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Home > Commands > 1. Introduction

1. Introduction FEMAP is finite element modeling and post-processing software that allows you to perform engineering analyses both quickly and confidently. FEMAP provides the capability to develop sophisticated analyses of stress, temperature, and dynamic performance directly on the desktop. With easy access to CAD and office automation tools, productivity is dramatically improved compared to traditional approaches. FEMAP automatically provides the integration that is necessary to link all aspects of your analysis. FEMAP can be used to create geometry, or you can import CAD geometry. FEMAP provides powerful tools for meshing geometry, as well as applying loads and boundary conditions. You may then use FEMAP to export an input file to over 20 finite element codes. FEMAP can also read the results from the solver program. Once results are obtained in FEMAP, a wide variety of tools are available for visualizing and reporting on your results. Geometry FEMAP can directly import geometry from your CAD or design system. In fact, FEMAP can directly import a solid model from any ACIS-based or Parasolid-based modeling package. If your modeling package does not use either of these geometry engines, you can use the FEMAP IGES or STEP reader. If you are using I-DEAS, you can bring a single part into FEMAP by exporting a Viewer XML (IDI) file from I-DEAS. These files can be read and then stitched together to form a solid. This typically requires using one command. If you do not have CAD geometry, you can create geometry directly in FEMAP using powerful wireframe and solid modeling tools. Solid modeling directly in FEMAP uses the robust Parasolid modeling engine. You can build or modify solid models using the Parasolid engine, and then export the geometry out of FEMAP. This is very convenient if you need to export geometry to CAD packages that are Parasolid-based. Finite Element Modeling Regardless of the origin of your geometry, you can use FEMAP to create a complete finite element model. Meshes can be created by many methods ranging from manual creation, to mapped meshing between keypoints, to fully automatic meshing of curves, surfaces and solids. FEMAP can even work with your existing analysis models. You can import and manipulate these models using the interfaces to any of the supported analysis programs. Appropriate materials and section properties can be created or assigned from FEMAP libraries. Many types of constraint and loading conditions can be applied to represent the design environment. You can apply loads/constraints directly on finite element entities (nodes and elements), or you can apply them to geometry. FEMAP will automatically convert geometric conditions to nodal/elemental values upon translation to your solver program. You may even convert these loads before translation to convince yourself that the loading conditions are appropriate for your model. Checking Your Model At every step of the modeling process, you receive graphical verification of your progress. You need not worry about making a mistake because FEMAP contains a multi-level undo and redo capability. FEMAP also provides extensive tools for checking your model before you analyze it to give you the confidence that you have properly modeled your part. It constantly examines input to prevent errors in the model, and provides immediate visual feedback. FEMAP also provides a comprehensive set of tools to evaluate your finite element model and identify errors that are often not obvious. For example, FEMAP can check for coincident geometry, find improper connections, estimate mass and inertia, evaluate your constraint conditions, and sum your loading conditions. Each of these methods can be used to identify and eliminate potential errors, saving you considerable time and money. Analyzing Your Model When your model is complete, FEMAP provides interface to over 20 popular programs to perform finite element analysis. You can even import a model from one analysis program and automatically convert it to the format for a different analysis program. The NX Nastran for FEMAP solver is a general finite element analysis program for structural and thermal analysis that is integrated with FEMAP. Post-processing After your analysis, FEMAP provides both powerful visualization tools that enable you to quickly interpret results, and numerical tools to search, report, and perform further calculations using these results. Deformation plots, contour plots, animations, and charting of XY data series are just some of the postprocessing tools available to the FEMAP user. FEMAP supports OpenGL, which provides even more capability for post-processing, including dynamic visualization of contours through solid parts. You can dynamically rotate solid contoured models with one push of your mouse button. Section cuts and isosurfaces can be viewed dynamically by simply moving your cursor. Documenting Results Documentation is also a very important factor with any analysis. FEMAP obviously provides direct, high quality printing and plotting of both graphics and text. Frequently, however, graphics or text must be incorporated into a larger report or presentation. FEMAP can export both graphics and text to nonengineering programs with a simple Windows Cut command. You can easily export pictures to popular programs such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Power Point, and Adobe Framemaker. You can export to spreadsheets, databases, word processors, desktop publishing software, and paint and illustration programs. These links enable you to create and publish a complete report or presentation, all electronically, right on your desktop. With support for AVI files, you can even include an animation directly in your Power Point Presentation or Word document. FEMAP also supports VRML and JPEG format so anyone can easily view results with standard viewers. FEMAP Documentation FEMAP comes with a set of three printed manuals: FEMAP Examples, the FEMAP User Guide, and the FEMAP Commands reference manual. The FEMAP online help includes the contents of these manuals, as well as several additional books. The complete set includes: • FEMAP Examples: Step-by-step examples for new users.

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• FEMAP User Guide: General information on how to use FEMAP, including an overview of the finite element modeling process. Also contains reference information for the FEMAP analysis program and geometry interfaces. • FEMAP Commands: Detailed information on how to use FEMAP commands. • FEMAP API Reference: Information on how to write your own applications that work with FEMAP. • What’s New: New features for this release. When NX Nastran for FEMAP is installed, online help includes all of the above, as well as a full set of current NX Nastran documentation, to assist you during the solving portion of the analysis process.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation

2. File Manipulation This topic describes the File menu commands. These commands work with new or existing FEMAP models. They can produce printed or plotted hard copy, and transfer both text and graphics to other Windows and analysis programs. The commands on the File menu are described in the following sections: • Section 2.1, "Opening a Model File" • Section 2.2, "Saving the Model File" • Section 2.3, "Importing/Attaching to/Exporting Files" • Section 2.4, "Using Notes and References" • Section 2.5, "Using Print, Copy, and Paste" • Section 2.6, "Using Rebuild and Preferences" • Section 2.7, "Using File, Recent Models - 1,2,3,4" • Section 2.8, "Exiting FEMAP"

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.1 Opening a Model File

2.1 Opening a Model File This section contains three commands, File, New, which opens a new FEMAP model file, File, Open, which allows you to access an existing FEMAP model file, and File, Close, which allows you to close any active model. The FEMAP model file is a binary database of everything contained in the FEMAP file. You can have multiple model files open in a given FEMAP session. All three commands are discussed further below. If you are having a problem opening a file, check to confirm that the file has only one extension. Files with two extensions may have difficulty being opened due to the Note: Windows file structures and default parameters. Also, you may want to remove any spaces in the file name. Spaces are typically not a problem, but may cause difficulty on certain file systems.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.1 Opening a Model File > 2.1.1 File, New...

2.1.1 File, New... ... starts a new, empty model. All new models are named “Untitled”. When you save a model, FEMAP will prompt you give the model a name. (For information on how to save your current model, see Section 2.2, "Saving the Model File".) The FEMAP main window title bar will change to show the model name once saved. When you start FEMAP without specifying a model file name on the command line or the “?” command line option, you begin with a new, empty model. This is just like using the File, New command.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.1 Opening a Model File > 2.1.2 File, Open...

2.1.2 File, Open...

... accesses an existing FEMAP model. File, Open uses the standard file access dialog box to request the file name of the model you wish to use. The default file name extension is *.MODFEM. Legacy *.MOD files may also be opened. Multiple FEMAP models can be open in the same FEMAP session. Click the title tabs at the top of the graphics window to switch between open models and views. The title bar for the FEMAP main window shows the file name of your active model. When you open a model, it returns to the screen with the same graphics windows active (and in the same position) as when you saved the file. When multiple views are open in one model, the view names will appear on title tabs above the FEMAP graphics window. When multiple models are open, the title tabs will show the file name of the model and the view name in the following format, File Name.modfem : View Name. If you start FEMAP and specify a model file name on the command line, FEMAP will open that model just as if you opened the file using this command. You can also start FEMAP using the “?” command line option. This will display the standard file access dialog box just like File, Open. You can also open an existing FEMAP model by “dragging and dropping” a FEMAP model file (*.MODFEM or *.MOD file) from an existing directory window onto an open FEMAP interface. If the model is from the current FEMAP version, it will simply open the model. If the model is from an older version, FEMAP will alert you and ask if it OK to import a FEMAP neutral file. (See Section 2.3.1.4, "File, Import, FEMAP Neutral..." for more details on the FEMAP neutral file). If you are trying to open a model with a file name containing “unsupported” characters on a particular “localized version” of Windows, this may cause issues. If FEMAP is unable to properly read the file name due to unsupported characters, a different Note: Open dialog box will appear, which uses a different mechanism for handling such situations. If this happens, it is suggested that you highlight the file in the Open dialog box instead of trying to type the name of the model into the File name: field.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.1 Opening a Model File > 2.1.3 File, Close...

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2.1.3 File, Close... ... allows you to close the model file that is currently active in FEMAP. If only one model is open, File, Close will close the model, but FEMAP will remain running without a model until a new model is started using File, New, an existing model is opened using File, Open, or FEMAP is shut down using File, Exit. When multiple models are open, this command will only close the active model and the associated views, leaving the other open models running for continued use. FEMAP will always prompt you to save your model when the last open view is being closed.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.1 Opening a Model File > 2.1.4 File, Close All

2.1.4 File, Close All ... closes all currently open models in your FEMAP session with one command. Only available when multiple models are open in the same FEMAP session. FEMAP will prompt you to save each model individually when this command is used.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.2 Saving the Model File

2.2 Saving the Model File FEMAP also has four commands which allow you to save the FEMAP binary database (model file). They are: • File, Save, which saves the file under the existing name, • File, Save As, which allows you to change the model filename, • File, Save All, which saves all the open files under their existing names, • File, Timed Save, which allows periodic saving of the model file automatically.

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2.2.1 File, Save...

... writes a copy of your active model to the permanent file you specify. If your active model is “Untitled”, this command asks for a filename by calling File, Save As. You must specify a file name, or you cannot save an “Untitled” model. Whenever you are working on an active named model, File, Save simply writes to the same model file - without prompting for a file name. Your model will be named if you open an existing model file, or if you had previously saved the model. If you want to write to a different file, use File, Save As. When to Save When you work on a FEMAP model, all changes are retained in memory, and in a temporary disk file. Your original model will not be updated until you save the data. This can be a mixed blessing. If you make a mistake, you can simply use File, Open to revert to your original model file. You will be right back to where you did your last save. On the other hand, if you accidentally turn your computer off, or forget to save your changes, they WILL be lost. In general, you should save whenever you make a significant change to your model and you are certain the change is correct. It usually does not take long to save the model, and the benefits can be well worth the time. Alternatively, you can use the File, Timed Save command to save your model automatically, at a time interval that you specify.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.2 Saving the Model File > 2.2.2 File, Save As...

2.2.2 File, Save As... ... is identical to File, Save, except that it always displays the standard file access dialog box to ask for the name of the file to write. File, Save automatically calls File, Save As if you are working on an “Untitled” model. You should only use this command when you want to save your model with a different file name.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.2 Saving the Model File > 2.2.3 File, Save All

2.2.3 File, Save All ... saves all currently open models in your FEMAP session with one command. Only available when multiple models are open in the same FEMAP session. FEMAP saves the models in the order in which they were open, so the first model opened will be the first model saved and so on.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.2 Saving the Model File > 2.2.4 File, Timed Save...

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2.2.4 File, Timed Save... ... instructs FEMAP to save all open models automatically either at a specified time interval or after a number of commands have been performed. It allows you to turn timed save on or off and set the time between automatic saves. The default settings for this option can be set in File, Preferences, Database. You also can request FEMAP to notify you prior to automatically saving your open models. If you choose this option, you can skip a timed save by canceling FEMAP's notification. Even if you cancel, however, timed save is still active and will notify you again when the interval expires. To disable timed save, you must turn it off with File, Timed Save. If you are working with an 'Untitled' model, you must specify a file name before the model can be saved. This follows the normal process, just like the File, Save As command. If your open models are not named, they will be saved to specified file names. Unlike some other programs, FEMAP does not interrupt your commands to save your open models. After the interval has expired, FEMAP waits until the end of your next command to save your open models. This means that FEMAP will never automatically save your open models unless you are actively working on a specific model. If you are not accessing any FEMAP commands, Timed Save will be inactive; however, the timer will continue to run. In many cases, you will find that Timed Save will save your open models after the next command that you access.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.3 Importing/Attaching to/Exporting Files

2.3 Importing/Attaching to/Exporting Files The next menu commands under the File command allow you to both import and export data. FEMAP works as a general pre and post-processor for finite element analysis. You may also import and export geometry, as well as analyze your model if you have loaded one for the many solver programs that can be automatically executed by FEMAP. The commands under this area of the menu are explained more fully below.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.3 Importing/Attaching to/Exporting Files > 2.3.1 File, Import Menu

2.3.1 File, Import Menu The File, Import commands enable you to import information from CAD packages as well as other FEA codes. There are four commands based upon the type of information to import. You can import geometry from CAD packages, the analysis model from other FEA codes, the results from FEA solver codes, or a FEMAP neutral file. Each command is further explained below. If you are trying to import geometry, an analysis model, analysis results, or a FEMAP neutral file with a file name containing “unsupported” characters on a particular Note: “localized version” of Windows, this may cause issues. Please see the Note in Section 2.1.2, "File, Open..." for more information on how FEMAP handles this situation.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.3 Importing/Attaching to/Exporting Files > 2.3.1 File, Import Menu > 2.3.1.1 File, Import, Geometry...

2.3.1.1 File, Import, Geometry... ... is the interface between FEMAP and other CAD programs. When you select this command, you will see the standard Windows file section dialog box. There are many types of geometry files which FEMAP can import: • ACIS Solid Model Files - *.SAT files • Parasolid Solid Model Files - *.X_T files • IGES Files - *.IGS files • STEP Files - *.STP files (AP203 and AP214 geometry) • Stereolithography Files - *.STL files • Wireframe Files - *.DXF files. • CATIA V4 Models - *.MDL files • CATIA V4 Express Files - *.EXP, *.DLV files • CATIA V5 Files - *.CATP files • I-DEAS Files - *.IDI files • Pro/ENGINEER Models - *.PRT and *.ASM files • Solid Edge Models - *.PAR, *.PSM, *PWD, and *ASM files • Unigraphics Models - *.PRT files In each of these cases, simply select the file to import. Normally FEMAP will display all of the files that it knows how to read, using the most common file name extensions for these formats. If your file uses a different extension, you may rename it, or simply drop down the file type list, choose the appropriate format, then specify the file name. If you do not use the standard extensions for each of the formats, and you are use the default All Geometry type, FEMAP may choose the wrong format to read the file, which will result in errors. Depending upon the type of file you choose, FEMAP may display information in the Messages window and then prompt you with one or more additional dialog boxes where you can set various options. For more information on the options contained in the dialog boxes, see Section 9, "Geometry Interfaces" in the FEMAP User Guide. You can also import some types of geometry into FEMAP by “dragging and dropping” a geometry file of a currently supported format (*.X_T; *.SAT; *.IGES or *.IGS; and *.STEP or *.STP only) from an existing directory window onto an open FEMAP interface. FEMAP will bring up a dialog box asking you if it is “OK to Start New Model” with “dragged and dropped” geometry or if you would like to “Add” the geometry “to Current Model”. Click Yes to create a new model or No to add it to the current model.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.3 Importing/Attaching to/Exporting Files > 2.3.1 File, Import Menu > 2.3.1.2 File, Import, Analysis Model...

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2.3.1.2 File, Import, Analysis Model...

This command allows you to import an analysis model from many popular FEA codes. FEMAP has support for over 20 finite element solvers. By default, FEMAP will only show certain interfaces for solvers whose translators are currently being maintained. Once you select this command, you will see the Import From dialog box. All import options can be made visible by going to File, Preferences..., choosing the Interfaces tab and turning on the Enable Old Analysis Interfaces option. This is not recommended as the translators for the solvers not listed by default are no longer maintained and the FEMAP may no longer read some required entities.

Note:

Simply select the appropriate code, and FEMAP will then prompt you for the name of the input file. You may be asked other questions based upon the format you have chosen. For a more details, see Section 7, "Translation Tables for Analysis Programs" and Section 8, "Analysis Program Interfaces" in the FEMAP User Guide. You can also import analysis models from some solvers into FEMAP by “dragging and dropping” an analysis file of a currently supported format from an existing directory window onto an open FEMAP interface. Currently supported analysis input files “drag and drop” include *.DAT and *.NAS for NASTRAN programs; *.INP for ABAQUS; and *.ANS for ANSYS. All of these file types can be read in for the version of the solver currently supported by the FEMAP translators. (For a more details, see Section 7, "Translation Tables for Analysis Programs" and Section 8, "Analysis Program Interfaces" in the FEMAP User Guide.) FEMAP will bring up a dialog box asking you if it is “OK to Start New Model” with “dragged and dropped” analysis input file or if you would like to “Add” the input file “to Current Model”. Click Yes to create a new model or No to add it to the current model.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.3 Importing/Attaching to/Exporting Files > 2.3.1 File, Import Menu > 2.3.1.3 File, Import, Analysis Results...

2.3.1.3 File, Import, Analysis Results... ... allows you to read results from an analysis you have performed, so you can then use FEMAP’s powerful post-processing capability. When you choose this command, you will see the same dialog box as the File, Import, Analysis Model. Simply select the appropriate format and then enter the file name. For more information on the individual solver codes supported, see Section 7, "Translation Tables for Analysis Programs" and Section 8, "Analysis Program Interfaces" in the FEMAP User Guide. As with File, Import, Analysis Model, all import options can be made visible by going to File, Preferences..., choosing the Interfaces tab and turning on the Enable Old Analysis Interfaces option. This is not recommended as the translators for the solvers not listed by default are no longer maintained and the FEMAP may no longer read some required entities.

Note:

You can also import analysis results from some solvers into FEMAP by “dragging and dropping” an results file of a currently supported format from an existing directory window onto an open FEMAP interface. Currently supported analysis results files for “drag and drop” include *.OP2, *.F06, and *.XDB for NASTRAN programs; *.FIL for ABAQUS; and *.RST for ANSYS. All of these file types can be read in for the version of the solver currently supported by the FEMAP translators. (For a more details, see Section 7, "Translation Tables for Analysis Programs" and Section 8, "Analysis Program Interfaces" in the FEMAP User Guide.) After the file is “dropped” onto the FEMAP interface, FEMAP will bring up all dialog boxes which would normally appear when importing analysis results from a certain solver with the exception of the Import Results From dialog box. FEMAP is able to skip the Import Results From dialog box because it has recognized which solver the results file has come from already You should always import analysis results into an existing model containing those nodes and elements. If you read information for entities that do not exist in your model, FEMAP will provide a warning. This could mean that you have read the results into the wrong (or modified) model.

Note:

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.3 Importing/Attaching to/Exporting Files > 2.3.1 File, Import Menu > 2.3.1.4 File, Import, FEMAP Neutral...

2.3.1.4 File, Import, FEMAP Neutral... ... translates a FEMAP neutral file into a binary FEMAP database file. Once the FEMAP neutral file is read, you can save this file as a FEMAP *.modfem file. Because the FEMAP neutral file is compatible across all platforms, it is the recommended format for long term storage. For more information on the FEMAP neutral file, see Section 8.1.2, "Reading a FEMAP Neutral File" in the FEMAP User Guide. You can also import a FEMAP neutral file into FEMAP by “dragging and dropping” a neutral file (*.NEU) from an existing directory window onto an open FEMAP interface. The FEMAP neutral file MUST have been created with either the current release or a previous release of FEMAP for import to be successful. FEMAP will bring up a dialog box asking you if it is “OK to Start New Model” with “dragged and dropped” neutral file or if you would like to “Add” the entities “to Current Model”. Click Yes to create a new model or No to add it to the current model. There are also options to Read individual parts of the neutral file instead of the whole thing. The individual parts are Geometry Model, Analysis Model, Output, Groups, and Views.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.3 Importing/Attaching to/Exporting Files > 2.3.2 File, Attach to Results

2.3.2 File, Attach to Results ...attaches to results files and allows postprocessing to occur without “internalizing” the contents of each file into the FEMAP database. This is especially helpful when you have a large output file. In general, there are two reasons for large output files. First, a large model will typically create a large output file, unless care has been taking in requesting output. Second, analysis types which create a large number of Output Sets, such as transient response, frequency response, and nonlinear analysis, can create large output files for even small and medium sized models.

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The Manage Results Files dialog box contains all that is required to manage “attached” results files. The dialog box contains an “Attached File List” along with two other sections, Attach Options and File Info. Each section is described in detail below. Attached File List and File Info When a file is attached, it will appear in the “Attached File List”. The “ID” represents the “Attach ID” seen in the Entity Editor and potentially the Data Table, while the “Filename” and “File Path” are provided as a reference. In addition, one of four icons will appear to the left of the “ID” field: • Green Check - indicates the file is attached correctly and ready for use.

• Yellow Check - indicates the file has been “unloaded”, typically by using the Unload button. All output sets related to the “unloaded” file have been deleted from the model. The “Filename” and “File Path” remain and the output set(s) can be recreated in the model using the Reload button. • Red X - indicates the file represented by “Filename” in the “File Path” has been changed in some way. The file may be a different size, have a different time stamp, be the wrong file type, or any combination of these issues. • “Missing File” icon (Folder with exclamation point) - indicates the file represented by “Filename” can no longer be found in the “File Path” directory. If the file has been moved, use the Locate button to specify a new “File Path”. If the files name has been changed, use the Find File button and select the updated file.

As an individual file is selected in the list, the File Info section will be populated with information about the results file such as Solver, Analysis Type, Title/Labels, File Date, and Memory Mapped status (Yes or No). At any time, any number of files may be selected in the list (Ctrl + left mouse click to select individual items, Shift + left mouse click on “first desired” and “last desired” items in the list to select range). Once selected, several different operations can be performed using the buttons in the Attach Options section. Attach Options File Format - Select NX Nastran, MSC/MD Nastran, or NEi Nastran. It is very important you choose the correct solver file format before selecting a results file with the Attach File button. When NX Nastran or MSC/MD Nastran is selected, you will be prompted to select a *.op2 file, while when NEi Nastran is selected, you will be prompted to select a *.FNO file.

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Memory Mapped File - used to have FEMAP attempt to have the file be “Memory Mapped”. When on, FEMAP will attempt to attach to the file using “memory mapping”, which in some cases will improve performance significantly with regard to accessing data from the file. When off, no “memory mapping” will take place. In order for an attached output file to be properly “memory mapped” it must be able to fit into a contiguous block of unused system memory. For example, if you are trying to attach a 3 GB results file but only have 2 GB of contiguous RAM available, Note: then the file will still be attached, but not “memory mapped”. In order to determine if a file has been “memory mapped”, please check the “Memory Mapped” status in the File Info section of this dialog box. Attach File - Once a File Format has been selected, click this button to open a dialog box which will allow selection of any number of *.op2 files or *.FNO files residing in the same directory. Each results file selected will appear in a different line in the “Attached File List”.
Note:

Once a results file is attached and “loaded”, the file cannot be altered by the solver while FEMAP is open. Once FEMAP is closed or the file has been “unloaded”, it can be changed by the solver.

Unload - Use this button to “unload” any number of highlighted files in the “Attached File List”. When a file is “unloaded” all output sets which reference the attached file will be deleted from the model. All other data about the file, such as ID, Filename, and File Path remain in the “Attached File List”. Also, all of the “indexing” that was done during the initial “attach” of the file also remains. This facilitates “reloading” the results at a different time. Reload - Use this button to “reload” any number of attached files which are currently “unloaded”.
Note:

Depending on the order in which “unloaded” files are “reloaded” into FEMAP, the IDs of the output sets may be different than they were before the files were “unloaded”.

Detach - Use this button to completely “detach” any number of highlighted files in the “Attached Files List”. All output sets created by attached output files and all other reference to these files will be completely removed. Detach All - Does the same thing as Detach, but detaches all results files from the model. Locate - Use this button to specify a directory where any number of output files may be located. This command may be used to resolve issues with files showing the “Missing File” icon in the “Attached Files List”. Find File - Use this button to attempt to find a specific file. This option is only available when a file is showing a “Red X” in the “Attached Files List”. The selected file must match the size and time stamp of the original file which was attached for this command to be successful.
Note:

Typically, the only time this option will be used is when the Filename of an “attached results file” has been changed and a different file now exists in the original File Path with the original Filename.

Save To Model - This button is used to selectively “internalize” output from attached results files for any number of files highlighted in “Attached Files List”. Selection of output sets and vectors is done through the Select Output to Internalize dialog box. For more information on using this dialog box see Section 8.6.0.1, "Using the Select Output Sets and Select Results dialog boxes". In addition to selecting which output sets and output vectors to internalize, groups limiting output to certain nodes and/or elements may be selected.

The “quick group” icons next to the drop-down lists can be used to create a new group or edit an existing group “on-the-fly”. Depending on which button you select, you will be able to choose only nodes or elements.
Note:

The selection of groups will occur after the selection of output sets and output vectors for each highlighted file in the “Attached File List”. This workflow is then repeated for each additional selected file, one at a time.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.3 Importing/Attaching to/Exporting Files > 2.3.3 File, Export Menu

2.3.3 File, Export Menu

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The File, Export menu allows you to export geometry, analysis model, or a FEMAP neutral file. Each of these areas are described below.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.3 Importing/Attaching to/Exporting Files > 2.3.3 File, Export Menu > 2.3.3.1 File, Export, Geometry...

2.3.3.1 File, Export, Geometry... ...provides export capability for FEMAP solid models. FEMAP currently supports various types of geometry export. • • • • • • ACIS Solid Model Files - *.SAT files Parasolid Solid Model Files - *.X_T files STEP Files - *.STP IGES Files - *.IGS Stereolithography Files - *.STL files VRML Files

The ACIS SAT interface will take geometry inside FEMAP and generate a .SAT file using an Parasolid to ACIS converter. The STEP interface will allow you to export a Parasolid entity to a STEP AP203 solid via a conversion from the Parasolid modeling kernel into the STEP standard. Similarly, the IGES interface will allow you to export Parasolid geometry to an IGES file. The stereolithography file is only applicable for a meshed model. FEMAP will export a faceted representation of your model using the FEA mesh as the basis of this file. The final option, VRML, allows easy viewing of solid or meshed models in many standard viewing programs. You can even save a deformed, contour plot in VRML format.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.3 Importing/Attaching to/Exporting Files > 2.3.3 File, Export Menu > 2.3.3.2 File, Export, Analysis Model...

2.3.3.2 File, Export, Analysis Model...

This command is used to start the translation to a analysis input file for a selected solver. FEMAP will display the Export Method dialog box which allows the user to translate using a Analysis Set or translate using the manual method, specifying the analysis parameters each time the active model is translated. • Activate Analysis Set: The list box will contain any previously created Analysis Sets. If a Analysis Set has already been activated then that set will automatically be selected. Once you choose the Analysis Set you wish to translate from, press the OK button to create the input file. • Create/Edit Set: If you have not previously created a Analysis Set, pressing this button will bring you to the Model, Analysis command so that you can create or edit a existing Analysis Set. See Section 4.10, "Preparing for Analysis" and Section 4.10.1, "Defining a Analysis Set"

Note:

The preferred method of exporting an analysis model is to use the Analysis Set Manager. Support for new features or expanded solver support will only be added to the Analysis Set Manager. For solvers supported by the Analysis Manager see: Section 4.10, "Preparing for Analysis"

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When you create an Analysis Set all the options necessary for solving are defined once and saved with the model or in a library. This enables the user to reuse the Analysis Sets and for FEMAP to create the input file without user interaction • Other Interfaces: Pressing this button will bring up the Export To dialog box. When you select this command, you will see the available analysis programs for export include the FEMAP Neutral file, SINDA/G, CAEFEM, PATRAN, I-DEAS, and Comma-Separated file. Simply select the appropriate format. Unlike File, Import, Analysis Model, however, you will need to select the appropriate analysis type (Static, Normal Modes/Eigenvalue, etc.), when required. These are the only programs FEMAP can export a file to unless the “Enable Old Analysis Interfaces” option is checked on the Interfaces tab of the Preferences dialog box.

Note:

To translate using the “old method” of specifying the analysis parameters by prompting you to fill in the necessary options (for ALL supported solvers) you must use File, Preferences..., choose the Interfaces tab and turn on the Enable Old Analysis Interfaces option. With this option turned on, the Export To dialog box from FEMAP versions 9.1 and before will appear. This is not recommended as the translators for ALL solvers (including Nastran, ANSYS, and ABAQUS) using the “old method” are no longer maintained and any option added to or fixed in a translator after FEMAP version 8.0 will likely not be included in the input file generated.

For a more complete description of the options available for each analysis program, see Section 8, "Analysis Program Interfaces"in the FEMAP User Guide.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.3 Importing/Attaching to/Exporting Files > 2.3.3 File, Export Menu > 2.3.3.3 File, Export, FEMAP Neutral...

2.3.3.3 File, Export, FEMAP Neutral... ... allows you to store the FEMAP model file as a neutral file. Because the FEMAP neutral file is compatible across all platforms, it is the recommended format for long term storage. For more information on the FEMAP neutral file, see Section 8.1.1, "Writing a FEMAP Neutral File" in the FEMAP User Guide.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.3 Importing/Attaching to/Exporting Files > 2.3.4 File, Analyze...

2.3.4 File, Analyze...
File, Analyze works similarly to File, Export, Analysis Model except if a Analysis Set is active then femap will simply write the model and try to launch the solver without user input. If an Analysis Set is not Active then the Export Model dialog box will be displayed so that the user can create an Analysis Set or translate using the Manual method by pressing the Manually Create Analysis Model button. If Manual creation of the input file is used then FEMAP will determine the analysis program and analysis type from the settings that you chose in File, Preferences, Interfaces.

In the cases where FEMAP can run the analysis program, this command will also optionally begin the analysis.

FEMAP

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2.4 Using Notes and References

2.4.1 File, Notes... The File, Notes command provides a method of attaching notes to your model as well as translate lines to your model input file. When you select this command, the Model Notes and Text for Translation dialog box will appear.

This command is most often used to provide identifying characteristics to your model, such as date, program, creator etc. You may also provide information for translation by selecting the Translation Text option. You can choose to include the translation text in an output file by selecting the Include During Write Translation option. When these commands are selected, FEMAP will automatically write this information to the heading area (i.e. where FEMAP automatically writes its own date/time information) of your active model. Be careful when using the Translation Text option. The information included in the Notes area must have the appropriate syntax for the type of translation you are Note: performing. FEMAP will not perform any checks on this syntax. It will simply write the information as you input it; therefore, improper syntax could cause a fatal error in your analysis run.

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Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.4 Using Notes and References > 2.4.2 File, References...

2.4.2 File, References... The File, References command allows you to insure that you are using the most current version of certain entities in a given model. A single model can contain references for any number of imported files (Geometry, analysis models, and analysis results sets). References can be added or removed manually or FEMAP can be set up to create them automatically based on settings in the File Reference Options in the Interface Preferences dialog box (See Section 2.6.2.7, "Interfaces").

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5 Using Print. Note: The same can be said about analysis models and results files as node and element numbering. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. and Paste 2. Remove Reference . etc.If the reference file has moved to a different directory.) and the extent the geometry was changed can have a substantial effect on the usability of the mesh and any geometry-based loads and boundary conditions that are currently in the model. When the date of a file that is being referenced has been changed.x_t. even though you did not read the new file in to FEMAP. Depending on the type of geometry file that was referenced (.Allows you to remove all references from the list at once and FEMAP will no longer check any references for that model. loads and boundary conditions can also change and cause continuity issues. The commands in this section involve different methods of transferring this data to programs such as Microsoft Word. or to documentation programs for reporting. A check mark in a green circle will appear if the date of a reference file has not changed.htm 25.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. . There are a few methods to bring a reference up to date: Read File . FEMAP uses the “time stamp” on the file to determine if the reference is up to date or not.ugs.Allows you to manually add a reference to the FEMAP model for geometry. Copy. this command allows you to browse and specify the path to the moved file in order to update the reference.stp. a “x” in a red circle will appear next to the reference. analysis model. and Paste The commands under this section of the menu involve exporting information to a printer. they will appear after the geometry.igs.femap. Add Reference . File Manipulation > 2. FEMAP will again alert you that the reference is no longer valid.09. If the file is changed again after the Update Reference command has been used. and analysis results sets. or to a printer.Allows you to remove a reference from the list and FEMAP will no longer check to make sure that this reference is up to date.Introduction Page 15 of 707 If FEMAP is generating references automatically. analysis models.5 Using Print.Allows you to manually bring a reference up to the current date. This allows to continue to use the model without being alerted that the reference is not up to date. which greatly simplifies the transfer of data from FEMAP to other Windows programs such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Word.sat. .com Customer Support: http://support. or analysis results have been imported and reference a path to a particular file. FEMAP is a true Windows program. Copy. Be sure to verify all loads and boundary conditions in the model are correctly applied after new geometry file has been read into FEMAP. Remove All .Allows you to read in the updated file from the location currently specified in the reference. Update Reference . . Each of the five commands file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.2013 . Locate File . You can then make the decision to use the Read File command or simply update the reference once again. A check mark in a yellow circle will appear next to the reference after the date has been updated.

