMETER is also deﬁned between the same two nodes. However.9. In this case an angular velocity of is applied to node 1 of the BEAM connector.6–4 . Input file Abaqus/Explicit input file misc_acclmeter_xpl_conn3d. The rotational velocity in the local system of the ROTATION-ACCELEROMETER also agrees with the applied angular velocity at node 1 of the BEAM connector. TYPE=VELOCITY of the accelerometer. For case 2 the translational velocity in the local system of the accelerometer agrees with the applied angular velocity at node 1 of the BEAM connector. Node 2 of the accelerometer is constrained to have the same angular velocity since it is also node 2 of the BEAM connector. in this case in addition to an ACCELEROMETER. Results and discussion For case 1 the angular velocity at node 1 of the BEAM connector agrees with the applied *CONNECTOR MOTION.

10.10 Special-purpose stress/displacement elements • • • • “Flexible joint element.” Section 1.SPECIAL-PURPOSE STRESS/DISPLACEMENT ELEMENTS 1.10–1 .10.4 1.1 “Line spring elements.10.” Section 1.2 “Distributing coupling elements.” Section 1.3 “Drag chain elements.10.” Section 1.

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10.1 FLEXIBLE JOINT ELEMENT Product: Abaqus/Standard Element tested JOINTC Problem description The behavior of the joint is deﬁned in a local coordinate system that rotates with the motion of the ﬁrst node of the JOINTC element. 1.FLEXIBLE JOINT ELEMENT 1.10. z θ3 u3 θ2 u2 y u1 θ1 x The fourth test includes linear dashpots. A spring and dashpot system is modeled using SPRING1 and DASHPOT1 elements and also with a JOINTC element utilizing the *DASHPOT option.1–1 . The ﬁrst three tests consist of linear springs that couple the corresponding components of relative displacement and of relative rotation in the joint.

02588 at node 1. and 3. Step 2 (dynamic): The applied displacements at nodes 1 and 101 are released. Step 2: Applied forces and moments at node 2 are equal to 1. 1. respectively. and 300 for degrees of freedom 1. Boundary conditions for linear behavior: Node 1 is clamped. Step 3: A rotation of 90° is prescribed about the global 3-axis at node 1. Step 4: In addition to the conditions at the end of the previous step. 500. A moment of magnitude 80 is applied about the global 1-axis at node 2.12 for degree of freedom 1.0 and all other degrees of freedom suppressed.0 × 10−3 for all degrees of freedom. dashpot coefﬁcients = 0. 5. and 600 for degrees of freedom 4. Step 2: A rotation of 90° is prescribed about the global 3-axis at node 1 (see (*) below). Step 2: The moment is removed.0. 100 at node 2.FLEXIBLE JOINT ELEMENT 100 1 101 Material properties used for the first three tests: Linear elastic. and 6. Boundary conditions and loading for linear behavior with *DASHPOT: Step 1 (static): Node 100 is clamped. Boundary conditions and loading for nonlinear behavior with applied rotations and moments: Step 1: Node 1 is clamped. spring stiffnesses for relative displacements are 100.0 for degree of freedom 1. spring stiffnesses for relative rotations are 400. Results and discussion The results for each test are tabulated and discussed below. Boundary conditions and loading for nonlinear behavior with *ORIENTATION: Step 1: Node 1 is clamped. 2. mass = 0. a moment of magnitude 80 is applied about the global 2-axis at node 2. All other degrees of freedom at node 1 are suppressed. 200.0 for all components.10.1–2 . Material properties used for the fourth test: Linear elastic. node 1 has 1. respectively. spring stiffnesses = 30. node 101 has 1. Loading for linear behavior: Step 1: Displacements at node 2 are prescribed to 1.

0 × 10−3 1.33 × 10−3 1.0 × 10−3 1.5 −1.0 × 10−3 2.2 1.0 RM2 −0.0 Reactions at node 1.33 × 10−3 E13 −3 E23 −3 1.4 1.0 × 10 5.0 Element stresses.1 −1.1–1 Step 1 2 1.5 × 10−3 1.0 × 10 3. E12 −3 E22 1.5 × 10−3 1.0 × 10−2 1.6 −1.1–4 Step 1 2 S11 0.0 × 10 2.0 × 10−3 3.1–3 Step 1 2 E11 1.0 1.0 × 10−3 2.10.10.4 −1.0 × 10−3 Displacements at node 2.67 × 10−3 Table 1.10.0 RF2 −0.0 S22 0.3 1.6 1.1–3 .0 × 10 1.5 1.0 Table 1.3 −1.10.67 × 10−3 Table 1. RM1 −0.0 S33 0.0 × 10−2 −3 Element strains.1–2 Step 1 2 RF1 −0. 1.FLEXIBLE JOINT ELEMENT Linear behavior Table 1.0 RM3 −0.10. S12 0.2 −1.0 × 10−3 1.0 × 10 2.0 × 10−3 −3 E33 1.1 1.0 × 10−3 1.0 × 10−3 5.0 × 10−3 1.0 S13 0.0 S23 0.0 RF3 −0.

0 0.1–8 Step 1 1 Inc.0 0. 0.0 0.0 0.1007 0.875 0.0 RF1 −100.1–5 (*) 0.10. 0.0 0.34 × 10−6 90 RF3 0.0 0.0 RM3 0.0 0.1616 Displacements at node 2.1–4 .91 × 10−2 0.565 Table 1.0 0.0 −100.0 0.0 30.0 0. Nonlinear behavior with applied rotations and moments Table 1.0 0.0 0.10.0 1.0 0.0 −80. increment 3.0 0.91 × 10−2 0.0 0.1–6 (*) 0.0 0.0 (*) Prescribed rotation at node 1: at Step 2.2058 7.0 0.34 × 10−8 Displacements at node 2.0 0. 30 at Step 2.5 0.0 90.0 Reactions at node 1. RM2 0.0 0.65 1.1–7 Step 1 1 4 4 Inc.217 1.571 Table 1.0 0.0 0.0 30.0 0. 0 at the end of Step 1.524 1. 1 2 RM1 −40.0 90.0 0. increment 9.10.1616 0.0 21.0 Reactions at node 1.0 0. RM1 0. 1 2 1 2 0.FLEXIBLE JOINT ELEMENT Nonlinear behavior with the *ORIENTATION option Table 1.10.0 RM2 0.10.0 7.0 −100.0 1.0 RF2 0.0 RM3 0.569 1.0 1.

inp. exjoxoxa.09 × 10−8 −4.inp.10.18 × 10−6 S23 0.1–9 Step 1 1 4 4 Inc.1–10 Step 1 1 4 4 Inc.inp exjoxrx1. respectively.0 −80.0 1.72 Element stresses.inp Linear behavior.0 0.inp.0 Table 1.inp.inp. S13 0. Linear behavior with the *DASHPOT option. and exjoxdx1. E13 0.1005 0.0 Table 1.0 RM3 0.2043 0.10.0 0.inp are modiﬁed versions of ﬁles exjoxlx1.0 RM2 −40.0 0. Nonlinear behavior with applied rotations and moments. Input files exjoxlx1.0 −1.inp exjoxdx1. Input ﬁles exjoxlxa.0 0.20 81.08 × 10−6 2.inp. exjoxrx1.0 0.10.FLEXIBLE JOINT ELEMENT Step 4 4 Inc.2043 Element strains.55 × 10−8 Linear behavior with the *DASHPOT option The displacement histories of nodes 1 and 101 match. Nonlinear behavior with the *ORIENTATION option.inp exjoxox1. These modiﬁed ﬁles are designed to provide exactly the same results as those ﬁles from which they are derived. 1 2 1 2 S12 40. 1 2 1 2 E12 0. exjoxox1. They include temperatureand/or ﬁeld variable-dependent behavior for spring constants and dashpot coefﬁcients where applicable.0 0. 1.0 0. and exjoxdxa.inp.1–5 .0 0.0 0.0 0.0 E23 0. 1 2 RM1 0.20 81.72 40.1005 0. exjoxrxa.

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05 *SHELL SECTION. SIDE=POSITIVE 1.2–1 .05 shell thickness = 0.0 Jelastic 4. 2.0. 2. 1 2 3 J 4.43 × 106 4.0 at nodes 1 and 2.LINE SPRING ELEMENTS 1.10.0 0. TYPE=LS3S. MAT=M1. Boundary conditions: Loading: M 0 at nodes 1.0 2105.0 2105. ELSET=ALL 1. ELSET=ALL .05 5. Young’s modulus = 1.1.0.10 1 My 5 2 y x x *ELEMENT.43 × 106 4.05 2. M −4. .43 × 10 4. Material: Linear elastic. and 5.10. LS3S WITH CONSTANT-DEPTH NOTCH UNDER FAR-FIELD BENDING Problem description z My z notch depth = 0. . 1 *SURFACE FLAW. Results and discussion Element 1 1 1 Pt. 5.43 × 106 6 K 2105. Poisson’s ratio = 0. −1.43 × 106 6 Jplastic 0.43 × 10 4.0 0.0 1.0 at node 5. .2 LINE SPRING ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard I.

II.5 2. Loading: M −1. and 5. . . 0.0. Boundary conditions: 0 at nodes 1. 2.07 5.LINE SPRING ELEMENTS Input file exls3bx2. 2.7 5. M −4.05 2.inp Single-edge constant-depth notch strip under far-ﬁeld bending. 0.1 4. MAT=M1. 0.1 7.2–2 . ELSET=ALL. 0.1 8. 0. SIDE=POSITIVE 1. ELSET=ALL 1. 0. 5. 0. LS3S WITH VARIABLE DEPTH NOTCH UNDER FAR-FIELD BENDING Problem description z My z notch depth = variable shell thickness = variable 1 My 5 2 y x x *ELEMENT. 1 *SURFACE FLAW.1 Material: Linear elastic. NODAL THICKNESS 99.04 *SHELL SECTION.4 3.10. Poisson’s ratio = 0. 1.1 6.0 at node 5. Young’s modulus = 1.0 at nodes 1 and 2. TYPE=LS3S. *NODAL THICKNESS 1. . 0.0.

0 0. Nodes 11. and 15 are constrained to move together.05 *SHELL SECTION. 12. MAT=M1.5 1286.401 35. Nodes 1. TYPE=LS6.05 2.inp Single-edge variable-depth notch strip under far-ﬁeld bending. 12.05 z My x 1 11 shell thickness = 0.5 1286. LS6 UNDER FAR-FIELD BENDING Problem description My notch depth = 0.10. 1.10 My x 5 15 2 12 y z *ELEMENT.012 59.864 Jelastic 6891. 5. 1 2 3 J 6891. 11 *SURFACE FLAW.2 K 83.LINE SPRING ELEMENTS Results and discussion Element 1 1 1 Input file Pt. III.0 3528. Poisson’s ratio = 0. ELSET=ALL 1.0 3528. 2. 15.0. 2. .2–3 . . . Material: Linear elastic.2 Jplastic 0.05 5. Young’s modulus = 1.1.0 0. 1. and 5 are constrained to move together. SIDE=POSITIVE 1. 0 for all nodes. ELSET=ALL .0.0 exls3vx2. Boundary conditions: Node 17 is fully constrained.

Material: Linear elastic. IV.0 0.0 KII 0. LS3S UNDER FAR-FIELD TENSION Problem description z Fz z Fz notch depth = 0.0. M 6.43 × 106 4. 1 2 3 J 4.0 2105. Young’s modulus = 1. Poisson’s ratio = 0. SIDE=POSITIVE 1. . ELSET=ALL 1.05 5. ELSET=ALL . 2. TYPE=LS3S.1.05 *SHELL SECTION.10. . Boundary conditions: 0 at nodes 1. 5.05 2.2–4 .43 × 106 6 Jplastic 0.43 × 106 6 Jelastic 4. and 5.0. . 2.0 0.0 0. MAT=M1.0 KIII 0.43 × 10 4. Results and discussion Element 1 1 1 Input file Pt.0 0.10 x 1 5 2 y x *ELEMENT.0 0.0 at node 15.0 2105.43 × 10 4.0 at node 5.0 KI 2105.LINE SPRING ELEMENTS Loading: M −6.0 exls6bx2.inp Single-edge notch strip under far-ﬁeld bending about an axis (along the crack-tip line).43 × 106 4. 1. 1 *SURFACE FLAW.0 0.05 shell thickness = 0.

. 1.y.0 4518.0 4518. Results and discussion Element 1 1 1 Input file Pt. ELSET=ALL 1. 11 *SURFACE FLAW. 15.22 67.10.05 2.05 z x 1 11 shell thickness = 0. 1 2 3 J 4518.0 Jplastic 0. F 4.0 4518. 5.05 *SHELL SECTION.10 Fx Fy Fz x z Fx. 1. . AND III LOADING Problem description Fz Fy Fx notch depth = 0.2–5 .0 4518.0 0.0 K 67. ELSET=ALL .22 67. Single-edge notch strip under far-ﬁeld tension. SIDE=POSITIVE 1.0 exls3tx2.0 0.0 at nodes 3 and 4.1. 12. II. LS6 UNDER MODE I. 2.inp V. .05 5.z 5 2 15 12 y *ELEMENT.22 Jelastic 4518.0 at node 7. TYPE=LS6.LINE SPRING ELEMENTS Loading: F 1. MAT=M1.