Check your printer documentation for information on these minimum values. and Paste > 2.1 File. If the display looks fine on the screen. and Colors. When you are printing listings. and then specifying the typeface and point size that you want to use.htm 25.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. The bottom and right margins will be used to compute the line length and number of lines on the page. File Manipulation > 2. footers.. You can specify any other font by selecting Other Font. These items will be used when printing/plotting either text or graphics using the File. you can select any other available font. Note: If you are using True Type. This text uses the Default Fixed Pitch Font for the selected printer/plotter. . this text uses the Default Fixed Pitch Font. Since the font is scalable. 2. it is likely that your Windows printer driver does not support the selected font.2013 . This should not cause any unrecoverable problems. The sections of the Page Setup dialog box include: Page Header and Footer The Header and Footer text are printed in the top and bottom margin of every page.5.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. Entities. Simply change the font both in this dialog box as well as under View Options.. printing will start at the top-left margin... Page Setup. Print command. but you will not see the portion of the print that is in the inaccessible regions. FEMAP combines the margins with the options in Plot Position and Size to compute the actual size and position of the graphics image. Setting a margin smaller than those minimums can result in FEMAP trying to print to an inaccessible region of the paper.femap.09.1 File. For graphics printing. margins. Other Printed Text FEMAP uses these options when you print listings (with the List. Often printers and plotters cannot print closer than some minimum distance from the edge of the paper. and it will usually be a very large: 50 point or larger. Page Setup. Destination command). file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. you just have to type it manually. Just like headers and footers. you will often see only one size in the Point Size list. Selecting a fixed pitch font will properly align all columns in the listing. specifies headers.5 Using Print. They are never used for printing/plotting graphics nor for printing the Messages and other text windows.Introduction Page 16 of 707 available in this section are explained more fully below. Hint: Hint: Page Margins These margins identify the distance from the four edges of the page where you want printing to occur. Label Parameters to a supported font.. position and other parameters. FEMAP listings will not be as easy to read if you select a proportionally spaced font. Label. you can choose any size that you want. but characters are improperly printed. or other scalable fonts. Again.com Customer Support: http://support. Copy.5.ugs.

2 File. You can combine Monochrome with the Swap Black and White setting to print all black lines on a white background.2 File. No matter which size option you pick. This creates an image that can be overlaid on top of other text/graphics without erasing them. you may want to retain the white background of the paper and print with black lines . Otherwise. Left. While the Monochrome option can quickly make a print look much better. you will get white lines on your white paper! Transparent Background is most often used when creating a Metafile of a “Legacy” XY Plot to be transferred into another application. In many cases. T/B Center. This is caused by the method Windows uses to shade colors on the monochrome printer. FEMAP uses these options when you print a graphic image using File Print. FEMAP stretches the bitmap (by the fractional portion of the real scale factor) to fit the margins. The final option sets (Top. nothing will be visible. you will still want to use Swap Black and White. Copy. In FEMAP's default configuration. Copy command. or place an image from a “Legacy” XY Plot in a Metafile using the File. so that they will be the defaults for all future models and sessions. Reset and Permanent Permanent allows you to save your Page Setup options. Here. Since it sets all colors but background to a single color.even though it does not match the image on the screen. but all colors (except color 0. which rely heavily on color shading.2013 . Plot Position and Size These options control the shape. Picture. Setting Transparent Background will simply skip plotting the background.. If you are printing to a black and white printer like a laser printer. but one that more closely resembles what you see on the screen. these options control the alignment.5. When printing using bitmap formats however. it can result in a picture which is totally illegible. Choosing Fill Printer Margins simply calculates the printable area by subtracting the margins from the size of the paper. Picture. Reset deletes the saved options.htm 25. Print. when a window is printed. graphic windows typically have black or shaded backgrounds. including text. will not work well. which is black) will be converted to white when they are printed. For example. In this case. File Manipulation > 2. When Draw Border is active. If you choose to fill the margins (and none of the other options reduce the image size) your choice here will not matter: FEMAP fills the margins. 2. with white or colored images.5. L/R Center or Right) control the position of the printed image within the margins. a single line border will be drawn around the image. or just turn on the Monochrome switch.ugs. choosing Top and Left will result in an image that has its top and left borders aligned with the top and left margins. it must be used with caution. For printing on white paper. size and position of a graphics image that you print. If you choose this option.Introduction Page 17 of 707 Plot and Metafile Style The four options in this group allow you to control some specific details regarding the appearance of a graphics plot.femap. and returns you to the normal FEMAP defaults. Custom Size allows you to specify the height and width that you want. When the Swap Black and White option is on. This command produces a printed or plotted hardcopy of your model. and rely on the other application to supply the background. Bottom. black and white will not be changed. you can change all your model colors to black and white so they can print well. This option has no effect on other colors. any plot with filled areas is not usually a good candidate for Monochrome. The location of this border is equivalent to the on-screen window border. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Fill Printer Margins and Custom Size control the size of a printed graphic image. For example.. which will always be printed as shown on the screen. Print. Choosing this option will generally result in a smaller printed image. FEMAP will swap the black in a solid or shaded background to white and change any white entities to black. with the specified height-to-width ratio that fits inside the margins and size options that you specify. Always make sure that you specify a size that is smaller than the margins that you choose. Similarly.com Customer Support: http://support.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. If you try. you should never use it if you are using a color other than color 0 for the background. Copy. and Paste > 2.09. The stretching operation results in distortions that degrade the appearance of the image. you can position an image anywhere on the page. Integer Scaling is a further limitation to the mapping of the screen image to the printed page.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. To overcome this problem. Setting this option usually results in a smaller printed image.5 Using Print. the pixels in the on-screen window are scaled by the largest integer (whole number) scale factor that fits inside the margins and size specifications. If you do not. the scale factor used is a real number (whole + fractional number) that exactly fits the margin and size specifications. When off. you may want just the graphic image. the resulting print will be the largest possible rectangle. This option also controls color swapping for Metafiles that you transfer to the Clipboard using File. By combining these alignment options with the margins. When this option is on. colors will still be displayed on the screen. If the option is off. Whenever the image does not fill the margins however. Scaling occurs both horizontally and vertically. Contour plots.. the print may still be reduced from that size if you selected either Maintain Window Aspect Ratio or Integer Scaling. Choosing Maintain Window Aspect Ratio will force the height-to-width ratio of a printed image to match the shape of the screen or window that you print. you should always specify this option for the best quality print. you may find that certain colors that are displayed on the screen do not show up very well (or at all) when you print them.

This rectangle represents the size and position of your printed image. you can transfer FEMAP graphics to other Windows programs which will allow you to print other page layouts. Postscript). • Selecting Active View will print a picture of your model as it currently appears in your graphics window. Messages. In Layout mode. This will continue file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. • If you do have multiple windows. Page Preview This section of the dialog box shows a symbolic graphical representation of your printed page. Header and Footer These options provide a quick way to set the headers and footers that will be placed at the top and bottom of the page. Don’t worry. Setup if you want to change fonts or other options. located inside the margin lines. This option is only available if you choose the Screen option in the Resolution section. this is normal behavior. or the time required to make a print. then continue with the next set of columns for those rows directly below the first set of columns. an additional dialog box will ask you for the name of the file that you want to create.5.Introduction Page 18 of 707 The Print dialog box allows you to choose what will be printed and in what format. Bottom. Copy command and copying them to another Windows application. Right and Left) that represent relative margin positions. Destination to your printer and then using any of the list commands. It can be used to create files in a native printer format (for example. When you choose this option. you will see the printed image disappear from the Page Preview area. Entity Info. Page Setup command. You can change these settings using Printer Setup. • Using the Data Table option will print out all of the rows that currently appear in the Data Table. You will see two command buttons. see Section 2. When the Data Table is printed out.5. dialog boxes. only the “top-most” (the one that you last selected in the active model) window will be printed. Printer Setup commands. It quickly lets you know if your page and printer setup options are correct. Since the columns in the Data Table will often be wider than the screen (or a sheet of paper). • Choosing Desktop will print an image of the “FEMAP Desktop” . "File. Program File. or API Program Dockable Panes. respectively. or by setting the List. The outer black border represents the paper on which you will print. you can select the lines that will be printed. because the position of the printed messages is just based on the margin settings. Page Setup and File.09. Messages Menu". Page Setup and Printer Setup. For even more printing flexibility. For instructions. This includes all windows: the Graphics window. is a filled rectangle. you will see gaps between the printed windows that represent the areas occupied by the title bars. all of the columns for the rows will also be printed out. even non-FEMAP windows. What to Print These options specify what will be printed or plotted. You do not need to waste a piece of paper. Hint: You can also print messages by using the File. When you are printing messages. When you press OK.htm 25. Individual windows are not shown. Messages. They are only visible if the header and/or footer is not blank. which provide you with further control of printing parameters.2013 . choose the Layout option. Maintain Window Aspect Ratio and Integer Scaling are especially important. Otherwise. FEMAP may have automatically reduced the size due to your Page Setup choices. Print to File This button allows you to print directly to a file rather than to your printer. and want to print them all as they are positioned on your screen.the gray area underneath the Graphics window. Inside this border you will see four lines (Top. Best results are usually obtained with Layout if you turn off the graphics window title bars. the Resolution setting and the shape of the active graphics window do not matter. Finally. you must use Page. Hint: • Other print options allow you to print text/messages that are in the Charting. If the printed image is smaller than you expected. These buttons simply invoke the File. FEMAP calculates the size and orientation of this boundary (and the paper) from your Windows printer configuration. These lines represent the locations where the page headers and footers (specified in Page Setup) will be printed. You also may see shorter horizontal lines located inside the top and bottom margins. If you currently have multiple graphics windows open (from one or multiple models). FEMAP will print out as many columns as it can for the current rows. FEMAP can only print a multi-window layout as it is arranged on the screen with the Layout or Desktop options. They can also be set via the File. the Page Preview diagram shows one overall rectangle that surrounds all of your windows. In fact. If you do not want to print all of the text in one of these Panes.

2. but typically it is not a good idea to scale the resolution down. They graphically show the results of your settings in the Page Preview diagram. Printing Tips Review the following items for some additional hints on printing: • Use the Page Setup and Printer Setup options on this dialog box instead of the commands on the File menu.0). • Printing high-resolution images (especially color images) takes a lot of memory and/or disk space.0 and 1. then pressing the Resolution button.2. Options • Copies . • If you want to print a contour plot on a monochrome printer. 1. Then. Press Set Levels.. One good approach is to change every other color so that it uses a cross-hatched color instead of a solid color. • Portrait positions the selected images or text in the center of a piece of paper with the longer length going from top to bottom. to fill the desired margins and print size. FEMAP file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.If your printer/plotter supports making multiple copies. • When you select Printer resolution. you can use this option to request the number of copies you need. For final. you can adjust the individual colors in the palette. 0. BEAM Line2 2.Angle Stiffener Type Topology Orientation Node 0 Orientation Vector 0. "Views" for more information about setting the Print Resolution scale factor. except the resolution is scaled by a factor which is specified using the File. If you choose multiple copies. The bitmap will be scaled and stretched. To make the printed tables easier to read. choosing the Views tab. However. and your printer does not support this option. You will need to make sure that your TEMP environment variable specifies a disk with plenty of room if you are going to print large models.6. The resulting printed image is almost always of much higher quality.. • If you are having printing problems.. • Screen resolution directs FEMAP to use the on-screen bitmap and copy it to paper. Choose the Maximize button in the Window title bar to enlarge it to full-screen size prior to choosing File.htm 25. Note: FEMAP can print a bitmap.. Screen.prt file) which can then be used later and sent to a local printer. • Scaled Screen resolution is much the same as Screen resolution. If you are having trouble distinguishing contour levels on the print. your prints should come out much cleaner. • Landscape positions the selected images or text in the center of a piece of paper with the longer length going from left to right. as required.. always use Printer resolution. you will get a better quality (higher resolution) print if you enlarge the window. but it still may not be as clear and sharp as a Windows Metafile.Upper Wing Skin PLATE Quad4 Color 124 124 Layer Formulation C1 1 1 0 0 6 6 C2 322 322 197 7 C3 C4 Resolution You have three choices for the print resolution mode: Printer. The resolution may be scaled up (using any value above 1. • When you are printing the active view using Screen resolution. then press Reset Gray. The print out will look like this: ID 1 97 ID 1 97 Prop ID 1.2013 . Print. • If you want a quick draft hardcopy. FEMAP performs operations to provide more detail than the standard bitmap export. These files can often require many megabytes. See Section 2. Then select the Post-processing category and the Contour/Criteria Levels option. high-quality output. you will only get one copy of your print.Introduction Page 19 of 707 until all of the columns for all of the current rows have been printed.0) or scaled down (using any value between 0. the “ID” of the entities will appear as the first column in the printed table. In particular.Creates a print file (.. choose the View Options command. Orientation You have two choices for the orientation of the printed image: portrait and landscape.. make sure you have recent printer drivers and all windows updates. print using Screen or Scaled Screen resolution. For many printers. With the grayscale palette loaded. This will result in contours that alternate between solid and the various hatch patterns. • Print to File . Preferences command. the resolution of the screen image determines the ultimate print quality.09. FEMAP recomputes the image at the resolution of the printer. Choose OK twice to accept the grayscale contour palette. This option may not be available for some older printers. but can take significantly longer for complex images. you will receive a warning. • You cannot print when the active window is animating. Windows writes temporary files to this disk as it is printing. you can set this feature permanently using the Setup option under Printer Setup. you may want to adjust the contour palette before printing. or Scaled Screen.

2013 . Using Control Panel.e. and Paste > 2. or to a file. The next time you choose the Print or Printer Setup command.5 Using Print. It also displays a list of the active printers.3 File. it will recognize any control panel changes that you have made. Copy. Refer to the Windows documentation and the documentation for your printer for further advice on setting options for particular printers.5. Printer Setup This command directly sets and modifies printer-related options. you can also install or activate additional printers.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. File Manipulation > 2.5 Using Print. Copy.5.09.com Customer Support: http://support. Picture > 2. You also can modify all of the same settings using the Windows Control Panel. fonts. Copy. The dialog boxes that you see when you choose Setup are not really part of FEMAP.1 File.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. When you change certain printer settings. File Manipulation > 2. 75. Copy.com Customer Support: http://support. colors and many more. You can also redisplay graphics files. portrait) or paper size.4 File.5. select it from the list.femap.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. 150 or 300 dots/inch).htm 25. File Manipulation > 2.4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2.com Customer Support: http://support.4 File. Printers that you installed. Printer Setup 2. Picture 2.5.ugs. To choose a printer for use in FEMAP. it is usually good to review the Page Setup options. They are part of the printer driver that you loaded when you installed the printer for Windows. These let you establish options like the active printing mode (i. plot sizes or positions that are appropriate for your new printer settings. will not be shown.ugs. To change the setup for the printer you have selected. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Depending on the printer.4 File. Picture. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.5 Using Print.3 File. and Paste > 2.5. and Paste > 2. This will give you the opportunity to make any changes to margins. you will see one or more additional dialog boxes. You can even make changes while FEMAP is still running. but did not activate. portrait or landscape paper orientation. Picture The commands on this submenu let you transfer a copy of your graphics to the Windows clipboard and then to other applications.5. press Setup.femap. like the paper orientation (landscape vs.Introduction Page 20 of 707 Product Info: http://www..femap.ugs..

Some applications (like Windows Paint) sometimes require you to choose Paste twice.5 Using Print. Page Setup command.5. 2.. The File. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Copy.. and Windows Metafile or Picture formats. When you transfer a device independent bitmap to the clipboard.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. These options have no effect on regular device dependent bitmaps which are copied to the clipboard.1 File. By producing these formats.5. Picture > 2.4 File.. Picture. transfers a copy of the image in the active graphics window to the Windows clipboard. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Refer to the documentation for the receiving application for more information. For most Windows applications that accept graphics input from the clipboard. the black and white colors can be swapped. is the same as File. in the File. Ctrl+C will perform the File. Picture.4 File. FEMAP takes into account which window or dockable pane is currently active.09. You cannot transfer animations to the clipboard. Copy command will be disabled if the current window is animating.3 File.5.4. and Paste > 2... Copy. If this option is on. or you can simply choose it from the menu. . and Paste > 2.5.ugs..femap. Page Setup.2 File. you have great flexibility when you transfer the image to many other software packages. .4. Picture > 2. Copy. Copy to load your graphics to the clipboard. No additional input is required. Copy Layout. By default. By default. controls color swapping. Windows Device Dependent Bitmap (DDB).Introduction Page 21 of 707 2. Picture. Picture. Copy Layout. Picture.5. this command saves the entire screen to the Windows clipboard. No additional input is required.. FEMAP transfers the image in Palette. except that instead of simply saving the active graphics window.5 Using Print.. simply switch to the application that you want to receive the image. No additional input is required. Copy command. This is useful for changing a picture with white lines on a black background into black lines on a white background.. this command transfers a copy of all views currently visible in the “graphics area” of the active instance of FEMAP to the Windows clipboard.2 File.5.is the same as File.4.. 2. By default. Windows Device Dependent Bitmap (DDB). FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. File Manipulation > 2.ugs.2013 .. and Windows Metafile or Picture formats.3 File. The File. When the main graphics window is active. Additional Page Setup options control the background for Metafiles. Copy. Other applications require you to define a region or area where the graphics will be placed prior to pasting. The Paste command should immediately load the image into the other application. Picture.femap.4. Copy Desktop.htm 25.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2.. Copy.4.com Customer Support: http://support. Picture. FEMAP transfers the image in Bitmap and Windows Device Dependent Bitmap (DDB) formats. Picture. Pressing Ctrl+V (or Shift+Ins) will usually invoke that command. Picture. .. FEMAP will swap the colors. Note: Ctrl+C can be used as a general copy command. Copy Desktop. except that instead of simply saving the active graphics window. Transferring Graphics to Other Applications After you use File. The Swap Black and White option.. FEMAP transfers the image in Palette. Picture. File Manipulation > 2. you will find a Paste command somewhere in the menu (often under Edit). Monochrome option can also be used to convert to a monochrome image.5..com Customer Support: http://support.

or Color Diffusion (Dither).htm 25. you should always use the compressed format.09.4 File. This format is strictly for programs which can play a series of bitmaps. The single bitmap animation file format is very similar to the standard bitmap format.BMP default file extension for animation files just like for standard bitmaps. When you choose this format. by checking the Save GIF Frame Series box. FEMAP will save each frame in the animation as a series of bitmaps. you will have some choices to make. Picture > 2. the default file extension is .4 File. you will not be able to successfully import the AVI files into other applications.AVI • GIF • Animated GIF • JPEG • TIFF • PNG All formats are not available for all types of pictures. Using GIFs There are several options available when saving a GIF or Animated GIF file.4 File. Next. If you want to save an animation to replay in FEMAP. FEMAP will let you choose either a bitmap. 2. If you only plan to replay your bitmaps using FEMAP. Check the documentation for your other applications. Picture. FEMAP file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. you will need to choose a Color Optimization option. If you choose Bitmap Series.4.com Customer Support: http://support. Finally. "Views" under File.. Octree. Copy.6.. You may choose from Network. which is available for all views. Save. When saving an animation from FEMAP as an Animated GIF. Compressed bitmaps usually take up significantly less disk space. File Manipulation > 2. AVI files can be imported directly into most Windows applications. The standard file access dialog box allows you to specify the name of the file to create. and the file will be saved as a Windows Device Independent Bitmap. the various Page Setup options do not change animations.Introduction Page 22 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. there are more options that specify the picture format: • Bitmap • Bitmap Series • Video for Windows .5. transfers a copy of the image in the active graphics window to a file. see the GIF Options Button portion of Section 2. not a series of bitmaps. They are always saved just as they appear on the screen. or AVI format. but will be incompatible with most (if not all) Windows applications other than FEMAP. Saving Animations If your active graphics window is animating. the size of your animating window and the number of colors supported by your graphics board.4.2. animated GIF. under the names *n.bmp. You can also save animations as a Bitmap Series: a series of static bitmaps.BMP. where n ranges from 0 to n-1 frames. Bitmap files contain only the array of pixels currently displayed in the window and are therefore equivalent to the size of the window. In addition to the normal fields in the file access dialog. and Paste > 2. FEMAP will ask if you want to compress the bitmap. the series of GIF files used to create the Animated GIF will also be saved. if you have 256 colors or less. you may specify a Frame Delay in milliseconds. .femap. like static GIF files.5.5 Using Print. First. bitmap series. You can also simply save the animation as a Video for Windows (AVI) file. you must have a color resolution > 256 colors. one per animation frame with sequentially numbered file names... FEMAP uses the .ugs. these files can be very large. you will not be asked to choose compression. This format can be used with other tools to create video (AVI) files. Save. These may be set in the Views tab of the FEMAP Preferences by pressing the GIF Options button.5. Unlike standard bitmaps or Metafiles. Picture. Using Bitmaps If you select Bitmap. Depending on the number of animation frames.. Hint: When saving an AVI file. Preferences. Likewise.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. or try transferring a compressed bitmap to see if your other applications can support it. you should save the entire animation as one bitmap. For more information. but are incompatible with some Windows programs..2013 .2.

5 File. and Paste > 2... if “Inch” is selected.. Picture. Save Layout.. 2. FEMAP uses the standard file access dialog. and Paste > 2.4.4. Picture.JT file (Teamcenter Visualization file). saves the FEMAP Graphics window as a *.5. which was the first JT version to support a contoured image. the “layout” can only be saved in bitmap.... You can choose how many branches will be in file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.5. PNG. As always. except that instead of simply saving the active graphics window. GIF. Only entities visible in the active graphics window will be saved in the JT file. First. Preferences (Section 2. Unlike File. choose your JT File Version. Picture > 2.ugs. the desktop can only be saved in bitmap.6 File.5.. FEMAP uses the standard file access dialog. "Views") Note: Third. anything with a length of 1 “unit” in FEMAP will be 1 inch in the JT File.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2.. The default version is 8.. except that instead of simply saving the active graphics window. A Hierarchal “tree control” will be created in Teamcenter Visualization depending on which options are checked.1. Picture. The hierarchy can also be changed by using the Move Up and Move Down buttons. Save Layout. or TIFF format.Introduction Page 23 of 707 Product Info: http://www. Picture. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Copy. or TIFF format. For example. GIF. is the same as File. Each category selected will add a level of hierarchy in the tree. 2. JPEG. Save JT. FEMAP uses the standard file access dialog.5 Using Print.femap. FEMAP will attempt to determine the “correct unit” based on the option set for “Solid Geometry Scale Factor” on the Geometry/Model tab of File. File Manipulation > 2. Copy.femap. Picture. and Paste > 2.com Customer Support: http://support.5. Save Desktop.09.htm 25.6. Any unit may be selected and the JT File will be exported using that unit for length.ugs.4 File. As always.2. select one of the automatically generated names or “Untitled” from the Name drop-down list... Another option is to type a name directly in the field. After JT file has been named. Save. If using the “Other” option for “Solid Geometry Scale Factor”.2. As always. You will want to use the same version of JT or a lower version than your visualization product is currently using.. Unlike File. Preferences. this command saves all views currently visible in the “graphics area” of the active instance of FEMAP to the file you specify.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. Save.com Customer Support: http://support.5 Using Print. Second.4. Save however. File Manipulation > 2. there are a few JT Options which can be selected for the file..5 Using Print.6 File. 2. Picture.5..5.4. JPEG.5. is the same as File. . FEMAP will use the entered value to determine the “correct unit”.4. Picture.4 File.. Picture. this command saves the entire screen to the file you specify.com Customer Support: http://support. PNG. Save JT.7 File.5. Picture > 2.4 File.5 File. A different default JT File Version may be set using the “JT File Version” option in the Views tab of File.4. select JT File Units by selecting a “unit of length” from the drop-down list.ugs. Save Desktop.femap. Save however.2013 . Copy. File Manipulation > 2..5. Picture..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. Picture > 2. . .7 File. Picture.

This command will automatically return the window to its default size and position. the animation will slow down dramatically since FEMAP must do many more calculations for each animation frame.. Replay. they are using system resources (especially if they are animating!) that may be better applied to FEMAP or some other ongoing process. You must be careful if you are running FEMAP or any other application maximized to the full screen. your replay window or windows will disappear behind the maximized FEMAP window. . Replaying Pictures Outside of FEMAP When you choose the File. You can use the system menu.BMP You can also run REPLAY directly from DOS with: WIN REPLAY PICTURE. you can continue to work in FEMAP and display many simultaneous pictures just by replaying different files. FEMAP adds an additional command. you can always use the Original Size command to restore the window. Animation command in FEMAP. Just like File. you can run that program yourself without running FEMAP.EXE).2013 . If that size is too large to fit on the screen..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. FEMAP also adds an Animation command to the system menu. 2. Picture. and placeable Metafiles. Alternatively..BMP REPLAY automatically determines the type of file that you are specifying from the data in the file. This command is identical to the View. To stop the animation. FEMAP actually runs a separate Windows program (REPLAY. While they do no harm. and other element types as well as individual section cuts and isosurfaces. Picture. Picture > 2. It is used to control the replayed animations.4. By leaving the window open. the initial size of the replay window will be the same size as the window that you saved. displays graphics that you have saved in files. Metafile or animation.4 File. You will find that animations work best if you leave the window at the original size.09. If you do change the size. Property. you can specify the full file name on the command line. To restart the animation. Layer. such as springs and gaps will be shown as a line between two positions with a “dot” on the line. to the system menu. you will use the standard file access dialog box to select the graphics format and file that you want to display. you should always close the window as soon as you are finished looking at it. At any time you want to view a picture. Mass elements will be shown as a single “dot” and any offsets will be designated with a red line representing the offset.Introduction Page 24 of 707 your tree structure by selecting different categories. It does not rely on the file name extension. Properties. Replay. If they are not. Entity Subtype will add different element types to the tree such as line elements. Entity Type will separate Geometry into Surfaces. Save. and Paste > 2. you may choose a file from the standard “File Open” dialog box. plates. you must add the names of the appropriate directories to these commands.8 File. For bitmaps.5 Using Print. Note: Loads and Constraints will NOT appear in a JT file even if they are on screen when the JT file is created. Copy. If you change the size. You can also stop and start replayed animations simply by clicking in the window. There will also be several options for each category type depending on the category type that is chosen. They may be available in future versions of FEMAP..5. The commands shown above assume that both Windows and REPLAY are in directories along your PATH. press the right mouse button. Therefore. FEMAP will create a new window to display the bitmap image. solid elements. Replay command.htm 25. The replay window does not have a command menu. Curves. for example: REPLAY PICTURE. FEMAP will never close the replay window. File Manipulation > 2.4.. and Material will add branches for different Layers. Note: FEMAP Product Info: http://www. press the left mouse button while the cursor is anywhere inside the replay window. but does have a system menu. You must do that manually by choosing Close from the system menu or clicking on the “X” in the upper right corner of the FEMAP Replay window.ugs. For example. When you run REPLAY by itself.com Customer Support: http://support.8 File. The only limitation is the amount of memory available for Windows. Picture. Line elements which have a symbol associated with them. the size will be automatically reduced.5.. Original Size. and Materials currently visible. Model will have options for deformed and undeformed as well as others. Curve & Surface ID will create branches under Curve and Surface respectively for each Curve and Surface currently shown on the screen. If you resize the window.5. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. FEMAP will stretch a bitmap or scale a Metafile to fit in the new window. and Points and Finite Element Data into Nodes and Elements. Picture. animations. Note: When you choose the next FEMAP command.femap. It is very easy to forget about these extra windows. or the window borders to move and resize the window. so you can specify any name.

5. When you release the mouse button. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Messages.5. 2. Messages Menu > 2.com Customer Support: http://support. Messages.5 File.Introduction Page 25 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www.com Customer Support: http://support. Save. Every Note: time you choose this command. the color of the selected lines will change.1 File.htm 25. . Save.femap. 2. Messages Menu > 2. you automatically overwrite the previous contents of the clipboard.5 Using Print. File Manipulation > 2. As you do this.5.. Messages.5 Using Print.5 File.5. Copy command.09.. Copy. Now release the button.. Copy.5.1 File. you must select the lines that FEMAP will copy prior to invoking these commands. and Paste > 2. Messages Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to transfer text from the Messages window.5. No additional input is required. and Paste > 2.5. If you want to change your selection.. Ctrl+C can be used as a general copy command in FEMAP. Simply clicking on a line with the left mouse button selects just that line.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. Remember that the Windows clipboard only holds one image or one set of text.ugs. You can copy the text to a file or to the Windows clipboard and then to other applications. these commands transfer all lines of text from the Messages window to the selected file. Ctrl+C will perform the File.ugs.5..5.2013 . Messages. Press the left mouse button and drag the cursor to the last (or first) line that you want to select. File Manipulation > 2.femap. Copy. You cannot copy text that has scrolled out of FEMAP's buffer..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. File Manipulation > 2.5.com Customer Support: http://support.5 File. just repeat the process.5 File. Messages Menu 2. You can set the number of lines saved in the buffer using File. This includes all lines of text that are visible in the window.ugs.2 File. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630..5.5 Using Print. FEMAP takes into account which window or dockable pane is currently active. Note: FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. To select messages.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. and Paste > 2. Copy. and the lines of text that can be retrieved by scrolling. When the Messages pane is active. You do not have to cancel your previous selection. Don't worry if some lines appear to be missed as you drag the cursor. or to the clipboard. By default.. Selecting Messages If you do not want all of the text.femap. Database.2 File. Copy. FEMAP will select all lines between the two points. Messages. Clicking anywhere in the Messages window with the right mouse button cancels any lines that you have selected. copies the selected (or all) lines of text from the Messages window to the Windows clipboard. Preferences.5. point to the line that you want to select with the cursor..

The more thorough level of rebuilding (“fully rebuild”) does everything that the quick method does and also reconstructs many internal database details. You will be asked to choose between two levels of rebuilding..6.com Customer Support: http://support..2 File. The quickest method simply checks whether all entities that are referenced by other entities exist. You will receive messages informing you of any missing entities.6 Using Rebuild and Preferences 2. the space that they occupied is marked as empty. Preferences 2.2 File. If you select an existing file. The space is still retained in the model file. and then and import it to a new FEMAP database. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. or append to.1 File. File Manipulation > 2. you will be given an option to overwrite.6.ugs.ugs.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2.femap... The default filename extension is *. Rebuild.com Customer Support: http://support. For example. all nodes and properties that are referenced by elements must exist. such as deleting sets of output data.femap..LST.09.6 Using Rebuild and Preferences > 2. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. that file.2013 .6. or if you have done a large amount of deleting. .com Customer Support: http://support. This will remove all of the empty space and reduce the size of your model file. Rebuilding is not usually required. as long as you plan to add to your model. verifies the integrity of your current active model and can be used to reduce the size of a model where you have deleted entities. you may want to choose the full rebuild option and allow it to compress your model..6 Using Rebuild and Preferences This section of the File menu pertains to rebuilding your model file and setting default parameters (preferences) for your model files. Whenever you delete entities from a FEMAP model. transfers a copy of the selected (or all) lines of text from the Messages window to a file.6 Using Rebuild and Preferences > 2. but it is non-destructive so you can use it any time you have a question about the integrity of your model.ugs. the space will not be wasted .htm 25. File Manipulation > 2... Rebuild.Introduction Page 26 of 707 . If you experience a power failure while a database is being written or run out of disk space. Therefore. you can also use the FEMAP neutral file translator to export a neutral file. your model file may become corrupted. It verifies the completeness of the model that you read. This level of rebuild will recover any data that is still present. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. This level of rebuilding is called automatically every time you use one of the read translators to input a model.6. The new database will also be free of empty space. If you have a shortage of disk space.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2.1 File. FEMAP will reuse this empty space before allocating any new space.it will be reused. File Manipulation > 2.femap. 2. Preferences file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. Instead of using Rebuild. When you create new entities. Each of these menu commands are described further below. The standard file access dialog box allows you to specify the name of the file to create.

11. "Spaceball" Be careful when changing preferences labeled “startup” preferences. Preferences > 2. There is no set maximum number of lines that can be set.Introduction Page 27 of 707 This command allows you to customize the operation of FEMAP.3.htm 25. the more memory will be used and this could effect the performance of FEMAP.2.6. "Graphics". File Manipulation > 2. "Views". Listing Font and Size file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Default is 100. and define disks or files to be used.Section 2.com Customer Support: http://support. For more information on each individual preference tab.6.6.6. "Database".6. When you select the Messages tab.09. Section 2. Hint: The Reset All button permanently resets all changes that you have made back to the FEMAP default configuration.1 Messages 2.6. but the higher the number of max lines.8.6. Section 2. "Color". FEMAP Product Info: http://www.6.6. "Interfaces".2. The next time you initialize FEMAP the options will be set as you selected them.9. Section 2. each tab representing the type of entity you want to modify.2.000. This command bring up a “tabbed” dialog box with 10 tabs. Set this value to “0” to have all errors listed to the Messages window.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. Max Text Lines This option controls the maximum number of lines of text that can be retained in the Messages window. "User Interface".2. Section 2. "Results". Section 2. see Section 2. Section 2. This is useful if you have executed a command which causes the same error for each instance of a particular entity type.2013 .2. "Messages". you must close your current session of FEMAP completely. Message Font.6.2.2. These preferences cannot be modified for the active session.1 Messages These options control text displayed in the Messages window. Section 2. You will be asked to confirm this command before FEMAP resets all options. regardless of how many times it will be repeated.2. Section 2.7.6.femap. These options are partitioned into two types: Max Text Lines and Fonts and Colors.1.2.10. FEMAP will remember the tab used most recently and the Preferences dialog box will open with that tab active. Max Repeated Errors Limits the number of errors of the same type which will be listed to the Messages window.2. "Geometry/Model".5. the Preferences dialog box will display the options for messages.6.4. and will be saved when OK is clicked.6.6. "Library/Startup". Section 2.6.2. For these settings to have any impact on how FEMAP is operating. set defaults.6 Using Rebuild and Preferences > 2.2.2.ugs. The only preferences which will not be changed are any shortcut keys you have defined. These options control how certain commands will operate. The default value is 100. and you have selected a large number of entities.2 File.2.

Listing Font chooses the font for display of text written to the Messages window from any listing command in FEMAP.2.2 File. Listing Font. or choose the Palette button to select the color from the standard color palette. the Preferences dialog box will display the options for views.09.com Customer Support: http://support.htm 25. you should always pick a background color that results in filled areas and lines being the same color. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.2 Views When you select the Views tab. For these options.6. the background may be a different color “behind” the text than it is to the “right” of the text. In general.ugs. If you do not. none of the FEMAP reports or listings will be properly aligned and they will be harder to read. You cannot select any cross-hatching or patterned lines.2013 . File Manipulation > 2.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. or you won't be able to see the text. Furthermore. You can enter a numeric color value. You should also make sure that you do not choose a color for the background which matches any of the text colors.2. You can choose a size specifically for the Program Font which is independent of the Message Font and Listing Font size. you must select solid colors (Colors 0 to 149). Program Font and Size Program Font chooses the font for display of text which has been recorded or written in the Program File window.Introduction Page 28 of 707 Message Font chooses the font for display of messages and feedback from FEMAP.6. For best results. If you choose a proportionally spaced font. you should always choose a fixed-pitch font. The Views tab of the Preferences dialog box is partitioned into four areas: • • • • • • Startup View (from View Library) Picture Copy Background Bitmaps Picture Save Defaults Options View and Dynamic Rotation Startup View (from View Library) The Startup View area includes: file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.6 Using Rebuild and Preferences > 2. or size that you like for text display. Colors These options let you choose the colors of text to be displayed. Preferences > 2. You can choose any Message Font.2 Views 2.6. you can choose to make the font Bold Face by clicking the Bold check box next to the Palette button.femap.

BMP). which may or may not be desired. or “log(XAxis)-actual” values..Rectilinear”. Note: you will get 2 sets of values. Background. If you do not want or need Metafiles. only when the display is animating.Bitmap or 8.PNG).. The bitmap will only be shown when either option 7. then set View Number to the ID of that view as it is stored in the library. Picture commands. Save Desktop commands.Allows you to specify a directory path or browse directories to designate a bitmap to shown in a particular location in the FEMAP graphics window. Include Metafile Format Background Bitmaps The Background Bitmaps area includes two different paths which can be to specified to use bitmap images in the background of the main FEMAP graphics window: • Background . PNG(*. FEMAP will include a table of values representing the XY Plot from the Charting pane as text along with the picture formats when an XY Plot is copied to the clipboard. The Screen Scale. When text is included. FEMAP will send Metafile format pictures of XY Plots to the clipboard.htm 25. Video for Windows (*.1.JPG). and Copy/Save Scale can all be set by pressing the Resolution button in the Picture Save Defaults section of the Views tab (See "Resolution button").BMP). Picture Sets the default file format when using any of the File. and File. When you start a new model.Allows you to specify a directory path or browse directories to designate a bitmap to be used as the background of the main FEMAP graphics window. "View.3. The first view in the library has an ID of 1. Copy command. This note is only valid when Enable Legacy XY Plotting is on in the User Interface tab. When this value is set to 0. Animation Sets default file format when using the File. Save.1. Print Scale. is only available when Enable Legacy XY Plotting is on in the User Interface tab. Picture. If you always want to paste the actual picture of the XY Plot. JPEG (*. Picture Copy When Include Text for XY Plot option is on.Introduction Page 29 of 707 • The View Number option lets you change the view that FEMAP uses when you start a new model. not the underlying data used to create the XY Plot.."). Picture. File.GIF). Bitmap Series (*. or when you create a new view.. You can also use the Browse button (. There are 3 different scale factors which can be used with Logo and Background bitmaps. If you want a different view. Certain applications will paste the Metafile in by default.3. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Picture Save Defaults These options control set defaults file format when using the File. Background. which may then be pasted into other applications. the second is 2.2013 .GIF). GIF (*. it will be used as the default when importing into Microsoft Office applications. The first data pair set represents the “actual values”.. • Logo .BMP).Stretched Bitmap is chosen in the Window Background portion of the Window Background dialog box (see Section 6. and so on..AVI). then this option should be “off”.) to select a view from the View library.. The bitmap will only be shown when Show Bitmap is checked in the Logo section of Window Background dialog box (see Section 6. “log(X-Axis)-log(X-Axis)”. the second represents “actual-log(Y-Axis)”.09. Picture.TIF)... that view will be used as the default. then simply uncheck this option and only bitmaps will be sent to the clipboard."). Choices are Bitmap (*. Picture. while the display is NOT animating. When the Include Metafile Format option is on. FEMAP uses its normal defaults. Save Layout. Choices are Bitmap (*. "View. or Animated GIF (*. If the “XY Axes Style” in the PostProcessing category of View Options is set to anything other than “0. or TIFF (*. use the View Visibility dialog box to store a view in the library.

and may take a very long time to copy or save. and 9. Saving a “test image” once in each format will help you determine which option should be used with your machine and other applications. Pen Width. This is due to the 256-color limitation of GIF files.0. Copy/Save Resolution. or Fixed Size. which scales the image to a particular size. Hint: JT File Version Sets the default value displayed for “JT File Version” in the JT Options dialog box when saving a picture as a JT file (see Section 2. You may want to set different scale factors depending on the destination of your image.7. 9. Print Resolution There are three options when choosing a Print Resolution.0. use the Screen Scaled By option.2. The value should be between 1 and 10 (2 is the default). Picture.2.2. and Copy/Save Scale (Default = 1).htm 25.4. It will take quite a large amount of memory.4. the Frame Delay may be set for animated GIFs (milliseconds) and an option exists to Save GIF Frame Series. then copies that bitmap to the clipboard or saves it using a specified picture file format. Available file versions are 8. You can also use Screen Scaled With Width to set a width in number of pixels used to scale the image. 9. "File. "File. In FEMAP..5. 8. Logo and Background Bitmap Scaling Set the scale factor for a bitmap image being used as a Logo or Background.Introduction Page 30 of 707 Resolution button Allows you to set the default values for Print Resolution. Hint: For best image results. Screen Scaled With Height to set a height used to scale the image. Workplane Never Visible in New View file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. this type of line may appear very faint due to the small size of each pixel on these devices. Print Scale (Default = 2). Be careful not to specify a number that is too large. you may want more detail than is provided by the Screen resolution.1.5. The factor that you specify in this option is simply multiplied by the screen resolution to compute the size of the off-screen bitmap. you get a copied/saved image that uses twice the screen resolution.3. For more information see the “Resolution” portion of Section 2.09. File. Turning on the Optimized option will remove infrequently used colors in the picture first when reducing to 256 colors. Copy/Save Resolution When copying/saving a picture from the screen.5. 9. Picture. like typesetters. This option has no effect on screen display. In addition. GIF Options button Sets default options when saving a GIF or Animated GIF file. Save JT.2013 . choose from Network.that is they are only one dot wide. and Color Diffusion (Dither). 8. Depending on your machine and other applications where you might be placing saved pictures. Picture. When Manual Factor is selected. Therefore." A value other than 1.1. There are options for Screen Scale (Default = 1). Copy or saved to a file using .0 is required for Screen Scaled By to be different than Screen. 9. Determining the proper “JT File Version” for software packages which support JT files is up to the user. 9. the width of each line is multiplied by this factor to obtain a print with “fatter” lines. Views which have been “iconified” (minimized in the FEMAP User Interface) can be copied to the clipboard using File. Save Options These options control various operational features of FEMAP views. Octree. By increasing the value of the Manual Factor. renders your image to that bitmap. and Logo and Background Bitmap Scaling. one of these formats may produce a better image than the other two or similar image quality using a smaller file size. FEMAP creates an off-screen bitmap... if you specify 2. For GIF files. Pen Width Choose Auto or Manual Factor. To output at higher than screen resolution. graphics are normally drawn as “single-pixel-width” lines . Print. Save Iconified Views When on. this factor is used for plotting directly to a printer and Metafiles.. For high resolution printers. use a solid background when creating GIF files.").

or “4. when you open an existing model. When on (default). Delta This is the default angle of rotation when you click in the scroll bars in the View. certain options set in the PostProcessing category of View Options for Vector Style and Contour Vector Style will be ignored. will turn the “Dynamic Max/Min” option on in the Select PostProcessing Data dialog box for every new model.Gray”. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. with output values. see Section 8.6.femap.0. Contour Palette Use this option to select one of the “Standard Color” options available in the Contour/Criteria Levels view option. Activate or View.6. It must be specified in degrees.. opening graphics in a corrupt model file can cause a crash. even if the settings in the startup view call for it to be visible.Red Yellow Green”. Dynamic Speed Allows you to increase the “speed” a model will rotate in the graphics window based on the distance the mouse is moved across the screen.Introduction Page 31 of 707 This option allows you to turn the workplane off when starting a new model. Open Views of Existing Models By default. Note: FEMAP often performs better when using the “default settings” for OpenGL graphics cards. File Manipulation > 2.6 Using Rebuild and Preferences > 2. Sometimes. it will be turned on/off in the other location as well.Temperature”. You can “manually” open the view by using View. the greater number of full rotations will occur as the mouse is dragged from side of the graphics window to another.htm 25.2.ugs.2 File.No Magenta”.3. "Selecting Data for a Deformed or Contour Style". If the option is turned on/off in the Select PostProcessing Data dialog box or in the Views Tab of this dialog box. "Level Mode" for more information.2. FEMAP will automatically turn the workplane off. This option has no impact on dynamic rotation. See Section 8. If you experience flashing when you perform a dynamic rotation. Rotate command buttons.3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. Rotate command or when you use the Rotate buttons on the toolbar. If this option is not checked. In addition to the rotation angles you can also set the button text. the view of that model automatically opens. Place an ampersand (&) in front of the letter that you want to be able to access using the Alt+Letter keyboard combination.2. The Graphics tab lets you control various graphics options and the level of functionality that you have while performing operations in the graphics window. To open a model file without the graphic view of the model. You can use View. Changing this value only sets the default for new views. If this option is on. Once the file is open. 2D Tensor Plot View Options Override This option is only used when displaying a plot of Contour Vectors with the Vector Type set to “2D Tensor Plot”. Choose from “0. Rotation Angles These options allow you to define three view orientations which can be accessed using the View.. turn off the Open Views of Existing Models option. An aspect ratio of 2. you can work on solving the problem.3 Graphics 2.Standard”.. The default views are Isometric. “3. “1.2. Options to update the aspect ratio for any existing window. Aspect Ratio for New Views When a new view is created. Preferences > 2.. Rotate command. depending on current setting) of uniform vector length. however. “2. The number must be between 1 and 10 and the higher the number. For more information on the “Dynamic Max/Min” option.0 would cause a square to be displayed two times as high as it is wide. and the plot will be shown with all vectors displayed using single arrows (regular or solid arrows.09. Issues may sometimes occur when using settings optimized for other file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. perhaps by writing out a neutral file. FEMAP will use the setting for the startup view to determine whether the workplane is visible in a new model. New.com Customer Support: http://support.2013 .2. The geometry is not stretched either horizontally or vertically for display in that window..6. which is off by default. centered on the element. and turn off the AutoAspect feature.10.3 Graphics FEMAP uses the OpenGL graphics language for high-speed graphics. Dynamic This option chooses the method that will be used for displaying your model during the Dynamic Rotate/Pan/Zoom command from the toolbar. Dynamic Min/Max in Post Data Dialog This option. View and Dynamic Rotation These options control the rotation of views in your model when using the View Toolbar commands as well as when you access the View. Dimetric and Trimetric. the aspect ratio is normally set to 1. set this option to a different mode to remove the problem.

turning on this option may slow down display performance. but will only work when a hardware acceleration board (i. the arrowhead will display flat on the screen as the model is rotated. especially with animations. but uses more of your machine’s memory. When turned off. In small/medium-size models that don’t require memory swapping. turning on this option will improve display performance. this option is on.e. Use Midside Nodes If this option is selected. Multi-Model Memory If this option is on (default) then FEMAP will use memory for the active window of each model currently open in the interface. You must save this preference and restart FEMAP for this option to take effect.. If the option is on. Note: This option does not effect performance when clicking between different views of one model. This improves performance when graphically clicking from one model to another. This increases the complexity of the graphics. only the active view from the model currently active in the FEMAP interface will be using memory. but use less memory. This may or may not be helpful. depending on the size of your model: • • In very large models that require memory swapping. For users with a relatively low amount of memory dealing with very large models.2013 . By default. FEMAP will use the midside nodes when drawing rendered plots.htm 25. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. decreases the speed of drawing the graphics window. Memory Optimization When this option is selected. the orientation of the arrowhead will rotate with the model.Introduction Page 32 of 707 applications. you may find this option helpful in viewing arrowheads that represent boundary conditions.09. If a board has been installed and you do not wish to use hardware acceleration. FEMAP doesn’t use as much memory when drawing. you can uncheck this option. If the option is off. a graphics card or chip) has been installed in your computer. this option should be turned off. For small models. This will decrease performance when graphically switching between models. and increases memory usage. The dialog box has four areas: • • • • Graphics Options Include in Dynamic Rotation Textures Advanced/Debug Options Graphics Options These options control certain options pertaining to the visualization and performance of graphics: Hardware Accel (startup only) This option controls whether you use hardware acceleration or if rendering is to be done by software in Windows.

You should leave this option on.. FEMAP uses OpenGL anti-aliasing to draw smooth lines. Max VBO MB This value should be set to between 50-75% of the amount of “on-board memory” found on your graphics card when the Vertex Arrays option is set to “3. This was the only picking graphics method in FEMAP before version 10. points. • Full Vertex Arrays uses vertex arrays for all graphics. this option is off. When on.09. Dialog Refresh With certain graphics cards. FEMAP basically draws a bitmap of the screen image and then determines the color that is the “XOR” of the entity color and draws the entity twice. VBOs can use a lot of memory and when it exceeds the user selected amount. With the advent of Windows Vista.2013 . picking uses “in memory” data to pick nodes. the standard picking algorithms are used. This can enhance wireframe displays but can be computationally expensive. This results in much faster picking with large models. When on. Partial and Full) to account for different graphics cards: • No Vertex Arrays does not use vertex arrays at all. you can switch it off in Include In Dynamic Rotation to improve dynamic rotation performance. When off. If XOR picking is “off”.htm 25. In non Vista hardware. the display may only change when a value large enough to require at least one trailing zero has been entered for “Digits” in either the Contour/Criteria Style or Contour/Criteria Legend options found in the View. the cross section is drawn only at the ends of the beam element.Introduction Page 33 of 707 Beam Facet Edges This option controls how a cross section is displayed on a beam element. Trailing Zeroes Allows labels to show zero as the final digit(s) in the contour legend. You should use this option if element edges are not drawn correctly. FEMAP provides three levels of support (No. and surfaces.Vertex Buffer Objects” (VBOs). When this option is “on”. but does not use vertex arrays for element and surface borders. Auto Regenerate If this option is chosen. on criteria plots. the view will not be redrawn behind open dialog boxes. and when displaying freebody diagrams. Selecting this option forces all edges to be drawn as simple lines. Options. Un-highlighting is done by redrawing the bitmap of the screen. you can get significant performance improvement by selecting vertex arrays. Fast Picking When selected. For large models. Vertex Arrays If your graphics card has good support of vertex arrays. performance is better with it “off”. once with the “XOR” of the entity color but larger or thicker and once with the entity color. or use Pick Query or Pick Front. FEMAP will force a redraw of the graphics window. If you switch this option off. By default. thus if the dialog box is moved after the model has been dynamically rotated the display may not be correct. turning XOR picking “on” will likely give better clarity but for Vista. XOR Picking Graphics XOR picking effects how entities are highlighted when graphically picking in FEMAP. We have seen problems with this level of support on some graphics cards including severe system crashes. the cross section extends along the length of the element. This is not as efficient and may cause the edges to have a stitched appearance. Min VBO B file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Hint: If you switch it on in the Graphics Options section. drawing reverts to vertex arrays for the remaining part of the model You should use the level that gives the best performance without any problems. The graphics will always reflect the current model status. Smooth Lines When this option is on. this can be expensive and the option should be switched off. elements. • Partial Vertex Arrays uses vertex arrays for all filled entities such as elements and surfaces. a graphics regenerate automatically occurs after virtually every command. • Vertex Buffer Objects (VBOs) use memory on the graphics card so graphics data does not have to be sent to the graphics card for every draw. Edges Using Lines Some graphics cards currently have poor quality support for the standard OpenGL method FEMAP uses to draw element and surface edges. picking was not able to draw to the screen image directly which made XOR picking much less efficient (slower) on some graphics cards.

Search Depth To optimize memory usage. Textures These options enable you to control the texture maps used by post processing displays.. AND color) together.Introduction Page 34 of 707 By default. Origin. FEMAP internally groups entities which are exactly the same (same element type. instead of only 2. and other attributes (i. and colors. Options as well as the Post Titles. and Contour/Criteria Legend from the PostProcessing category of View. some additional entities will also not appear during dynamic rotation. FEMAP would have to search through 28000 collectors each time a new entity is created and this is not efficient for the FEMAP graphics data structures."). This can cause the contours on a file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. a larger block size should provide better performance. Include in Dynamic Rotation These options let you select the entities that will be included in dynamic rotation. This is especially useful when looking at symmetric results on coarsely meshed models. Changing the value of Search Depth to a lower number can increase graphics performance by searching the collectors far less often and creating a new one only if no matching collectors can be found. color. FEMAP will search all of the existing collectors to see if the new entity can be placed into one of them. if you have a large number of small collectors (i.e. and Undeformed. View Legend.5. 1 dimensional texture maps will be used. elements that are drawn as symbols will not be drawn during dynamic rotation. Options. If you have a few large “collectors”. FEMAP is forced to create a property for each CELAS2 element. searching all the collectors in a model is not an issue. and Workplane Grid from the Tools and View Style category of View. If you select Elements as Free Edge. but if you have a model with many different (typically in the hundreds or thousands) entity types. By default. That said.2013 . This value should work for a large majority of models. you can also use View. it is likely that a Search Depth of “0” is recommended and will likely produce the best image. Smooth Textures This option is available for 1 or 2-Dimensional texture maps.. If you turn Workplane off. often happens with laminates). Connections will turn off Connection Regions and Connectors If you deselect Element Symbols.htm 25. 2D mapping If you select this option. elements will be drawn as free edge only during dynamic rotation. These “like” entities are stored in “collectors” in the FEMAP graphics data structures. View Axis. property.1. so selecting a smaller block size should be beneficial. "View. Filled Edges. link.. If there where 28000 springs in the model.09. In general. some graphics cards split quadrilateral graphics primitives differently when they intersect the edge of the window. FEMAP will search all collectors for matching attributes before creating a new collector. Trace Locations (Trace Style). Every time a new entity is created. An example of when you might want to change the Search Depth is: A NASTRAN input deck has been imported into FEMAP with a large number of CELAS2 elements (spring elements which also contain spring property data on each connection entry). This will greatly improve graphics performance for models that contain a large number of mass. you may see dramatic performance improvements when you turn off options such as Fill. Since these elements are not associated with a “property” using a Note: property ID. These entities include the Axisymmetric Axis. By deselecting some of these entities. layer. When Search Depth is set to “0”. Block Size The block size determines the size of “blocked data” in “collectors” used by FEMAP internally.. mass matrix. Workplane and Rulers.e. gap or DOF Spring elements. 2 dimensional texture maps will be used. this can slow down the graphics significantly as FEMAP looks for an existing collector in which to place the new entity. If you are using the “Auto Transparency” option available for “Transparency” in the Tools and View Style section of View Options (see Tools and View Style category. otherwise. This will create the least number of collectors in the model. properties. Hint: Remember. this value is set to 1024. Transparency option of Section 6. you might use a great deal of memory with too large a block size. Shading. Each spring element is now a different property. layer. Different graphics cards have different levels of support of 1 and 2 dimensional texture maps. Options or View. The Search Depth value refers to how many collectors FEMAP should search when a new entity is created before creating a new collector.3. Visibility to control which entities are displayed. Some plots may take longer. the value is “10”. causing FEMAP to place each one into its own collector. Force All Triangles This option forces quadrilateral elements to be split into 4 triangles for contouring purposes. material. you can improve display performance. increasing or decreasing the value may benefit certain graphics cards and/or models. Options. In large models. On the other hand. property on an element). materials. This will greatly improve graphics performance for large models. layers. Also. which means that FEMAP will search through the 10 most recently used collectors and only create a new one if a collector does not exist with the entity’s same type. It can provide better quality smooth contours.

6. toolbars. these can be used when the Print Debug Messages drop-down is set to “0..All Debug Messages” will report quite a bit more information.when on. we suggest starting with 100 ms/Mpix and moving back towards 0 ms/Mpix by increments of 10 ms/Mpix until the problem reappears. Print VBO Messages Only used when Vertex Arrays are set to “3.femap..Exceed VBO limit”.. Do not change this setting unless instructed to do so by FEMAP Support. reports “elapsed times” of various operations related to FEMAP graphics.6.. Using “2. There are two options when turning on the Debug messages. Changing this setting may cause severe display problems.All Debug Messages”.No Debug Messages” to only display this specific information. if no VBO messages are desired. Changing this setting may cause severe display problems. set this number lower and try again. Pixel Format This option controls graphics descriptors. The time it takes certain graphics cards to get OpenGL and the operating system in sync appears to be proportional to the number of pixels in the window. reports any errors specifically related to OpenGL. Do not change this setting unless instructed to do so by FEMAP Support. with “1.All VBO Messages”. If there are no OpenGL errors.No VBO Messages” option. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Finally.4 User Interface 2. the delay will be multiplied by how many mega pixels your screen occupies. If these values do not help.. which can result in “split images” appearing inside the FEMAP graphics window. The default setting of 0 instructs FEMAP to use the optimal pixel format for your graphics board. This allows users to switch between monitor resolutions without having to change this value.2.6.09. will correct the issue.6 Using Rebuild and Preferences > 2. a value for the “BitBlt Delay” can be placed into FEMAP to allow extra time (in milliseconds/Megapixal) for the graphics to come out of the swap buffer and the screen image to be captured properly. If you have problems with contour display colors. Bitmap Alignment This option controls the way that bitmaps are stored. some graphics cards do not enable the maximum size to be determined. When set to either option. the only reason to have this set to anything other than “0.2013 . all quadrilaterals are split into triangles and this gives consistent contours. This is due to the picture capture of the screen occurring while the graphics are still in the swap buffer. These options are off by default as it takes additional time to query FEMAP for these types of errors. use the “0.4 User Interface When you choose the User Interface tab... BitBlt Delay If you are seeing “split images” in your FEMAP graphics window. Print Debug Messages Typically.ugs. The default setting is 4.. OpenGL graphics and the operating system are not synchronized correctly. OpenGL Errors . File Manipulation > 2. but will also be slower.) will function. all messages regarding VBO usage will be written and this will report quite a bit more information. you may need to enter a value for BitBlt Delay. which cause FEMAP to write messages to the Messages window only when the value set for “Max VBO MB” has been exceeded. tooltips. as the graphics performance benefits will be diminished. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. In some low-end graphics cards.Introduction Page 35 of 707 model to move on an element face when the model is dynamically rotated while intersecting the edge of the window. but will also be slower. Preferences > 2. Max Size FEMAP tries to use the largest texture map possible. The vertex colours are always correct: it is only the internal color pattern of an element face that is impacted. However. It is useful to know when the “Max VBO MB” limit has been reached. In order to correct this problem. By default.2 File. FEMAP will write print debug messages to the Messages window. the Preferences dialog box will display options for the how the different facets of the FEMAP User Interface (menus. Note: Usually. this is set to “1. Frame Rate .when on. If your graphics window is bigger than 1 Mega Pixels (MPix). If you select this option.Vertex Buffer Objects”. then nothing different will be reported.htm 25. a delay of 10 ms/Mpix or 20 ms/Mpix. Elapsed Time .. Advanced/Debug Options These options help you work with FEMAP Support to resolve Graphics display problems that may be unique to your graphics card driver. etc.Main Debug Messages” simply writing a subset of all the debug messages.2.com Customer Support: http://support.No Debug Messages” is if FEMAP Technical Support has requested this information to help you resolve a graphics display problem. When set to“2.. “1. reports a calculated frame rate (fps) for each frame drawn. Mainly used in determining dynamic rotation performance.Main Debug Messages” and “2. dockable panes.when on. Also.

Ctrl+L becomes View. FEMAP will remember the dialog box locations only for the current FEMAP session. FEMAP appears more like pre-Version 9 releases when the Alternate Color Scheme is turned on. If you check the “Don’t confirm delete again” box in any Confirm Delete dialog box. Autorepeat Create Commands If this option is on. Left. or Mouse Interface sections can be changed for a given session. Front. Isometric. Menus and Dialog Boxes Alternate Color Scheme If this option is on. changes the way several Accelerator Keys (hard-coded shortcut keys) function in FEMAP to give quick access to orient the view. This allows you to continue creating entities without repeatedly choosing the same command. Alternate Accelerator Keys for Views When on. Remember Dialog Positions When this option is on. These accelerators mimic Solid Edge and FEMAP must be restarted in order for this preference to take effect. the menus. Graphical Selection. Ctrl+T becomes View.2013 . To restore dialog boxes to their original positions. Rotate. FEMAP will place the dialog box in the position you chose rather than in the default position. all entity create commands will automatically repeat until you choose Cancel. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.htm 25. Ctrl+B becomes View. Rotate. the Confirm Delete dialog boxes will no longer appear when you delete an entity and this option will now be unchecked. Ask for Confirmation Before Delete Unchecking this box will cause FEMAP to no longer show Confirm Delete dialog boxes throughout the program. Ctrl+F becomes View. FEMAP will remember the last screen location for each dialog box. toolbars.09. and Ctrl+I becomes View. and dockable pane borders will appear as a gray color instead of a shaded color regardless of which color is set for dialog box appearance in Windows. Rotate. Top. Rotate. Rotate. Bottom.Introduction Page 36 of 707 This User Interface tab is partitioned into eight categories: • Menus and Dialog Boxes • Graphical Selection • Mouse Interface • Meshing Toolbox • Dockable Panes • • Model Info Show Entities Defaults • Toolbars Any options in the Menus and Dialog Boxes. If you move a dialog box then pick the command again later. use the Reset Dialog Positions button. If you would like to turn the Confirm Delete dialog boxes back on. simply check this option.

Tooltip Duration Allows you to set the amount of time a “tooltip” will be visible after it appears. therefore it the preference must be saved and FEMAP reopened in order for it to take effect. for an element. therefore spinning the mouse wheel up (away from the user) will zoom in. will animate the “fly-out” from the tab to full extension of the pane.Preserves Undo after output is deleted. Preserve Undo This option will be set automatically to whatever option is chosen if the “Don’t confirm again” box is checked in the Confirm Fast Results Delete dialog box.” Click Go button to move forward without Undo or Preserve Undo. FEMAP dynamically highlights the entity that will be selected if you click the mouse button. See Section 4. all of its nodes must be in the selected area for it to be picked). the direction of the mouse wheel will be reversed for the FEMAP graphics window only (the mouse wheel will work normally in any other Dockable Pane). the functionality of holding Shift or Control down along with the left mouse button and moving the mouse around will be swapped (i. If it is off. when the mouse wheel is used to zoom in and out inside the main FEMAP graphics window. and “Pick Front”. 100 x 0.3.e. The “Retraction” (when the pane goes from being fully extended back to tab only) will also be animated. Both “on” by default. elements by their nodes. Shift for Pan. a tooltip will appear).1 seconds = 10 seconds that the Tooltip will be visible). FEMAP will ask “OK to Delete Results without Undo? Deleting without Undo can be significantly faster. for an element. • • Fast (No Undo) . only one node must be in the selected region when this option is off). Tooltip Delay Allows you to set the amount of time before a “tooltip” will appear after an entity has been highlighted by the cursor. If you want to set the Tooltip to remain visible until the cursor is no longer selecting that entity.1. Meshing Toolbox Expand Active Tool Only and Auto Remesh Sets the defaults for Expand Active Tool Only and Auto Remesh in the Meshing Toolbox. while spinning the mouse wheel down (towards the user) will zoom out on the model Shift for Pan. The number is in tenths of a second and can be from 1 to 1000. When this preference is off. all entities which comprise the selected entity must be inside the selected area (i. 10 x 0.e. If this option is on. Pick All Inside This option controls selection of entities when screen area (using box or circle) picking is used to select entities whose position is defined by other multiple entities (i. Pick Method This option controls the default Pick Method for Entity Selection dialog boxes. Control for Zoom). curves by their points). when the Shift key is held down along with the left mouse button (or mouse wheel is pressed when a dialog box is open) moving the mouse up or down will allow you to dynamically zoom in and out of the model. therefore. elements or other geometry. when on.09. When this option is checked. Graphical Selection Track Mouse Picking This option activates dynamic selection tracking. "Entity Selection" for more information about the Pick Methods.every time output is deleted.2013 . left or right will allow you to dynamically translate the model around the screen in the corresponding direction. For example. There are 3 options: • Fast Confirm .Always eliminates Undo after output has been deleted .. When this option is checked. Recently Used Files This option sets the number of recently used files that will be listed at the bottom of the File menu.Introduction Page 37 of 707 Fast Output Delete This option can be used to dramatically increase the speed of deleting a large amount of output by eliminating the ability to “Undo” after the output is deleted. This preference. only one entity must be selected (i.e. Dockable Panes Animate Fly-out This option is used when a Dockable Pane is in the “retracted” state (Retracted means that the pane is only visible as a tab and will fly-out when the curser is placed on the tab). Ctrl for Zoom By default. the default is “100” tenths of a second. Captions Always on Top file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Mouse Interface Reverse Mouse Wheel Direction By default. the pane will just “pop-up” to full size and then “minimize” to tab only instead of you viewing it extend and retract. down.e. Also. When you move the cursor through the graphics window to select nodes.1 seconds = 1 second after an entity has been selected. while spinning the mouse wheel down (towards the user) will zoom in on the model. you can set the value to “0” (zero).e. the default value is “10” tenths of a second (i. The number is in tenths of a second (For example. This makes accurate selection much easier in complex models. spinning the mouse wheel up (away from the user) will zoom out. when the Ctrl key is held down along with the left mouse button (or mouse wheel is pressed when a dialog box is open) moving the mouse up.htm 25. Choices are “Pick Normal”. This is a “start-up” only preference. “Pick Query”.

pinnings.2. Please report any issues promptly to the Siemens PLM Software Global Technical Access Center (GTAC) at 1-800-955-0000. Enable Legacy XY Plotting This option enables “legacy” XY plotting using Views. When on. Model Info Max Entities Limits the number of items of each category which will be shown in the Model Info tree. Create Automatic Titles When on (default). Hint: file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. dockable panes which are docked on the top or bottom of the graphics area will have the title bar displayed on the left side of the pane to use less space vertically. and User Commands) to save to the *. FEMAP will prompt you to save your User Interface layout to a *. regardless of where the pane is currently docked. all toolbar positions. Show Entities. the following message will appear: “OK to Reset Interface? Resetting the user interface will lose all customization. Toolbars Save Layout When the Save Layout button is pushed. Saving the toolbar layout to a *. The default value is 2000. command. all user-defined shortcut keys. Load Layout When the Load Layout button is pushed. and stackings. command. "Tools.. You must exit and restart FEMAP for this command to take effect. Show Entities. This allows one layout to be used by multiple users.2. See below.LAYOUT file is a good way to recreate a customized FEMAP interface in a particular version of the software. The *.htm 25. Charting").LAYOUT file in a directory of your choice. For more information.LAYOUT file from a directory of your choice in order to load a User Interface layout from an existing installation of FEMAP. menus.LAYOUT file). as it will allow you to return to custom commands and shortcut keys if you need them in the future. Panes.3. Show Entities. shortcut keys. Shortcut Keys. Alternate Docking Symbols This option simply allows you to choose which “Docking Position Indicators” are displayed in FEMAP. all dockable pane positions. all toolbars or menus that have been changed (icons and commands added. all custom toolbars. FEMAP will use these default settings for all new models and until the any of the options are changed by the user manually. By default. all custom commands that have been created.LAYOUT file can be used to bring a specific User Interface layout to a different installation of FEMAP. You can always load them for use and then use the Reset User Interface command to get the defaults back again.3.. all of the “XY” options will also be available in the PostProcessing category of the View Options dialog box. removed).". the “Shortcut Keys” and “User Commands” will be updated. moved. dockable panes.4. Reset User Interface Resets the FEMAP User Interface to the original configuration when the product was installed. see Section 6. You must exit and restart to complete the reset. while “Menus and Toolbars” and “Panes” will not. along with the XY Data button used to access the Select XY Curve Data dialog box and the XY Functions button used to plot up to 9 functions. Using the *. When this command is used.” If you click Yes. The option to turn on and use the “legacy” XY Plotting will be completely removed in a future FEMAP release.. or the Show When Selected icon in the Data Table.Introduction Page 38 of 707 This option will force the Title Bar of any “docked” dockable pane to always be on the top of the pane. and all toolbar options which were chosen will be changed back to the defaults and can not be recovered unless you have saved them in a Toolbar layout (*.LAYOUT file is loaded into a newer version of the software. When off. Show Entities Defaults These options are the same options for highlighting entities that are found in the Window. FEMAP will create titles automatically for Materials and Properties based on the type of Material or Property being created. all altered icons. This can significantly improve performance if you have thousands of entities of one type.2013 .. and user-defined commands. In addition. whenever less than the full number of entities are displayed. the XY Style section will be available in the View Select dialog box.09.. You will be prompted to choose which portions of the current installation’s User Interface (Menu and Toolbars. It is HIGHLY recommended to only turn this option on if a Note: problem occurs using the Charting dockable pane (see Section 7. If a *. Materials and Properties will be untitled. FEMAP will prompt you to select a *.LAYOUT file is a good idea before using the “Reset User Interface” command.LAYOUT file. Options are added to the tree to show the next or previous group. by deleting all of the registry settings associated with FEMAP toolbars.. the Show When Selected icon in the Model Info tree. "Window. The options can be changed using the Window.