10 170.0 0.10 170. in-plane shear (Mode II). and 15 are constrained to move together.20 11.10 170.962 4. Element 1 1 1 Input file Pt. −1. 1.inp Single-edge notch strip under far-ﬁeld tension (Mode I).962 4.LINE SPRING ELEMENTS Material: Linear elastic.0. Nodes 1.0. Poisson’s ratio = 0.0 at node 15. and uniform out-of-plane shear (Mode III).10 Jelastic 170.0 0.0 at node 5. Loading: Results and discussion 0 for all nodes.10 Jplastic 0.20 11. and 5 are constrained to move together. Young’s modulus = 1. 2.472 exls6sx2. Nodes 11.472 −4.0 KI 11.962 KIII −4.2–6 .10. 1 2 3 J 170.472 −4. Boundary conditions: Node 17 is fully constrained.10 170. 1. 12.20 KII 4.

when the coupling nodes are colinear.5 W=2 Figure 1. Distributing coupling elements connect a single reference node that has translational and rotational degrees of freedom to a collection of coupling nodes that have only translational degrees of freedom. This condition is relevant only for the 1.10.10. a situation can arise where the moments applied to the reference node are not transmitted by the element. and an axial spring element (SPRINGA) connects each pair of coupling nodes.3–1 Initial starting geometry. In the geometrically nonlinear tests each coupling node is connected by a dashpot to ground (DASHPOT1) in each direction.5 node 2 0. Thus.3 DISTRIBUTING COUPLING ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested DCOUP2D DCOUP3D Problem description The initial starting geometry for each test is shown in Figure 1.10. In the linear tests each coupling node is connected by a spring to ground (SPRING1) in each direction.3–1 .DISTRIBUTING COUPLING ELEMENTS 1.10. y 1 node 3 W=3 node 1 W=1 1 z x M=2 F=1 node 10 2 0.3–1.

1. and 300 for degrees of freedom 1. 1. applied to node 10. Step 2: (DCOUP3D only) The force at node 10 is 1. applied to node 10. 2. and 300 for degrees of freedom 1. 2. The axial springs connecting the 1.0 about the x-axis. respectively.0 about the y-axis.0 about the z-axis. The weight factors are 1. Step 3: (DCOUP3D only) The force at node 10 is 1. for the dashpots connected to all coupling nodes. The mass of the distributing coupling is 10. 2.10. 2. and 3 for nodes 1. respectively.DISTRIBUTING COUPLING ELEMENTS three-dimensional version of the element. The moment at node 10 is 2.0 in the z-direction. Loading: Step 1: The force at node 10 is 1. and 3. The moment at node 10 is 2. (Step 2 for DCOUP2D) Step 5: Transient modal dynamic step with a load. Step 4: Frequency extraction. and 3. The third problem in this section tests the behavior of the element in this pathological situation. for the springs connected to all coupling nodes.0. respectively.0 in the y-direction. (Step 4 for DCOUP2D) Nonlinear behavior Properties: The dashpot damping coefﬁcients are 100.3–2 .0 in the x-direction. component of M about this axis is not transmitted node 2 W=2 y M=2 node 1 W=1 z node 3 W=3 x Linear behavior Properties: The spring stiffnesses are 100. (Step 3 for DCOUP2D) Step 6: Mode-based steady-state dynamic step with a load. and 3. 200. The moment at node 10 is 2. 200.0 .

for the springs connected to all coupling nodes. for a more detailed description of this load distribution.” Section 3. and 3.0 about the z-axis. Results and discussion The results for each problem are discussed below. 2. and and are the positions of the reference and coupling nodes relative to the coupling node arrangement centroid. (Step 2 for DCOUP2D) Behavior with a colinear arrangement Properties: The spring stiffnesses are 100. Prescribed reference node motion: Step 1: Total rotation of about the z-axis. Step 2: (DCOUP3D only) Total rotation of about the y-axis. and are the force and moment at the reference node. Translation .DISTRIBUTING COUPLING ELEMENTS coupling nodes each have a spring constant of 1. respectively. See “Distributing coupling elements.8 of the Abaqus Theory Manual. and 3. Translation . Step 2: The moment at node 10 is 2. and 300 for degrees of freedom 1. 1. Step 3: (DCOUP3D only) Total rotation of Step 4: Direct-integration dynamic step with a total rotation of about the x-axis. and 3 for nodes 1. respectively. Translation .3–3 . The mass of the distributing coupling is 10. Step 4: The moment at node 10 has a magnitude of 2. Translation . about the x-axis. 2. Loading: Step 1: The moment at node 10 is 2. Reference solution In all tests the load distribution among coupling nodes adheres to the relation where is the force distribution at the coupling nodes. The mass of the distributing coupling is 10. 200.0 and is parallel to the coupling node colinear axis. 2.9.0 about the x-axis. Step 3: The moment at node 10 is 2. respectively.10. Step 5: Frequency extraction.0 × 108 . are the normalized version of the weight factors speciﬁed with the *DISTRIBUTING COUPLING option.0 about the y-axis. is the coupling node arrangement inertia tensor. The weight factors are 1.

33 × 10−2 −2.10.50 1.00 2.3–4 Step 1 2 3 NFORC1 1.67 × 10−3 −1.0 Displacements at node 1.31 × 10−2 0.06 × 10−3 0.50 × 10−2 Table 1.10. 1. NFORC2 0.35 × 10−2 0.05 × 10−2 −7.10.83 × 10−2 Table 1.10.44 × 10−3 −5.67 × 10−2 1.39 −0.3–4 .0 −1.DISTRIBUTING COUPLING ELEMENTS Linear behavior Table 1.10.50 × 10−2 1.33 × 10−3 0.33 × 10−2 4.97 × 10−4 0.0 NFORC3 0.78 × 10−5 0.0 0.0 0.3–1 Step 1 2 3 6.0 −2.0 Displacements at node 10.653 0.3–2 Step 1 2 3 0. −1.0 Table 1.67 × 10−2 8.19 × 10−3 2.0 NFORC output at node 2.574 −2.0 −2.3–3 Step 1 2 3 1.0 1.67 × 10−2 Rotations at node 10. 0.0 6.67 × 10−3 −2.

0 40.0 0.353 5.0 −0.22 × 10−4 −0.3–5 .624 −0.0 0.561 4.3–8 Step 1 2 3 4 NFORC1 −679 −1090 −8. Displacements at node 1.0 30.0 0.515 −0.30410 × 10−5 −3.561 −2.10.0 0.436 −0.44 × 10−2 1.0 0.0 40.3–5 Mode 1 2 3 Eigenvalue 20.706 0.7 −1190 −1270 NFORC3 0.1451 0.0 30.41 9.10. 0.0 0.345 All results correspond to the increment when the rotation is 3 Table 1.3–6 Mode 1 2 3 Nonlinear behavior Mode shape rotation components at node 10.3–7 Step 1 2 3 4 −3.0 0.46 −623 NFORC output at node 1.0 0.51 × 10−5 Table 1.0 Table 1.10.06 0.06 −3.0 Mode shape displacement components at node 10.416 0.0 1120 −757 4. Eigenvalue 20.327 0.0 −0.DISTRIBUTING COUPLING ELEMENTS Table 1.0 0.10. 0.653 1. NFORC2 −1080 −47.10.144 0.

27 −2.56 2.83 × 10−2 Behavior with a colinear arrangement Table 1.35 Displacements at node 2.10.0 1270 563 1.0 0.DISTRIBUTING COUPLING ELEMENTS Table 1.0 −2.27 0.59 × 10−3 0.31 × 10−5 −2.10.06 × 10−3 2. 2.0 Displacements at node 10.3–11 Step 1 2 3 4 1.354 6.3–6 .3–10 Step 1 2 3 4 NFORC1 −2090 −935 186 −1970 NFORC output at node 2.0 0.0 1. NFORC2 −1420 −95.06 × 10−3 0.10.0 0. −7.0 −0.10.69 × 10−3 0.3–9 Step 1 2 3 4 −2.4 −313 −1820 NFORC3 0.22 × 10−4 1.0 0.87 × 10−5 Table 1.706 −0.41 −9.35 −3.0 0.

3–7 .0 −8.327 0.483 0.0 0.523 −6.0 3.0 0.76 × 10−3 0.0 Mode shape displacement components at node 10.15 × 10−4 0.0 Table 1.0 0.0 0.483 0.0 Displacements at node 1. 0.0 0.36 × 10−4 0.560 −0. 0.0 0. NFORC2 −0.03 × 10−2 0.0 0.36 × 10−4 8.3–13 Step 1 2 3 4 3.0 NFORC output at node 2.0 8.10.0 30.10.0 0. −1.3–14 Step 1 2 3 4 NFORC1 0.0 Rotations at node 10.DISTRIBUTING COUPLING ELEMENTS Table 1.36 × 10−4 0.10.0 NFORC3 0.0 0.3–12 Step 1 2 3 4 0.0 1.0 0.0 Table 1.10.0 −1.0 0.0 0.0 40.45 × 10−4 0.483 0.172 0.494 0.483 0.15 × 10−4 1.0 0.36 × 10−4 −8.72 × 10−4 0.0 Table 1.10.3–15 Mode 1 2 3 Eigenvalue 20.0 −0.

inp exdc3nx1. Linear behavior of DCOUP3D elements. 1. Test of DCOUP3D elements with colinear coupling nodes.inp exdc3lx1. Geometrically nonlinear behavior of DCOUP2D elements.inp exdc2nx1.259 exdc2lx1.10.241 0. Geometrically nonlinear behavior of DCOUP3D elements.0 0.0 40.3–16 Mode 1 2 3 Input files Mode shape rotation components at node 10.0 0. Eigenvalue 20.inp exdc3cx1.259 0.0 0.0 −0.DISTRIBUTING COUPLING ELEMENTS Table 1.3–8 .0 30.0 0.inp Linear behavior of DCOUP2D elements with *LOAD CASE.10.0 0.0 0.

0 The calculated reaction forces are in agreement with the applied loads: the applied force is recovered from the forces in the chain elements and reaction forces at the restrained node of the beam.3 4. DRAG2D: Friction limit Horizontal length at slip DRAG3D: Total length of chain Friction coefﬁcient Weight of chain per unit length Length of chain lying on the seabed Height of beam above the seabed Results and discussion 125. In the three-dimensional case the seabed lying in the global x–y plane is modeled using the *RIGID SURFACE option.10.inp dragchaintest_drag3d.0 0. 1.0 10.5 131.4–1 .4 DRAG CHAIN ELEMENTS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested B21 B33H DRAG2D DRAG3D Problem description Model: Each system tested contains a drag chain element attached to a beam element. A concentrated force is applied in the y-direction at the free end. To test the threedimensional case.10.0 104.DRAG CHAIN ELEMENTS 1.inp DRAG2D element. For the two-dimensional case a B21 element has a DRAG2D element attached at the second node. a DRAG3D element is attached to a B33H beam element.0 0. DRAG3D element. which is fully restrained at the other end. Input files dragchaintest_drag2d.

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and nodal-based thermal loads.11.11–1 .3 “Continuum shells: basic element modes.11.5 “Linear dynamic analysis with ﬂuid link.11.” Section 1.” Section 1.2 “Convection elements: transport of a temperature pulse.11.11.11 Miscellaneous tests • • • • • • • • • “Rebar in Abaqus/Standard.9 1.” Section 1.11.4 “Transverse shear for shear-ﬂexible shells.” Section 1.11.” Section 1.1 “Rebar in Abaqus/Explicit.11.8 “Nonstructural mass veriﬁcation.” Section 1.6 “Rigid bodies with temperature DOFs. heat capacitance.” Section 1.” Section 1.” Section 1.7 “Analysis of unbounded acoustic regions.MISCELLANEOUS TESTS 1.11.

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Step 1 uniformly increases the temperature from 0° to 100°. The rebar are initially deﬁned at 30° from the x-axis. hyperelastic base and elastic rebar. In the ﬁrst test an initial tensile stress is applied to the rebar. Initial stresses are tested in two ways. In the third test rebar are oriented along the y-axis. and shell elements.11. The fourth test includes large geometry changes. and hypoelastic material properties are used. and a displacement is prescribed in the x-direction.11. and Step 3 increases the second ﬁeld variable from 0 to 1.1 REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard Product: Abaqus/Standard I. elastic base and elastic-plastic rebar. The combinations are as follows: elastic base and elastic rebar. Elastic. In the ﬁrst test rebar are placed along the x-axis. Thermal expansion of the rebar is tested by constraining all the degrees of freedom of the elements and applying a temperature load. REBARS IN MEMBRANES Elements tested M3D4 M3D4R M3D8 M3D8R Problem description These tests verify the modeling of element reinforcements in membrane elements. The rebar is positioned along the x-axis. the membrane element will compress. The rebar option is tested in the areas of kinematics. The ﬁfth and sixth tests deﬁne various rebar orientations by means of the ORIENTATION parameter on the *REBAR LAYER option.1–1 . In the second test rebar are oriented at 30° from the x-axis. continuum. The rebar properties are dependent on the second ﬁeld variable. and the initial rebar tensile stress will be reduced until equilibrium with the underlying solid is reached. Each input ﬁle contains tests for membrane. The tests consist of a single underlying membrane element with isoparametric rebar. Again. For each combination a single element is loaded with a prescribed uniaxial displacement. Kinematics are tested by applying a uniaxial displacement with various rebar orientations. The material test includes ﬁve combinations of material deﬁnitions for the base element and the rebar. A large displacement is prescribed in the x-direction and causes the orientation of the rebar to change because of the large shearing strains. and compatibility with prescribed temperatures and ﬁeld variables. Thus. elastic-plastic base and elastic rebar. elastic-plastic. prestressing of the rebar. and a displacement is prescribed in the x-direction.REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard 1. The second test applies an initial tensile stress to the rebar but forces this initial stress to remain constant 1. hyperelastic. Step 2 increases the ﬁrst ﬁeld variable from 0 to 1. a prescribed displacement is applied along the x-axis. and no initial stresses are applied to the underlying membrane element. and elastic base and hypoelastic rebar. compatibility with material property deﬁnitions. with both ﬁeld variables set to 1. The base material is dependent on temperature and the ﬁrst ﬁeld variable. In the seventh test rebar angle output is measured with respect to the second isoparametric direction. All membranes that allow rebar are tested and compared to continuum and shell elements.