You must therefore restart FEMAP after changing any of these option to have them take effect. Reset Dialog Positions Resets the FEMAP dialog box positions to the original positions when the product was installed. Preferences > 2.ugs.6. All of these options.htm 25.com Customer Support: http://support. If you want to bring in a customized version of a “standard” toolbar. File Manipulation > 2. including memory management and location of scratch files. This command only has an effect if you have the Remember Dialog Positions option checked in the Menus and Dialog Boxes portion of this dialog box.3 and above.5 Database 2.Introduction Page 39 of 707 Note: For FEMAP 10.2.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. “User-defined” Toolbars will be imported into newer versions. then customize that “User-defined” toolbar so it will be brought into the new version without overwriting any existing menus or toolbars. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.2.6.2 File. are only used at startup.6 Using Rebuild and Preferences > 2. The Database tab of the Preferences dialog box is partitioned into four areas: • • • • Database Options Database Performance Timed Save Scratch Directory Each area is discussed more fully below.09.5 Database The options on the Database tab control certain database options.femap.2013 .6. with the exception of those labeled “immediate”. it is probably best to create your a “User-defined” toolbar with the same commands.

Note: Changing the Database Memory Limit does not change the amount of memory used for the current session. For this selection to take effect. Only one backup copy is saved. replacing data that is not being used. This will prevent FEMAP from “back-filling” empty IDs that may exist in a model that has been somehow partitioned using entity IDs. and one which normally persists the entire time you have a model open is for drawing your model.BAK (where modelname. The option is selected as a default. not just when you choose Save. Almost every command temporarily uses some small amount of additional memory. Cleanup During Save (immediate) When this option is on. FEMAP will automatically delete your scratch file whenever you begin a new model or exit FEMAP. Finally. FEMAP does not attempt to make a backup when you save. so the . you directly update the model file during every command. The blue bar along the bottom edge indicates the amount of memory that the database is currently using. This has essentially the same effect as using the File. This does not mean that you can not increase the limit beyond its default. like meshing. Most potential problems with exceeding the 2 GB memory limit only occur with very large models. You do not have to save them permanently. the largest use of additional memory.2013 . Therefore. Rebuild command has been used. By default this option is disabled. As you move the slider. All files are placed in the specified Scratch Directory. Database Performance These options control how FEMAP uses your computer’s RAM.BAK file will be updated and overwritten every time you save. you are simply setting the maximum amount of memory available for the database.09. In this state. or the operations will not be able to execute properly. Rebuild command and answering “Yes” to “OK to Fully Rebuild and Compact Database?”. FEMAP will automatically read data from your disk as it is needed. Note: The blue bar in the above figure shows the amount of memory used by a 1. it does let you work with much larger models than would otherwise fit into your available memory. FEMAP will maintain the “Next ID” defined for all entities prior to the “Rebuild” operation. It is for this reason that the default Database Memory Limit is set fairly low – 20% of the memory in your computer (The 32-bit version is also restricted by the 2 GByte limit for any program). changes to the backup option are effective immediately. to the right to increase it. Some commands. Database Memory Limit The Database Memory Limit sets the maximum amount of system memory that FEMAP will use to hold parts of your model and results in memory. Unlike the other options in this dialog box. Using the Control The slider control allows you to choose the amount of memory to use for the database. In the very worst case scenario. Preserve Next ID during Rebuild By default. and no backup copies are saved. The colored bar below the slider gives you an indication of the risk of running out of memory if you use this setting. FEMAP will keep a backup copy of your model in the file modelname. Setting these properly can greatly improve performance. You must always have sufficient free memory available for all of these uses. and keeps copies of the data to be drawn in memory at all times. Low Disk Warning When this option is on. With this option. For optimal performance. you are increasing the chance of running out of memory. you must exit and restart FEMAP. The backup option is ignored whenever Use Model Scratch File is off. Undo Levels Controls how many commands (0-99) that you will be able to undo. FEMAP uses memory for many different operations – this is just one of them. Delete Model Scratch File When this option is on. The Database Memory Limit DOES NOT control the total amount of memory that FEMAP will be using. but the further into the yellow and red zones you push the slider.MODFEM is the name of your model). It is simply displayed to make it easy for you to go back to that limit if you try other settings. running out of memory could cause FEMAP to crash. While this “Swapping” process can slow down overall performance. Move the slider to the left to reduce the limit.000 element model (4-noded plate elements) on a 32-bit machine with 2 GB of RAM. If your model is larger than the amount of memory that you choose. Backup before Save (immediate) When this option is on and your model has been saved previously. The yellow and red regions should be used with caution since there is a good chance of causing problems with other operations like meshing and graphics.htm 25. If you are working with a smaller model. FEMAP uses OpenGL graphics. like loading large amounts of data into the Data Table require memory for a longer period of time – in this case as long as the data is in the table. the memory limit is updated and displayed above the slider. thus the model file may be quite a bit smaller when saved. any space in the database which was previously allocated but no longer being used will be released. but can take a significant amount of disk space. FEMAP will issue a warning when free space on the scratch file’s disk drops below the amount specified. The small line along the top edge of the green section indicates the default memory limit. node merging and reading results can temporarily use fairly significant amounts of memory.000. FEMAP will file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. FEMAP will reset the “Next ID” for all entities to the lowest available ID after the File. Setting this to a larger number gives you greater flexibility in being able to backup your commands. Other operations.Introduction Page 40 of 707 Database Options These options control how FEMAP interacts with the FEMAP model file (binary database). When this option is on.

It reads and writes a series of 12 100 MB files using various “block sizes” to determine the method. Timed Save On and Notify The selected option specifies if FEMAP should notify you when it hits a preset limit or if it should just automatically save the model. The Recover Scratch Directory command is not designed to recover the model from any crashes that occur during the modeling process. some of the data in this file may be in an unusable state. These files are necessary so FEMAP can keep track of changes to the FEMAP database during the modeling process. NEVER use this command when a properly working model is already open in FEMAP.09.Introduction Page 41 of 707 not use memory that it does not need and the blue bar will not extend the entire way to the slider setting. the blue bar may not be visible – because it is too short to be seen along the bar. Scratch Directory This option determines where temporary files will be placed.000. what option 2 does is copy to (opening) and from the scratch directory (saving) in 64K “blocks” instead of allowing the hardware to choose the size. They can be large. it will only perform the test with 4 100 MB files (64KB and 100MB for both Windows and C I/O). Essentially. It is simply provided to give the user an additional option when attempting to recover some model data. or if you have a small model and a large amount of memory in your system. • • The Model Scratch file is always turned on. but in general can not be used for anything on their own. immediately export a FEMAP neutral file. If for some reason (usually running out of disk space). If FEMAP detects you have less than this. When you the File. This option must be set to a ID higher than any entity in the model. by default. the model information is first “dumped” to the scratch directory. Recover Scratch Directory As FEMAP models. Max Cached Label Sets the largest label that FEMAP will reserve memory for. The default value of “4” was determined via testing to produce the best performance over a wide range of values for Database Memory Limit and using the default settings for a Note: number of different types of disk drives. The size of the Undo Files depends upon how many levels of undo you choose and the FEMAP commands that you execute. You may want to try other values from 1 to 15 if you have changed any speed/caching settings on your drive or have “highspeed” drives to determine if performance is improved. using the command. but all other files are deleted. while the number of Commands set the number of commands performed before FEMAP notifies you that it has performed an automatic save. Open/Save Method and Read/Write Test button The Open/Save Method option should only be used if you are experiencing VERY slow opening/saving FEMAP model files. when you exit FEMAP. results of the test will be written to the Messages window and the “recommended” setting will be displayed in the Open/Save Method drop-down. Once manual clean up of the “recovered” model is completed. Also. That said. Save command is used in FEMAP. Both the Model Scratch file and the Undo Files will always be saved in the same directory. The scratch file is a duplicate of your model file and therefore is the same size.64K widows I/O” may make a dramatic difference in the time a model takes to open/save. switching to option “2. Blocks/Page This value sets the “page” size.2 GB of free disk space to run the test properly. Options 1 and 3 are simply other alternatives to try.2013 . It is strictly for use when the model has been corrupted during the File. Note: file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. it is recommended that you save your model as often as possible. When finished. then the model file is “opened” in its saved location and the updated information is transferred to that location. Also. A proper use of the option involves opening a new session of FEMAP. The optimum setting of this number often depends on the speed of your disk and controller. As always. but will usually never contain the complete contents of the model. Default value is 5. The model scratch file is not deleted (unless you request deletion using the Delete Model Scratch File option. this command is in no way a guaranteed method for recovering any portion of a corrupted model. Save command. selecting the _DBData file. Note: Recover _DBData File You should always try the Recover Scratch Directory command before attempting to use this command. If you look at this control with an empty model. which is the default). FEMAP should automatically prompt you to perform this action the next time FEMAP is started after the issue occurred. For Windows XP and Vista the directory path to the Scratch Directory should be complete path names. Save command and the information has been “dumped” to the scratch directory and the model file has been corrupted or disappeared.htm 25. then the model can be recovered by clicking this button.000. FEMAP crashes during the File. On certain hardware. Interval and Commands The Interval sets the time in minutes between automatic saves. When this happens. If the path is not specified these files are stored.. in the directory specified by the TEMP environment variable. The Read/Write Test may be used to determine which Open/Save Method should work best on your machine. Note: You will need 1. it creates temporary files in the Scratch Directory. The _DBData file exists in the Scratch Directory. then manually removing any portion of the model which appears corrupt. this may be useful as a final attempt to recover portions of a corrupted model.

0 on the desktop will be stored as 0.Introduction Page 42 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. which automatically sets a value of 39. Preferences > 2. By using an internal scale factor. You will not see changes in the dimensions of the part since FEMAP will do all scaling internally.0)..Other”. and several options for Meshing and Properties. the Solid Geometry Scale Factor.2..09.6 Geometry/Model 2. and continue to work in inches without manually having to scale the part. which allows you to specify a value of your choice. Construction Geometry ..femap.. without exceeding the limits of the Parasolid geometry engine.37 (i. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. The default of 39.6.2013 .e. Without the scale factor the geometry would be outside of the Parasolid modeling limits and would become corrupt.Millimeters” (value of 1000. Parasolid cannot perform operations on them. Each of these are described below.com Customer Support: http://support.6 Geometry/Model The Geometry/Model tab contains geometry options such as choosing the Geometry Engine for solid modeling.37 is chosen since it allows you to import a part that was modeled in inches in CAD software. Solid Geometry Scale Factor The Internal Scale Factor is used to reduce the size of the part in the FEMAP database. When importing solid geometry. or “3. This option controls the default geometry engine upon entering FEMAP.19.6.685 units. File Manipulation > 2. Geometry Engine (startup only) FEMAP can perform solid modeling with the Parasolid Solid Modeling engine. If you do not plan to export a solid model.2. You can also choose to set the Scale Factor to “1. specifying defaults for Element Quality and Output Orientation. There are also options for Load Expansion on Midside Nodes of elements. If you have entities outside of this box.Inches”. it will automatically invoke the ACIS-to-Parasolid converter and all geometry modification and creation inside of FEMAP will be done using the Parasolid engine. By default the Solid Geometry Scale Factor is set to “0. This option allows the input of very large dimensions for the model. you may use the FEMAP standard geometry engine to create wireframe and volume geometry. “2.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. therefore. FEMAP can scale the part internally to prevent the part from extending beyond this box. you must save the preference and exit FEMAP for it to take effect.500.0254 in the database. The default factor of 39.Meters” (value of 1. inches to meters conversion) and this factor is applied internally in FEMAP so that a part of 1. In particular.htm 25. and how Construction Geometry will be handled after it has been used. FEMAP will automatically switch to the Parasolid geometry engine.6..37 will allow you to import and model parts that are +/. This is a startup preference.6 Using Rebuild and Preferences > 2.2 File.when used Allows you to choose how “construction geometry” will be handled in FEMAP after the construction geometry has been used by another geometry command. when ACIS solid geometry is read into FEMAP.0). The internal engine of Parasolid requires all positions be in a box of +/.ugs.

4. "Model. • 1. Having geometry with the same Solid Geometry Scale Factor is very helpful when modifying or creating additional geometry in FEMAP. Transform. Note: The only option available for “construction geometry” in FEMAP prior to version 10. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Element Quality command will update these default values.. Aligned Curves. This dialog box allows you to choose the default orientation of the “X” direction for different types of output for different element types. 2. Element Quality.Moves all “construction geometry” to layer “9999.Construction Layer”.. Also. and Sweep) or a surface or boundary surface used to create a solid via extruding or revolving. Construction geometry also includes any curves used by a “construction surface” and all points on “construction curves”. as well as use the Midside Node Adjustment Default. "Tools.8..09. Pressing the Permanent button when using the Tools.Move to NoPick Layer .. Element Quality The values set in this dialog box will be used for element quality every time FEMAP is opened. Revolve.. Automatically Adjust Geometry Scale Factors Adjusts the solid geometry scale factor of imported geometry to match the scale factor of the model. This dialog box allows you to set default values used when checking element quality. You will typically want to use the default values above.None” in order to select these entities graphically if you would like to use them again for any reason. choose which element checks will be “on” by default when using .Delete (default) .2. most programs require a larger portion of the force be assigned to the midside nodes. For instance.") or when using the “Transformation” functionality of the View. Extrude. Output. Surface. Layer “9999” is always the default “NoPick Layer”.” menu (Edge Curves. The options set in this dialog box will be the default values set for all new models.. FEMAP has three options for handling “construction geometry”: • 0. was “1. Output. Check.Introduction Page 43 of 707 In simplest terms.. These options can be changed “on the fly” for a particular model when using the Model. If you change the values while FEMAP is open. All “construction • geometry” will remain in the model on the original layer and be available for graphical selection when the layer containing the geometry is visible. if you read in geometry with a scale factor of “1” it will be imported and sized in FEMAP with a scale factor of “1”.. The Element Quality checks are: • • • • • • • • • • • Aspect Ratio Taper Alternate Taper Internal Angles Skew Warping Nastran Warping Tet Collapse Jacobian Combined Explicit Time Step Tools. so set this option to have FEMAP handle construction geometry as it has in the past.All “construction geometry” will be automatically deleted from the model after use by one of the geometry commands specified above...Construction Layer” and will also not be deleted from the model. When an entity is on the “NoPick Layer” and that layer is visible.. or On Quad-Face to represent the amount of the total load on the element which will be applied to the midside node." for details...6. Load Expansion on Midside Nodes This section sets the defaults for modification of the distribution of nodal loads (such as force and moment) on parabolic elements. Element Quality..2013 .2. Check.“Construction geometry” will not be moved to Layer “9999.5.Do Nothing . You will need to change the “NoPick Layer” to “0. To obtain an even distribution of force across a parabolic element.5.Move to NoPick Layer”.htm 25.. On Tri-Face. please consult the reference documentation for your analysis program. Ruled. If you have further questions on the distribution required for your solver program. entities can be seen but not selected from the graphics window. those values will persist until that session of FEMAP has been closed.. You can set the factors Along Edges. Transform command (see Section 8. Check.2. "Selecting Data for a Deformed or Contour Style"). Select command (see Section 8. then adjusted to whatever is set as your Solid Geometry Scale Factor in the Preferences.. Output Orientation. “construction geometry” is a curve used to create a surface using certain methods on the “Geometry. See Section 7.

Material Direction”. “1. or “2... There are two options for triangular elements (“0.First Edge” orients the element X-direction to a vector between “Node 1” and “Node 2” of the element.Midside Locations” orients the element X-direction to a vector from the “midpoint” between “Node 1” and “Node 4” to the midpoint between “Node 2” and “Node 3”..2013 . “0..Midside Locations”.Global Rectangular”. there are three orientation options (“0. Tria6.. and Hyperelastic). Quad4..Midside Locations” orients the element X-direction to a vector from the “midpoint” between “Node 1” and “Node 3” to the midpoint between “Node 2” and “Node 3”. Strain. For plane elements.. There are three options for quadrilateral elements (“0.2. "Volume Elements" for more details.Diagonal Bisector” orients the X-direction of the elements to a vector originating from the point where a line from “Node 2” to “Node 4” intersects a line from “Node 1” to “Node 3” and extends out following a vector which bisects the angle from “Node 2” to the “Intersection point” to “Node 3”. for each plane element shape that may appear in the model (Tria3.2.Introduction Page 44 of 707 The Current Output Orientation dialog box contains the “default” output orientation for both Plate and Solid elements. “1.First Edge”.First Edge” orients the element X-direction to a vector between “Node 1” and “Node 2” of the element.. and Force).Midside Locations”) with the default being “0.. while “1.Element”) for different material types associated with solid properties (Isotropic.Diagonal Bisector” being the default. while “1. and Quad8). See the Solid Element Properties portion of Section 4. Pressing the Reset button when the Current Output Orientation dialog box is accessed through the Preferences will reset all of the output orientation options to the default values set when FEMAP is first installed.Diagonal Bisector”) with “2. For solids.First Edge” “0. there is an option for each type of output data to transform (Stress..3.htm 25... or “2.First Edge” or “1.. Consult your analysis program’s documentation concerning the original coordinate system definition. “2.. Meshing and Properties file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.09.. Anisotropic. Defaults are for Nastran.

“Parametric/Equal Length” sizes all curves using the “Parametric” option.7 Interfaces This section controls defaults for interfaces to other programs.Introduction Page 45 of 707 Surface Meshing in Memory This preference determines whether additional memory will be allocated by the FEMAP boundary mesher.1. Geometry. Surface. there are check boxes to use the “pre-v10” meshers.2.6.6. "Mesh. the FEMAP surface mesher will use the fast tri-mesher by default. If the distance between any of the mesh locations is more than 1% different than the “average distance”.1. the following options will appear in the Preferences dialog box: file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. therefore our “parameter based mesh sizing” is not as effective with this geometry. Mesh Sizing FEMAP has three options for mesh sizing.2. Especially when dealing with unstitched geometry. If this option is selected. These two switches in the preferences allow you to always use the “pre-v10” tetrahedral and/or surface meshing if you feel more comfortable with these meshers and the associated default values they use..6. then that curve is resized using “Equal Length” sizing.ugs. The parameterization coming from Catia is often much different than what other CAD packages produce. You can also control the tri-mesher from the Automesh Surfaces dialog box (see Section 5.. “Parametric”. Note: FEMAP Product Info: http://www. The only reason to turn this option off is if the available memory on the current machine is low enough that allocation of new memory is extremely limited. In some cases however (such as unstitched geometry or geometry that has curves with unusual parameterization). FEMAP mesh sizing along curves is done in the parametric space of curves. When set to “Parametric”.6 Using Rebuild and Preferences > 2. the FEMAP mesher can run significantly faster than if it is limited to the database memory.3. Preferences > 2.femap. then determines an “average distance” between each of the “mesh locations” on each curve.2013 . “Equal Length”. When this option is on. Geometry.7 Interfaces 2. length based sizing will produce meshes with matching nodal locations far more reliably than parametric spacing.. Therefore. For more information about the “Alternate Section Property Calculator” see Special Note about the Alternate Section Property Calculator in Section 4. You will find in the “options” of several of the Mesh. By allocating new memory. FEMAP will allocate new memory to create the mesh. this option should almost always be turned on.com Customer Support: http://support.htm 25. "Line Elements" Pre-v10 Tet Meshing and Pre-v10 Surface Meshing The tetrahedral and surface meshing in FEMAP has dramatically changed for version 10.2 File. FEMAP will utilize the memory allocated in the database to perform the mesh.2. If it is not selected. Use Fast Tri Mesher The fast tri-mesher option uses a method to create triangles that generally produces fewer triangles with better aspect ratios. and “Parametric/Equal Length”. Using “Length Based Sizing” can be very helpful for setting up mesh sizing if your geometry has come from Catia. In many cases this is desirable resulting in finer mesh in areas of high curvature.2. commands.. “Equal Length” based spacing will yield much better results. File Manipulation > 2.").com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. Alternate Section Property Calculation Uses an alternate “Alternate Section Property Calculator” to determine the section properties for a Beam element property. When you select the Interfaces tab.3.09. The default is “Parametric/Equal Length”.

Analysis Type This option chooses the default type of analysis that will be performed. Many structural options will be hidden. For example.09. Import (or Export) Analysis Model. Analysis Results commands. This option can be used by structural analysis program (such as Nastran) users who are performing thermal analyses. CFDesign. You should set this option to the interface that you use most often. Non-FEMAP Neutral Version To export a FEMAP model to some external analysis programs (CAEFEM. interfaces to ALL solvers supported in FEMAP will be shown when importing or exporting analysis files. • Structural makes all commands visible. Most users should use this option. Import. Analysis Type. use this option to set the neutral file version. you use a neutral file. SINDA/G). The thermal options are is only recommended when performing modeling specific to thermal analysis and exporting to a thermal specific program. Enable Old Analysis Interfaces When this option is on. etc. This option is for SINDA/G users only.2013 . file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.Introduction Page 46 of 707 The Interfaces tab of the Preferences dialog box is partitioned into five areas: • • • • • Interface defaults (Specify default Solver.) Analysis Monitor Options File References Options General Solver Options Nastran Solver Options Detailed descriptions for each of the available options is provided below. • Advanced Thermal displays only thermal properties in material dialog boxes. If your external program requires a previous version as input. Interface Style These options mask commands for users of some analysis programs. Neutral Digits Use this command to set the number of significant digits for real numbers in the neutral file. • Thermal displays only thermal properties in material dialog boxes.htm 25. changing many dialog boxes. and you will no longer have access to them. The two thermal options will configure FEMAP in a thermal mode only. Interface Style. and limits the element types available. Set this to the type of analysis you perform most often. Interface This option simply chooses the default analysis program that FEMAP will display for the File. an older version of CAEFEM may require a FEMAP version 6 neutral file rather than the current version. CDA/Spring. and File.

This is usually recommended.Introduction Page 47 of 707 Note: The “Enable Old Analysis Interfaces” should not be used as these interfaces are no longer maintained and have not been updated since FEMAP version 8. Comments include FEMAP names and IDs for corresponding groups and sets. Solver Memory (Mb 0=Auto) Allows you to allocate the amount of memory for Nastran to use when solving. It is a good idea to select this option if you are always using MSC Nastran 2004 or above for analysis.861E-4”. an analysis model reference will be created automatically for each analysis model when it is imported. File Reference Options • • Check References on Open : Toggles on and off checking the selected references (found in File. which can be turned on again by turning off this option.) you may want to use the options available in the MSC/MD NASTRAN Version section of the NASTRAN Executive and Solution Options dialog box found in the Analysis Set Manager to choose the specific MSC/MD Nastran version on a case-by-case basis Note: Improve Single Field Precision When this option is on. 2007. For more information on references.2.2013 . All options are off by default. FEMAP will write all Nastran line continuation markers to “+” only.htm 25.8611-4” when this option is on instead of “4. Max Lines to Monitor: Sets the default for the number of lines that are monitored from the Analysis Monitor. Note: This option is not available when importing results from the .1. Create Geometry References: When this option is on. which by default is often set to “memory = estimate” (NX Nastran will try to determine how much memory the job requires).3. SUBTITLE. etc. to run an analysis. the Visual Queue Manager for FEMAP. Please refer to NX Nastran documentation for more information on setting the correct memory value for the solver.f06 results file. Nastran will use the value currently set in your Nastran Resource file (Nast*.7. If you are using multiple versions of MSC/MD Nastran (Any MD. 2005.rcf located in the “conf” directory for NX Nastran 4. If you leave this field blank. Options available are TITLE.0. Output Set Titles When this option is set FEMAP will use the specified type of Nastran title when reading output from the . Small field only. or any MD Nastran version in order to make sure that Nastran creates a compatible binary results file (. 2004. The mechanism FEMAP uses to set this option is to add a command line option (memory = VALUE mb) when the job is submitted. Header information indicating the version of FEMAP used and the date the file was written will also not be written. 2005. Please see Section 2. Skip Comments when Exporting When this option is on.86111E-4” in FEMAP would appear in the Nastran input file as “4. For instance.5. "Importing/Attaching to/Exporting Files" for more information on using the Analysis Set Manager. Nastran Solver Options Using MSC/MD Nastran 2004 or later Must be turned on when using MSC Nastran 2004. FEMAP will not write any comments into the input file. Analysis Monitor Options • • Automatically Load Results : This option will set FEMAP to automatically read results when using the Analysis Monitor. • Create Analysis Results References: When this option is on. References) when a model is opened. The only exception is for the “Basic Cylindrical” and “Basic Spherical” coordinate systems written out to every Nastran file by default. 70. Previous versions of FEMAP would write “descriptive” continuation markers. Allocating more memory than your machine has can cause the solver to fail and setting this value too low can cause the solver to be less efficient. a geometry reference will be created automatically for each piece of geometry when it is imported.09. or 5.. This option will check the Run Analysis using VisQ option by default in the Analysis Set Manager. This will override the value currently set in your Nastran Resource file.. Note: Scratch Directory file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. and LABEL. Write Alternate Line Continuation When this option is on. 2007. FEMAP will write all values specified using “scientific notation” or longer than 8 characters to the Nastran input file without the “E” designation. References. 4. 70. 2001.xdb results files. • Create Analysis Model References: When this option is on.0).0. "File." General Solver Options Run Analysis using VisQ Turn on this option to use VisQ.4. an analysis results reference will be created automatically for each analysis result set when it is imported or attached.op2) that can be read into FEMAP correctly. a value such as “4. see Section 2.op2 or .

6 Using Rebuild and Preferences > 2. when a Nastran file with INCLUDE statements is imported into FEMAP. etc. several additional load sets are sometimes created to facilitate combinations of structural. All output will go into this directory until the model is saved somewhere else. You can us the “.. Femap Scratch: Directory specified in the Database tab of the Preferences dialog box. This is only the case for completely unsaved models.htm 25. Note: then the output files will be directed to the FEMAP “Scratch directory” specified on the Database tab of the Preferences dialog box. FEMAP will write ALL loads and constraint sets to the Nastran input file for Linear Static Analysis. When this option is on.1. *.e. load set. Use ILP 64-bit NX Nastran If you have NX Nastran installed on a 64-bit system. This essentially forces FEMAP to write out Nastran input files for SOL 101 the way it has in all versions before FEMAP 10. it is a good idea to create a directory specifically for this purpose only. • Specified Directory: This option allows you to send all NX Nastran output to a directory that you have specified. When this option is “on”. you can write out titles (such as property or material names) as comments.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2. creating a “nested” hierarchy. Direct Output To Allows you to select the directory to direct all Nastran output: • Current Directory: Last used directory by FEMAP. File Manipulation > 2.6.) are also written to the specified Scratch Directory for Nastran.” browse button to select a directory. imported geometry. If you are using the Model File Directory option. Delete Read Synthetic Load Sets When importing a Nastran input file.2013 .2 File.e. then that is now the “current directory”. Preferences > 2.8 Results file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. FEMAP allows different types of loads to be in a single load set.femap. Note: If you are using the Specified Directory option. *.2.Introduction Page 48 of 707 Allows you to select the “Scratch Directory” for NX Nastran to use: • • • Nastran Default: Directory chosen during installation to use for creating NX Nastran scratch files.SCRATCH. Create Groups from INCLUDE files This option will automatically create groups based on INCLUDE statements found in imported Nastran input files.. *.09. This is accomplished by using the “dbs” Nastran command line option when running the analysis. The Include Database Files in Scratch Option will make sure the Nastran files (i. where the FEMAP has been directed to place the FEMAP scratch file. Each INCLUDE statement points to a different Nastran input file. *. Write All Static Load/BC Sets When this option is on. or imported a FEMAP neutral file from a directory. Preserve INCLUDE Statements Typically. The entities found in each unique input file will be placed into a separate group. INCLUDE statements may point to files which also contain INCLUDE statements. such as C:\Output. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Importing geometry or neutral files from other directories has no effect on where the output will be sent. “ILP” is able to allocate more memory than “regular” 64-bit Nastran by using a 64-bit word size and 64-bit memory pointer. the output will be directed to a temporary directory until the model is saved. any entities which can be properly translated and imported into FEMAP. Turn on this option to read in these comments when you import the Nastran results back into FEMAP.OBJSCR. If you have opened a model. the output will be directed to that directory when this option is on.ugs. create a model. Read Comments as Titles When you write out a Nastran file from FEMAP. FEMAP instead retains the full text (path and file name) of each INCLUDE statement and places the text into the appropriate Analysis Text dialog box. If you are working on a model that has not been saved. • Model File Directory (default): The directory where the model file currently being used in located. this option will instruct NX Nastran to solve using the “ILP” version of 64-bit Nastran. so often these additional load sets are not required after they have been assembled. If a model has been saved to a directory. or constraint set titles. FEMAP will simply delete these component load sets. FEMAP will create a “Referenced Group” containing groups (regular or referenced) automatically created from INCLUDE statements. This is all done to try and keep the hierarchy of the original Nastran input file in place via groups in FEMAP. then run in NX Nastran without saving). Therefore. Several different Analysis Text dialog boxes may be accessed in the Analysis Set Manager via “Start Text” and “End Text” buttons in Manual Control sections. It may not read in comments as function. If this is the case.MASTER. while integers are 64-bits and floating point uses one 64-bit word. and dynamic loads. as they are no longer needed.6.. Output Directory: Directory specified by the Direct Output To option on this tab of the Preferences dialog box. open FEMAP. it may be possible to have a “referenced group” which references any number of other “referenced groups” or “regular groups”.com Customer Support: http://support. and you have a model that has never been saved (i. This option works best reading in comments as material and property titles. *. This can helpful because your output will always be in the same place if you need to view the files or “clean-up” leftover output files from old analysis runs.DBALL. thermal.SCR300..

Auto Answer Post Questions button Pressing this button will display a dialog box which will allow you to toggle “Auto Answer” check boxes for a variety of questions which may appear in dialog boxes during import of Nastran results from .op2 files being automatically attached will also be “Memory Mapped”. max shear and mean stresses and strains if they have not been read. FEMAP does not compute new values if results exist already. This is off by default since the direction cosine information can be quite large and most users do not use this information.2. then the .htm 25. "File. see Section 2. One additional General Question may also be “auto-answered” with regard to reading Nonlinear Stresses file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. When this option is on (off by default). the “Memory Mapped FIle” toggle found in the File. but the checking procedure for these vectors will take some time. Use Memory Mapped OP2 Files When on. Assume Engineering Shear Strain Turn on this option to assume that the shear strain read from the solver results is engineering shear strain rather than actual shear strain. and if all required XYZ components of stress/strain have been read. Von Mises. it’s important to specify the shear strain method.op2 file format accessed through the NX Nastran Analysis Monitor.f06 file. In addition. Based on settings. Since shear strain is used to calculate the principal stress/strain values. especially in extremely large models. Nastran Options Automatically Attach to OP2 Files When using NX Nastran bundled with FEMAP. the following options will be available: General Solver Options Compute Principal Stress/Strain When this option is on and you read analysis results. the results are typically imported via the NX Nastran Analysis Monitor. Previous versions of FEMAP would ask you if you wanted to read this data during the results import process. Read DirCos for Solid Stress/Strain This option can be used when you wish to retrieve the direction cosines for solid stress/strain post-processing information from your analysis program.2013 . FEMAP will automatically compute principal.Introduction Page 49 of 707 2. Attach To Results command will be on by default.3. Attach to Results". will be attached instead of imported (internalized). if the “Automatically Attach to OP2” preference is on. You can turn this option off if you do not want to post-process these output quantities. this process may be automatic or performed using the “Load Results” button. When you select the Results tab. You may also want to turn this option off if your analysis program already computes these values.8 Results This section controls defaults for how results are handled. whether automatically or using the “Load Results” button.6.09. any results in .2. For more information. Turning this option off can result in substantial speed improvements during the final phases of reading results.

09.2. If you have requested this type of output using the NASTRAN Output for Random Analysis dialog box in FEMAP or directly in the Nastran input file.femap.2. both Nonlinear stresses/strains and “regular” stresses/strains are available in the output file.f06 and . this data is always imported from the . because if you have requested corner data and answer “No”. Frequency Functions?”. FEMAP will import all of the additional output related to the element corner results. and in certain cases.9 Library/Startup This section allows you to define the default libraries to be used for several different types of entities in FEMAP and define a startup preference. FEMAP will “Auto Answer” the dialog box question related to that option with the answer specified in the drop-down menu (“0.When importing results following analysis where XY PLOT info has been written to the .2 File. If the check box is “not checked”.f06 file into a model containing various plane or solid elements. and in certain cases. Read Nonlinear Output . file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. FEMAP will NOT display the “Message Review” dialog box.op2 files. An Output Set in FEMAP can only contain the Nonlinear OR the “Regular” stresses/strains. If not. Read PSD/Freq functions . By answering “Yes”. If you have QUADR/TRIAR elements in your model.ugs. and information messages written to the . FEMAP will display the question in a dialog box and await manual response from the user.6.Introduction Page 50 of 707 and Strains from the .When checked. entire functions will not be read into FEMAP. If you have NO output types “checked” in the “Elemental” section of the Nastran Output Requests dialog box in the Analysis Set Manager.When importing results following Random Response analysis. It is very important to make sure this question is answered correctly..No” or “1. FEMAP will ask “Does Output Contain Corner Data?”. If this option is not checked. FEMAP will ask “Is Output on QUADR/TRIAR elements?”. then you should answer this question with “Yes”. When the check box next to an option is “checked”. FEMAP will ask “OK to read PSD vs.. FEMAP will bring up a dialog box during the import of results which allows you to choose which stresses/strains to read (Yes = Nonlinear. It is very important to make sure this question is answered correctly. which is the default. File Manipulation > 2.6. Checking this option will always read in the Nonlinear stresses/strains from the output file of a nonlinear analysis. not both. Here is a detailed description of each option: Output Contains QUADR Elements . Hide f06 Warning Dialog .f06 file. answer “No”. Output Contains Corner Output . even if the rest of the results reside in an . FEMAP will ask “OK to read plate element corner stresses?” or “OK to read solid element corner stresses?” when importing results using a . This “corner data” is always imported when using . Read Corner Output . If you have any output requested in the “Elemental” section. if you have not.f06 file during analysis.op2 files. This dialog box allows you to simply “Continue” with importing of results or “Show Details” which consists of fatal errors. the imported XY output data will not be given the correct title.When a nonlinear analysis is run using Nastran. then the Note: “Element Corner Results” option in the “Customization” section of the Nastran Output Requests dialog box determines whether the resulting output file contains corner data (checked) or not (unchecked). the results may then be imported.If “Element Corner Results” were requested when an analysis job was run.htm 25. warning messages.op2 file.6 Using Rebuild and Preferences > 2. No = “Regular”). then answer “No”.f06 file.9 Library/Startup 2.2013 .6.When importing results following analysis with MSC Nastran where XY PLOT info has been written to the .com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2.com Customer Support: http://support. the imported XY output data will not be given the correct title.Yes”) to the right of the option. Once reviewed. if not. Preferences > 2.. then you should answer this question with “Yes”. entire functions will not be read into FEMAP. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. If you have requested corner data for any elemental output from the analysis. or have not and answer “Yes”. then you do NOT have corner data output in your model.f06 file.

any individual view can be deleted from the View library specified in the Library/Startup tab of the Preferences dialog box using the Delete. By using Browse (. Connection Property. Property. FEMAP contains a toolbar called Custom Tools.EXE file).Introduction Page 51 of 707 For any of the libraries..EXE file) to run every time FEMAP is initialized or every time the File. Library . however. Analysis. each command would have to be added to the user commands one at a time and then placed into menus and/or toolbars. The Custom Tools toolbar will take any of those file types it locates in the specified directory and automatically place them into a menu structure which drops-down from the Custom Tools toolbar. Output. • The View Library contains views that can be loaded into your model. View command. a Visual Basic script compiled into a . Save will create a new file if one does not currently exist. You can select the directory by using the Browse button (“. Note: If you are using more than 1 or 2 “custom commands or tools”. Run for Every New Model file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Format)...PRG files). You can select the appropriate file by using the Browse button (“. Function.2013 . You can also use the Browse button to search for a specific directory where a FEMAP library file might be found..htm 25. commands.. this saves a great deal of time because in versions of FEMAP prior to 9. This file must exist if you are going to use the Load View or Save View buttons in the View Visibility dialog box (Ctrl+Q). or “other” executable (for instance.esp file installed with FEMAP are supported by the specific dedicated translators.3. but modifications are only suggested when accessing FEMAP information from a FEMAP neutral file since dedicated translators such as ABAQUS or LS-DYNA will not recognize these user materials.”) to locate the file in a particular directory. New.BAS files). a number of users can share one common set of FEMAP library files. “Custom tools” can be recorded Program Files (. or Format library in FEMAP can be deleted using the Delete.... Format and Chart libraries are files which contain data that can be accessed via the Save and Load buttons on the creation commands (also List. you do not have to specify a complete path as long as the file is in a directory which is along your DOS PATH. Layup. Materials contained in the mat_scr. Also. Connection Property. Program Allows you to choose a Program File. These commands allow you to delete entries one at a time from the library currently set in the Library/Startup tab of the Preferences dialog box. You must specify the name of an existing file if you plan to use the Load option. command is used to create a new FEMAP model. or “other” executable (for instance. • The Material. FEMAP Basic Script. Library. FEMAP first searches your current directory and then along your path until it finds the file.PRO or . Function.09. Deleting Individual Entries and Views from Libraries Any individual entry saved in a Material. This toolbar allows you to choose a directory on your machine where you can store all “custom commands and tools”. FEMAP Basic scripts (usually ..). This file can be modified to include additional material types.”). Property. as long as those users have appropriate access and permissions to the directories where the shared library files are located. Startup Program File/Basic Script/Executable and Custom Tools Custom Tools Path The “Custom Tools Path” allows you to specify a “custom commands and tools” directory to be used every time FEMAP is initialized. Analysis. a Visual Basic script compiled into a .. • The Material Type Definition file contains the dialog box titles as well as the record formats for Other Types of materials.

6.3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2.htm 25..2 File.. You must save these changes if you want them to have any effect The Color Palette is stored with the model in FEMAP versions 9. that Color Palette will be available when the model is opened and also if the model is transferred into a Note: newer version of FEMAP via a FEMAP Neutral File. You can choose the Color Palette to use for these colors. This can be done using the View.10. You can also choose the User Contour Palette which contains the user-defined contour palette colors. Preferences > 2.femap.Introduction Page 52 of 707 When the Run for Every New Model option is checked.com Customer Support: http://support.09. • You can control the default colors for all entities. button and then the User Palette.10 Color 2.ugs.3 and above. Options command.2. This file must exist if you are going to choose the userdefined palette in the View Options command. If unchecked (default).e.6. See Section 8.. button will allow you to specify the “User Contour Palette”. Contour/Criteria Note: Levels Option. These colors will be used whenever you start a new model.2. • The Reset Colors button on this dialog box changes all colors back to the FEMAP defaults.4.2013 . Clicking the Set Levels.6 Using Rebuild and Preferences > 2. This means if you have loaded or altered a Color Palette in a model. FEMAP will run the “Startup Program” every time a new model is created. it will only run the “Startup Program” when FEMAP is initialized. The “User Contour Palette” can be specified for each view in a model. File Manipulation > 2. PostProcessing Category. "UserDefined Contour Palette" for more information about the “User Contour Palette” FEMAP file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.6.10 Color This section outlines the options located on the Color tab of the Preferences dialog box. Node).. You can alter the current Color Palette or load a different Color Palette in any command in FEMAP that brings up the Color Palette dialog box (i. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. Color. Modify.

If you reduce the value too far.2 File. Print Debug Messages If you turn this option on.femap.com Customer Support: http://support.4 file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.femap. reduce the z translation scale factor. Preferences > 2. Moving the slider to the right makes the largest axes dominant and moving the slider to the left allows all the axes to effect the motion. This suppresses all motion except the largest.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2.com Customer Support: http://support. If you increase it too much. • if zooming is too fast. FEMAP Support may request this information to help you resolve a graphics display problem involving a Spaceball device.6. increase the x rotation scale factor.11 Spaceball This section outlines the options located on the Spaceball tab of the Preferences dialog box: The six values in Scale Factors enable you to control the relative sensitivity of each degree of freedom.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2.11 Spaceball 2. On the 3Dconnexion driver dialog. you can switch Dominant Axis on. If this is off. For example: • if rotation about the screen x-axis is slow.6 Using Rebuild and Preferences > 2.2013 . when moving the spaceball in one degree of freedom.ugs. the motion in that degree of freedom will not be smooth.Introduction Page 53 of 707 Product Info: http://www.2. you can effectively control the same thing with the Directional Sensitivity slider.7 Using File. it is difficult to prevent motion in another degree of freedom.2. Recent Models .6.ugs. The default position is in the middle.1.6. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. FEMAP will write print debug messages to the Messages window.3. File Manipulation > 2.htm 25. it will take a long time to zoom in or zoom out in the model Sometimes. File Manipulation > 2.09.2.

"Deleting Geometry"(on the Delete menu) FEMAP Product Info: http://www.4 The four most recently edited model files are listed on the File menu to enable you to more rapidly select them. "Copying Geometry"(on the Geometry menu) • Section 3. "Creating Surfaces"(on the Geometry menu) • Section 3. copy.com Customer Support: http://support. you can create. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.09.1.8 Exiting FEMAP 2. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Geometry > 3.2. • Section 3.7. but only after asking you if you would like to save the current model file. Therefore. Geometry Geometry provides the framework for most finite element meshes.ugs.ugs. If your model is untitled.1. If you have just started a new Untitled model.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Exit command allows you to leave FEMAP. which are listed below. it is necessary to have robust tools for creating geometry.femap.htm 25.1 Creating Points file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. "Creating Solids or Volumes"(on the Geometry menu) • Section 3. the standard file access dialog box will be displayed so you can specify a file name for the model. If you choose one of these files. File Manipulation > 2.ugs. "Creating Points" (on the Geometry menu) • Section 3. Generally. "Modifying Geometry"(on the Modify menu) • Section 3.7 Using File.3. you will always be asked whether you want to save the model even though it might be empty.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 2.Introduction Page 54 of 707 2.com Customer Support: http://support.2.femap.6. or modify geometry. "Creating Curves"(on the Geometry menu) • Section 3. FEMAP has the capability to build geometry from simple points to complex 3-D solids.4.3. The geometry section of this manual is separated into six main sections.8 Exiting FEMAP The File.com Customer Support: http://support. FEMAP will automatically open this model file.femap.5.2013 . You will be given a chance to save all current models that are open in this FEMAP session if you have made any changes since your last save. Geometry 3. Recent Models .

2013 . where you can set the active layer or point color.ugs.1 Creating Points > 3. and FEMAP will automatically convert them to nodal/elemental values on the attached FEA entities. curves reference points. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Just as elements reference nodes.Introduction Page 55 of 707 3. You may also apply loads and constraints to points.1 Lines file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.1 Creating Points Points are used for constructing other geometry or finite element data. Instead..com Customer Support: http://support.1 Lines 3.09. 3. Choosing the Parameters button will display the Geometry Parameters dialog box.2 Creating Curves Curves form the basis from which you can create surfaces. They reference points to define their location.femap.ugs.1.femap.1..1 Geometry. however.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.femap.Arc • Curve .Circle • Curve . The Curve section of the Geometry menu has five submenus: • Curve -Line • Curve . Geometry > 3. Unlike nodes. You can apply loads and constraints directly to curves.Spline • Curve . Points are similar to nodes in that they are simply located at a specific location. Point. they are used for defining geometry.2 Creating Curves > 3...From Surface FEMAP Product Info: http://www. uses the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes (described in the FEMAP User Guide) to create points.ugs.1 Geometry..2.. and FEMAP will automatically apply them to nodes attached to the points.com Customer Support: http://support.2 Creating Curves 3. Geometry > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. . they are not a finite element entity and are not translated to analysis programs. Geometry > 3.2.com Customer Support: http://support.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.htm 25. Point. and they can also be generated from surfaces.

Geometry > 3.ugs. the line that is created always lies in the workplane. creates a line. which you specify using the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes.femap. Therefore. The location is automatically projected onto the workplane. but positioning the line is very quick. Geometry > 3. These commands do not project the inputs onto the workplane. not in the workplane)..femap.Introduction Page 56 of 707 Lines are simply straight lines connecting two points.2.. The projected location is used as the center of the line.htm 25.1 Geometry. The coordinates are projected along a vector that is perpendicular to the workplane.2 Creating Curves > 3. The length of the horizontal line in either direction from the center is controlled by the Horizontal/Vertical Line Length parameter. this method is often used for creating initial construction geometry which you then plan to modify with trim. Just set up the workplane so the workplane normal is along the direction that you want to project.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. The line is oriented along the X axis of the workplane.com Customer Support: http://support. Curve-Line menu is partitioned into three sections: • The top portion creates lines in the workplane.1.2 Geometry.2 Geometry.2. 3. along a vector which is perpendicular to the workplane.1. this command projects the coordinates that you specify onto the workplane. • The bottom portion of the menu contains commands that are used to create lines in 3-D space.com Customer Support: http://support. This command uses the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes to specify the coordinates of the required location. Hint: file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. It is separated from the commands above because it creates four lines at once..2 Creating Curves > 3. If you want to create a line between coordinates in 3D space (i. You can use this command to create a 2D projected image of 3D geometry.. .2.. Project Points.1...e.1 Lines > 3. Curve-Line. The name of this command comes from the fact that in the default XY view. the workplane X axis is horizontal on the screen. Curve-Line.1 Geometry. join or break commands.. creates a line between two locations.2013 .1. Hint: FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Horizontal.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.2. You can adjust this length by pressing the Parameter button on the standard coordinate dialog. and pick the end points of the existing lines (using Snap To Point). before you reorient the workplane. use the Curve .2. and entering a new value prior to defining the center location.. 3.1 Lines > 3.ugs. Curve-Line. Any locations that are specified in 3-D space will be automatically projected onto the workplane. Project Points..2. New lines will be created in the workplane. centered around one location..Line. Since control of the line length is somewhat difficult using this method. Curve-Line. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. This command creates a rectangle in the workplane. . Before creating the line. Coordinates command. • The second section consists of the Rectangle command. The Geometry..09. Horizontal.

Vertical.. Rather. The line that you choose does not have to lie in the workplane.2.1. this will be vertical on your screen..femap.. The required input for this command is the original line and an offset distance.1 Lines > 3. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.Line.. and will move in the direction of the location specified as the last input to this command..femap.. .. The origin projected along the workplane normal vector. onto the workplane. will be oriented perpendicular to the selected curve. .5 Geometry.1 Lines > 3.com Customer Support: http://support.ugs.femap.htm 25.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.. and a location to specify direction. In the default XY view with the original workplane orientation. Geometry > 3. except the line will lie along the workplane Y axis.2. Perpendicular. the resulting line will not be perpendicular to the projection. it will go through the projection of the original arc/circle center point.2.. Curve-Line. The projection method will work fine for lines. the origin of the new line.3 Geometry. 3.2. Horizontal.Introduction Page 57 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. You can change the length by pressing the Parameter button to change the length in the Geometry Parameters dialog box. Parallel. Three inputs are required for this method. perpendicular to the original line.. the selected curve will first be projected into the workplane. Curve-Line.. creates a line in the workplane that is perpendicular to another curve.2 Creating Curves > 3. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630..5 Geometry.ugs. creates a line in the workplane that is parallel to another line.1. If you choose a curve that does not lie in the current workplane.com Customer Support: http://support.4 Geometry.1 Lines > 3. Curve-Line.2013 . Perpendicular. ... The line to be created will start at the base location (projected onto the workplane). it will be projected onto the workplane (along the workplane normal) and the new line will be parallel to the projection.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Geometry > 3. 3. Geometry > 3. Parallel.2.1. Vertical.ugs. the original curve.3 Geometry.2 Creating Curves > 3.4 Geometry.1..2.1. Curve-Line.09..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.2. then the perpendicular to the projection will be determined. 3.2. but if you choose an Note: arc or circle that is not oriented parallel to the workplane. The Offset distance is measured in the workplane. If it does not.1.com Customer Support: http://support.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.. works just like Curve .2 Creating Curves > 3.2. Curve-Line. Curve-Line. The total length of the line to be created is based on the Horizontal/Vertical Line Length parameter.

.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.09.7 Geometry. you will see the standard coordinate definition dialog box.2 Creating Curves > 3. .. Curve-Line...Introduction Page 58 of 707 When you press OK. Positive angles are measured from the positive workplane X axis toward the positive workplane Y axis.6 Geometry.1.ugs. You can change the length by pressing the Parameter button to change the length in the Geometry Parameters dialog box. FEMAP Product Info: http://www..htm 25.. Angle to Curve.. Finally you specify the angle from the workplane X axis to the line.8 Geometry.ugs.2. and click with the mouse.2 Creating Curves > 3. Geometry > 3.1.2 Creating Curves > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. The coordinates that you specify are projected onto the workplane.femap.2.1. Curve-Line. you must specify the base coordinates of the line using the standard coordinate entry dialog boxes.1. The total length of the line to be created is based on the Horizontal/Vertical Line Length parameter. The length of the new line is identical to the length of the original line that you choose FEMAP Product Info: http://www.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. At Angle. choose two other lines.2.1 Lines > 3.ugs. creates a line in the workplane at a specified angle from the workplane X axis. Curve-Line.2. Geometry > 3. along a vector which is normal to the workplane. Curve-Line.7 Geometry. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. If they do not lie in the workplane..com Customer Support: http://support. Geometry > 3.2. Although you can specify the coordinates in any manner. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Midline. 3. The length of the midline is determined by the relative positions of the lines you choose.femap. Midline. The new line will be offset toward the side of the line that you specify.1.. asking for a location on the side of the original line where you want the offset curve to lie.com Customer Support: http://support.. they will be automatically projected along the workplane normal.2.1 Lines > 3.2... Initially.2013 .. At Angle. creates a line in the workplane that is the center line between two existing lines. typically the best way is to point at the appropriate side of the line.com Customer Support: http://support.. just their relationship to the original curve.1 Lines > 3. The actual coordinates do not matter. 3. Negative angles are measured toward the negative workplane Y axis.femap. To create a midline.2. Curve-Line.6 Geometry. The resulting line will lie halfway between the respective end points of the two lines that you choose..

. You can specify any location. Point and Tangent. At Angle command. If the curve that you select is not a line however.. . The only restriction on the end point location is that it must lie outside of the arc/circle that you chose.2013 .com Customer Support: http://support.9 Geometry.. the standard coordinate dialog is displayed again.2. .. Angle to Curve. a location on the appropriate side of the circle. except that instead of specifying the angle from the workplane X axis. You can choose any location for this command. but if you specify a location that is not on the workplane... Finally. Since there are two tangents that can be formed through any exterior point. Curve-Line. typically.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Just like the At Angle command. you select a curve. This time you must specify a location on the side closest to the tangent that you want to use. creates a line in the workplane through a point and tangent to a selected arc or circle. There is no need for precise coordinates in this dialog.2 Creating Curves > 3. Geometry > 3.1 Lines > 3..htm 25. After selecting the curve. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. The location that you specify is again projected onto the workplane along the workplane normal vector. this allows you to choose the one that you want. to a location which is on the workplane. This defines the end of the line opposite the end that will be tangent to the curve.1. Curve-Line.8 Geometry. Curve-Line. is similar to the Geometry. you choose both the curve to measure from.2. No tangent can be formed which passes through an interior point to the curve. The first input for this command is the curve. Here you must specify the location of the end point of the line. and the angle from that curve.1. FEMAP Product Info: http://www..09.femap.9 Geometry.. Point and Tangent. It is not necessary for the base location to lie along the curve that you measure. 3.2. Curve-Line. you will see the standard coordinate dialog box. specified with the standard coordinate entry dialog boxes.ugs.2... Next. the first data required is the base location.Introduction Page 59 of 707 3. the base location will be projected (in the workplane) onto the curve and the base direction (zero angle) will be along the positive tangent to the curve. those coordinates will be projected along the workplane normal.1. You must simply choose a location which is closer to one tangent point than the other. and specify the angle measured from the curve direction.

11 Geometry.2.htm 25. as shown above.Introduction Page 60 of 707 For this command FEMAP considers arcs to be the same as circles. just as if the arc were a full circle. automatically creates four lines in the workplane that form a rectangle.. there could be four possible tangents .. The only input required are the coordinates of two diagonally opposite corners of the rectangle. you must choose the two curves that you want to use.ugs. The sides of the rectangle are always oriented along the workplane X and Y axes. and use the arc/circle defined by those projected locations to calculate the tangent. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. If it did. Therefore..com Customer Support: http://support.2.1 Lines > 3. this will not cause any problems.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.1. one below and two “crossing” tangents.11 Geometry.10 Geometry. but is used to select which tangency points will be used. Curve-Line. FEMAP will ask for a location using the standard coordinate dialog boxes.one above. When you have selected the curves. 3.2 Creating Curves > 3. you must still choose the “near” location for an arc. Curve-Line.1 Lines > 3. if the curve normal is not parallel to the workplane normal.. 3. Curve-Line. creates a line in the workplane which is tangent to two arcs or circles. FEMAP ignores the end points. along the workplane normal. FEMAP will project the key points of that curve onto the workplane.2. no tangents could be computed. First.1.10 Geometry. you can use this command to create rectangles in various orientations. You will specify these locations using the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes FEMAP takes the locations that you specify and projects them.09.. to equivalent locations which lie on the workplane. Tangent. For this reason.2.ugs. The rectangle is formed from these projected locations. The location is not used to compute the tangent.. even though there may only be one tangent possible that falls within the end points.. Rectangle.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. That is. but neither curve can lie completely inside the other..femap.2013 . Geometry > 3. Geometry > 3.1. Tangent.2. You must choose a location near the end point on the first curve (the “From” curve) of the tangent that you want to create. You can choose any arcs or circles.1.. However. you can still form a tangent to a portion of the arc that lies outside of the arc end points.. the resulting tangent will be calculated based on a circle with a projected radius.. .2. This location does not have to be specified precisely.. Curve-Line. It is just used to select from the four choices.2 Creating Curves > 3. Typically.com Customer Support: http://support. Rectangle. If you choose an arc or circle that does not lie in the workplane. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.femap. . when you select two circles. If the curve was parallel to the Note: workplane. Use this option carefully. by changing the orientation of the workplane.

Geometry > 3. If you choose Yes.htm 25.2.12 Geometry. Curve-Line. 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.2013 . it does not lie in the workplane.com Customer Support: http://support.. Curve-Line. since it requires very little input. use the Geometry..09.2. This is usually the best command to use whenever you must create a boundary. Curve-Line.13 Geometry. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. You can continue to specify coordinates and create lines for as long as you like.com Customer Support: http://support. The standard coordinate definition dialog boxes are used to specify the line segment end points.... Curve-Line. coordinates that you pick graphically will still always be located in the workplane.ugs.femap. it will appear in your graphics windows. . When you are done. Then.2. however. The first line will be created after you specify the second end point.2 Creating Curves > 3. 3. another line will be created after each additional location that you specify.femap. press Cancel to stop creating lines.2.1 Lines > 3. you can enter the point IDs or choose them with your mouse... you will be asked whether you want to close the lines. There is no limit on the number of lines you can create in a single command. creates a single line between two existing points.13 Geometry.. but the points must already exist. If you press Cancel after having created two or more lines. Points. unless both points you select happen to be located in the workplane. Coordinates command instead of this command..1 Lines > 3..ugs. The primary use for this command is to connect end points of other curves. Points.. To request the points that you want to connect. creates a series of connected line segments between locations specified in three-dimensional space..1.thus creating a closed polygon. this command can only be used when you already have point entities that you want to connect.2 Creating Curves > 3. Continuous. . Geometry > 3. Continuous. These lines will connect the previous location to the one that you just specified. Curve-Line. a final line will be created joining the last location that you specified to the first location .2. Unlike the other line creation commands.1.Introduction Page 61 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www.12 Geometry.2.1. The specified locations are not projected onto the workplane. Since the new line simply connects these existing points. Hint: If the lines that you need to create are not coincident at their end points. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.1.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. As each line is created.

Geometry > 3. but the lines are not connected at their end points.ugs.2.16 Geometry.. use the Geometry. Even if you just use the basic vector definition methods.2.2.... Hint: If you need to offset multiple curves along the same vector. creates a single line in three dimensional space between two coordinate locations that you specify using the standard coordinate definition dialog box. when you choose the base and tip of the line graphically.. except that it requires two end points for each line that is created. creates a three dimensional line using the standard vector definition dialog boxes. nor at any other specific location. Offset. Curve-Line. You may only choose lines for this command.2 Creating Curves > 3. creates a line offset.. including curves that are not lines.com Customer Support: http://support. Curve-Line. Geometry > 3. Curve-Line. in three dimensional space from another line. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.1...2. Coordinates. components. bisect.1.. Curve-Line.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.1.1 Lines > 3. Geometry > 3. 3. The vector components are simply used to offset the end points of the original line. normal.1 Lines > 3. 3. The vector that you specify will be used to compute the offset location of the new line.2. This command is very similar to the Geometry..2 Creating Curves > 3. ..16 Geometry.ugs. Curve-Line.com Customer Support: http://support..2. Copy.14 Geometry.1.. The length of the vector that you specify will be the offset distance. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. You first select the line from which you want to offset. You do not have to specify the base of the vector at either end point..1 Lines > 3..com Customer Support: http://support... . you have the benefit of seeing the line/vector dynamically drawn with the cursor before you choose the end points.15 Geometry. Vectored.2 Creating Curves > 3.15 Geometry.1. The line that is created will go from the base to the tip of the vector that you specify. Curve command instead.. Vectored. Curve-Line.14 Geometry. When you have selected the existing curve.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. .1. You should use this command when you have a series of lines to create.femap. Curve-Line.2. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.09.ugs. like “locate”.femap. This command gives you access to the many special vector definition methods (along axis. 3.. Coordinates. Continuous command..htm 25.) when creating lines.Introduction Page 62 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www..2013 . Offset.2. you will see the standard vector definition dialog box.2.femap.

FEMAP Product Info: http://www.Introduction Page 63 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www.2.2. Center-Start-End.2 Creating Curves > 3. This submenu is broken into two sections. As shown in the figure. Curve-Arc menu. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.2 Arcs > 3... Geometry > 3. including in the workplane. The arc will always be created in a counter-clockwise direction in the workplane.femap. Curve-Arc. The other commands can create arcs anywhere.1 Geometry. the same start and end points create complimentary arcs. The locations that you specify are first projected onto the workplane along the workplane normal.htm 25. The end point does not have to lie on the perimeter.2 Arcs 3.femap. Similarly. creates an arc in the workplane by specifying the location of the center and two end points of the arc.com Customer Support: http://support.09.ugs.. All of the methods can be used to create equivalent arcs.ugs. . but the arc will terminate along the line that goes from the center to the end point.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.2.com Customer Support: http://support.2013 .2.com Customer Support: http://support. Curve-Arc. The standard coordinate definition dialog boxes are used to define all three locations. That is.2. and are then used to define the arc.. 3.ugs. Center-Start-End. Geometry > 3. The various commands are merely for convenience in specifying the input. if you reverse the workplane normal.com file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.2.2.2 Creating Curves > 3.1 Geometry. in the direction from the workplane X axis toward the workplane Y axis. As shown in the figure. the center location and start point are used to define the radius of the arc.2 Arcs You may also define circular arcs with FEMAP by using the commands under the Geometry.femap. The commands at the top of the menu (above the separator line) all create arcs which lie in the current workplane. just swapping the start and end points produces the same results..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. the arc will go from the start point..

2. you will be asked for the radius. Geometry > 3.2. If you specify a positive angle. Radius-Start-End.2 Arcs > 3.Introduction Page 64 of 707 Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. except that you specify the included angle instead of the radius.. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Radius-Start-End command..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.2. the resulting arc will always have an included angle less than 180 degrees. If you specify a positive radius.3 Geometry. A negative angle goes in a clockwise direction.2.2.2 Geometry.. creates an arc in the workplane by specifying two end points and the included angle of the arc that connects them.htm 25.09.ugs...2.3 Geometry.femap. A negative radius will choose the complimentary or major arc (always greater than 180 degrees).. 3. Geometry > 3. After specifying the end points.. Radius-Start-End. along the workplane normal. The figure shows several possibilities: Reversing the direction of the workplane normal has the same effect as swapping the end points. Curve-Arc.. 3.2. You can specify any three-dimensional locations.2 Geometry. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.2. the arc will go in a counterclockwise direction (relative to the workplane X and Y axes) from the start to the end point. . as shown in the figure. This command works just like the Geometry. Curve-Arc..com Customer Support: http://support. To use this command you must first specify the starting and ending locations of the arc using the standard coordinate entry dialog boxes.2. creates an arc in the workplane by specifying two end points and the desired radius.2. Angle-Start-End. Curve-Arc.2 Creating Curves > 3. Curve-Arc. This command creates arcs that go in a counter-clockwise direction (relative to the workplane axes) from starting to ending points.2013 . This agrees with the normal conventions for two-dimensional polar coordinates. but they will be projected onto the workplane.2 Arcs > 3.. The shape and orientation of the arc to be created follows the convention shown for the Radius-Start-End method. Curve-Arc. Angle-Start-End.2 Creating Curves > 3. ...