Results and discussion The results agree with the analytically obtained values. test of material combinations. User subroutine ORIENT used in em_kinematics6.11. Rebar.inp em_kinematics3. 0° orientation. Rebar. 0° orientation. 0° orientation.inp. User subroutine SIGINI used in em_prestress. test of initial stresses with and without *PRESTRESS HOLD.f em_postoutput. Input ﬁle em_postoutput. postprocessing with the *POST OUTPUT option.f em_kinematics7. Rebar. Rebar. Rebar. test of rebar angle output measured with respect to the second isoparametric direction. whereas the underlying membrane deforms to equilibrate the rebar stress. REBARS IN SURFACE ELEMENTS Elements tested SFM3D3 SFM3D4 SFM3D4R SFM3D6 SFM3D8 SFM3D8R Problem description Model: Similar to the one used for rebars in membranes. Input ﬁle em_nodalthick. II.inp em_kinematics6. 30° orientation.inp em_prestress. test of temperature and ﬁeld variable dependence.inp Rebar.REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard by means of the *PRESTRESS HOLD option. The stress in the rebar remains unchanged. variable thicknesses using the *NODAL THICKNESS option.inp tests variable thickness shells and membranes containing rebar. Rebar. 90° orientation.inp em_nodalthick.inp em_kinematics6. Input files em_kinematics1. deﬁned using the ORIENTATION parameter on *REBAR LAYER. referencing user-deﬁned *ORIENTATION. The *NODAL THICKNESS option speciﬁes a linearly varying element thickness. 1.inp tests the *POST OUTPUT option and ensures that rebar output quantities are written properly to the restart ﬁle. Rebar. perturbation step with *LOAD CASE.inp. ﬁnite strains.inp em_prestress.1–2 .inp em_material. 30° orientation. 0° orientation.inp em_kinematics4. Rebar.inp em_kinematics2.inp em_thermal. Material: Similar to the one used for rebars in membranes. Rebar. Rebar. Rebar.inp em_kinematics5.

3.inp ex_thermal..0 (for tensile test). 1 1. RBMAT. 30° orientation. 0.inp ex_kinematics4. 1 REBAR4.inp ex_kinematics5. 2. 0° orientation. 0° orientation. Rebar.inp.0 (for bending test) Material: Young’s modulus of bulk material Young’s modulus of rebar Poisson’s ratio of both materials Reinforcement for tensile test 1... referencing user-deﬁned *ORIENTATION..inp ex_prestress. Rebar.inp.f ex_material. 135. 0° orientation. 45.5355.. Input files ex_kinematics1. RBMAT. 30° orientation.inp ex_kinematics5. 1 REBAR3. User subroutine ORIENT used in ex_kinematics5. Rebar.inp ex_kinematics2.5. test of initial stresses with and without *PRESTRESS HOLD.f III. Rebar..5355. ﬁnite strains. 1. deﬁned using the ORIENTATION parameter on *REBAR LAYER. 3 × 106 (for bending test) 30 × 106 0. RBMAT. 1. 3.11. 0° orientation. 1 REBAR2.inp ex_prestress. Rebar. REBARS IN GENERAL SHELLS Rebar.0 REBAR1.REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard Results and discussion The results agree with those for rebars in membranes when the material stiffness for the membranes is set nearly to zero. Rebar. 90. 1. 0. 10. 2. test of material combinations. Rebar. User subroutine SIGINI used in ex_prestress.inp ex_kinematics3. 1..0 (for tensile test).. RBMAT. test of temperature and ﬁeld variable dependence.1–3 . 0. Elements tested S4 S4R S8R S8R5 SC8R Problem description Model: Planar dimensions Thickness 10 × 10 2. 0.5. 0.

. 2. 45° orientation. 0° orientation. 0° orientation.0 × 105 1. tension with rebar. tension with rebar.inp IV.inp esc8sxr4.1–4 .inp ese4sxr3. 0.inp esf4sxr3.1. tension with rebar. and 135° orientation.495 REBAR. 45° orientation. 0° orientation.5. S4 elements. Input files ese4sxr4.005. response spectrum. 0. 0° orientation. 0° orientation. RBMAT. and 135° orientation. and 135° orientation.0 2. S8R elements.05 Young’s modulus of bulk material Young’s modulus of rebar Poisson’s ratio of both materials Reinforcement for tension and torsion tests 1. −2. 90° orientation. S4R elements. 0° orientation. SC8R elements.inp es58sxrd.31416. 90° orientation. 45° orientation. 0.inp es68sxr3.0 0. 0. 90° orientation. bending with rebar. 45° orientation. 0° orientation. S4 elements. 1 Results and discussion The results agree with the analytically obtained values. S8R5 elements. RBMAT. 0° orientation.inp esf4sxr4. bending with rebar. tension with rebar.5. REBARS IN AXISYMMETRIC MEMBRANES Elements tested MAX1 MAX2 MGAX1 MGAX2 Problem description Model: Length Midsurface radius Thickness Material: 5.inp esc8sxr3. SC8R elements. S4R elements. 50 1.0 × 108 0. bending with rebar. S8R elements. 90° orientation. bending with rebar.11. 0° orientation. and 135° orientation.REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard Reinforcement for bending test REBAR. bending with rebar.inp es68sxr4.

tension.inp exa3srri.inp SFMAX1 elements. SFMGAX1 elements. MGAX1 elements.11. MAX1 elements. MAX2 elements. Input files ema2srri. If the Poisson’s ratio of the material is sufﬁciently different from zero. tension. Input files exa2srri.05 the twist angle does not change sign as the initial rebar angle changes from 0° to 90°.11.REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard Results and discussion If rebars are not axial (rebar angle 0°) or circumferential (rebar angle 90°). tension and torsion. SFMAX2 elements.inp exg3srri. Material: Similar to the one used for rebars in axisymmetric membranes. tension and torsion MGAX2 elements. Figure 1.inp emg3srri. REBARS IN AXISYMMETRIC SURFACE ELEMENTS Elements tested SFMAX1 SFMAX2 SFMGAX1 SFMGAX2 Problem description Model: Similar to the one used for rebars in axisymmetric membranes.inp V.11. where results for the twist angle are shown for element types MGAX1. element types MGAX1 and MGAX2 predict twist under axial tension (Step 1 in all the input ﬁles). tension. For 0. This result is accompanied by a change in sign of the stress in the rebar.1–5 .inp emg2srri. The twist angle is determined by the initial rebar angle and the material properties. tension and torsion. tension and torsion SFMGAX2 elements. MGAX2. tension. This behavior is illustrated in Figure 1.inp exg2srri.1–1(b) shows the evolution of this behavior with the Poisson’s ratios of the materials. the twist angle changes sign at some intermediate rebar angle between 0° and 90°.inp ema3srri.1–1(a). 1. Results and discussion The results agree with those for rebars in axisymmetric membranes when the material stiffness for the membranes is set nearly to zero. and CGAX4R (axisymmetric continuum element with twist) when both the rebar and the bulk materials are almost incompressible.

30. 90.1–1 Variation of twist with rebar angle. 60. 15.1–6 . 15. Angular orientation of rebars 5.050 ν = 0.0 Twist angle -5. 30.0 0. 90.11.300 0.0 [ x10 -3 ] ν = 0. 45.495 ν = 0.0 [ x10 -3 ] MGAX1 MGAX2 CGAX4R 0. 45. 60. 1.0 -10.REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard 5. 75.0 -10. 75. Angular orientation of rebars Figure 1.11.0 Twist angle -5.0 0.

0 Young’s modulus of bulk material Young’s modulus of rebar Poisson’s ratio of both materials Reinforcement for hoop test Reinforcement for radial test Results and discussion 1.inp SAX1 elements. SAX1 elements. 2. 1. radial rebar using the GEOMETRY=ANGULAR parameter on *REBAR LAYER. radial rebar using the GEOMETRY=ANGULAR parameter on *REBAR LAYER. VII.0 REBAR1. SAX2 elements. hoop rebar. 1. REBARS IN GENERAL SURFACE ELEMENTS EMBEDDED IN THREEDIMENSIONAL SOLIDS Elements tested C3D8 C3D20 SFM3D4R SFM3D8R 1.245.0 (Flat solid disk for radial test) 2. 90 REBAR2.inp esa2sxrr. REBARS IN AXISYMMETRIC SHELLS Elements tested SAX1 SAX2 Problem description Model: Length Inside radius for hoop test Thickness Material: 10. RBMAT. 2. 0. 46. SAX2 elements. RBMAT.inp esa3sxrr.inp esa3sxrh. Input files esa2sxrh. RBMAT.5.0 5. 1.11. hoop rebar. −1. 0 The results agree with the analytically obtained values.1–7 .0 30 × 106 0. 90 REBAR.5.REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard VI. 1.

0 REBAR.inp C3D8 with SFM3D4R elements.0 Young’s modulus of bulk material Young’s modulus of rebar Poisson’s ratio of both materials Reinforcement for hoop test Reinforcement for radial test 1. ..0 30 × 106 0. 0. 0.0 0.1–8 .245. 0.REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard Problem description Model: Cubic dimension Material: 10. 2.04.0 × 10.0 × 10.11. VIII. rebar with 0° orientation. Input files ec38sfrg.0 Young’s modulus of bulk material Young’s modulus of rebar Poisson’s ratio of both materials Reinforcement Results and discussion 1. rebar with 0° orientation. 1 The results agree with the analytically obtained values.0 × 10..5. . RBMAT. RBMAT. C3D20 with SFM3D8R elements. REBARS IN AXISYMMETRIC SURFACE ELEMENTS EMBEDDED IN AXISYMMETRIC SOLIDS AND AXISYMMETRIC SOLIDS WITH TWIST Elements tested CAX4 CAX8 CGAX4 CGAX4R CGAX4T SFMAX1 SFMAX2 SFMGAX1 SFMGAX2 Problem description Model: CGAX8 CGAX8T Planar dimensions Inside radius Material: 10. 0 1.3333. 90 REBAR2.inp ec3ksfrg..04. RBMAT. 0.0 30 × 106 0. 46.0 REBAR1.. 1. .

inp eca4sfr2.inp eca8sfrs. CGAX4T elements with SFMGAX1 elements.inp CAX4 elements with SFMAX1 elements. CAX8 elements with SFMAX2 elements. hoop rebar. CGAX4 elements with SFMGAX1 elements. radial rebar using the GEOMETRY parameter on *REBAR LAYER. and radial rebar using the GEOMETRY=ANGULAR parameter on *REBAR LAYER. and radial rebar using the GEOMETRY=ANGULAR parameter on *REBAR LAYER. radial rebar using the GEOMETRY parameter on *REBAR LAYER. hoop rebar. hoop rebar.inp eca4sfrs. and radial rebar using the GEOMETRY parameter on *REBAR LAYER. Input files eca4sfri. CGAX4T elements with SFMGAX1 elements.inp eca8sfri.inp eca4hfrs.inp eca4hfr2.inp eca8sfr2. CGAX4T elements with SFMGAX1 elements. hoop rebar.inp eca4gfri.REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard Results and discussion The results agree with the analytically obtained values. hoop rebar. and radial rebar using the GEOMETRY=ANGULAR parameter on *REBAR LAYER. and radial rebar using the GEOMETRY parameter on *REBAR LAYER. hoop rebar. CGAX4 elements with SFMGAX1 elements. radial rebar using the GEOMETRY=ANGULAR parameter on *REBAR LAYER. 1. hoop rebar. and radial rebar using the GEOMETRY=ANGULAR parameter on *REBAR LAYER. CGAX4 elements with SFMGAX1 elements.1–9 .inp eca4gfr2.11. CAX4 elements with SFMAX1 elements. and radial rebar using the GEOMETRY=ANGULAR parameter on *REBAR LAYER.inp eca4gfrs. and radial rebar using the GEOMETRY=ANGULAR parameter on *REBAR LAYER.inp eca4hfri. hoop rebar. CAX4 elements with SFMAX1 elements. CAX8 elements with SFMAX2 elements. radial rebar using the GEOMETRY=ANGULAR parameter on *REBAR LAYER. CAX8 elements with SFMAX2 elements.