2 Creating Curves > 3.2. The relative positions of these projected locations determines the arc radius. refer to the figure for "Geometry. the arc will always have an included angle less than 180 degrees. Curve-Arc. Curve-Arc.femap..2 Arcs > 3.ugs.2013 . Geometry > 3. For an example of this convention. a starting location and the length of the arc chord. Geometry > 3. Both of these locations will be projected onto the workplane...4 Geometry. Instead of specifying an ending location. Angle-Start-End. Angle-Center-Start. This command is very similar to the Geometry. If the locations that you specify do not lie in the workplane. however.2 Creating Curves > 3. Angle-Center-Start.2.09. Chord-Center-Start. the starting location and the included angle. If you specify a positive chord length.ugs.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.femap.. Curve-Arc.. The end point is determined by rotating the start point through the specified angle.Introduction Page 65 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Curve-Arc.2. they will be projected along the workplane normal to new locations that are in the workplane... . 3. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.2..2. The arc radius is automatically determined from the distance between the center and starting locations.2. Curve-Arc. Curve-Arc.5 Geometry.2. creates an arc in the workplane by defining the location of the center.2.. the chord length must always be shorter than twice the radius (the distance from the center to starting point).4 Geometry. the arc will be drawn in a counter-clockwise direction relative to the workplane axes.".2. you specify the center.2. A negative angle will create a clockwise arc..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3..5 Geometry. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. All arcs created by this command are drawn in a counter-clockwise direction (relative to the workplane XY axes).htm 25. if required.2 Arcs > 3.. By definition. Chord-Center-Start. If you specify a positive angle.com Customer Support: http://support.com Customer Support: http://support.. 3. creates an arc in the workplane by defining the location of the center. .. Specifying a negative angle creates a complimentary arc with an included angle that is larger than 180 degrees. The standard coordinate definition dialog boxes are used to define both the center and starting locations. Angle-Start-End command.

.. The fourth location can be specified anywhere. The arc created by this command does not have to lie in the workplane. The arc radius is defined by the distance from the center to the start location.2.2.2. It will be drawn through any three locations that you define. creates an arc which passes through three locations on the perimeter. Center and Points. Since the arc is drawn from the start. Curve-Arc.7 Geometry..com Customer Support: http://support. to the middle. The standard coordinate dialog boxes will be displayed three times during this command.. start and ending locations.2.6 Geometry. Curve-Arc.2. to the ending locations.ugs. and the third for the ending location.2 Creating Curves > 3..ugs. . Since there is no clockwise/counter-clockwise convention for this three dimensional arc. The only time it will end exactly at that location is if the distance from the center to the end is identical to the distance from the center to the start. The direction is simply based on the relative positions of the three locations. This arc does not have to be in the workplane. The ending location is used to determine the included angle. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. 3.2. The first coordinate is used for the start of the arc. starting and ending locations.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.. Geometry > 3. Points. the arc will not necessarily end at the location you specify..09. 3. The standard coordinate dialog boxes will be displayed four times during this command.htm 25.2013 .femap. but it is used to determine which of the two possible arcs will be created. The first three coordinates are used to define the center.. Center and Points.femap. creates an arc which is defined by its center. Geometry > 3. the arc will be drawn in the direction from the start to the end that causes it to pass nearest to this fourth position. Since the arc radius is constant however.6 Geometry.7 Geometry.2 Creating Curves > 3.2. It is oriented by the locations that you define.2.. the standard coordinate dialog box will be displayed a fourth time..Introduction Page 66 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www..com Customer Support: http://support.2 Arcs > 3.2 Arcs > 3. there are no clockwise/counter-clockwise conventions. Points.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Curve-Arc. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.. The end of the arc will always lie along the line connecting the center and the ending location that you specify. After you specify the first three locations.. Curve-Arc. the second for any point along the arc.2.2.

Geometry > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3. All of the methods can be used to create equivalent circles. If it were.2 Creating Curves > 3. it could not be an arc tangent. the standard vector definition dialog boxes are used to define the starting tangent. the circle radius may change.2.com Customer Support: http://support.. The Geometry.2. The tangent vector can be defined relative to any convenient location. creates an arc that is defined by two end points and the tangent vector at the starting location. including in the workplane. the various commands are merely for convenience in specifying the input. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.one at the center..2.) points.Introduction Page 67 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www..com Customer Support: http://support.2.8 Geometry.3 Circles 3.femap. Curve-Circle submenu is partitioned into two sections.2 Creating Curves > 3.3. rather than the point modifications if you wish to preserve the original geometry. Curve-Arc. The radius of the circle is determined by the distance from the center to the starting location.. There is no restriction on the positions of these coordinates.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. five points will be created for each circle . you must be careful. This arc does not have to lie in the workplane. Points on a Circle No matter which command is used. one at the starting location on the perimeter. It is oriented by the locations of the end points and the direction of the tangent. it is relatively unusual to choose vectors that are very close to being parallel. In general you should always use the curve modification commands..ugs. The commands at the top of the menu (above the separator line) all create circles which lie in the current workplane. Curve-Circle.2.3 Circles There are several methods of creating circles in FEMAP. The only restriction on the vector direction is that it must not be parallel to the line connecting the starting and ending locations.2 Creating Curves > 3. 3. Similarly. and three more every 90 degrees around the perimeter from the starting location. Finally.2.09. Curve-Arc..2. Radius.. Note: FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. but they must not be coincident.htm 25. The other points are merely for your convenience in defining other geometry. rotating. Start-End-Direction. It does not have to be based at the starting location of the arc.femap..1 Geometry. using the standard coordinate dialog boxes.ugs.2 Arcs > 3. The two end points are defined first.ugs.8 Geometry..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.2013 .com Customer Support: http://support.2. If you do not move all of the points for each curve. . For example. you can easily snap a cursor selection to any of these locations by choosing the Snap To Point method. If you are modifying (moving. and the other points will no longer lie on the perimeter.femap.3 Circles > 3.2. They will result in arcs with very large radii. Geometry > 3. Only the direction of the vector is used to define the initial tangent direction of the resulting arc. Start-End-Direction. The other commands can create circles anywhere.

creates a circle in the workplane by specifying a location at the center.2 Creating Curves > 3. Curve-Circle. This command is similar to Geometry Curve-Circle Radius.2.2. they will be projected onto the workplane prior to defining the circle. First for the center.3 Circles > 3.2 Creating Curves > 3. the points on the perimeter are oriented relative to the line between the center and starting locations. As shown in the figure.. .3 Circles > 3.. 3. this command projects the locations that you specify onto the workplane before creating the circle.2.femap.3. Geometry > 3.com Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3. Center..3 Geometry. They are not based on the workplane X or Y axes..2.3...com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Product Info: http://www.2 Geometry. FEMAP Product Info: http://www..2013 . a location at the center and one on the perimeter. it is located in the direction of the negative workplane Y axis..2.. If you specify coordinates that are not in the workplane.ugs.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.ugs. 3.2. Unlike the Curve-Circle Radius and Diameter commands. Center.. ..2.3 Circles > 3.. Curve-Circle.3.com Customer Support: http://support. Two Points.2 Creating Curves > 3.3... Curve-Circle..2 Geometry. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.Introduction Page 68 of 707 3.. then for the starting point. Curve-Circle. the first point (at 90 degrees along the circle) is located in the direction of the positive workplane Y axis. Geometry > 3. The standard coordinate definition dialog boxes will be displayed twice.3.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. by specifying two locations at opposite ends of a diameter. The center location is defined using the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes. Diameter. and the length of the radius.femap. Curve-Circle. Radius.femap.1 Geometry. This circle will always lie in the workplane.3.2..09. If you specify a negative radius. creates a circle in the workplane. .. creates a circle by specifying the two end points of a radius.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Diameter. but instead of defining the center.2. If you specify a positive radius. Two Points.2. Curve-Circle.com Customer Support: http://support. Curve-Circle.3.4 Geometry. 3. Again. you specify a point on the opposite side of the perimeter.3 Geometry.4 Geometry.ugs.htm 25. The location that you define is first projected onto the workplane before being used as the center of the circle.. this command does depend on the orientation of the workplane X and Y axes to orient the circle. That is. FEMAP Customer Support: http://support. The starting location is always positioned in the direction of the positive workplane X axis relative to the center.

if you specify a positive radius. Point-Tangent.Introduction Page 69 of 707 . As shown.. an additional dialog box is displayed which asks for the length of the radius. For example.com Customer Support: http://support. This command is similar to the Geometry. You specify the center coordinates using the standard coordinate dialog boxes.2013 . The starting point of the new circle will always be located at the point of tangency. in the workplane which is tangent to two other curves.. Next. the locations are not at opposite ends of a diameter. there would be two possible points of tangency. and arcs will be considered to be full circles. No matter what curve you choose.. The circle to be created will be tangent to the two curves that you select. creates a circle in the workplane which passes through two locations and has a specified radius. Curve-Circle. This command will always choose the one that is closest to the center of the new circle. create circles which are tangent to either the interior or exterior of another arc or circle.3 Circles > 3.. FEMAP Customer Support: http://support. creates a circle by specifying a center location and choosing a tangent arc. Diameter command in that you first specify two points on the perimeter of the circle using the standard coordinate dialog boxes.2 Creating Curves > 3.com Home > Commands > 3. You cannot choose a spline. Curve-Circle. 3.3. a 1 inch radius cannot possibly be tangent to both file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. The first point is still used as the start of the perimeter. creates a circle. circle or line. Rather. however.femap. Geometry > 3. . if you are choosing two circles that are separated by 10 inches.2 Creating Curves > 3.. however..ugs. You can choose any line. That is.. but they will be projected onto the workplane before being used to define the circle. In this case.. If you are choosing two lines.5 Geometry. The radius can be any value..3. A negative radius chooses the center so that the circle is drawn in a clockwise direction. You cannot use this command to create a circle which envelops another circle.femap. 3. Curve-Circle.2. Tangent to Curves..5 Geometry.3. The second point is used to orient the circle. Only the dialog box show here is required for this command.6 Geometry. If you choose an arc or circle. lines will extend to infinity. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.htm 25. Curve-Circle. Tangent to Curves. . of a specified radius. the center of the circle will be chosen so that the circle will be drawn in a counter-clockwise direction relative to the workplane X and Y axes.ugs.3.6 Geometry.2. but does not determine the radius/diameter.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Product Info: http://www. arc or circle..09.2.3 Circles > 3.. You can. you will be prompted for the curve ID. but must be large enough to make the double tangency possible. make certain they are not parallel. Geometry > 3. This allows you to choose the curve that will be tangent to the new circle. Point-Tangent.2. Curve-Circle.2..2. This command always creates circles in the workplane..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. it will be considered to be infinite when computing the tangency.

ugs. you may find that if you choose one or more splines.. Points on Arc.2. Points command.2.7 Geometry.2 Creating Curves > 3. the resulting circle does not actually touch the spline. Points on Arc.ugs. Geometry > 3. the With Center Near coordinates will automatically be set to the location where you choose the second curve.8 Geometry.htm 25.Introduction Page 70 of 707 . when you select this curve..2013 . The starting location of the new circle will be in the same direction from the center as it is for the original curve that you select. If they do not. You can specify any radius for the new circle. Curve-Arc.2. this command is not recommended when you are working with splines.8 Geometry. .com Customer Support: http://support. creates a circle which passes through three specified locations.09.3. Curve-Circle.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Curve-Circle. For this reason. You can choose any type of original curves for this command. The coordinates that you specify for With Center Near are simply used to choose from among the several possible tangent circles that could be created....7 Geometry. creates a circle in the workplane which has the same center as another circle or arc. 3. The curve must be an arc or circle. For convenience. they should lie in the current workplane.2.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Concentric.com Customer Support: http://support. you will not have to respecify any additional center coordinates. except that it creates a full circle rather than an arc. Curve-Circle. however. they will be projected onto the workplane prior to computing the tangency and you may not get the results that you expected.3 Circles > 3.. The resulting circle does not have to lie in the workplane.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.3. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. you can change the coordinate system in which this location is specified.3 Circles > 3. If you are careful.2 Creating Curves > 3.2. Concentric. 3. Curve-Circle.. This is a very quick method for creating a series of circles which have the same center. because of inaccuracies in computing offset splines (which are used in the tangency calculations).3. it is completely oriented by the three locations that you specify.2.femap.. Only the circle which has its center closest to the location that you specify will be created. If you are using your mouse to select the curves graphically. This command is just like the Geometry. Simply select the curve and input the radius....3.femap. Note: Similarly. . Geometry > 3.

4 Splines 3. one less location is required since there is no end point for a circle.9 Geometry. Parabola. but does not pass through the intermediate points. Center and Points. Curve-Circle.9 Geometry.ugs..com Customer Support: http://support..3 Circles > 3.2.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. The actual curve passes through the first and last control point. FEMAP will use these points to calculate the control points. Tangents. NonUniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) can be imported through the IGES translator. splines are displayed as a series of line segments. and Blend suboptions will automatically contain four points and be stored as cubic Bezier splines.Introduction Page 71 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. FEMAP does have methods which allow you to input a spline based upon points on the spline. Displaying Splines Splines are computed internally with full double precision accuracy. Then set the Max% Error value.. Splines created in FEMAP with four points will be stored as cubic Bezier curves.com Customer Support: http://support. The Other Location does not have to lie on the perimeter of the circle. Splines are created from their control points. 3. Curve-Spline submenu is partitioned into three sections: splines in a workplane. Each of the commands on these menus are discussed below file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. and splines in 3-D space. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. In addition. the more the spline is “pulled” toward the intermediate point. .09. The control points of a spline determine the direction of the spline. and the curvature is increased. splines from analytics (also in the workplane).2. a starting location on the perimeter and one other location.ugs.4 Splines FEMAP has the capability to produce splines containing from between four to 110 points.3.2 Creating Curves > 3.femap. The radius of the circle is determined from the distance between the center and starting locations.2013 . A smaller number makes the display more accurate.htm 25. Choose the Tools and View Style list. use the View Options command. The Geometry.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3. Equation.femap.2. however..3. In addition. The further the control point is pulled from the previous control point. and the Curve and Surface Accuracy option. If you want to change the accuracy of the display. Geometry > 3. This command is just like the Geometry Curve-Arc Center and Points command. Curve-Circle. or less accurate (but faster). Splines created with the remaining commands with more than four points will be stored as B-Splines. distance between control points influences curvature of the spline. creates a circle specified by its center. It is only used to determine the positive direction around the circle from the starting location.2. except that it creates a full circle rather than an arc. For display purposes however. Center and Points. Splines created through the Ellipse. either to make it more accurate (but slower). Hyperbola. and then store the spline with its control points.2. In addition to direction..2 Creating Curves > 3.

com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.4 Splines > 3. If you choose points that are extremely close together.2. Ellipse. you cannot cancel the procedure without creating the spline. The Cancel button on the dialog box is utilized to both cancel the creation of the spline.com Customer Support: http://support. Once four points have been defined.4.com Customer Support: http://support.2 Creating Curves > 3. Some care should be taken.4. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Project Control Points command..2 Geometry. This is true for all procedures that enable you to create B-splines..4. More points will force the curve to be a B-spline. however.2 Geometry.2.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.from first to last. Project Points. The standard coordinate definition dialog boxes will be displayed as many times as required (up to 110 times) to allow you to define the control points.. Simply use the Tools.. it will be a Bezier spline. however.2. .2 Creating Curves > 3.. Project Control Points.2. FEMAP Product Info: http://www...2.1 Geometry. Curve-Spline. Curve-Spline. as well as create it. it can result in control points at great distances from the spline.. Geometry > 3.2.ugs.2.Introduction Page 72 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Curve-Spline. Undo command to remove the spline if it is inaccurate. This command is typically used to create two-dimensional splines to fit a curve through known locations.femap. Curve-Spline.4 Splines > 3.4 Splines > 3.. when choosing those points.. If you make an input error after four points have been defined.ugs.2 Creating Curves > 3.3 Geometry.femap.ugs.2. Curve-Spline.. Geometry > 3. If the locations you choose are not in the current workplane. you specify four or more points on the spline. Project Points.09. 3.. Curve-Spline.htm 25.2013 . is similar to the Geometry.1 Geometry.4. It lets you precisely control points to lie along the spline. and the locations are. 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.. The standard coordinate dialog boxes are used to define the points. If less than four points have been chosen. the Cancel button is used to terminate input of more Note: points and a spline is created. as usual..com Customer Support: http://support. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. If you create a spline with four points. Project Control Points.creates a spline in the workplane specifying the location of the control points. except that instead of defining the control points. The control points are computed automatically so that the spline passes through the points that you specified. .femap.4. projected onto the workplane. the Cancel button will enable you to terminate the process without creating a spline. The spline will go through the points in the order that you define them . they will be projected onto the workplane before the spline is created.

creates a spline in the workplane that is one side of a parabola. Each spline represents one quadrant of the full ellipse. there is no deviation from a true parabola.. with equal radii. For reference. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. 3.2.4.5 Geometry. . the maximum deviation from a true circle would be 0..4 Geometry. Trim command to cut away the portions that you do not need.. Next.2.2 Creating Curves > 3. Neither the spline nor its control points are actually located at the focus. then use the Modify. the splines will approximate a circle. Curve-Spline. Unlike ellipses and hyperbolas. you will specify the two radii.4..4.2. Curve-Spline.. If this is not close enough. Even though the spline is defined by a parametric cubic equation. is the radius of the ellipse along the vector that you just specified.4 Geometry..4. For most FEA analyses. These coordinates do not have to be specified precisely. or Vector Radius. The spline will start from this location. They do not have any impact on the shape or orientation of the parabola. Curve-Spline. Geometry > 3. Finally.ugs. the approximation is close enough. The first. that together form an ellipse. This command requires three sets of coordinates.htm 25. Each location is defined using the standard coordinate dialog boxes.2. The other radius is the radius along the other principal axis of the ellipse. The next location is the focus of the parabola. in the workplane. you can still use this command to create a basic curve..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. The final location is an approximate end for the spline.femap.. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.. This command always creates a parabola which extends completely to the vertex.3 Geometry.4 Splines > 3. If you need some other segment of a parabola. only the orientation is used. Parabola. the representation Note: of a parabola is precise. When you choose this command you will be asked for the center location using the standard coordinate dialog boxes. however... since the vector must be projected onto the workplane. however.2 Creating Curves > 3.com Customer Support: http://support. the resulting splines cannot precisely represent a circle or ellipse.. creates four splines.09. Parabola.Introduction Page 73 of 707 3. It is the projection that orients the ellipse. You must be careful to specify a vector that is not perpendicular to the workplane. Hint: FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Hyperbola.femap.2. use arc/circle commands to create precise geometry. The center will be projected onto the workplane whenever necessary. the standard vector definition dialog boxes are used to specify the orientation of the principal axis from the center. The first location is the vertex of the parabola. Geometry > 3. and is projected onto the workplane before being used to create the spline. Since the underlying mathematics of the spline are based on a parametric cubic equation. These coordinates (along with the vertex) are used to determine the focal length and focal direction of the parabola.2013 .4 Splines > 3. If you specify equal radii. they simply define where you want the parabola to end.2.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.ugs. Given the four spline Note: layout created by this command. Curve-Spline. .027% of the radius. an extra point is created at this location.com Customer Support: http://support. as shown in the figure The base location and length of the axis vector are unimportant. Ellipse.

.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.8 Geometry. For most finite element applications. ..6 Geometry.. the spline created by this command does not necessarily lie in the workplane.5 Geometry.. you must specify the vertex height and asymptote angle.2.2. The exact deviations are dependent on the geometry specified.4. Geometry > 3. Therefore. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. creates a spline by specifying four points along the spline. Curve-Spline. except that the locations that you define are not projected onto the workplane.. as shown in the figure. and in fact may be nonplanar.. Hint: Note: Since the underlying mathematics of the spline that this command creates is a parametric cubic equation. This command always creates a hyperbola that extends completely to the vertex. The standard vector dialog boxes are then used to define a vector toward the focus. Geometry > 3.com Customer Support: http://support.2.4. the spline created by this command does not necessarily lie in the workplane. Trim command to cut away the portions that you do not need.. Curve-Spline. These values determine the shape of the hyperbola.. it cannot precisely represent a hyperbola.2 Creating Curves > 3. however. These coordinates do not have to be specified precisely. creates a spline in the workplane that is one side of a hyperbola.. .4 Splines > 3. The first input required is the location of the vertex of the hyperbola.7 Geometry.. Equation.ugs.4 Splines > 3. 3.4.ugs.2 Creating Curves > 3. If you need some other segment of a hyperbola.2. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.femap. creates a spline by specifying its control points. The origin and magnitude of this vector are not important. Hyperbola.2013 . Curve-Spline.4. This command is exactly like the Geometry. They do not have any impact on the shape or orientation of the hyperbola.4 Splines > 3.2. This command is exactly like the Geometry.4. 3. Curve-Spline. Geometry > 3..com Customer Support: http://support..Introduction Page 74 of 707 3. Project Points command.09. Control Points.2. Therefore.7 Geometry. The standard coordinate dialog boxes are used to specify this location.femap.2. then use the Modify. Curve-Spline.2 Creating Curves > 3. only the direction is used to orient the hyperbola. they simply define where you want the curve to end. Project Control Points command.. you can still use this command to create a basic curve. Curve-Spline. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Finally.. and in fact may be nonplanar. except that the locations that you define are not projected onto the workplane.com Customer Support: http://support..4..htm 25. Curve-Spline. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Points. Points.6 Geometry.2.2. an approximate end for the spline/hyperbola is required. but even extreme cases will be very accurate. Control Points..femap..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. The spline will start from this location. Next. the deviations are acceptable.. Curve-Spline.ugs.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.

Curve-Spline. If you leave all coefficients for one of the x.2. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. For this command it is important to define the vector direction.4.2. but provides complete control over the resulting curve.4.. Tangents. the spline will be planar in the corresponding global plane. normal.2. bisect..4. 3. Curve-Spline. creates a spline that connects and blends the ends of two existing curves...4 Splines > 3.com Customer Support: http://support. Blend. and magnitude.. This command offers only limited control of the interior of the spline but enforces both connectivity and tangency at the end points.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.4 Splines > 3.. Curve-Spline. Geometry > 3.. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.com Customer Support: http://support.ugs.femap. This method can be very powerful when you use the advanced vector definition (tangent.2. The standard vector creation dialog box is displayed twice so you can define the two vectors. The direction and magnitude are used to position the intermediate control points.8 Geometry.2. Tangents.femap... The resulting spline will be tangent to the respective ends of the two curves.2013 . Blend.. . Curve-Spline..) methods.9 Geometry. y or z equations blank.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.10 Geometry... Curve-Spline.2.10 Geometry.4.2 Creating Curves > 3.ugs. location.4.2 Creating Curves > 3. 3..9 Geometry. .. The base location of each vector is used as the starting and ending locations of the spline. This is a rather cumbersome way to create a spline. The parametric equations are shown in the dialog box with blanks for the coefficients.. Equation.htm 25.. . creates a cubic Bezier spline by specifying starting and ending tangent vectors.2. creates a spline by specifying the coefficients of its parametric cubic equations. Geometry > 3.Introduction Page 75 of 707 3.. Leaving a coefficient blank effectively eliminates that term from the equation. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.09.

The first input required for this command is the ID of the original curve (which must be a spline).com Customer Support: http://support.4.. Cubic Bezier splines (ones with only four points) cannot be offset precisely. Smaller numbers make the tangency weaker.. most of the curvature will be near the ends of the spline. Curve-Spline. Midspline. or extreme curvature. Geometry > 3. By specifying a larger number. 3. The coordinates are not important. Offset. The only input required is the two curves.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.4 Splines > 3.2 Creating Curves > 3. typically causing more curvature near the center of the spline.2. therefore. and two coordinate locations. creates a spline which is midway between two curves.2. Curve-Spline. The offset is however a planar offset. This does not necessarily create splines in the workplane . .12 Geometry.2. 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. and the offset distance. You do not have to specify precise coordinates. be sure to point near the end of the curve that you want to use when you make the selections.. since arcs can be offset precisely.ugs.2. This is especially Note: true when the spline is nonplanar.4. You will find that the offset curve is not a constant distance from the original . the spline will closely follow the ending tangents for a larger distance.sometimes by a significant deviation.2013 ..Introduction Page 76 of 707 Here you select the two curves. Instead. just which side of the original curve you want. you will specify a location on the side of the original curve (relative to the current workplane) where you want the offset curve to be created.2. This factor is the only control over the interior shape of the spline.femap.11 Geometry.. . Curve-Spline.ugs..2 Creating Curves > 3. Geometry > 3. If you specify a blend factor which is too large. The figure shows some possibilities..2.4 Splines > 3.. or too small. Therefore.it just offsets them in a direction which is parallel to the workplane. The other required input is the Blend Factor..com Customer Support: http://support.09. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.4. Three dimensional (nonplanar) splines cannot be offset in multiple directions along their length.11 Geometry..htm 25. use a series of arcs. using the standard coordinate dialog box. In fact. Midspline.12 Geometry. Curve-Spline.4. FEMAP will automatically create a spline which is midway between the two curves. you can create splines that have loops. if you choose the curve graphically the coordinates will be automatically specified to the location you were pointing to when you picked the curve. Offset B-splines are modified by adding control points to improve how well the offset spline tracks the original curve. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. If you need precise offsets.. creates a spline that is offset from another spline along a direction parallel to the workplane. Offset. due to the underlying mathematics. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. The coordinate locations are only used to determine which end of each curve that you want to select.. Any two curves can be used for this command. Then. you cannot use splines.femap.

The second and third portions of the menu contain the actual commands. FEMAP will create a FEMAP engine spline that closely approximates the selected curves. This menu is partitioned into three segments. as the resulting spline will not be able to match the geometry correctly. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.2.5. When any of the other commands in the second segment of the menu are then performed.ugs.creates a single spline along multiple.Introduction Page 77 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.com Customer Support: http://support. This entire menu of commands is not available in the standard geometry engine.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. As mentioned above. This capability is most often used to create a curve at a specific location on a surface. FEMAP will automatically update the surfaces with these curves. You can imprint curves onto a surface to provide additional controls on your meshing procedures.from Surface commands in the second segment of the menu are implemented.. The spline points and control points will be created automatically.2.4 Splines > 3. Multiple Curves.femap. The loop does not have to be closed.4.ugs.com Customer Support: http://support. It simply applies the curve operations in the second segment of the menu to the surfaces. . Update Surfaces . or at the intersection of two surfaces..2.2.13 Geometry. Geometry > 3.2 Creating Curves > 3. as well as load or constrain them.com Customer Support: http://support.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. just like any other curve in FEMAP. If this option is off.2.2 Creating Curves > 3. The first portion of the menu contains one command. If the curves are from mixed geometry engines.5. toggles the update surfaces between on and off. 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.2013 . curves are created/manipulated using the surface. If possible FEMAP will use exact replicas of the selected curves.. Note: Take care to avoid sharp corners.2. the icon next to the command will be highlighted.femap.ugs.2. The only input for this command is a list of curves. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.5 Curves from Surfaces > 3. (no check mark). Curve-Spline. or cannot be duplicated. Update Surfaces 3. and therefore allows imprinting of these curves onto the surfaces..from Surface. which is the default.htm 25. Note: This toggle does not effect the commands in the third segment of the menu (starting with Split at Locations). Geometry..From Surface.2 Creating Curves > 3. It simply controls how the Geometry. Geometry > 3.5 Curves from Surfaces 3..2. Curves . Curve . This is a very easy method of imprinting curves onto surfaces to customize the meshing procedure. but the surface itself is not updated. this command does not perform any operations directly.13 Geometry. Geometry > 3. Curve .. If this option is on. Update Surfaces.From Surface. connected curves. You can define the mesh size on these curves. This can be very useful to obtain nodes at specific locations.1 Geometry.1 Geometry.09. and simply create a new continuous curve. Multiple Curves. This command does not perform any calculations. Curve-Spline.5 Curves from Surfaces FEMAP can create curves directly from surfaces. therefore these commands will ALWAYS imprint the curves onto the surface.femap. The curves must be continuously connected in a single branch loop.4.. Curves .

2. Curve . Geometry > 3.. You must have the Geometry.. 3..From Surface.From Surface.5. composed of its bounding curves.1...htm 25.2. Curve .2.2 Geometry.femap.com Customer Support: http://support.2. Curves from Surface. 3. ..2. Curve . projects curves onto selected surfaces.5 Curves from Surfaces > 3.Introduction Page 78 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. creates a curve at the intersections of surfaces.. Curve . The only inputs required for this command are the two solids. Intersect. onto the surface of a solid. Geometry > 3. Project..3 Geometry.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Update Surfaces").5 Curves from Surfaces > 3. Intersect.09.ugs.5.1.5. Update Surfaces"). FEMAP file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.2.From Surface.. "Geometry.2. Project. .From Surface.. This command will automatically project normal to the surface. FEMAP will automatically project the curves onto the selected surfaces.From Surface.2013 .2 Creating Curves > 3.3 Geometry. Update Surface on to imprint the curves onto a surface of the solid (see Section 3.2.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.5.2 Geometry.ugs.5.com Customer Support: http://support.. This command is very useful for imprinting one surface. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. FEMAP will create curves at all intersections of these bodies. and then select the curve(s) which you want project. "Geometry.5. Curve . and update the surfaces at the intersections if this option is on (see Section 3.femap.2 Creating Curves > 3. You must first select the surfaces. Curve ..From Surface.

2. Curve .09.2 Creating Curves > 3.ugs.From Surface.2 Creating Curves > 3.femap. Update Surfaces").com Customer Support: http://support. Parametric Curve. Curves .2. Curve .com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Curve . creates a curve along a surface in either the u or v parametric direction...From Surface. . When Update Surfaces is on (see Section 3.2013 .5.1.. Curve . Geometry > 3.From Surface. Geometry > 3.From Surface. you must input a location for the curve. Curve .. in the surface direction you chose. Project Along Vector. you can quickly partition a surface into several segments.2.from Surface. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.5.htm 25.4 Geometry. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.5.5 Curves from Surfaces > 3..2.femap... After selecting this command.5 Curves from Surfaces > 3. Project Along Vector. FEMAP will then prompt you to choose between the u direction or the v direction.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.From Surface.5. Parametric Curve.ugs. using the standard coordinate definition dialog box. . 3. through the point you input..com Customer Support: http://support.2.2.com Customer Support: http://support. FEMAP will create the curve along the surface.femap. Project.2. which is often useful for loading and meshing purposes.. is identical to Geometry.5 Geometry..ugs.4 Geometry.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.... "Geometry. 3.5 Geometry. using the standard vector definition dialog box. except you define a vector. to project along and the curves will be projected onto the selected surfaces as many times as they “find” the surfaces along the projection vector.Introduction Page 79 of 707 Product Info: http://www.5.

From Surface. "Geometry.ugs.5.2.. Curve . Split at Locations. Geometry > 3.2013 .From Surface.. Slice.5. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.com Customer Support: http://support. Geometry > 3.5 Curves from Surfaces > 3..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Curve . Slice. If Update Surfaces is on (see Section 3..5.. Curve .6 Geometry.From Surface.2 Creating Curves > 3.From Surface.2. Curve . . requires you to choose a face to split and then choose a start and an end location to split the selected face with a parametric curve.2. the affected surfaces will also be partitioned by the slice .com Customer Support: http://support.2. Update Surfaces").2. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Curve .7 Geometry.5.5 Curves from Surfaces > 3..6 Geometry.femap.7 Geometry.2..5. Curve .Introduction Page 80 of 707 Home > Commands > 3. 3. Split at Locations. and the solid to slice.5.2... Curve . If Update Surfaces is on (see Section 3. requires you to define a plane.2 Creating Curves > 3.2 Creating Curves > 3.2.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.5 Curves from Surfaces > 3.8 Geometry. .1..femap..From Surface.htm 25. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.. "Geometry.From Surface.. Update Surfaces").2.1.. Geometry > 3. using the standard plane definition dialog box.09. Offset Curves/Washer.ugs. 3.From Surface.2. FEMAP will create curves which will form the slice through the solid.5. the affected surface will also be partitioned by this command.

and other “general shapes” on many different types of geometric surfaces.. Washer Mode In Washer mode you will first want to enter an Offset.. FEMAP will ask you to select the appropriate curves to offset. slots.. but this time every selected curve will get an individual surface set-up for mapped meshing.Introduction Page 81 of 707 3.2. In Offset Curves mode.09. which will create an individual surface set-up for mapped meshing. but in this mode you have more choices.From Surface. uncheck AutoSelect Surfaces. then click OK and choose different curves. Curve . file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. In either mode.2013 .Select Edges dialog box FEMAP will return you to the Define Washer or Offset Curves dialog box.8 Geometry. You can now change the mode and size options. AutoSelect Surfaces will automatically offset the selected curves to ALL of the surfaces connected to those curves. once you click OK in the Define Washer or Offset Curves dialog box.htm 25. For Washer mode. By saving the “split lines”. a line will be created from the end points of each curve in the circular hole to the end points of the new offset curves. this command has two “modes”. Washer mode should only be used for circular holes on planar surfaces. Again. . all types of curves are eligible for selection and you will want to select all curves to be offset. Offset Curves/Washer. Click Cancel in the Define Washer or Offset Curves dialog box to exit the command. then choose whether or not to Save Split Lines.. Clicking Cancel in the Entity Selection . Offset Curves Mode In Offset Curves mode you also enter an Offset.5. you can choose whether or not to Save Split Lines. If you would like to choose which surfaces get the new offset curves. while Offset Curves is a more “general” mode that can be used for oblong holes.. Washer and Offset Curves. only curves that make up circular holes will be eligible for selection and only one curve per hole is required. You will be prompted for the surfaces after you have selected the curves and clicked OK.

In most cases. Due to the process used in the Offset Curves mode.. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.2. try again using an Offset value reduced the by 25%. Note: Also.9 Geometry. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Curve .5 Curves from Surfaces > 3. If you receive the message “Error sweeping along edge curves.09.htm 25. Geometry > 3.femap.5.From Surface.ugs.Introduction Page 82 of 707 When Extend Splits is on.2013 ..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. this should be checked if Save Split Lines has not been checked. Pad. the specified Offset can not be larger than the radius of any of the chosen curves.com Customer Support: http://support. FEMAP will try to extend all offset curves that do not meet up with another offset curve to the closest edge of the surface onto which the curve was offset.2 Creating Curves > 3. many times a larger offset can be used in conjugation with the Save Split Lines option turned on. offset not possible”.2.

.htm 25. see Section 5.2. Curve . while “0.2. select a point as the Pad Center. Geometry > 3.. For more information on mesh approaches. 180. The distance the curves of the pad are positioned from the selected hole is determined by the Pad Size Factor..5.From Surface... the four newly created surfaces will automatically have a “Four Corner” mesh approach set on them. The “pad” pattern essentially creates a square a specified distance away from the center of the circular edge and then connects the midpoints of each line of the square to four points on the circle (usually located at 0. Point to Point. Vector Align allows you to specify an orientation vector so the pad can be positioned in a certain orientation. "Mesh. If only a portion of a hole has been selected (a curve which is not 180 degrees or a full 360 degree curve).2013 . file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Curve ..1.2.Introduction Page 83 of 707 3. Tangent Align will prompt you to select an additional curve and then create a pad which has an outer edge aligned tangent to the selected curve. Point to Point.25”. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. then specify a Pad Alignment Vector. Finally.10 Geometry.625 times the radius in all directions.5.2. the lines are created 0.9 Geometry.375 times the radius. Mesh Control.2.09.femap. The orientation of the “pad” can specified 3 separate ways. . creates a parametric curve along a surface by choosing a start point and an end point. .From Surface. the pad will extend out half the length of the diameter (the radius) in all directions.com Customer Support: http://support.ugs.5 Curves from Surfaces > 3.2 Creating Curves > 3.75” will create the lines 0. If it is set to “1”. When set to “1.From Surface. Approach On Surface".5..15. you will also be prompted for a Pad/Width Length. and 270 degrees).. 90. Auto Align will simple use a circular curve’s existing points and extend out from them.. When Setup Mapped Meshing is on.. The Pad Size Factor uses the diameter of the hole to calculate the size of the pad. Pad. 3.10 Geometry. requires you to choose a circular edge on a surface to create a “pad” pattern around a hole. Curve .

com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.2.From Surface..5. .2 Creating Curves > 3.femap.femap.From Surface.12 Geometry.....2. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. The location of the newly created point on the chosen curve is created by projecting the chosen point onto the selected curve using the shortest possible distance. Edge to Edge. 3.. Point to Edge..5. 3.5 Curves from Surfaces > 3. Curve . Geometry > 3. creates a parametric curve along a surface by choosing a point and then a curve on the same surface. .ugs. Edge to Edge.htm 25. Point to Edge. The locations of the newly created points on the “From Curve” are created by projecting the end points of all the “To Curves” onto the “From Curve” using the shortest possible distance and then joining the two sets of points with parametric curves file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.com Customer Support: http://support..Introduction Page 84 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. Curve .From Surface. Curve . Curve .2 Creating Curves > 3..12 Geometry.2013 .5.09.5.com Customer Support: http://support.11 Geometry.From Surface.2.11 Geometry.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3..2.ugs.2.2. creates parametric curves along a surface by choosing a single curve (To Curve) on a surface and then a choosing any number of curves also on that surface (From Curves).5 Curves from Surfaces > 3. Geometry > 3.

Surface is defined by bidirectional linear interpolation between the edges. Bilinear Ruled Revolution Coons Bezier Face Aligned Curves all of the above You do not have to worry about which type of surface is being created. All surfaces can be used equally well for meshing or other purposes.ugs. Sweep. Choosing this button lets you set various options which control the surfaces that you will create. You can also choose a color for the surface . Geometry > 3. Interior is defined as a bidirectional cubic interpolation. They can be used for meshing as well as creating volumes.com Customer Support: http://support. The surface only passes through the control points at the corners. By changing the number of divisions. although it is usually not of great concern.htm 25. Cylinder. You can choose the ID of the next surface to be created. but not for intersection or Boolean solid operations. Ruled.either by typing its number or by pressing the Palette button and choosing from the standard palette. Note: Surface Parameters When you are creating surfaces. and the commands that create them. Color.2013 .Introduction Page 85 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Surface bounded by three or four curves of any type. If you do not set a color. Cylinder Revolve. This information is just provided so you can understand the various methods that are being used.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Surface Type Boundary Commands Sketch. very curved surfaces will need more file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Typically used for planar meshes and as basic framework for solid model generation. Plane Edge Curves. When surfaces are displayed. Extrude. Boundary Surface Corners. intermediate curves are drawn to show you the shape of the interior of the surfaces. Surface defined by 16 control points (arranged in a four by four array).femap. Bounded by any curves on two opposing edges. Typically. you can always change the color later with the Modify. Complex trimmed surfaces obtained from solid model Boolean operations or imported from IGES files. Original defining curve can be of any type. Sphere Edge Curves Characteristics Bounded by curves on all edges and can contain voids (holes). you will see numerous dialog boxes with a Parameter button. You will see the Geometry Parameters dialog box All of the parameters of interest are in the Surface section. Surface command Surface Divisions The final surface parameters are the number of divisions. Surface is defined by revolving a curve through some angle. They have no impact on the actual shape of the surface or on the position of any location on the surface. Sweep. you cannot perform Boolean operations on these surfaces.3 Creating Surfaces 3. with lines joining the end points. they are purely for display purposes. you will control how many curves will be drawn for each surface. Bounded by lines on all edges. Surface is defined by linear interpolation between the two edge curves. The following table summarizes those types.09. When you use these commands in the FEMAP standard geometry engine to create surfaces.3 Creating Surfaces There are several types of surfaces in FEMAP. Edge Curves.

simply press Finish Sketch on the above Window. This command essentially combines the capability of the individual geometry creation commands under the Geometry menu with the Geometry.. Also..ugs.3. When you first select this command. Surface Divisions command. The following section describe these methods.. Surface. create a boundary surface. the individual geometry which you just created contains no association between the geometric entities.3 Creating Surfaces > 3. Each of these commands will be discussed in more detail below.3. The forth category is Midsurface which contains a number of commands to create and modify midsurface geometry created from solids. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. you will also have the option to Extrude or Revolve. Until you select Finish Sketch.3. but a boundary surface will not be created. Commands There are four commands/menus in the surface area of the Geometry menu. Boundary Surface command. while boundary surfaces require a “free-mesher”.3 Creating Surfaces > 3.com Customer Support: http://support.2 Boundary Surfaces. You can modify the number of divisions on surfaces that you have already created using the Modify. the following window will appear.femap. you can very quickly see (by counting the number of curves) the orientation of the surface directions. while a surface is typically 3-dimensional.by selecting the boundary curves.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.ugs. The major difference between a boundary surface and a surface is that a boundary surface is typically planar.Introduction Page 86 of 707 divisions.1 Sketch 3.1 Sketch The Sketch command provides a quick method to create boundary surfaces.09. The first two. while the third listing.ugs.com Customer Support: http://support. surfaces can be readily mapped mesh. You can independently control the divisions along the two parametric surface directions (shown as s and t). If you have accessed this command through the Solids toolbar.. is actually a submenu of several commands for creating surfaces.2 Boundary Surfaces. as well as the menu commands to create geometry. You can then use the toolbars. the geometry you just created will remain. Geometry > 3. This can be of assistance when setting mesh sizes on surfaces. When you select one of these options.femap. If you press Cancel.com Customer Support: http://support.2013 . Update Other.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Once you create the geometry for your boundary surface. Geometry > 3. By setting the parameters to different values in the two directions. or by combining existing solid faces.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.htm 25. Sketch and Boundary Surface. planar surfaces need fewer. 3. and the right hand toolbar will be switched to one of the geometry toolbars. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. FEMAP will automatically create the boundary surface and then move to the Solids Extrude/Revolve menu. There are two basic ways to create boundary surfaces .femap.3. and FEMAP will automatically create a boundary surface from the geometry you just created.

. as you might expect holes cannot overlap (or touch) each other. The procedure for defining a hole is identical to that for defining the outer boundary. and you can even “box” or “circle” pick to select all the curves with one selection.. "Modify. but the end points must be coincident.htm 25. Boundary on Surface. Choosing Curves for a Boundary To define a boundary you simply select the curves that you want using the standard entity selection dialog box. If you are selecting multiple loops. and which are easier to define as curves than as faces of solids.2.6. > 3. From Curves. closed loop. There cannot be any gaps.". Surface command. one of the loops must completely contain all of the others.4.3 Creating Surfaces > 3.6. In addition. This feature makes it extremely easy to use the area cursor picking methods to choose all of the curves in an area as part of your boundary.2 Boundary Surfaces.. or multiple connections (branches) in the loops. Geometry. A boundary is a series of connected curves that enclose an area that you want to mesh. is used to create boundaries that will be used with the Mesh. the end points will be merged when you create the boundary. For details. You may only select up to 750 curves to define a boundary (including holes)..3. and they must be totally inside the outer boundary but outside all other holes. and which curves form the outer boundary. If they are coincident. They may or may not represent physical holes in your structure.. Typically. In addition. You can select the curves that form your boundary in any order. that are connected end-to-end. the boundary mesh command will be able to mesh two smaller boundaries faster than one large one. The curves that you pick must form one or more closed loops.. the other loops are actually representing holes in the outer loop. you have some extra control over the mesh..09.3. 3.. Note: You may also map a boundary onto a surface to obtain a non-planar mesh. Simply pick all curves around the boundary of the hole at the same time you are selecting the outside boundary.1 Geometry. The same restrictions (single. Boundary Surface. From Curves. see Section 3.2013 .3.1 Geometry. A boundary is most often used to define planar areas for meshing that have more than four sides.2. Boundary Surface. FEMAP will automatically sort the curves and determine which ones are associated with the hole(s). You can define as many holes as you like in the boundary. Adding Holes to Boundaries “Holes” are areas inside the boundary that you do not want this boundary to mesh. but the total count of all curves that define the boundary and the holes cannot exceed the 750 curve limit. The curves do not have to be connected to the same end points. That is. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Improving Meshing Speed While you can define and mesh very large. the curves should never cross or intersect. In addition. The figure shows a typical example. it is often more productive to break them into multiple smaller pieces. Geometry > 3. FEMAP will automatically order your selections to put them in boundary order.) apply to curves that represent holes.Introduction Page 87 of 707 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.. Update Other. complicated boundaries..

ugs. There is no checking to prevent you from combining surfaces that have a very large curvature (even greater than 180 degrees). and they are feature suppressed. On the other hand.3. There will not be any distinctive break between the surfaces. the resulting mesh is projected and smoothed back to the original surfaces. From Surfaces on Solid. it is probably worthwhile if you can make the splits by just adding a line or two.3 Creating Surfaces > 3.2013 . this command lets you pick adjacent faces of a solid using the entity selection dialog box. in this case refer to holes which are still on the inside of the boundary. like the figure. First.2 Geometry. This means that when you later select surfaces or solids for meshing. Some nodes may still lie on the fillet. They can take substantially longer than meshing boundaries that just use the boundary curves. Taken to the extreme..2. Project Mesh onto Solid command. In that case. Although the order of your selection is not important. You will want to create this type of boundary surface when the surface geometry that you have does not lend itself to creating a good mesh. the underlying surfaces that you select are moved to the no-pick layer.. This delay is caused by the extra mapping required to insure that the mesh lies on the surface. if you combine two surfaces that are not tangent at their intersection. and uses the enclosing outer curves to form a regular boundary surface.. This is much like the Modify.htm 25. Geometry > 3. Otherwise.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. FEMAP does several things automatically to help you in later meshing of your surfaces. the mesh is created in the parametric coordinates of the surface. > 3. Update Other. or have moderate curvature from the “average” plane. and the limitations of this method. and the time it takes to split the boundaries.Introduction Page 88 of 707 Obviously there is a trade-off between the time you might save when making the mesh.com Customer Support: http://support. the mesh can often be improved.3. Boundary Surface. It is therefore very important that you do not combine surfaces that contain too much curvature. or that only join at a single point. Similarly. you must do this in multiple commands.2 Boundary Surfaces. Although the surface is meshed as a planar boundary. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. it can result in a mesh that is also skewed.. FEMAP simply takes the surfaces that you select. You cannot select surfaces that are disconnected.2. it is probably faster to mesh the entire boundary. FEMAP will mesh it as a planar boundary. if you combine things like fillet surfaces into other adjacent surfaces. With the extra curves. By combining these surfaces into a single boundary. Just as boundaries can have holes. Therefore. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. This means that the surfaces that you select must be stitched into a solid. you may still want to add the extra “splits” to get the extra control of the mesh. nor will they even be pickable. In general. 3. For example. Any features (curves or surfaces) in the interior of the boundary will simply be meshed over. “Interior” does not. but the resulting mesh quality will surely suffer if you do this. the outer boundary curves will form the closed loop that is necessary to create a boundary. you must select surfaces that create a single region..femap.. If you want to create multiple regions. if the surfaces are meshed individually. but there is nothing to retain the basic shape of the fillet. the resulting boundary surface will not be meshable. Another area of concern is meshing boundaries that are set to Map onto Surface. When you select stitched surfaces. if you have a number of surfaces that are somewhat skewed.09. It refers to curves and surfaces that are completely surrounded by surfaces that have been combined. Unlike the method of creating boundary surfaces by picking the boundary curves. you can specify exactly the number of nodes along those splits. Boundary Surface.2 Geometry. From Surfaces on Solid. they will be meshed over. it is important to understand how FEMAP will use them in meshing. the underlying surfaces will not be meshed. Best results will be obtained if you combine surfaces that are nearly planar. and the interior curves can be properly identified. When you create multi-surface boundaries. When building multi-surface boundaries. Boundary on Surface command to attach a boundary to a surface.3. This is very different than what happens when you use the Modify. you can select surfaces that surround holes (or simply surround other surfaces that you do not select). When you mesh a multi-surface boundary. the mesh will simply blend over this intersection.

and choose the boundary surfaces to update..Introduction Page 89 of 707 If you are creating many multi-surface boundaries. Choose this command if you want to add or remove surfaces from a boundary that you have already defined via the From Surfaces on Solid command.com Customer Support: http://support. Edit Surfaces 3. FEMAP file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.femap. if the curves that you have are not joined at their end points. you will not be able to use this command. Update Surfaces This command is used when the underlying surfaces that you used to create a multi-surface boundary change due to later modeling operations.com Customer Support: http://support.3 Geometry. If you simply select this command. At that time. and the boundary is created. When you create a multi-surface boundary. The first step is to create a boundary using curves around the outside of the region of interest.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. If you are adding surfaces. the boundaries will be recreated from the current definition of the underlying surfaces.3.2. Geometry > 3. cut a hole in them.is used to modify the underlying surface definition of a multi-surface boundary.4 Geometry..3.2. Project Mesh onto Solid command to project the mesh back onto the original unstitched surfaces.3 Creating Surfaces > 3. Surface command and choose the boundary surfaces..3 Surfaces 3.. mesh the boundary surface as normal.htm 25.3.3. Geometry > 3.2. in each selected boundary. You may. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. Color. Boundary Surface. Boundary Surface..3. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.3 Surfaces These commands enable you to create surfaces in the standard geometry engine or the Parasolid geometry engine.ugs. Geometry > 3..ugs. If you are unable to stitch the surfaces that you want into a single solid. to be a distinct. Boundary Surface. Boundary Surface. and which boundary contains the surfaces.3..com Customer Support: http://support.) the already defined boundary will not reflect those changes.femap.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.3 Creating Surfaces > 3. however. Doing this will update the color of the surfaces. the boundary curves are extracted. Update Surfaces 3. still be able to accomplish the same meshing result.3 Geometry.3. you select the surfaces that you want to represent.09. it can sometimes be difficult to tell which surfaces have been selected.ugs. If you then update the underlying surfaces (slice them.2013 . If you go to the Modify. but different color. Working with Unstitched Geometry This command only works with stitched surfaces. Then.2 Boundary Surfaces. > 3.3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Edit Surfaces . > 3. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. any changes to this point will then be included. and go to the Modify. you will be asked if you want to randomize the colors.2.femap. You may need to make additional curves.2 Boundary Surfaces.3 Creating Surfaces > 3. the rules for which surfaces can be added follow the same guidelines as if you were defining the surface originally.4 Geometry.

com Customer Support: http://support. closed boundary.. Surface. they are simply used to define the surface.femap. Surface. going around the boundary..3.1 Geometry. You cannot choose the curves in a random order.3. .3.3.2 Geometry.Introduction Page 90 of 707 Product Info: http://www. Geometry > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. creates a surface by choosing three or four existing curves which define its boundaries or edges. Edge Curves.ugs.ugs. Corners. You can create quadrilateral surfaces with coincident corners to form triangular surfaces.2 Geometry. Surface.com Customer Support: http://support. They do not have to physically connect the same points. creates a surface by defining the location of three or four corners. they must connect coincident points (which will be merged automatically by this command). Geometry > 3.. but if not. you will get quadrilateral elements with coincident nodes.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. You must choose the curves in order.1 Geometry.3 Surfaces > 3.. you should choose the desired surface shape .. To create a triangular surface.3 Creating Surfaces > 3. 3. The standard coordinate definition dialog boxes are used to specify the corner locations. Then choose the curves that you want to use either graphically or by specifying their IDs.femap. Surface. Choose Yes to make the surface. Edge Curves. No to abort. but it is not advisable..3. This command also creates lines along the edge of the surface which connect the corners.09. they will automatically mesh with triangular elements at the “tip”.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.3. choose Cancel for the fourth corner (specify a fourth location and choose OK to create a quadrilateral surface).3.3 or 4 sided..htm 25. Corners. The dialog box will be used to choose the edges: First.3.2013 . When you mesh these surfaces. If you create proper triangular surfaces.3. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.3 Creating Surfaces > 3.3. You will then be asked whether you want to make a triangle.... The edge curves must be coincident at their respective end points so that they form a continuous.. . 3. The locations you specify are not projected in any way.3 Surfaces > 3.

com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. has two different capabilities based upon the geometry engine in use.femap. and the curves will be on the surface that is constructed. but the curves do not lie on the surface.3 Geometry.. it can be difficult to join it with surfaces of other types. However. This does not hurt anything.3 Geometry. This is especially true for curves which have significant changes in curvature in comparison to the adjacent curves . Be careful.3. It will join properly with another aligned Note: surface that uses the same edge. It is somewhat more difficult to use however. if you have a linear edge (the bottom edge). Tools and View Style. Parasolid Geometry Engine The advanced geometry engine allows you to fit a lofted surface between a series of curves. If you are going to use other types of curves however. the curves can be in any orientation. they will no longer lie along the edge curves. You must select the curves in sequential order.2013 . Therefore.3 Surfaces > 3. The only places that the surface touches the control curves are at the corners. along the increasing parametric (surface t) direction.like Curve 4 above. Geometry > 3.. These will be fine as surfaces. this command creates two additional edge curves that connect the ends of the four control curves.09. but when you apply the finite element mesh you may create very distorted elements. You can use this command to create a FEMAP standard geometry engine surface or a Parasolid surface. It differs from the standard aligned surface in that you can use any numbers of curves to define the surface.. .3. Since this surface does not coincide with the curves along its edges. In the figure above.ugs. you should not create surfaces with extreme warping. 3. they are simply used to control its shape.htm 25. These edge curves do not really define the surface. If you do have these extreme types of surfaces. you will want to select splines for this surface. In general. Surface. but can be confusing visually. As shown in the figure. The actual surface will be blended between the control curves which causes larger deviations in areas of rapidly changing curvature. you should check the direction of the curves by using the View Options.com Customer Support: http://support. but you can pick any type of curve.Introduction Page 91 of 707 You can choose any type of curve as an edge.3. Surface.3. This will enable you to confirm that all curves are file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. it is often simpler to use one of the other surface commands. but are helpful in visualizing the control net for the surface. if you move one or more of the end points of the control curves.. The curves used for this command with the Parasolid engine must always be in the same direction. This type of surface gives you control over the shape and curvature of the interior of the surface. Aligned Curves. however. you can see how the surface follows the shape of the control curves. since the control curves do not actually lie on the surface.. the surface will coincide with the control curve. As shown. In addition.3 Creating Surfaces > 3. if you Note: are having difficulty defining the surface. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. they should be meshed with triangular elements to minimize element distortions.3. so you can join the surface to other surface types. This is a very powerful method to create surfaces with varying curvature simply by defining curves at critical locations. FEMAP will not automatically reverse the direction. Aligned Curves. Curve and Surface Accuracy option to turn Directions on. so long as they are all coincident at the end points. or extreme corner angles. Standard Geometry Engine The FEMAP standard geometry engine creates a quadrilateral surface defined by four control curves which are aligned in the same parametric direction. The curves do not have to form a planar surface.

but it is usually best to choose them in the order of a continuous profile or boundary. Extrude. creates a quadrilateral surface between two curves. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. You can choose these curves in any order. As an example. . in any orientation. You select the curves to extrude using the standard entity selection dialog box. Surface. creates surfaces by extruding one or more curves along a vector.. The magnitude defines the length of the extrusion.ugs.. using the standard vector definition dialog box. After you select the curves. the resulting surface is usually fairly uniform parametrically and yields very good finite element meshes.3. Geometry > 3. some surfaces may be badly shaped for meshing.3 Creating Surfaces > 3..femap.3. but most extrusions should be relatively perpendicular to the original curves.. two additional lines are created which join the end points of the original curves.femap. 3.. you must repeat this command.3.3. .. Geometry > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3..com Customer Support: http://support. The vector that you define can be based at any location.5 Geometry. 3..2013 . Ruled. The only inputs for this command are the two curves.09. Only the vector components and magnitude are used. The same vector is used for all curves that were selected. You can choose any vector.3 Surfaces > 3.. You can choose any type of curves.htm 25. You can try this or change the direction of the curves. If it is not.3. All input for this command uses standard dialog boxes. Ruled. Each curve that you choose creates a separate ruled surface. Ruled surfaces are very easy to create.3.4 Geometry. The surface is formed by linear interpolation between corresponding parametric locations along the selected curves. Surface. the picture shows a boundary that was extruded. If the directions are not aligned... When you have selected all of the curves.3. This command allows you to quickly convert a two dimensional profile of curves into three dimensional surfaces. Extrude. so if you need to extrude in different directions. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. The components define the direction of the extrusion.3.Introduction Page 92 of 707 formed in the same direction. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.5 Geometry.3 Creating Surfaces > 3. you will define the vector that you want to extrude them along.3. but do help to show its boundaries. These new lines do not control the surface. Surface.3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.. In addition.3 Surfaces > 3.4 Geometry.com Customer Support: http://support. FEMAP will ask you if you want to try and create a surface through the interpolated points of the curves.ugs. Surface. They do not have to lie in the same plane.

This limitation includes arcs and splines where intermediate points along the curve do not lie on the axis of revolution.3. 3. a triangular (three-sided) surface will be automatically created. specify the vector along the axis of revolution using the vector definition dialog boxes.3.. you select the curves to revolve using the standard entity selection dialog box. FEMAP Product Info: http://www..6 Geometry.7 Geometry.3. there are a few special cases.3. Sweep.. Finally. Then with a second entity selection dialog box.femap.. Surface.Introduction Page 93 of 707 More curves were created (but not shown) at the opposite side of the surfaces. Break command to split it into two curves. 3. Although you can create these surfaces. Revolve.3 Creating Surfaces > 3.ugs. You simply select the curves that define the cross section that you want to sweep. Revolve. Geometry > 3.. Next. Just like the Extrude command.femap. Surface.3. In this case.. Surface.. you cannot revolve any curve that has both end points on the axis of revolution. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. however.ugs.com Customer Support: http://support. enter the rotation angle: specify the angle through which the curves will be revolved. . using the standard entity selection dialog box. this command creates four-sided surfaces. Extrude..2013 . If you want to revolve this type of curve.. is similar to Geometry.3 Surfaces > 3. The location and direction of this vector are important.3. the magnitude is not. Geometry > 3.6 Geometry.7 Geometry. The required input for this command is minimal.3 Surfaces > 3. allows you to create surfaces by moving or sweeping one or more curves along a path defined by a single curve. Sweep. use the Modify. you select the curves that make up the path along which you will sweep the cross section.3.. Some Special Cases Typically.htm 25.09. Surface. Another special case arises if the axis of revolution intersects the curve that you are revolving. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.3.3.3 Creating Surfaces > 3.. the resulting surface will be twisted and effectively unusable for meshing.com Customer Support: http://support. If a curve has one end point that lies on the axis of revolution. Surface. Since all surfaces must have either three or four sides.the axis of revolution.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. this command revolves them through an angle around a vector .. then revolve both of those curves.3. . Other curves were created to connect the end points of the original curves to the new curves. you should avoid this situation. except that instead of extruding curves along a vector.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.

If it does. you will be prompted for the width (along plane X) and height (along plane Y) of the plane. The base of the plane is used for the first corner of the surface. Mesh Control. in addition to being coincident.3.3. After choosing the appropriate plane. or have any gaps. the cross section that you sweep will be a projection of the true cross section. They must not branch. The curves in the cross section must be positioned in space at the appropriate location relative to the path.8 Geometry. It is up to you to properly locate the starting position of the cross section.ugs. this command cannot create a single swept surface along a spline. of the relationship between the path and the cross section. the corners will be automatically mitred to the half angle between the tangents of the curves.. They do not have to be connected to the same points. the arcs and circles will be converted to equivalent splines before they are swept. they will be broken into multiple line segments. will result in a nonuniform cross section. Selecting the Cross Section Just as for the path. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. If you choose splines in the path. you can choose any curves that you want for the cross section. the sweeping operation will maintain a constant cross section as it traverses the path. If. The surfaces created by this command will be located wherever you start the cross section.either closed (the end is also connected to the start) or open.. Surface. Plane.. The curves that you select for the path must form a single continuous loop . Typically you will want to create the curves for the cross section in a plane that is normal to the ending tangent of the path. but must have coincident end points. and in some cases a cross section that is somewhat distorted.3. This. Choosing Splines in the Path You can use any type of curves in the path. and the cross section will be swept along these segments rather than the true spline. All offsets from the path to the cross section will act as rigid links as the cross section is swept around a curve. This will result in multiple surfaces. however. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. but it is fairly accurate.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Here are some general rules to follow: 1. . if you include nontangent curves. This command simply extrudes and revolves the cross section along vectors which are defined by the curves you select as the path. planar surface using the standard plane definition dialog boxes. automatically creates a rectangular. make sure that your cross section does not protrude further than the arc radius to the “inside” of the path. Geometry > 3. it will be elliptical (which must be represented by a spline).3. Size Along Curve command. 2. 4. The width and height of the plane are combined with the orientation of the plane to determine the other three corners.Introduction Page 94 of 707 Selecting the Path Even though you choose it after the cross section.. This is not a precise representation. The cross section at those corners will no longer be circular. While limited to rectangular surfaces. If your path contains arcs.2013 .com Customer Support: http://support. On the other hand.htm 25. It is required because of the automatic mitred corners that will be generated between the nontangent curves.3 Surfaces > 3.3 Creating Surfaces > 3. You can control the number of line segments by setting the mesh size along the spline prior to sweeping using the Mesh. however.09.. 3. it is important to understand the implications of choosing a path before you define the cross section. however. all curves along the path are also tangent at their end points. If the cross section that you choose contains arcs or circles. and your path contains curves that are not tangent to one another. if you are using the standard FEMAP geometry engine. 3. You do have to be aware.femap.3. the resulting surfaces will be twisted as they are swept around the arc. If you do not. Plane.8 Geometry. Surface..

9 Geometry. .com Customer Support: http://support. The bottom radii are applied at the base of the centerline vector. By choosing the various vector definition methods.. When you do not specify an angle of 360 degrees. the Make cap surfaces box is not checked. you can either explicitly specify the length. but will be needed if you later want to use the Geometry. They are also useful if you want to make elements in a cross section that you can revolve into a mesh.3.femap.9 Geometry.09. Just as the centerline positioned and oriented the surfaces in space. these surfaces are required to close the sides of the object.3 Surfaces > 3. By default. The top radii are used at the tip of the centerline vector. Cylinder. these surfaces are actually inside the object.Introduction Page 95 of 707 this command offers great flexibility in positioning of planar surfaces. Cylinder. Volume. The first input required is the orientation of the object that you will create.. Surface. They must always be greater than zero.3. Finally.2013 . You will use the standard vector definition dialog box to define the location and orientation of the centerline of the object.3. Surface.. Surfaces command. 3. Cones and cylinders only have one lateral (curved) surface.3. this vector orients the surfaces by rotating them around the centerline. The resulting surface(s) will subtend the selected number of degrees of arc around the centerline. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.3.. Make cap surfaces will not be available. Planar lateral surfaces will also be made. The various radii must be specified to define the object size. After you have defined the centerline vector. If you check the box. an inner and outer surface. With a 360 degree angle. but tubes have two. In this case. This time you must specify a vector which points toward the circumferential location where you want the lateral curved surfaces to begin.. The default angle (360 degrees) creates a full cylinder/cone/tube. however. Geometry > 3. Unnecessary radii for each shape will be grayed and disabled. only the lateral or curved surface is created. If you only want to create a partial object. or automatically determine it from the end points of the vector. Note: If you are creating a Parasolid surface. specify a smaller angle. but is also necessary for full cylinders. This is fairly obvious when you are going to generate a partial cylinder (< 360 degrees). this command will also automatically make planar capping surfaces at the top and bottom of the cylinder/cone/tube. you can choose any nonzero vector that is not parallel to the centerline.. the standard vector dialog box will appear again. makes surfaces which represent the curved lateral faces of a cylinder.ugs. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. cone or tube and optionally the planar endcaps. but less than the respective outer radius. If you really don’t care where the surfaces start.3 Creating Surfaces > 3.htm 25. you can only choose from a cylinder or a cone.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. The magnitude of the vector that you specify is also used as the object length. the following dialog box is used to specify the remaining parameters: The shape controls the type of object that will be created. The inner radii are only available for tubes.

2013 . Surface. This command will create more than one surface to complete the sphere.. just choose any nonzero vector that is not parallel to the polar vector. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3..com Customer Support: http://support.10 Geometry. You will always be creating a full sphere. Surface.Introduction Page 96 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www.3.10 Geometry. Just as the first vector oriented the sphere in space. this vector controls the rotation of the surfaces around the polar vector.3 Surfaces > 3. Next. Offset.ugs. . however you will have an opportunity to change this radius later. and enter a distance to offset. Sphere.3.. This command requires you to select the surfaces to offset.3.3.3.3.femap.11 Geometry.. The first dialog box that you see will be the standard vector definition dialog box. Sphere.. Finally. The normals of the surface are used as the offset direction.11 Geometry. 3. The offset surface may expand or contract depending on the curvature of the surface and the offset direction. and the vector components orient the sphere in space.3 Creating Surfaces > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3. you will see this dialog box: FEMAP Product Info: http://www. creates a spherical surfaces..09.. which is used to position the origin of the spherical surfaces.3 Creating Surfaces > 3.. Offset. 3. . If you do not care how the surfaces are rotated.create a new surface by offsetting an existing surface..3 Surfaces > 3..3. Here you must define the vector which goes from the center of the sphere to the upper (“north”) pole of the sphere..ugs.com Customer Support: http://support. Geometry > 3. Surface..htm 25.3. another vector is required. The base is used as the center of the sphere.3..femap.3. Surface. The magnitude of the vector is also used as the default radius.

ugs. 3.3. If this command is used on a component surface of a solid.3.. Surface. A similar technique can be used on for solids by using the On Solid selection method Hint: Examples file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Geometry > 3.com Customer Support: http://support. 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.. Geometry > 3.3. Surface. "Mesh...3. you will use Convert to update FEMAP legacy geometry so that you can use it with a newer version of FEMAP.13 Geometry. You select which “loops” to remove by selecting the a single curve of an interior hole.13 Geometry. Mesh Control. but the “feature” associated with that “loop” and any associated geometry “more interior” than the “loop” will be removed.com Customer Support: http://support. see Section 5. FEMAP will ignore the curves making up the outline of the surface and send a message to the Messages pane. Remove Hole.3 Surfaces > 3. This command converts a surface generated with the standard FEMAP geometry engine to a Parasolid surface.3. Convert. Surface.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.3.3 Creating Surfaces > 3..3.09.femap..Introduction Page 97 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www.3.. the hole will be removed from the surface.16.3.") You can use the On Surface selection method (Entity Selection dialog box for curves) to remove all of the “internal holes” from a surface.1.ugs. FEMAP then tries to “walk” around a loop (starting with the selected curve) and if the “loop” or “chain” of curves are continuous.. (For more on how that command works. Feature Suppression. Generally.. Remove Hole.femap.2. This command works for Surfaces (Sheet Solids) as well as Solids. Surface. Convert.3 Creating Surfaces > 3. This command removes interior holes from surfaces by selecting a curve or curves related to that hole. Feature Suppression operates. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.12 Geometry.3.htm 25.3 Surfaces > 3. Remove Hole is looking for “loops” to remove from the geometry.2013 . not only will the hole be removed from that surface. Mesh Control.12 Geometry.. Very similar to the way Mesh.