. hoop rebar.25.0 30 × 106 Skew: PLANE.5. 0. and radial rebar using the GEOMETRY=ANGULAR parameter on *REBAR LAYER CGAX8T elements with SFMGAX2 elements.50.25. .inp eca8hfri.04.0 Young’s modulus of bulk material Young’s modulus of rebar Reinforcement Isoparametric: PLANE. IX. ...inp eca8hfr2. . hoop rebar. radial rebar using the GEOMETRY parameter on *REBAR LAYER. 2 PLANE.25. radial rebar using the GEOMETRY=ANGULAR parameter on *REBAR LAYER.inp CGAX8 elements with SFMGAX2 elements.1–10 . 0.0 × 10. 2 PLANE. 1.25....75.11. .. .inp eca8gfrs.0 1. hoop rebar. CGAX8T elements with SFMGAX2 elements.25.04. 1.04. 0.04. 0. 1 1. CGAX8 elements with SFMGAX2 elements.25. .25. REBARS IN PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN SOLIDS Elements tested CPE4 CPE8 CPS4 CPS8 Problem description Model: Planar dimension Thickness Material: 10. . and radial rebar using the GEOMETRY=ANGULAR parameter on *REBAR LAYER.25. . . 0.04. . and radial rebar using the GEOMETRY=ANGULAR parameter on *REBAR LAYER. 0. 1.inp eca8hfrs.04. CGAX8T elements with SFMGAX2 elements. . 0. .REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard eca8gfri.inp eca8gfr2. . CGAX8 elements with SFMGAX2 elements. hoop rebar. and radial rebar using the GEOMETRY=ANGULAR parameter on *REBAR LAYER. 2 PLANE..5 PLANE. 0. . . . .

. 1.25 0. . 1. 1 PLANE.. .5. . 0. . 0. 3 1.25.inp ecs8sfrg..25. .. linear dynamic (*FREQUENCY.5 PLANE.5.inp ecs4sfrd. PLANE.5 PLANE. CPS4 elements. . . X. 1. . isoparametric and skew rebar. . 2 BRICK.25. 0. .0 × 10.04. .5.5.REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard PLANE.5. 0.04. CPS4 elements. .5 Results and discussion The results agree with the analytically obtained values.25. .. .. .50. .04. 1 BRICK. 0.. 1.0 Young’s modulus of bulk material Young’s modulus of rebar Poisson’s ratio of both materials Reinforcement for single rebar test 1. 1 PLANE.. isoparametric and skew rebar. *STEADY STATE DYNAMICS)..1–11 . 0... 1. 0..5.11. .04. . 0.inp ece8sfrg. .inp CPE4 elements. CPE8 elements. .0 BRICK.0 30 × 106 0.0 × 10. .5. CPS8 elements.inp ecs4sfrg.04.04.. . .5. . . isoparametric and skew rebar. 0. Input files ece4sfrg. isoparametric and skew rebar. 0. SINGLE REBARS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLIDS Elements tested C3D8 C3D20 Problem description Model: Cubic dimension Material: 10. isoparametric and skew rebar. 0.5.75.25. .

. . . .75. . .4.50 AXSOL. . . .0 0.4. .25 AXSOL.4. C3D20 elements.25 AXSOL.0 × 10.75 Results and discussion 1. . Input files ec38sfr1.4.50 AXSOL.inp XI. .REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard Results and discussion The results agree with the analytically obtained values.75.4.4.25. . .inp ec3ksfr1. .25. .4. . single rebar. .25. .50.1–12 . . single rebar SINGLE REBAR IN AXISYMMETRIC SOLIDS AND AXISYMMETRIC SOLIDS WITH TWIST Elements tested CAX4 CAX8 CGAX4 CGAX4R CGAX4T CGAX8 CGAX8T Problem description Model: Planar dimensions Inside radius Material: 10.4.50. . 1.50.75 AXSOL. .0 30 × 106 0.0 The results agree with the analytically obtained values. C3D8 elements.0 Young’s modulus of bulk material Young’s modulus of rebar Poisson’s ratio of both materials Reinforcement for single hoop rebar test AXSOL. . .75 AXSOL.4. . .50 AXSOL.75. .25 AXSOL.11.

CGAX4 elements.inp) 10. 3 × 106 (for bending test) 30 × 106 BEAM.inp eca8gfr2. CGAX4T elements. tension.. single hoop rebar. single hoop rebar.0 in ﬁle eb2arxrd.5.1–13 . single hoop rebar. 1. 2. bending. 1.inp eca4gfrn.11.inp eca4gfr2.0 (for tensile test). CAX8 elements.inp eb2arxrb. Element tested B23 Problem description Model: Length Cross-section Material: 10.inp XII.5 BEAM.. 1.inp eca8sfr2.inp eb2arxrd. −2. linear dynamic (*FREQUENCY. single hoop rebar. Input files eb2arxrt. −2. −2.inp B23 elements. single hoop rebar.5. single hoop rebar. REBARS IN BEAMS CAX4 elements. 2. single hoop rebar.5. 2.5 BEAM.inp eca4hfr2.inp eca4hfrn. CGAX8T elements. B23 elements.5 BEAM. B23 elements..5 Results and discussion The results agree with the analytically obtained values. bending.5. CGAX8 elements. *MODAL DYNAMIC). CGAX4T elements.. −2. CGAX4 elements.REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard Input files eca4sfr2. 1.0 (300. −2.0 × 10. 1.inp eca8hfr2.0 rectangular Young’s modulus of bulk material Young’s modulus of rebar Reinforcement for tensile test Reinforcement for bending test 1. single hoop rebar.

The second model contains 8 layers of rebar.inp 1. The interior edges of the disks are fully constrained and a prescribed displacement of 1. Input files exa2srrr. Model is generated by revolving the axisymmetric cross-section deﬁned in ema2srrr.1–14 .inp ex34srrl. One layer of rebar is deﬁned in the model containing rebar with angular spacing.inp em34srrr. Requires restart ﬁle generated from em34srp0.inp ema2srrr. Reference model for import. 315°. M3D4R elements. −225°.11. consisting of an axisymmetric disk with internal radius of 2. The rebar is oriented along the radial direction. REBARS WITH GEOMETRY DEFINED BY ANGULAR SPACING AND LIFT EQUATION Elements tested SAX2 MAX2 SFMAX2 S4R M3D4R SFM3D4R Problem description These tests verify reinforcement with spacing that varies as a function of radial position and reinforcement deﬁned by the tire lift equation. 225°.inp em34srpx.inp em34srp0. oriented at an angle of 45°. −315° respectively in the uncured conﬁguration.0 × 10-4 is applied to the exterior edges. Model is generated by reﬂecting the model deﬁned in ex34srrr.inp ex34srrr.0.inp M3D4R elements. Material: Young’s modulus of bulk material Young’s modulus of rebar Poisson’s ratio of both materials Results and discussion 1.REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard XIII.inp M3D4R elements.0 × 108 0. one model contains reinforcement with angular spacing and the other model contains reinforcement deﬁned with the lift equation.inp em34srps.0 and thickness of 0.1. M3D4R elements. external radius of 5.3 The results agree with the analytically obtained values. Requires restart ﬁle generated from em34srpx. Import from explicit to standard.inp SFMAX2 elements.inp SFM3D4R elements. −45°. Each input ﬁle contains two models. SFM3D4R elements.0 × 103 1. −135°.inp MAX2 elements. Model is generated by revolving the axisymmetric cross-section deﬁned in exa2srrr. 135°. Import from standard to explicit. the two models are identical. Aside from the reinforcement geometry.

inp SAX2 elements.1–15 .REBAR IN Abaqus/Standard esa2srrr. S4R elements.inp es34srrr.inp 1.11. Model is generated by revolving the axisymmetric cross-section deﬁned in esa2srrr.

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The rebar are located one-third of the distance from the element edge and are given orientation angles of 0. veriﬁes that the rebar yield the correct strains for various deformation modes. The second kinematics test. The ﬁrst two tests cover kinematics of rebar placed at the midsurface in shells. Uniaxial stretching is performed in the direction of the rebar and in the direction perpendicular to the rebar.9° is used instead of 90° since a rebar oriented at 90° for these elements would provide no stiffness.2 REBAR IN Abaqus/Explicit Product: Abaqus/Explicit Elements tested CPS4R CPE4R CAX4R C3D8 C3D8R M3D3 M3D4R SFM3D4R SAX1 S3R S3RS S4 S4R SC8R S4RS S4RSW Problem description This example problem veriﬁes the modeling of element reinforcements with the *REBAR and *REBAR LAYER options. The third test covers bending behavior of shells in which rebar are placed away from the midsurface. Rebar are also placed directly along the element edges with orientation angles of 0°. All element types that support reinforcement are tested. and membrane elements. and a uniaxial displacement is applied to the element. The ﬁrst kinematics test. The *REBAR LAYER option is used for shell. Rebar are positioned at one-third of the distance from the lower edge in a CPE4R element. The rebar are deﬁned at orientation angles of 0. 30.11. places the rebar at various orientations within an element. and 90°. rebar_elementtype.inp. compatibility with material property deﬁnitions. These options are tested in the areas of kinematics. For plane strain and plane stress elements 89. Kinematics of rebar in continuum elements Continuum element kinematics are tested in two ways. and the *REBAR option is used for continuum elements. Simple shear is tested with the rebar parallel to the direction of motion and with the rebar perpendicular to the direction of motion. Kinematics of rebar in shell elements Three tests exist for rebar in shells. This test is repeated for elements in which the thicknesses are deﬁned with the *NODAL THICKNESS option and for composite shells.inp. rebar_modes. Uniaxial stretching is performed in the direction of the rebar and in the 1. 45. In the ﬁrst test rebar are placed at various locations and orientations within an element and a uniaxial displacement is applied to the element.2–1 . and compatibility with prescribed temperatures and ﬁeld variables. surface.REBAR IN Abaqus/Explicit 1.11. and 90°. The second test checks that the rebar yield the correct strains for various deformation modes.

REBAR IN Abaqus/Explicit direction perpendicular to the rebar. For general shell and membrane elements simple shear is tested with the rebar parallel to the direction of motion and with the rebar perpendicular to the direction of motion. and directly at the section points through the shell thickness. For each combination CPE4R.11. Thermal expansion of rebar in shell and membrane elements Thermal expansion of the rebar is tested by constraining all degrees of freedom of the elements and applying a temperature load. followed by a rotation at one end of the shell element. The third kinematics test. The rebar is positioned one-third of the distance from the element’s lower edge. elastic-plastic.11. 1. A ﬁnite uniaxial stretch is prescribed at the midsurface of the shell.inp. and hyperelastic base and hyperelastic rebar. The temperature on the lower edge is increased from 0 to 20°. M3D4R. elastic-plastic base and elastic rebar. Kinematics of rebar in membrane and surface elements Two tests exist for rebar in membrane and surface elements. rebar_bending. while the temperature on the top edge is increased from 0 to 80°. and with composite shell elements. See Figure 1. with shell elements in which the midsurface position is deﬁned by an offset. Thermal expansion of rebar in continuum elements Thermal expansion of the rebar is tested by constraining all degrees of freedom of the elements and applying a temperature load.2–2 . S4R. Elastic. veriﬁes the bending behavior of shell elements that have undergone ﬁnite membrane strains. The nodal temperatures of shell elements are increased uniformly throughout the element but vary through the thickness of the shell. Rebar material tests The material test includes ﬁve combinations of material deﬁnitions for the base element and for the rebar. The temperatures are applied in two ways: as a midsurface temperature that is increased from 0 to 50° along with a temperature gradient through the shell thickness that is increased from 0 to 30° . and hyperelastic material properties are used for both the base element and the rebar. and S4RS elements are loaded with a prescribed uniaxial displacement. The combinations are as follows: elastic base and elastic rebar. The two tests cover kinematics of rebar placed at the midsurface in membranes and in surface elements and are similar to the ﬁrst two tests for the shell elements. elastic base and elastic-plastic rebar.2–1. The nodal temperatures of membrane elements are increased uniformly from 0 to 40°. The rebar is placed at the midsurface in membranes and at one-third of the thickness from the bottom surface in shells. This test is repeated for shell elements in which the thicknesses are deﬁned with the *NODAL THICKNESS option. hyperelastic base and elastic rebar.

and ﬁeld-variable-dependent inelastic material properties is tested by stretching the rebar until yield occurs. Kinematics test for the C3D8R element. Therefore. The underlying elements are modeled with an elastic material. rebar will not contribute to body forces. is not added to the total element volume since the rebars are considered to be embedded in the underlying element. 1.inp Kinematics test for the CPE4R element. Kinematics test for the S4 element. and no initial stresses are applied to the underlying elements.REBAR IN Abaqus/Explicit Temperature.inp rebar_cax4r. Kinematics test for the S4R element. The volume of the rebar.inp rebar_c3d8r. Input files that use the *REBAR LAYER option rebar_m3d4r. however. the underlying elements will compress. Kinematics test for the C3D8 element. the body forces are based on the body force magnitude and the element volume.inp Kinematics test for the M3D4R element.inp rebar_sax1.inp rebar_sfm3d4r.inp rebar_s4. Kinematics test for the CAX4R element. Thus. the rebar will contribute to the gravity load.inp rebar_s4r. while simultaneously applying a uniform temperature or ﬁeld variable increase. and the reaction forces are output. and the initial rebar tensile stress will be reduced until equilibrium between the two is reached. Since the mass of the rebar is considered signiﬁcant and is added to the total mass of the element. and element volume. Kinematics test for the SAX1 element. Gravity loads are based on the magnitude of the userprovided gravity constant.inp rebar_cps4r.2–3 . Results and discussion The results for all the test cases agree with the analytical values that have been included at the top of each input ﬁle. Prestress in elements containing rebar This test consists of shell. the element density. All degrees of freedom are ﬁxed.and field-variable-dependent rebar materials The use of temperature.11. An initial tensile stress is applied to the rebar. membrane and continuum elements with isoparametric rebar.inp rebar_c3d8. Body loads on elements containing rebar This test applies a body force and a gravity load to all elements that allow rebar. Input files Input files that use the *REBAR option rebar_cpe4r. Kinematics test for the SFM3D4R element. Kinematics test for the CPS4R element.

Test of initial rebar stresses.inp rebar_tempdep. M3D4R. Temperature-dependent rebar material test.inp rebar_bending.2–1 Deformation modes for rebar in a CPE4R.inp rebar_orient. Kinematics test for the S4RSW element. and S4R element.inp rebar_bodyload.inp rebar_s4rs. Rebar thermal expansion test. 1. Body and gravity load test of rebar.11. uniaxial modes 2 3 1 simple shear modes Figure 1. Field-variable-dependent rebar material test. Rebar material test.inp rebar_thermalexp.inp rebar_ﬁelddep.inp Multiple deformation modes. Input files that use the *REBAR LAYER and *REBAR options rebar_modes.REBAR IN Abaqus/Explicit rebar_sc8r.inp rebar_prestress.2–4 .11. Rebar orientation test for shells and membranes.inp rebar_s4rsw. Kinematics test for the S4RS element. Shell rebar bending test.inp rebar_material.inp Kinematics test for the SC8R element.

All models consist of 16 elements along the length and one element in the cross-section. DCC2D4 elements.inp ec24ddh1.inp eca4dch1. DCCAX2 elements.inp ec12ddh1. DCCAX4 elements.0. DCCAX2D elements. and density.inp ec24dch1.3–1 . An initial temperature pulse.0. DCC3D8D elements. 1. The model consists of a column of ﬂuid 2. DCC3D8 elements.inp eca2dch1.0.0015625.CONVECTION ELEMENTS 1. in the form of a Gaussian wave is centered at 0. Consistency of all units is assumed.inp eca2ddh1. of peak magnitude 1. Problem description The transport and diffusion of a temperature pulse in the family of convective/diffusive heat transfer elements is tested in this veriﬁcation set.11. Input files ec12dch1. DCC2D4D elements.25 units along the length. 1. speciﬁc heat. 0.inp ec38ddh1. At time zero.0. Results and discussion The results show that the convective elements are able to propagate a temperature pulse with relatively minor diffusion. DCC1D2D elements.25 in the length direction. DCCAX4D elements. The material property values used are: conductivity.inp ec38dch1. all the nodes in the model are assigned a mass ﬂow rate of 0.0 units long with a cross-sectional area of 1.3 CONVECTION ELEMENTS: TRANSPORT OF A TEMPERATURE PULSE Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested DCC1D2 DCC1D2D DCC2D4 DCC2D4D DCC3D8 DCCAX2 DCCAX2D DCCAX4 DCCAX4D Feature tested DCC3D8D Transport of a temperature pulse in the convective/diffusive elements.inp eca4ddh1. 1.inp DCC1D2 elements. The transient response of the temperature pulse as it convects down the length of the mesh is tracked for a period of two seconds.11.

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S4R. Poisson’s ratio = 0. and C3D8R elements.inp element_modes_sc8r_nlgeom.inp element_modes_sc8r_pert. Input files element_modes_sc8r. bending.11. each step representing a particular mode. Each element is loaded in one of the basic deformation modes. 1. Boundary conditions: Each element type is loaded in displacement control to one of the following pure deformation modes: membrane.CONTINUUM SHELLS: BASIC ELEMENT MODES 1. Model for geometrically linear case using linear perturbation steps. Material: Linear elastic. section thicknesses.4–1 . Mesh: Two types of meshes are provided. S4R. and C3D8R elements. There are 18 steps.0. section strains.inp Model for geometrically linear case. Young’s modulus = 3000.11. Problem description A continuum shell element is loaded with displacement control into its basic deformation modes. Model for geometrically nonlinear case. one S4R. The mesh for the geometrically linear case consists of three elements: one SC8R. Model: The model consists of SC8R. For the geometrically nonlinear case we have 18 groups of SC8R. and reaction forces for the continuum shell are veriﬁed with results obtained for the S4R and C3D8R elements for equivalent modes where applicable. The results are compared to equivalent modes obtained from S4R and C3D8R elements.4 CONTINUUM SHELLS: BASIC ELEMENT MODES Product: Abaqus/Standard Element tested SC8R Feature tested The basic deformation modes of the continuum shell elements are veriﬁed. thickness. section forces. thickness gradient. stresses.1. and one C3D8R element. each of dimensions 2 × 2 × 0. transverse shear. Each group is loaded in a particular deformation mode in a single step. Results and discussion The strains.0. and hourglass.

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0. A section orientation is used with the *SHELL GENERAL SECTION tests such that the 1-direction is parallel to the y-axis and the 2-direction is parallel and opposite to the x-axis.5 TRANSVERSE SHEAR FOR SHEAR-FLEXIBLE SHELLS Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested S4 S4R S8R S8RT Features tested Transverse shear stress output (TSHR13.SHELL TRANSVERSE SHEAR 1. the end at 0 is ﬁxed. and the local 1-direction for layer 2 is parallel to the y-axis. The material orientation is speciﬁed such that the local 1-direction for layers 1 and 3 is parallel to the x-axis. Three integration points are speciﬁed in each layer for a total of nine points through the thickness.5 10 x 1 25 × 106 .5 0.5) deﬁned with the *SHELL SECTION.2 × 10 . 1. TYPE=LAMINA is used to deﬁne an orthotropic material with 6 6 6 1 × 10 .0.5–1 . SF5. A single shell element is used to model the plate.0. z y 0.5 0. SE4. Problem description The model consists of a composite plate with a length of 10. 0. COMPOSITE or *SHELL GENERAL SECTION.25.5 × 10 and 0. and thickness of 1. COMPOSITE options. Plane strain conditions are imposed in the y-direction (parallel to the unit width). SE5) for shear-ﬂexible shells.11. *ELASTIC. and various boundary conditions are applied to the remaining degrees of freedom (refer to input ﬁles).5. This section orientation only changes local directions for the section forces and section strains. The plate has three layers of equal thickness (0. width of 1.11. TSHR23) and transverse shear section force and section strain output (SF4.

uniaxial tension: total force of 20000 in the x-direction. direct: total force of 20000 in the z-direction. *SHELL SECTION. modal dynamic: total force of 20000 in the z-direction. Step 4.inp.6. esf4slt2. static. Static tests: Step 1. frequency: extract four lowest eigenmodes. transverse shear: 1 at the 10 edge. S4R elements. response spectrum. and S8R. and response spectrum steps. transverse shear: total force of 20000 in the z-direction. and response spectrum steps with *SHELL GENERAL SECTION. *SHELL SECTION. steady-state dynamics. static. Input files ese4sct1. pure bending: total moment of 20000 about the y-axis. all forces are applied at 10. static steps. uniaxial tension: 1 at the 10 edge. steady-state dynamics. Step 3. S4 elements. S4 elements. S4R. Step 7. Step 2. Step 5. modal dynamic.inp ese4sct2.11.inp S4 elements. Step 2.5–2 . static. steady-state dynamics: total force of 20000 in the z-direction. Static and dynamics tests: (The ﬁrst two static steps are performed to correlate (closely) with the eigenmode results of the frequency step. steady-state dynamics. Results and discussion The veriﬁcation of the transverse shear results is based on the formulation described in “Transverse shear stiffness in composite shells and offsets from the midsurface.inp esf4sct2. and ese4slt2. modal dynamic. The *EL FILE. frequency. steady-state dynamics. COMPOSITE. static steps. frequency.inp ese4slt2. frequency.inp.8 of the Abaqus Theory Manual. *SHELL SECTION.SHELL TRANSVERSE SHEAR Gauss integration is used for the shell cross-section for elements S4. Two groups of tests are performed. static.” Section 3. COMPOSITE. Step 6. S4R elements. *SHELL SECTION. Step 3. COMPOSITE. 1. COMPOSITE. COMPOSITE.) Step 1. modal dynamic.inp.inp esf4sct1. DIRECTIONS=YES option is used in the input ﬁles esf4sct2. and response spectrum steps. static.

coupled temperature-displacement steps with static loading. *SHELL SECTION. static steps. *SHELL SECTION.inp es68sct2. steady-state dynamics.inp es38tct1.11. steady-state dynamics. and response spectrum steps. modal dynamic. frequency. S8R elements. static. 1. COMPOSITE.inp es68sct1. *SHELL SECTION.inp es68slt2.SHELL TRANSVERSE SHEAR esf4slt2. static. and response spectrum steps with *SHELL GENERAL SECTION. frequency. steady-state dynamics. modal dynamic. S8R elements. frequency. COMPOSITE.inp S4R elements. modal dynamic. S8RT elements. S8R elements. and response spectrum steps with *SHELL GENERAL SECTION. static. COMPOSITE. COMPOSITE. COMPOSITE.5–3 .

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Each vessel is modeled using a two-dimensional ﬂuid block that measures 1 × 1 with unit thickness as shown in Figure 1.1) with 0.FLUID LINK ELEMENT 1. Finally. the ﬁrst cavity is subjected to a concentrated harmonic load of −10.11. Reference density. Reference temperature for density. Absolute zero temperature. as shown in Figure 1.11. Initial temperature. so that the response is calculated only for the real components of the steady-state system.6–1 . The downward force on the ﬁrst ﬂuid cavity is applied as a concentrated load to node 4 in the y-direction. Nodes 3 and 4 are constrained to displace equally in the y-direction.6 LINEAR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS WITH FLUID LINK Product: Abaqus/Standard Elements tested FLINK F2D2 Feature tested Linear dynamic analysis with ﬂuid link elements. =10.11. Problem description A ﬂuid link element is used to transfer ﬂuid between two vessels ﬁlled with pneumatic ﬂuid. grounded springs of very small stiffness acting in the y-direction are attached to nodes 4 and 14 to prevent solver problems in the solution. Loading: The ﬂuid temperature is kept constant at 200. Fluid link =0. Material: Pneumatic fluid Ambient pressure.0 in all of the steps. The second step is similar to the ﬁrst. Nodes 13 and 14 are also constrained to displace equally in the y-direction. =14.7. In 1.0. except that the imaginary terms in the stiffness matrix for the ﬂuid link are ignored. The vessels are subjected to internal pressures by applying loads and .0 (0. Nodes 1 and 11 are the cavity reference nodes for the two ﬂuid cavities. =200.6–2.6–1. =−460. In the ﬁrst step. =10. respectively.11. =200. Reference pressure for density.

37 PCAV1 10.10 −0.0 Figure 1. F1 F2 1.3699 1.28 10.607 −90.3699 MFLT 1.6–2 . The fourth and ﬁfth steps are similar to the ﬁrst and second steps except for the pressure preload of 10.0 1.2163 eﬂ2sfxd.2163 1.028 PHMFL −0. Results and discussion Step 1 2 4 5 Input file MFL 1.10 10. Results are reported at the end of each steady-state analysis step.22 10. 1.28 PPOR1 −0.11.0 units in both cavities.0 fluid fluid 1.6–1 Fluid link model.inp Analysis input ﬁle.FLUID LINK ELEMENT the third step loads are applied to induce an internal pressure of 10.11.0 1.0.010 −0. which is applied to the ﬂuid elements in the third step.635 PHMFT −90.

11.11.6–3 .6–2 Two-dimensional ﬂuid block model.FLUID LINK ELEMENT 4 3 14 13 y x 1 2 11 12 fluid link Figure 1. 1.

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” Section 1.” Section 4. Patch test for heat transfer elements. 1. f. “T3: One-dimensional transient heat transfer.). ISOTHERMAL=NO option. One-dimensional heat transfer with radiation. HEAT CAPACITANCE. Abaqus/Explicit RIGID BODIES WITH TEMPERATURE DOFS Elements tested CAX3T CAX4HT CAX4RT CAX4T CAX6MT CAX8HT CPE3T CPE4RT CPE4T CPE6MT CPE8T CPS3T CPS4RT CPS4T CPS6MT CPS8T C3D4T C3D6T C3D8HT C3D8RT C3D8T C3D10MT SC8RT SC6RT S3RT S4RT Problem description Most of the veriﬁcation tests in this section are based on the recommendations of the National Agency for Finite Element Methods and Standards (U. Detailed descriptions of problems (a)–(e) can be found in • • • • • “T2: One-dimensional heat transfer with radiation.11.3. Temperature-dependent ﬁlm condition. e. ISOTHERMAL=YES options are tested in these problems. and “Temperature-dependent ﬁlm condition. respectively.5.RIGID BODIES TEMPERATURE DOF 1. The *RIGID BODY.4 of the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual.7–1 . The test problems are: a.” Section 1.8. b. “Patch test for heat transfer elements.11.K. c. ISOTHERMAL=NO and *RIGID BODY.2 of the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual. Two-dimensional heat transfer with convection. but the elements are now assigned to rigid bodies using the *RIGID BODY.7 RIGID BODIES WITH TEMPERATURE DOFS. One-dimensional transient heat transfer.3.3.” Section 4. d. The models presented here are the same as the models described in these sections. One-element lumped model. “T4: Two-dimensional heat transfer with convection.3.41.3 of the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual. AND NODALBASED THERMAL LOADS Products: Abaqus/Standard I.” Section 4.

Results and discussion The target solutions are reproduced accurately for all the problems tested. For the one-element model the analytical solution is Step 1: Step 2: In the above equation h is the heat transfer coefﬁcient.7–2 . and denotes the area on which the prescribed ﬂux is applied. In the ﬁrst step the rigid body is cooled by convection from an initial temperature of =100 to the ambient temperature =20. a second capacitance is lumped into the model using a HEATCAP element. In addition to its own thermal capacitance. ISOTHERMAL=YES option. and the heat energy balance is respected. All the thermal properties are equal to unity. In the second step the body is heated by a prescribed ﬂux. The analytical solutions for the energies are Step 1: Step 2: The energies are in good agreement with the analytical solutions. q. therefore.RIGID BODIES TEMPERATURE DOF The one-element lumped model tests the *RIGID BODY. the temperature varies only in time. is the heat capacitance.11. is the area associated with the convective ﬂux. is the time at the end of previous step. In Abaqus/Explicit the internal heat energy ALLIHE and the external heat energy through the external ﬂuxes ALLHF are available. 1. The temperatures at the nodes are the same because the rigid body is isothermal. The simulation consists of two steps.

inp Patch test for heat transfer: rbisono_htpatch_std_cax4ht. 1. CPS4T elements and the user subroutine *FILM.inp rbisono_1dhtrd_xpl_cax6mt.inp rbisono_htpatch_std_c3d8ht. C3D8T elements. C3D8T elements.inp rbisono_1dhtrd_xpl_cpe4rt.inp rbisono_2dhtcvf_std_cps8t. CAX8HT elements. CPE4T elements.7–3 .inp rbisono_1dhtrd_xpl_cps3t. C3D8HT elements. ﬁne mesh. CPS3T elements.inp One-element lumped model: rbisoyes_heatcap_std_cax4t.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_std_cpe4t. coarse mesh. CAX6MT elements. One-dimensional heat transfer with radiation: rbisono_1dhtrd_xpl_cax3t. CPE4RT elements.inp One-dimensional transient heat transfer: rbisono_1dhtcdc_std_cax4t.inp Two-dimensional heat transfer with convection: rbisono_2dhtcvc_std_cps4t. CPS4T elements.inp rbisono_2dhtcvc_std_c3d8t. CPE3T elements.inp rbisono_1dhtrd_xpl_cpe6mt. CAX4RT elements.inp rbisono_1dhtrd_std_c3d8t.inp rbisono_1dhtrd_std_cps4t. ﬁne mesh. CAX4T elements.inp rbisono_1dhtcdf_std_cpe8t.inp rbisono_tempdepfm_std_cps4t.RIGID BODIES TEMPERATURE DOF Input files Abaqus/Standard input files One-dimensional heat transfer with radiation: rbisono_1dhtrd_std_cax4t.11. CPE4T elements.inp Temperature-dependent ﬁlm condition: rbisono_tempdep_std_cpe4t.inp rbisono_1dhtcdc_std_cpe4t. coarse mesh.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files CAX4T elements. coarse mesh. C3D8T elements. CPE4T elements. CAX4T elements.inp CAX3T elements.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_std_c3d8t.inp rbisono_1dhtrd_xpl_cax4rt. CAX4HT elements.inp rbisono_1dhtcdf_std_cax8ht. CPS8T elements. coarse mesh.inp rbisono_1dhtrd_xpl_cpe3t. CPE6MT elements. ﬁne mesh. CPE8T elements. CPS4T elements.

C3D8T elements. ﬁne mesh. coarse mesh. CPS6MT elements. CPE6MT elements. ﬁne mesh. ﬁne mesh.inp rbisono_1dhtcdc_xpl_cps4rt.inp rbisono_2dhtcvf_xpl_cps3t.inp rbisono_2dhtcvc_xpl_cpe4rt.inp rbisono_2dhtcvf_xpl_c3d6t. CPE4RT elements. C3D6T elements.inp rbisono_2dhtcvc_xpl_cps6mt. CPS3T elements. CPE3T elements.inp rbisono_1dhtcdf_xpl_s3rt.inp rbisono_1dhtcdf_xpl_cps3t. coarse mesh.inp rbisono_1dhtcdc_xpl_cpe4rt. CAX4RT elements.inp rbisono_2dhtcvc_xpl_c3d6t. coarse mesh. coarse mesh. ﬁne mesh. CPS4RT elements. coarse mesh. ﬁne mesh. S3RT elements. coarse mesh. CPS4RT elements. ﬁne mesh. CPS3T elements. CAX3T elements.inp rbisono_2dhtcvc_xpl_cpe6mt. coarse mesh.inp rbisono_1dhtcdc_xpl_cax4rt. C3D8T elements.inp rbisono_1dhtrd_xpl_c3d8rt. CPE4RT elements. CPE6MT elements.inp rbisono_2dhtcvc_xpl_c3d8rt. CPE3T elements. C3D4T elements.inp rbisono_2dhtcvf_xpl_cps4rt. ﬁne mesh. CPE3T elements.inp rbisono_2dhtcvc_xpl_c3d8t. C3D6T elements. 1. S4RT elements. CAX6MT elements. coarse mesh.inp rbisono_1dhtcdf_xpl_cax4rt.7–4 . ﬁne mesh. C3D8RT elements. coarse mesh. coarse mesh.inp rbisono_2dhtcvc_xpl_cps4rt.inp rbisono_1dhtcdc_xpl_cpe6mt.11.inp rbisono_1dhtrd_xpl_c3d6t. coarse mesh. coarse mesh. ﬁne mesh.inp rbisono_1dhtcdc_xpl_cps3t. ﬁne mesh. C3D6T elements. CAX3T elements.inp CPS4RT elements.inp rbisono_1dhtcdc_xpl_cps6mt.inp rbisono_1dhtcdf_xpl_cpe4rt.inp rbisono_1dhtcdc_xpl_s4rt.inp rbisono_1dhtcdf_xpl_cax3t.inp rbisono_1dhtrd_xpl_cps6mt. CPS3T elements. coarse mesh.inp Two-dimensional heat transfer with convection: rbisono_2dhtcvc_xpl_cpe3t.inp rbisono_2dhtcvc_xpl_cps3t.inp rbisono_1dhtcdf_xpl_cpe3t. CPE4RT elements. coarse mesh.inp rbisono_2dhtcvc_xpl_c3d6t. ﬁne mesh. coarse mesh.inp rbisono_1dhtcdf_xpl_cps4rt.inp rbisono_2dhtcvf_xpl_cpe4rt. coarse mesh. CPS6MT elements.inp rbisono_1dhtrd_xpl_c3d8t.inp One-dimensional transient heat transfer: rbisono_1dhtcdc_xpl_cax3t. CAX4RT elements. CPS3T elements. CPE4RT elements. coarse mesh.inp rbisono_1dhtrd_xpl_c3d4t.inp rbisono_1dhtcdc_xpl_cax6mt. CPS4RT elements. CPS4RT elements. C3D8RT elements. ﬁne mesh.inp rbisono_2dhtcvf_xpl_cpe3t.RIGID BODIES TEMPERATURE DOF rbisono_1dhtrd_xpl_cps4rt. C3D6T elements. coarse mesh.inp rbisono_1dhtcdc_xpl_cpe3t. coarse mesh. coarse mesh. CPE3T elements. CPS6MT elements.

inp One-element lumped model: rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_cax4rt.inp rbisono_tempdep_xpl_cpe4rt.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_s4rt.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_cpe4rt. CPE6MT elements. C3D10MT elements.inp Patch test for heat transfer: rbisono_htpatch_xpl_cax3t.inp rbisono_htpatch_xpl_cax6mt. ﬁne mesh. CPE4RT elements. CPS4RT elements.inp rbisono_tempdep_xpl_cps6mt. SC8RT elements. CPE6MT elements. SC8RT elements. CPE4RT elements.inp rbisono_htpatch_xpl_cpe4rt. CPS6MT elements. CAX4RT elements. CPE4RT elements.inp rbisono_htpatch_xpl_c3d4t.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_cax6mt.inp rbisono_htpatch_xpl_cps4rt.inp rbisono_2dhtcvf_xpl_sc8rt.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_c3d10mt.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_sc8rt. CAX6MT elements. CPS6MT elements.inp rbisono_htpatch_xpl_cps6mt.inp rbisono_tempdep_xpl_cps3t.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_cpe6mt. C3D8RT elements.inp rbisono_htpatch_xpl_cps3t.7–5 .inp rbisono_htpatch_xpl_c3d6t.inp rbisono_htpatch_xpl_cpe6mt. CPS3T elements. C3D8T elements. C3D8RT elements.inp C3D8RT elements. ﬁne mesh.inp rbisono_htpatch_xpl_cax4rt.inp rbisono_htpatch_xpl_sc8rt.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_cps6mt.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_c3d8t.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_c3d8rt.inp rbisono_tempdep_xpl_s4rt. CAX4RT elements.inp rbisono_tempdep_xpl_cps4rt. SC8RT elements. C3D4T elements. CPE6MT elements.inp rbisono_htpatch_xpl_c3d8t. CPE3T elements. C3D6T elements. CPS4RT elements. C3D8T elements. S4RT elements.inp rbisono_htpatch_xpl_c3d8rt. 1. CPE3T elements. CAX3T elements. CPS3T elements. S4RT elements.inp Temperature-dependent ﬁlm condition: rbisono_tempdep_xpl_cpe3t.11.inp rbisono_htpatch_xpl_cpe3t.RIGID BODIES TEMPERATURE DOF rbisono_2dhtcvf_xpl_c3d8rt. CPS6MT elements. CAX6MT elements.inp rbisono_tempdep_xpl_cpe6mt.

RIGID BODIES TEMPERATURE DOF II.11. CPE4RT elements.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dc2d8.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dc2d8e_post. CAX4T elements.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dc2d4e.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_cps8rt.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dc3d6. HEAT CAPACITANCE Elements tested DCAX4 DC2D4 DC2D8 DC3D6 DC3D8 DC3D8 CAX4T CPS4T CPS8RT C3D8T DCAX4E DC2D4E DC2D8E DC3D8E CAX4RT CAX6MT CPE4RT CPE6MT CPEG4T CPEG8T C3D8RT C3D8T C3D10MT SC8RT Problem description CPS6MT The test is based on the one-element lumped model described in the previous section.7–6 . DC2D8E elements. DC3D6 elements. CPE6MT elements. *POST OUTPUT analysis. CAX6MT elements.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dc2d8e.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_cpe4rt.inp CAX4RT elements.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dc3d8. DC2D8 elements.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dc2d4. 1. CPEG8T elements. CPS6MT elements.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files DCAX4 elements.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_cpeg8t.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dc3d8e. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files heatcapcﬁlm_std_dcax4.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_cps4t. C3D8T elements.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_cax4t.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_cax6mt.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_cpe6mt. DC2D4 elements. DCAX4E elements.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_c3d8t.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_cpeg4t. DC3D8E elements. rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_cax4rt. CPEG4T elements. CPS8RT elements. DC3D8 elements.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dcax4e. CPS4T elements.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_cps6mt. DC2D4E elements. Results and discussion The results match the analytical solution.

the *RADIATE option is replaced by equivalent nodal loads using the *CRADIATE option.inp onedht_crad_std_dcax6.inp onedht_crad_std_dcax8. DC2D8 elements. DCAX4 elements. 1. DC1D3 elements.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_c3d10mt. DC2D3 elements.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_c3d8t. Elements tested DC1D2 DC1D3 DCAX3 DCAX4 DCAX6 DCAX8 DC2D3 DC2D4 DC2D6 DC2D8 DC3D8 CAX8HT CPE4T CPEG4T CPEG8T C3D8HT T2D2T DCAX6E DC1D2E DC2D3E DC3D8E CAX3T CAX4RT CPE4RT CPE6MT CPS4RT Problem description C3D6T C3D8RT The tests are based on the problem presented in “T2: One-dimensional heat transfer with radiation.85°C.inp onedht_crad_std_dc2d4. DCAX8 elements. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files onedht_crad_std_dc1d2.inp onedht_crad_std_dc2d6. Results and discussion The results are in good agreement with the target temperature of 653. For the second-order elements tested in Abaqus/Standard.inp rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_sc8rt. C3D10MT elements.inp onedht_crad_std_dcax3.11. C3D8T elements.7–7 . dummy mechanical and electrical properties are used.inp onedht_crad_std_dc2d3.3. DC2D4 elements.inp onedht_crad_std_dcax4.RIGID BODIES TEMPERATURE DOF rbisoyes_heatcap_xpl_c3d8rt. *CRADIATE C3D8RT elements. For the coupled temperature-displacement and coupled thermal-electrical elements.inp III. respectively.inp onedht_crad_std_dc1d3.” Section 4. DC2D6 elements. DCAX6 elements. since only the heat transfer analysis is of interest. DCAX3 elements.inp DC1D2 elements.2 of the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual.inp onedht_crad_std_dc2d8. In the tests presented here. SC8RT elements. the radiative loads at the nodes are weighted appropriately to apply consistent nodal loads.

inp onedht_crad_std_cax8ht.inp onedht_crad_std_t2d2t. DC3D8E elements. CPE4RT elements. T2D2T elements. in Abaqus/Standard the nodal loads are weighted appropriately for the second-order elements. cradiate_1dhtrd_xpl_cax4rt. C3D8HT elements. C3D8RT elements.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files DC3D8 elements. Elements tested DCAX4 DC2D4 DC2D8 DC3D6 DC3D8 CAX3T CPS4RT C3D6T CAX4T CPS4T CPS8RT C3D8T DCAX4E DC2D4E DC2D8E DC3D8E CAX3T CAX6MT CPE6MT CPEG4T CPEG8T C3D6T C3D10MT SC6RT Problem description CPS4RT CPS6MT The tests are based on the one-element lumped model described earlier.inp onedht_crad_std_c3d8ht.inp cradiate_1dhtrd_xpl_cpe4rt. DC2D3E elements. Results and discussion The temperature values are in good agreement with the analytical solution.7–8 .RIGID BODIES TEMPERATURE DOF onedht_crad_std_dc3d8.11. 1.inp onedht_crad_std_dc1d2e.inp cradiate_1dhtrd_xpl_cpe6mt. respectively. *CFILM AND *CFLUX CAX4RT elements. CPE6MT elements.inp onedht_crad_std_dc3d8e. CPE4T elements.inp DCAX4 element.inp onedht_crad_std_cpeg8t.inp onedht_crad_std_cpe4t.inp onedht_crad_std_dcax6e. The nodal thermal loads *CFILM and *CFLUX are used for cooling and heating the body.inp cradiate_1dhtrd_xpl_c3d8rt. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files heatcapcﬁlm_std_dcax4. As with the *CRADIATE tests described earlier.inp onedht_crad_std_cpeg4t. DCAX6E elements. respectively. CPEG4T elements. CPEG8T elements. DC1D2E elements.inp onedht_crad_std_dc2d3e. dummy mechanical and electrical properties are used for the coupled temperature-displacement and coupled thermal-electrical analyses.inp IV. CAX8HT elements.

DC2D4E element.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_cpeg8t. since the deformations are not of interest. DC2D8 element.7–9 . however.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dc2d8. cﬁlm_cﬂux_xpl_cax3t. CAX4T element.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dc2d4e.inp cﬁlm_cﬂux_xpl_cps6mt. CPEG8T elements.inp V. The test is described in “Coupled temperature-displacement analysis: one-dimensional gap conductance and radiation. DC2D8E element.6. SC6RT element.inp cﬁlm_cﬂux_xpl_cps4rt. The second test is done in Abaqus/Standard to test the friction dependency on ﬁeld variables.1.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dc3d6.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files DC2D4 element.6.RIGID BODIES TEMPERATURE DOF heatcapcﬁlm_std_dc2d4.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_c3d8t.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dc2d8e. CAX3T element.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dc3d8e.inp cﬁlm_cﬂux_xpl_c3d10mt. C3D8T element. and “Coupled temperature-displacement analysis: one-dimensional gap conductance and radiation.11.inp cﬁlm_cﬂux_xpl_cpe6mt. CPS6MT element.” Section 1.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_cps8rt.3 of the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual. here we release the constraints in the tangential direction of contact. CPS4RT element. CPE6MT element. CPEG4T elements. In Abaqus/Explicit two types of thermal contact are considered: thermal contact between a rigid body and an analytical rigid surface and thermal contact between two rigid bodies.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_cax4t. DC3D8 element. CPS8RT element. DC3D8E element. DC3D6 element. C3D6T element. In the ﬁrst set of tests only the temperature variation in the rigid bodies involved in contact is considered.” Section 1.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dc3d8.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_cpeg4t.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_cps4t. 1.inp cﬁlm_cﬂux_xpl_c3d6t. DCAX4E element. THERMAL CONTACT BETWEEN RIGID BODIES Elements tested CPE4T CPS4T CPE4RT CPS4RT Problem description CPE6MT The tests are based on the problems presented in “Thermal surface interaction. CAX6MT element.” Section 1. CPS4T element.inp cﬁlm_cﬂux_xpl_sc6rt.3 of the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual. C3D10MT element.inp heatcapcﬁlm_std_dcax4e.7.inp cﬁlm_cﬂux_xpl_cax6mt.

*POST OUTPUT analysis. CPS4T elements as rigid bodies. *GAP CONDUCTANCE test. CPS4T elements. CPE4RT elements as rigid bodies. without ﬁeld variable-dependent friction. *GAP CONDUCTANCE test. *GAP RADIATION test. pressure-dependent *GAP CONDUCTANCE. *GAP CONDUCTANCE test.inp ﬁeld_contactp_std_cps4t_po. 1. *GAP RADIATION test.inp rb_ar_thcontactr_xpl_cpe4rt. CPE6MT elements and an analytical rigid surface. *GAP CONDUCTANCE test. pressure-dependent *GAP CONDUCTANCE. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files rb_rb_thcontactc_std_cpe4t. *GAP RADIATION test.inp rb_rb_thcontactc_xpl_cpe4rt. CPE6MT elements as rigid bodies.RIGID BODIES TEMPERATURE DOF Results and discussion The temperature values match the results obtained with deformable elements for the ﬁrst set of tests.inp noﬁeld_contactp_std_cps4t.inp CPS4RT elements and an analytical rigid surface.inp ﬁeld_contactp_std_cps4t.7–10 . CPE4RT elements and an analytical rigid surface. In the second set of tests the results obtained using the ﬁeld variable-dependent friction agree exactly with the results obtained without ﬁeld variable dependence. with ﬁeld variable-dependent friction.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files CPE4T elements as rigid bodies.inp rb_rb_thcontactr_xpl_cps4rt. rb_ar_thcontactc_xpl_cps4rt.11. *GAP RADIATION test.inp rb_rb_thcontactr_std_cps4t.inp rb_rb_thcontactc_xpl_cpe6mt. CPS4T elements.inp rb_ar_thcontactr_xpl_cpe6mt. CPS4RT elements as rigid elements.

Material: Acoustic ﬂuid: Acoustic bulk modulus. a single-step transient dynamic analysis is performed. Loading: In the Abaqus/Standard veriﬁcation ﬁles. The ﬂuid in the duct is initially quiescent and is forced at one end using a uniform sinusoidal excitation at a frequency of . =1.28E5 Acoustic mass density. The duct is 10 units long and is excited at one end.25 Speed of sound. Problem description The problem of propagation of plane waves in a duct is used to verify the behavior of acoustic inﬁnite elements.ACOUSTIC INFINITE ELEMENTS 1. In every case the excitation is supplied using the *CLOAD option. The duct itself is modeled with acoustic ﬁnite elements of appropriate dimension and interpolation order. for ACIN3D6 and ACIN3D8 the excitation is supplied using the *BOUNDARY option. In the second step the ﬂuid in the duct is initially quiescent and is forced at one end using a uniform sinusoidal excitation at a frequency of . In the Abaqus/Explicit veriﬁcation ﬁles. The comparison duct is identical but oriented in the opposite direction and terminated with the plane wave impedance condition. The reference 1. the excitation is supplied using the *CLOAD option. Abaqus/Explicit ANALYSIS OF AN ACOUSTIC DUCT Elements tested ACIN2D2 Features tested ACIN2D3 ACIN3D3 ACIN3D4 ACIN3D6 ACIN3D8 ACINAX2 ACINAX3 Steady-state and transient dynamic analysis using acoustic inﬁnite elements. =320.11. In the ﬁrst step a steady-state dynamic analysis is performed at two frequencies: 1 and 10. The axisymmetric elements are studied using an annular duct terminated with axisymmetric acoustic inﬁnite elements.0. In every case except the ACIN3D6 and ACIN3D8 veriﬁcation ﬁles. =1.8 ANALYSIS OF UNBOUNDED ACOUSTIC REGIONS Products: Abaqus/Standard I. with the plane wave impedance condition applied using the *IMPEDANCE option.11.8–1 . The reference solution is found using an identical acoustic ﬁnite element mesh. Although the inﬁnite elements are not exact for the duct case. a two-step analysis is performed. In each input ﬁle another duct model using the exact plane-wave absorbing impedance boundary condition is supplied for comparison. they should give comparable results to the plane wave impedance case. At the opposite end acoustic inﬁnite elements are used to simulate the inﬁnite continuation of the duct.

Duct mesh made up of AC3D6 elements.inp duct_acin2d3.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files Duct mesh made up of AC2D4 elements. terminated with an ACIN2D3 element. terminated II.inp Duct mesh made up of AC2D4R with an ACIN2D2 element.inp duct_acinax2_xpl. Duct mesh made up of AC3D20 elements. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files duct_acin2d2. terminated with an ACIN3D4 element.inp duct_acin3d3_xpl.inp duct_acinax2. terminated with an ACINAX2 element.inp duct_acin3d3.inp duct_acin3d6. Duct mesh made up of AC3D8R with an ACIN3D3 element. terminated with an ACIN3D3 element. Results and discussion In each step the solutions using inﬁnite elements produce results comparable to those obtained in the companion plane wave impedance case. Duct mesh made up of AC2D8 elements. Duct mesh made up of AC3D8 elements. Duct mesh made up of AC3D10 elements. Duct mesh made up of ACAX4R with an ACINAX2 element.inp duct_acin3d4_xpl. terminated elements. elements. with the plane wave impedance condition applied using the *IMPEDANCE option.8–2 . terminated with an ACINAX3 element.inp duct_acin3d4. terminated elements.inp duct_acinax3. terminated with an ACIN3D8 element. terminated with ACIN3D6 elements. terminated elements. Duct mesh made up of ACAX8 elements.11.inp duct_acin3d8. COUPLING TO SOLID ELEMENTS Elements tested ACIN2D2 ACIN2D3 ACIN3D3 ACIN3D4 ACIN3D6 ACIN3D8 ACINAX2 ACINAX3 1.ACOUSTIC INFINITE ELEMENTS solution is found using an identical acoustic ﬁnite element mesh. duct_acin2d2_xpl. terminated with an ACIN2D2 element. Duct mesh made up of AC3D8R with an ACIN3D4 element. Duct mesh made up of ACAX4 elements.

To check these results. which accounts for the small differences observed.11. ACINAX2 element.inp surf_acin3d4_xpl. ACIN3D8 element. ACIN3D6 element. ACINAX3 element.inp surf_acin3d4.inp surf_acin3d8. ACIN3D3 element.ACOUSTIC INFINITE ELEMENTS Problem description A simple transient problem is studied to verify the coupling of acoustic inﬁnite elements directly to structural elements.inp surf_acin3d3_xpl. The acceleration time histories are described using the *AMPLITUDE option.inp Abaqus/Explicit input files ACIN2D2 element. surf_acin2d2_xpl.inp ACIN2D2 element.inp surf_acinax2_xpl.8–3 .inp surf_acin3d6. Input files Abaqus/Standard input files surf_acin2d2. similar acceleration proﬁles are imposed as concentrated loads on acoustic inﬁnite elements of the same geometry. Results and discussion The time histories for acoustic pressure are in agreement for the two cases for the elements tested.inp surf_acinax2. ACIN3D3 element. There is a small numerical difference in the method in which accelerations and loads are imposed in Abaqus. ACIN3D4 element. ACIN2D3 element. Accelerations are imposed on the solid elements using the *BOUNDARY option.inp surf_acin3d3.inp surf_acinax3. ACIN3D4 element. Acoustic inﬁnite elements are coupled to solid elements using the *TIE option.inp surf_acin2d3. ACINAX2 element. 1.

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The reaction forces for the constrained nodes of each pair of elements are output for comparison purposes.9 NONSTRUCTURAL MASS VERIFICATION Products: Abaqus/Standard Abaqus/Explicit Various methods for including a nonstructural mass in a model are tested. Results and discussion Reaction force histories for nodes on each pair of test and reference elements are nearly identical. Input files std_nsm_tot_continuum. Most of the analyses consist of a set of reference elements that do not include a nonstructural mass and another set of test elements whose material density and nonstructural mass contribution are adjusted to make the total mass equal those of the reference elements. Each element pair is subjected to equivalent displacements (and rotations in the case of beams and shells) such that their response is dynamic. and shells.11.9–1 . Several element types are tested in each input ﬁle.inp xpl_nsm_tot_continuum. The response of the test elements should be identical to that of the reference elements. I. with two elements in the model for each element type.inp Abaqus/Standard analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional continuum elements.inp std_nsm_tot_beamshell. Abaqus/Explicit analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional continuum elements.NONSTRUCTURAL MASS 1. NONSTRUCTURAL MASS SPECIFIED IN THE FORM OF A TOTAL MASS OVER A REGION OF UNIFORM MATERIAL DENSITY Elements tested B21 B22 B31 B32 PIPE21 C3D4 C3D6 C3D8 C3D8R SC6R SC8R CAX3 CAX4R CPE3 CPE4R CPS3 CPS4R M3D3 M3D4R S3R S4 S4R SAX1 T2D2 T3D2 Problem description PIPE31 The nonstructural mass contribution is speciﬁed in the form of a total mass to be applied over an element set. 1.11. pipes. Tests of membranes and shells are performed with and without the *NODAL THICKNESS option. Abaqus/Standard analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional beams.

hence. The results match the expected values. the same is not true when the rebar are deﬁned using the *REBAR option. Tests of membranes and shells are performed with and without the *NODAL THICKNESS option. Rebar deﬁned using the *REBAR LAYER option are included where applicable. Under mass proportional distribution of a total nonstructural mass. 1. Several element types are tested in each input ﬁle with two elements (test and reference) in the model for each element type. with the volume proportional distribution. The material density of a “reference” element is chosen to be eight times that of a “test” element. In Abaqus/Standard a single.dat) ﬁle using the *PREPRINT. In Abaqus/Explicit each element pair is subjected to equivalent displacements (and rotations in the case of beams and shells) such that their response is dynamic. the effective element densities of a “reference” element and a “test” element remain at the 8:1 ratio. A total mass equal to a third of all “reference” elements is distributed over the entire model. Results and discussion The masses of each “reference” and “test” element pair are output to the printed output (. These values for a “reference” element and a “test” element are not expected to be identical but should correspond to the modiﬁed spatial distribution of the mass in the model.step static analysis is carried out with gravity loads.9–2 . In Abaqus/Explicit the element stable time increment values are also output for comparison. the ratio changes to 4:1. MODEL=YES option. The reaction forces for the constrained nodes of each pair of elements are output. In the case of a mass proportional distribution of the nonstructural mass.NONSTRUCTURAL MASS xpl_nsm_tot_beamshell. In either distribution any “test” and “reference” element pair would have different mass. However.11.inp Abaqus/Explicit analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional beams and shells. the reaction forces are not expected to match. the elements with rebar deﬁned using the *REBAR LAYER option attract a higher nonstructural mass compared to those elements without the rebar. II. NONSTRUCTURAL MASS SPECIFIED IN THE FORM OF A TOTAL MASS OVER A REGION OF NONUNIFORM MATERIAL DENSITY Elements tested B21 B22 B31 B32 C3D4 C3D6 C3D8 C3D8R SC6R SC8R CAX3 CAX4R CPE3 CPE4R CPS3 CPS4R M3D3 M3D4R S3R S4 S4R SAX1 T2D2 T3D2 Problem description The nonstructural mass contribution is speciﬁed in the form of a total mass to be applied over the entire model.

Abaqus/Explicit analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional continuum elements with volume proportional distribution of the nonstructural mass.inp xpl_nsm_tot_continuum_v. Abaqus/Explicit analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional beams and shells with volume proportional distribution of the nonstructural mass. Abaqus/Standard analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional beams and shells with mass proportional distribution of the nonstructural mass.NONSTRUCTURAL MASS Input files std_nsm_tot_continuum_m.inp std_nsm_tot_beamshell_m. Abaqus/Explicit analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional continuum elements with mass proportional distribution of the nonstructural mass.inp xpl_nsm_tot_beamshell_v. III.inp std_nsm_tot_continuum_v.11.inp Abaqus/Standard analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional continuum elements with mass proportional distribution of the nonstructural mass.inp xpl_nsm_tot_beamshell_m.inp xpl_nsm_tot_continuum_m. Abaqus/Explicit analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional beams and shells with mass proportional distribution of the nonstructural mass. NONSTRUCTURAL MASS SPECIFIED IN THE FORM OF A MASS PER UNIT VOLUME Elements tested B21 B22 B31 B32 C3D4 C3D6 C3D8 C3D8R SC6R SC8R CAX3 CAX4R CPE3 CPE4R CPS3 CPS4R M3D3 M3D4R S3R S4 S4R SAX1 T2D2 T3D2 1. Abaqus/Standard analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional continuum elements with volume proportional distribution of the nonstructural mass. Abaqus/Standard analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional beams and shells with volume proportional distribution of the nonstructural mass.inp std_nsm_tot_beamshell_v.9–3 .

NONSTRUCTURAL MASS Problem description The nonstructural mass contribution is speciﬁed in the form of a mass per unit volume to be applied over an element set. Abaqus/Explicit analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional continuum elements.11.inp Abaqus/Standard analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional continuum elements. Several element types are tested in each input ﬁle. Results and discussion Reaction force histories for nodes on each pair of test and reference elements are nearly identical.inp xpl_nsm_mpv_continuum.inp std_nsm_mpv_beamshell. 1. IV. Results and discussion Reaction force histories for nodes on each pair of test and reference elements are nearly identical. with two elements in the model for each element type.9–4 . NONSTRUCTURAL MASS SPECIFIED IN THE FORM OF A MASS PER UNIT AREA Elements tested M3D3 M3D4R S3R S4 S4R SAX1 Problem description The nonstructural mass contribution is speciﬁed in the form of a mass per unit area to be applied over an element set. Input files std_nsm_mpv_continuum.inp xpl_nsm_mpv_beamshell. Tests of membranes and shells are performed with and without the *NODAL THICKNESS option. The reaction forces for the constrained nodes of each pair of elements are output for comparison purposes. Abaqus/Explicit analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional beams and shells. with two elements in the model for each element type. Each element pair is subjected to equivalent displacements (and rotations in the case of beams and shells) such that their response is dynamic. Each element pair is subjected to equivalent displacements (and rotations in the case of beams and shells) such that their response is dynamic. Several element types are tested in each input ﬁle. Abaqus/Standard analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional beams and shells. Tests of membranes and shells are performed with and without the *NODAL THICKNESS option. The reaction forces for the constrained nodes of each pair of elements are output for comparison purposes.

Each element pair is subjected to equivalent displacements (and rotations in the case of beams and shells) such that their response is dynamic. and shells.inp Abaqus/Standard analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional continuum elements.inp std_nsm_mpl_beamshell. Abaqus/Standard analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional beams and shells. Abaqus/Standard analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional beams and shells. Input files std_nsm_mpl_continuum. Several element types are tested in each input ﬁle. Abaqus/Explicit analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional beams.inp xpl_nsm_mpl_continuum. Abaqus/Explicit analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional continuum elements. NONSTRUCTURAL MASS SPECIFIED IN THE FORM OF A MASS PER UNIT LENGTH Elements tested B21 B22 B31 T2D2 T3D2 Problem description B32 PIPE21 PIPE31 The nonstructural mass contribution is speciﬁed in the form of a mass per unit length to be applied over an element set. 1.inp xpl_nsm_mpa_beamshell. Results and discussion Reaction force histories for nodes on each pair of test and reference elements are nearly identical. V. with two elements in the model for each element type.11.inp xpl_nsm_mpl_beamshell.NONSTRUCTURAL MASS Input files std_nsm_mpa_continuum. Abaqus/Explicit analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional continuum elements.9–5 . Abaqus/Explicit analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional beams and shells. pipes. The reaction forces for the constrained nodes of each pair of elements are output for comparison purposes.inp std_nsm_mpa_beamshell.inp xpl_nsm_mpa_continuum.inp Abaqus/Standard analysis of two-dimensional and threedimensional continuum elements.

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” Section 2.1 “Mechanical properties. • • • Material Verification “Overview.” Section 2.3 .2 “Thermal properties.MATERIAL VERIFICATION 2.” Section 2.

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1.1 Overview • “Material veriﬁcation: overview.OVERVIEW 2.” Section 2.1 2.1–1 .

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The material veriﬁcation tests are also performed in all the different stress spaces available for each particular material model by choosing suitable ﬁnite elements.1–1 .1. 2.1. options and dependencies are exercised in stress/strain paths that are relevant to the particular material model. The Abaqus results are compared with exact analytical solutions when they are available. Mechanical properties and thermal properties are tested in this chapter. they are compared with other approximate solutions.1 MATERIAL VERIFICATION: OVERVIEW This chapter deﬁnes the basic tests that are used to verify the material options in the Abaqus library and documents the results of the tests. For each mechanical material model listed.MATERIAL VERIFICATION 2. otherwise.

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2.” Section 2.2 “Mullins effect and permanent set.” Section 2.” Section 2.2.” Section 2.2.1 “Viscoelastic materials.2.” Section 2.22 “Concrete smeared cracking.2.” Section 2.” Section 2.” Section 2.19 “Progressive damage and failure of ductile metals.” Section 2.” Section 2. mass proportional.8 “Rate-independent plasticity.2.2.2.20 “Progressive damage and failure in ﬁber-reinforced materials.24 “Two-layer viscoplasticity.” Section 2.2.2.” Section 2.6 “Large-strain viscoelasticity with hyperelasticity.9 “Rate-dependent plasticity in Abaqus/Standard.2.13 “Field-variable-dependent inelastic materials.2 Mechanical properties • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • “Elastic materials.2.27 “Hydrostatic ﬂuid.2.3 “Hysteretic materials.2.” Section 2.” Section 2.2.15 “Porous metal plasticity.” Section 2.” Section 2.2.” Section 2.12 “Temperature-dependent inelastic materials.” Section 2.21 “Creep.7 “Transient internal pressure loading of a viscoelastic cylinder. and rotary inertia proportional damping in Abaqus/Standard.” Section 2.2.2.2–1 .18 “Equation of state material.2.2.” Section 2.26 “Cracking model: tension shear test.23 “Concrete damaged plasticity.5 “Field-variable-dependent elastic materials.” Section 2.2.28 “Composite.” Section 2.2.4 “Temperature-dependent elastic materials.2.” Section 2.2.17 “Drucker-Prager/Cap plasticity model.2.2.” Section 2.” Section 2.16 “Drucker-Prager plasticity.11 “Annealing temperature.2.30 “Mass proportional damping in Abaqus/Explicit.” Section 2.10 “Rate-dependent plasticity in Abaqus/Explicit.” Section 2.” Section 2.25 “Brittle cracking constitutive model.14 “Johnson-Cook plasticity.” Section 2.MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 2.31 2.” Section 2.2.2.2.2.29 “Material damping in Abaqus/Explicit.” Section 2.

2–2 .32 2.MECHANICAL PROPERTIES • “Thermal expansion test.” Section 2.2.

Input files meloro3ltr.ELASTICITY 2. LINEAR ANISOTROPIC ELASTIC MATERIAL Element tested C3D8 2.01 1010. Results and discussion Stiffness coefficients 1000.inp meloro2ltr. The results agree well with exact analytical or approximate solutions.1–1 .inp *ELASTIC. 1000. CPS4 elements.2.1 ELASTIC MATERIALS Products: Abaqus/Standard I. 100.1 100. TYPE=ORTHOTROPIC. CPE4 elements. 0. II. 101. TYPE=ORTHOTROPIC. 100. TYPE=ENGINEERING CONSTANTS.inp meleco3ltr. C3D8 elements. Abaqus/Explicit LINEAR ORTHOTROPIC ELASTIC MATERIALS Elements tested C3D8 CPE4 CPS4 Problem description Material: Engineering constants 1000. 0. 1000. 0. *ELASTIC. 1010. 100.2. 100.1 0.1 100. 0. *ELASTIC.

e6 10.e6 9. Input file melano3ltr.e6 12.e6 9.69e10 8.1–2 .79e5 1.e6 5.inp *ELASTIC. TYPE=ANISOTROPIC.21e5 4.ELASTICITY Problem description Material: Stiffness coefficients 2.e6 11.e6 3.e6 7.e6 6.69e10 4.21e11 1.e6 7.e9 Results and discussion The results agree well with exact analytical or approximate solutions.e6 7. 2.e6 2.23e11 4.74e5 1.24e11 4. C3D8 elements.2.

499 0. CAX8R elements. Input files mpespo3ahc. IV.4 0.6621e−2 3.499 4.499 0.0 Initial void ratio.7 840.ELASTICITY III.4418e−2 5.499 0.2201e−2 2.3 (The units are not important.5 700.inp Hydrostatic compression. Poisson’s ratio.6607e−2 8.08 The results agree well with exact analytical or approximate solutions. hydrostatic compression. Results and discussion = 1.5420e−3 1.) Initial conditions: = 1.499 0. Linear perturbation steps containing *LOAD CASE. = 0.inp mpespo3vlp.1–3 . POROUS ELASTICITY Element tested CAX8R Problem description Material: Logarithmic bulk modulus.7 917.3 765.2. HYPOELASTICITY Element tested CPS4R Problem description Material: The following dependence of E on the second strain invariant is used: E 637. CAX8R elements.

biaxial tension.inp mhecdo3ahc. planar tension.) Results and discussion The results agree well with exact analytical or approximate solutions. CPS4R V. Compressible case: = 0. biaxial tension.inp mhecdo3gsh. Incompressible.inp mhecdo3ibt.inp mhecot3hut. uniaxial tension.. C3D8RH elements. Compressible. C3D8RH elements.inp mhecoo3ibt. volumetric compression. planar tension. Incompressible.1–4 . uniaxial tension.inp mhecoo2hut. HYPERELASTICITY WITH POLYNOMIAL STRAIN ENERGY FUNCTION Elements tested C3D8RH CAX8 CGAX8H CPS4R Problem description Material: Polynomial coefﬁcients (N=1): = 80.inp Nearly incompressible.2. Compressible. CPS4R elements. C3D8RH elements. uniaxial tension.001. C3D8RH elements.inp mhecoo3gsh. C3D8RH elements. C3D8RH elements.ELASTICITY Results and discussion The results agree well with exact analytical or approximate solutions. elements. (The units are not important.inp Incompressible. Compressible. Incompressible. = 20.inp