3..09. . many of the other commands on the Geometry. Nonmergeable Curve command. an option in the Parasolid modeling kernel which creates “General Bodies” as opposed to regular solids (FEMAP solids) and sheet solids (FEMAP surfaces).. Update Other.. Surface. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. and “solids” with internal “surfaces” used in certain types of analysis. The command allows you to Boolean Add sheet solids to one another.14 Geometry.. A good idea is to have both the surfaces and solids “ready to go” before using the “NonManifold Add” command..3..2013 . The “Non-Manifold Add Tolerance” may be adjusted in an attempt to have more solids and sheet solids combined into as few “general bodies” as possible.3.is the only command in FEMAP which allows you to create “Non-Manifold Solid Geometry”. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.3 Surfaces > 3. NonManifold Add..3. The use of Non-Manifold Geometry can be very useful in creation of mid-surface models with “T-Junctions”. Surface.femap. NonManifold Add. as well as add “sheet solids” to Parasolid “solids”.14 Geometry. menu will not function as they did before the geometry was changed from regular geometry to “general body” geometry.htm 25. 3.. When bodies have been added together using “NonManifold Add”.Introduction Page 98 of 707 Note: Any “Nonmergeable Curves” will be ignored in the command. Solid. models where shell elements (2-D) and solid elements (3-D) need to be connected and portions of the shell mesh are embedded into the solid mesh.ugs.3 Creating Surfaces > 3. If you would like to designate curves as “nonmergeable”.com Customer Support: http://support. Geometry > 3. use the Modify.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.3.

3 Creating Surfaces > 3.3. Solid.3. It is also better to select only one half of any “closed boundary” (for example.htm 25.3.. 3.. Note: To break a “general body” into individual sheet solids for each and every surface. which will allow you to use the commands on the Geometry.3 Surfaces > 3..3.. Surface.com Customer Support: http://support..16 Geometry.09. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630..3. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.ugs.. Surface. menu will be available to modify and operate on the geometry again. "Geometry. instead of trying to have it create a surface all at once.15 Geometry.attempts to create a surface from any number of selected shell elements.3.16 Geometry.femap.femap. Recover Manifold Geometry..Introduction Page 99 of 707 Note: If you need to stitch or add more bodies into those that have been put together with this command.3. NonManifold Add command... Geometry > 3.3 Creating Surfaces > 3. Surface. . . Surface.3. Solid. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. It is best to select elements that will create a single surface instead of selecting all of the elements in the model.2013 .ugs. Surface. Solid. Explode command..3. use the Geometry. you will want to use the Geometry. Surface.3 Surfaces > 3. Recover Manifold Geometry. menu. From Mesh. Recover Manifold Geometry.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3..15.") to recover component solids and sheet solids. From Mesh. a cylindrical shape).3..3. the commands on the Geometry.. Recover Manifold Geometry command (see Section 3.3... 3.15 Geometry. Once the “Manifold” solids and sheet solids have been recovered.com Customer Support: http://support.. Geometry > 3. The command will take all selected “general bodies” in your model and separate them into component “Manifold” parasolid solids (FEMAP solids) and sheet solids (FEMAP Surfaces)..essentially the opposite of the Geometry. Solid.

Note: When the mesh represents a curved surface. Making this value larger or smaller may create geometry which better represents the selected mesh.com Customer Support: http://support.3. When on. they persist until changed by the user or FEMAP is closed. any element edge larger than the specified tolerance will have a single line created between points created at each end of the edge.femap. Tolerance value must not be lower then 1.com Customer Support: http://support. curves. as the curved boundary surface created will likely not produce an acceptable mesh. creates curves around the border of the selected elements. the original mesh is deleted.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. and/or Linear Cutoff Length options are turned on or off. Note: Once the Delete Mesh.stl) file.ugs. Wireframe Only . When off the mesh is automatically associated to the newly created surface.3. When on.Sets the parasolid modeling tolerance for the newly created surface.Off by default. They are useful for generating surfaces from thin-walled solid geometry. Surface Tolerance .2013 . it is better to have the Wireframe Only option off.Off by default.09. Linear Cutoff Length . The midsurfaces can then be used as the basis of plate meshes. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. When on.4 Midsurface 3.0E-6. several options are available in the Surface From Mesh dialog box: Delete Mesh .htm 25. Care must be taken to make certain that the resulting plate mesh adequately represents the model.On by default.4 Midsurface The midsurfacing commands are available when using the Parasolid geometry engine. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Useful when trying to create surface geometry from an imported stereolithography (*.femap.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Not used when Wireframe Only is turned on.3 Creating Surfaces > 3.ugs. Geometry > 3. then makes a boundary surface from the newly created curves.Introduction Page 100 of 707 Once the elements are selected. Value is determined by taking 1/25 of the average edge length of the selected elements. and points. Wireframe Only.

3..com Customer Support: http://support.. Not all surface pairs can be midsurfaced. 3. .3 Trim to Solid. This command requires you to select the two surfaces...2 Single. ..3.3. .4. First pick the surface to be trimmed/broken and then pick the curve(s) to trim with..3.3...4 Midsurface > 3. The command will simply return if the midsurface operation fails.3. Geometry > 3.trims/breaks a surface using a curve.3.3.trims a surface with a solid.3 Creating Surfaces > 3. The curves are extended in both directions past the ends of the surface if necessary...femap.ugs.2 Single.4.4 Midsurface > 3.2013 . Not all surface pairs can be midsurfaced..4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.4.3 Creating Surfaces > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.femap.femap. It deletes any parts of the surface which lie outside the volume of the solid.ugs.1 Single in Solid. and then the solid to use for trimming.Introduction Page 101 of 707 Home > Commands > 3.4. The surface is trimmed by the solid so that it is completely contained within the solid.creates a single sheet surface between two surfaces.3 Creating Surfaces > 3. FEMAP Product Info: http://www...09.. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630..com Customer Support: http://support. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. The resulting surface will be larger than both of the selected surfaces..3...3 Creating Surfaces > 3.4 Midsurface > 3. 3.creates a single midsurface between two surfaces of a solid.3 Trim to Solid.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. This command requires you to first select the surface to trim. Geometry > 3.4 Midsurface > 3. .. 3.4 Trim with Curve. Geometry > 3. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.4. Geometry > 3.4.. 3..3.ugs.4..htm 25.1 Single in Solid.3..3.com Customer Support: http://support... The command will simply return if the midsurface operation fails.4 Trim with Curve.

they will be imprinted (“burned”) into the target surface..3.com Customer Support: http://support.femap. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.6 Automatic. Geometry > 3. If the flag is on.09.4 Midsurface > 3.4...3 Creating Surfaces > 3.3. Continuous Curvature.7 Offset Tangent Surfaces.ugs.2013 .6 Automatic. Whether or not the curves will be imprinted onto the “target” solid or sheet solid is determined by the Geometry. Intersect.3 Creating Surfaces > 3. Update Surfaces flag setting. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.com Customer Support: http://support.3.ugs. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Note: If Parasolid cannot extend a surface properly..4. or Reflective) to a “target” Solid (or Sheet Solid). The command then intersects all created midsurfaces with one another and lastly.5 Extend.4. Curve ..3.runs the three steps of semi-automatic midsurfacing (Generate..7 Offset Tangent Surfaces.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3..3. location in space.ugs.3.3.femap.. or simply by a distance..Introduction Page 102 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www.4. 3. You may want to try a different “Extend Shape” method or “Extend To” option.4 Midsurface > 3. deletes all small free floating surfaces.4. .. and Cleanup below) at once.From Surface. .3.. Any surfaces with a distance between them of less than the target thickness will have a midsurface generated.4 Midsurface > 3.com Customer Support: http://support. You may want to click the Distance icon button to use FEMAP’s measuring tool to specify an effective target thickness.htm 25. Geometry > 3.4.. FEMAP will return an error and let you know that surface cannot be extended using the current parameters. 3.5 Extend. 3..extends a surface by using one of a surface’s edge curves and “extending” the surface using a specified “Extend Shape” method (Linear... Geometry > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.femap...3. The command requires you to select the surfaces and specify a Target Thickness (midsurface tolerance).3 Creating Surfaces > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.

ugs. then a “tangency tolerance”.9 Intersect.is for use on solids of constant thickness only.4 Midsurface > 3..automatically intersects/splits all selected surfaces with one another. All of the surfaces tangent to the “seed surface” within the “tangency tolerance” will be chosen and highlighted.Introduction Page 103 of 707 .femap.. This value is the distance used to offset the selected surfaces towards the middle of the solid part.3 Creating Surfaces > 3.ugs.4 Midsurface > 3.... 3.3.3 Creating Surfaces > 3.ugs.3. Any surfaces with a distance between them of less than the midsurface tolerance will have a midsurface generated. Next a “Mid-Surface Tangent Offset” value needs to be entered. Geometry > 3.3.8 Generate. This command requires you to select the surfaces for generation and enter a midsurface tolerance.4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.3.3 Creating Surfaces > 3.3. . Geometry > 3...com Customer Support: http://support.8 Generate. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. You will be prompted for a “seed surface”.4.3. 3.09.htm 25. . FEMAP Product Info: http://www.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.com Customer Support: http://support. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.4 Midsurface > 3.automatically creates all possible midsurfaces from selected surfaces..4.. The only input to this command is the surfaces to intersect.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.9 Intersect..2013 .femap.3..com Customer Support: http://support.10 Cleanup.4. FEMAP will attempt to calculate this value automatically and will fill the value in if successful.femap.. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.3.4.... The offset surfaces will be automatically stitched together and finally you will be asked if you want to delete the original solid.. Geometry > 3.

001) in order for the most accurate model to be created. Along with the property information. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. The restrictions on number of surfaces and no voids limits the usefulness of volumes. but rather places them on a separate layer so they can be reviewed before they are deleted.3.10 Cleanup. Geometry > 3.ugs.. They are typically only created when you must model a very regular pattern volume (with no holes).4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3. Volumes are formed from analytics as well as joining selected surfaces. This command will not create properties which vary in thickness along a surface. but this may not produce the most accurate finite element model. the mesh options on each surface will set to use the Quad surface mesher.3.. This tolerance can be raised to create less properties. then assigned. Geometry > 3. Note: The “thickness percentage tolerance” is set to a very small number (.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. and brick or wedge meshes are essential. each selected surface will have an individual property created representing the thickness of that portion of the model and assigned to that surface only. and can be automatically meshed with tetrahedrals. Boolean operations can be performed with these solids.ugs.com Customer Support: http://support.4 Creating Solids or Volumes 3.2013 ..4..1 Volumes file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.4.ugs. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. If you answer Yes. Voids (or holes) are not permitted in volumes.. there is a distinct difference between volumes and solids. within the specified tolerance.femap. Geometry > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.3 Creating Surfaces > 3.4 Creating Solids or Volumes The last commands for geometry creation in the Geometry menu involve creation of 3-D solids and volumes. Solids are formed by using the Parasolid modeling engine to form complex 3-D shapes.automatically creates and assigns properties to selected midsurfaces based on the thickness of the solid from which they were created. If you answer No.4.automatically determines which surfaces can be deleted by checking for small free floating surfaces.3.htm 25. Volumes generated from surfaces require 4-6 surfaces which form a complete enclosed volume. It does not delete these surfaces. You will be prompted with a question asking “OK to Consolidate Properties by Thickness?”.femap.femap. Solids provide an excellent method to form complex 3-D shapes.4.09.com Customer Support: http://support. you will also be prompted for a “thickness percentage tolerance” and any surfaces which have the same thickness. The original “top” and “bottom” surfaces must be separated by a constant thickness.11 Assign Mesh Attributes.. or holes in them. 3. or if care is taken. In FEMAP. You enter the surfaces to check. . .4 Midsurface > 3. The number of faces (or surfaces) to a solid is not limited. and they can have voids..com Customer Support: http://support.1% or . semi-automatically meshed with hexahedrals. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.3.11 Assign Mesh Attributes. will have a single property created for all of them..Introduction Page 104 of 707 3..

Volume command. Geometry > 3. The following table summarizes those shapes. 3.it creates all of the required points.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Corners.. Color.4. All volumes in FEMAP are essentially the same. Between).1 Volumes > 3. The ID is not usually of great concern. you can always change the color later with the Modify. “shapes” refers to the number of surfaces that are used to bound the volume. The final section (Cylinder. In fact.1 Geometry. .femap. Volume Parameters When you are creating volumes. The first section of commands (Corners.Introduction Page 105 of 707 3.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.com Customer Support: http://support.htm 25. Displaying Volumes The display of volumes is largely based on displaying the surfaces that are used to define the volume. Volume. Choosing this button lets you set the ID and color of the volume.4. create volumes from framework geometry of points. you will see numerous dialog boxes with a Parameter button. the shapes shown are just the basic outlines if you used regular. The only thing actually drawn for the volume is an outline around the surface boundaries. Geometry. The second section (Extrude.09.1..1 Volumes The Geometry.4. Corners. Sphere) involve analytical volumes. You do not need any existing geometry to use this command . Shape Brick Characteristics Six quadrilateral surfaces Wedge Five surfaces..1 Geometry. surfaces. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. In fact. although you can create volumes with several different “shapes”. You can control the overall display by adjusting the surface divisions and surface display options.ugs. Each command on the Volume menu is discussed further below FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Volume menu allows you to create volumes which can be used for meshing of solid elements.4... In this case. If you do not set a color. top and bottom are triangular. Volume menu is partitioned into three sections based upon the method of creation. bottom is rectangular. others are quadrilateral Pyramid Five surfaces. You can choose a color for the volume either by typing its number or by pressing the Palette button and choosing from the standard palette.2013 . or both. Volume.1. others are triangular Tetra Four triangular surfaces You can choose any of these volume shapes that you need to fill the portion of your model that you want. planar surfaces. any surfaces can be used and the shapes really refer more to the overall topology than the actual shape of the volume. creates volumes simply by specifying the coordinates of the corners. Volume Menu The Geometry. Revolve) perform operations on a surface to create a volume. Surfaces. lines and surfaces..

1 Volumes > 3. FEMAP does check the locations that you specify to see if they match the correct shape.. The third parametric volume direction (u) goes from the bottom to the top surface. This “fix-up” will often create the correct volume even if you specify the corners in a different order. but they must use exactly coincident curves.2 Geometry.ugs.2013 . It is always best to follow the conventions shown for specifying the order of the corner locations. To create volumes having different shapes.09. Aligned Note: Curves command. but there is no guarantee. or create a volume with that number of corners. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.htm 25. This insures that the surfaces that you choose form a complete closed volume. then the s and t directions are reversed (negated. You do not have to choose surfaces that have their parametric directions aligned. The first and second (s and t) volume directions are aligned with the parametric directions of the bottom surface. Since this type of surface does not typically follow its edge curves exactly. . Surface. The surfaces do not have to use the same edge curves. Volume. The required shapes are listed in the table at the beginning of this section for the Geometry. any volume that you create may have gaps along its edges and you will not be able to use it for meshing. You can choose any type of surface for a volume.com Customer Support: http://support.1. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. but you must follow these guidelines: • The surfaces that you choose must have the appropriate shape (triangular or quadrilateral) to define the shape of volume that you choose. but you will probably not want to choose any Bezier surface that was created by the Geometry. allows you to select and combine existing surfaces to form a volume.Introduction Page 106 of 707 All of the input for this command uses the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes. the curves will be automatically merged by this command. The same volume will be created no matter what coordinate system or systems you use to define the corner locations. Volume. but still along the same direction). nor do you have to choose the “sides” in any particular order. you will be given a chance to backup or abort.. The following table shows the number of corners that are allowable when creating volumes: Shape Brick Wedge Pyramid Tetra 8 6 5 4 Corners Press Cancel when Defining Never Corner 7 Corner 6 Corner 5 The convention for defining corner locations is shown in the figure. and all surfaces will be bilinear. simply choose Cancel when all of the required corners have been defined.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. 3. pyramid or tetra) and the surfaces that will define the volume. Each corner is defined using a separate dialog box. however. If the surfaces do not use the same edges. backup. Volume menu.. Straight lines will be used to connect all of the corners.. You can select any type of surface. FEMAP will automatically change the selection order and attempt to create a valid volume. The volume parametric directions are based on the parametric directions of the first surface that you select. If they do not. Surfaces. The only dialog box required is the following one: Here you select the shape of the volume that you want to create (brick. so that there are no gaps between the edges.femap. Geometry > 3.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.4. If these directions do not form a right-handed coordinate system..2 Geometry.. If you press Cancel at a point when a volume cannot be created. • All surfaces must have coincident edges. This is an ideal way to update incorrectly specified coordinates before you finish the command.4. wedge.4. You will be asked whether you want to cancel. Surfaces.1.

Extrude. Volume. Geometry > 3. but instead of specifying a top surface (To Surface).. instead of extruding them along the vector. you cannot specify coordinates. Geometry > 3. 3.4.3 Geometry.4. using the vector definition dialog boxes. One volume will be created for each surface that you select.com Customer Support: http://support.htm 25. Volume. .. Quad surfaces form a brick volume. and specifying the axis of revolution with the vector definition dialog boxes. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. As the surfaces are revolved. All quadrilateral surfaces will extrude into brick volumes.ugs. With this option. creates volumes by moving or extruding one or more surfaces along a vector.1. Geometry > 3. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. and the vector to extrude along. Volume. Other volume shapes cannot be created with this command.femap. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630... is similar to the Geometry.femap. . When you choose the 2 Surfaces option.1.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Extrude.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.If you are using the 2 Surfaces option.. but the direction and magnitude are used to define the direction and length of the extruded volumes. Again the required side surfaces and curves are automatically created..4.1. In this case the volumes are created by revolving the original surfaces around a vector (the axis of revolution)..5 Geometry. .2013 ...4.1.3 Geometry.. The vector that you choose can be located anywhere.1 Volumes > 3.5 Geometry.4. In addition to selecting the surfaces to revolve with the standard entity selection dialog box.09. 3.. The Surface and Point option is used to create the other volume shapes. This is the angle through which the surfaces will be rotated around the axis of revolution vector to form the volumes. Revolve. you simply choose the two surfaces which form the top and bottom of the brick or wedge. both surfaces must have the same shape .Introduction Page 107 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. All of the side surfaces are automatically created between the respective edges of these surfaces.femap. Volume. while tri surfaces create a wedge. Volume. you will specify a top point. . Triangular surfaces extrude into wedge volumes. you must also define the angle of revolution. choose a quadrilateral surface to create a pyramid. or a triangular surface to form a tetra.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3..4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3. Volume.4.either triangular or quadrilateral.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.com Customer Support: http://support. creates a volume between two surfaces. Between.1 Volumes > 3.. Volume. Between.com Customer Support: http://support..4 Geometry.1. The point must already exist.1.1 Volumes > 3. Revolve.4. or between a surface and a point. all of the additional curves and surfaces which define the volume will be created automatically..4. You simply select the surfaces to extrude using the standard entity selection dialog boxes. The same approach is followed for the Surface and Point option.4. 3.4 Geometry.ugs..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3...ugs. Extrude command described above.

Cylinder command except that it creates the volume.com Customer Support: http://support. Geometry > 3.1 Volumes > 3...com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.... Sphere.7 Geometry.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.. Geometry > 3..Introduction Page 108 of 707 When you are specifying the axis of revolution vector. you will create a pyramid-shaped volume. in addition to the surfaces.10. If you do.4. see Section 3. Otherwise.htm 25.4. Since you will be creating a volume. In addition. Surface. Surface.9.. "Geometry.. If you revolve a triangular surface with one edge on the axis. "Geometry.com Customer Support: http://support.3.3. see Section 3.4. Volume.1. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Volume.femap. Sphere command except that it creates the volume..4.ugs.". Geometry > 3. Surface. is identical to the Geometry. Volume. if you revolve a triangular surface that has one point on the axis.. 3.4. you will create a tetra.. is identical to the Geometry.3.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3. Surface. Cylinder. You should never specify an axis of revolution that crosses any of the surfaces that you are revolving. Volume. Otherwise. . capping surfaces will always be created.4. The location and direction are needed to define the rotation. capping surfaces will always be created.7 Geometry. Since you will be creating a volume.". in addition to the surfaces.3.1.6 Geometry.1 Volumes > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. the volume would not be closed. the location and direction are important. and will be useless for meshing. Sphere. FEMAP Product Info: http://www..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. the resulting surfaces and volumes will be twisted.. the magnitude is not. .4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.1. there are several special cases that can arise when you revolve surfaces that have one or more points or edge curves that lie on the axis of revolution.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Cylinder.femap..ugs. Cylinder.09.2 Solids file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.4. For more information. Sphere.femap.2013 .6 Geometry. 3.ugs. For example.com Customer Support: http://support. the volume would not be closed. For more information. There are similar cases with quadrilateral faces.1.

You must create a new solid by using one of the commands under the Solid menu which actually forms the solid and select New Solid. you cannot create a new solid by Note: inputting an unused ID. Embed Face • Cleanup . 3. Shell • Boolean operations .1 Geometry. Update Title Allows you to rename the highlighted solid. Common.. Geometry > 3. is used to change between active solids.cleanup the active solid The functionality of these commands are explained in more detail below..4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3. Chamfer. Load.. Activate.. Solid. Solid.09.2 Solids These commands provide tools for building solid models in FEMAP.4. Create/Manage Set and Model. Create/Manage Set. When you select this command. Intersect • slicing/face operations . Unlike other similar Manager commands.1 Geometry.2.Introduction Page 109 of 707 3.4. Activate... Constraint.com Customer Support: http://support. or to make no solid active. .2 Solids > 3.select and or name the active solid • creating/editing. Remove. Primitives. None Active Choose this option to deactivate all solids.Slice.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Revolve. Embed.Add/Remove Material. Slice Along Face. Stitch. such as Model.4.femap. FEMAP will then automatically create a new solid with the title you input.ugs.2013 . change the title of the highlighted solid. Explode • modifying . FEMAP file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. the Solid Manager dialog box appears. Extrude.Add. They are available when the Parasolid geometry engine is active. The Solid menu is partitioned into six major segments: • Activate .4.Fillet. Slice Match.htm 25.2. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.

you are not required to change this option.3 Geometry. the default will be Add. The Add and Remove commands are similar to the Geometry.htm 25. and option buttons. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Solid. "Geometry. or a non-planar boundary surface.4. . Add/Remove Material. Add/Remove Material.. the default will be Remove. however.4... you must select the extrusion vector by pushing the Along Vector..4. you must input the location using the standard coordinate definition dialog box after pressing OK on the Extrusion Options dialog box. positive.2.4. If there is a check mark. to a specific location..2. remove material or add material.com Customer Support: http://support. then removals. You simply move a boundary or surface along a vector to add or remove material.ugs.Introduction Page 110 of 707 Product Info: http://www. except you do not have to form an additional solid to add or remove. Note: Material This section controls the type of action to perform.. FEMAP will automatically choose the normal to the entity as the vector along which to extrude.ugs.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.2 Solids > 3. Solid.2. You can create a new solid. you can still toggle between Remove and Add once you get into the command itself.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. or through all of the solid(s) along the vector direction..2013 .. When you invoke this command. it does set the defaults for the commands below. FEMAP can extrude both planar and non-planar surfaces. Direction This option controls whether you extrude in the negative. does not perform any functions. the direction of the arrow will switch. You cannot extrude a FEMAP base (standard) surface. The default will be based upon the Add/Extrude Material option (see Section 3. Solid. If this option does not have a check mark next to it. or want to extrude along a vector other than the normal. Solid.2 Geometry.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3. Extrude. Geometry > 3..09.2.. Length. Direction. Add/Remove Material. . allows you to move a boundary or surface through a vector. This is a convenient method to toggle between defaults if you are performing many additions.4..femap.."). If you select the location option. For all planar entities. Geometry > 3.4. or both directions. If you want to extrude a non-planar surface. You will see a small white arrow along the surface or boundary denoting the current direction. 3.4. but it can only extrude planar boundaries.2.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.2. and either create a new solid from the extrusion.2 Solids > 3. If you switch from positive to negative. button.. Add and Remove commands. Solid. you will see the following dialog box: The dialog box is separated into four major sections: Material. Solid. However.2 Geometry. or the last previous operation. or remove from the current solid (hole). 3.femap. Extrude..3 Geometry. Length You can extrude to a particular depth along the vector. Therefore. add to the current solid (Protrusion)..com Customer Support: http://support.

2. Also. Radial This option is very similar to Rectangular. When you choose this command.. Rectangular This option allows you to identify the number and spacing in Y. Solid. A single extrusion will be performed with this option. You cannot use this option to extrude boundary surfaces. FEMAP will automatically extrude along the normal vector for all planar surfaces. the original surface/boundary you create should be at the most negative position on the workplane. FEMAP will automatically move in the positive X and Y workplane directions (unless you specify a negative distance) to create additional entities in the pattern.com Customer Support: http://support. uses the standard vector definition dialog box to define the vector along which to extrude. and the total angle. When you select this option. . the Patterns dialog box will appear. Solid.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. allows you to create multiple extrusions from a single surface or boundary extrusion... Along Vector. in a symmetrical pattern are required through a solid. Active Solid. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. and then choose Pattern. you must use this option to define the extrusion vector.. If you attempt to extrude a non-planar surface. a list of the available solids will be provided (the same dialog box that is used in the Geometry. except it defines a radial pattern.Introduction Page 111 of 707 Options Buttons These buttons allow you to change the defaults for the extrusion. Geometry > 3.4.09..2013 . . Revolve. You can simply define one boundary/surface.. Examples Below you will find two examples of a pattern definition.2 Solids > 3. except a number of 6 and a total angle of 360 degrees was specified.4 Geometry.htm 25. If you do not select this option. FEMAP then uses the X spacing and Y spacing to form the 9 holes in the solid. the workplane must be aligned with the pattern. Radial Pattern The Radial Pattern is similar. and FEMAP will create these extrusions into or through the solid. The spacing values input must be the distance form center to center of the boundary/surface you are extruding. . If you are planning to use this option..4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3. Boundary surfaces area always extruded normal to their definition plane.. Simply select the appropriate solid. This is an extremely useful option when multiple holes. Activate command).allows you to change the active solid which will be used in the extrude operation. None The default option is None..femap. Pattern.ugs.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Rectangular Pattern The first example uses a rectangular pattern of 3 in X and 3 in Y with the same spacing for both.. Surface This option lets you to select the surface to extrude. the number. The origin is specified as the center of the circle in the workplane in the bottom left corner.. You input the center..4..

Solid. 3.4 Geometry.. cylinder.09. Solid. can be used for such geometry primitives as cylinders. Solid. and Full 360. you should use the origin of the primitive which is in the most negative position in the workplane. Primitive This section defines the actual primitive to be created.4.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.. Negative. Each of these areas are discussed below.Alt” requires only a radius and creates a sphere from 6 four-sided surfaces..") The Material (New Solid.htm 25.2 Solids > 3.2. while “Sphere . Solid. or Remove) and Directions (Positive. A cone requires a top and bottom radius as well as a height. To Location. FEMAP Product Info: http://www... Extrude). Primitives.. blocks. Primitives.2. Origin You simply specify a location for the origin of the primitive. however. or Both) sections are identical. the Solid Primitives dialog box appears. To Location. When you select this command. Extrude except it revolves around an axis of revolution instead of extruding along a vector. "Geometry.4. .2.. . you must input the axis of revolution using the standard vector definition dialog box. Revolve. “Sphere” requires only a radius for input and creates a sphere with 8 three-sided surfaces. except for a few modifications (see Section 3. and the Length section has options for Angle.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Y and Z directions. If you plan on using a rectangular pattern. When you select this command.5 Geometry. Add. Geometry > 3. since FEMAP will always move in the positive direction to create the pattern. you also have the option to form a new solid from common areas of the primitive you are about to create and the current active solid. This dialog box is very similar to the Extrude Options and Revolve Options dialog boxes. you can input the origin at the center or corner of the block. There are two options for sphere. The Revolve Options dialog box then appears.. These directions are all relative to the workplane.femap. Direction You may also choose to move in a positive or a negative direction. This command can be used to form a new solid or to add/remove material from an existing solid. Solid.2013 . This dialog box is almost identical to the Extrude Options dialog box above (Geometry... You must then specify the distances in the X. For this particular command.ugs.4. and cones. For a cylinder you simply input a height and radius. The only other difference is you can choose to change your axis of revolution (instead of the Extrusion Vector) by selecting the axis of revolution option.5 Geometry. or sphere.. or remove from an existing solid just as in the Extrude/Revolve commands above.. add to. is very similar to Geometry.4. just like the commands above. and Full 360 degrees instead of Depth. Extrude. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.Introduction Page 112 of 707 3.com Customer Support: http://support.4.3.2. Solid. cone. Material You can create a new solid. You can create a block. For the block.

Solid.femap.com Customer Support: http://support.creates independent surfaces from a solid.ugs.Introduction Page 113 of 707 Options You may also change the active solid (Active Solid) or choose to create a Pattern (see Section 3.2013 . . FEMAP Product Info: http://www..2 Solids > 3.htm 25.com Customer Support: http://support.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3. FEMAP Product Info: http://www...2. Solid.ugs. You can read an IGES file..com Customer Support: http://support.3. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Solid.6 Geometry. "Geometry. 3. if desired. and whether “mergeable curves” should be cleaned up. then. ..4.ugs.. Solid. You can then manipulate this solid just like any other solid you would have created in FEMAP.4. Explode.4. The underlying solid no longer exists.femap. Solid.2 Solids > 3. Stitch..09.. FEMAP will remove all internal curves which are redundant.2.7 Geometry. which is the default.4.femap. This command is quite useful because it allows you to modify surfaces on solids.. Explode.7 Geometry. creates a solid from a series of surfaces. The “stitched” geometry will contain as few surfaces as possible by removing curves which are not needed to define the overall topology of the geometry. Geometry > 3. a stitching tolerance.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3. and then use this command to generate a Parasolid solid from the IGES surfaces.. When “off”.com file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. The only inputs required for this command are the surfaces themselves.4. When Cleanup Mergeable Curves is “on”... The tolerance can be adjusted to facilitate the closing of gaps between surface edges.4.2. stitch them back into a solid. all of the surfaces being stitched together will remain in the geometry. 3. This is a very useful command when reading trimmed surfaces from an IGES file.2.2.4. The only input for this command is a solid.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3. Extrude.. Stitch..6 Geometry.").com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.

Solid..2.com Customer Support: http://support.. Fillet.com Customer Support: http://support. Input for this command is simply the solid edge (curve) and the chamfer length. Examples FEMAP Product Info: http://www. The input for this command is simply the curve(s)/edge(s) to fillet. ..2 Solids > 3.8 Geometry. .. Geometry > 3. Chamfer.9 Geometry.09. allows you to create fillets on a solid model... and the radius of the fillet.4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. not individual curves. Below are a few examples of filleting a solid. Examples FEMAP Product Info: http://www.femap. Solid.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3. 3.femap. Examples of this command are shown below.4. When using this command. Fillet command in that you are modifying a solid.4.4.2 Solids > 3. Solid.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.. Solid.2013 . Fillet..htm 25.9 Geometry....com file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.4.ugs. you must be careful to select the appropriate curve for filleting.Introduction Page 114 of 707 Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.ugs. Solid. Geometry > 3. 3.2. Fillet except it produces a chamfer instead of a fillet.2. you must select an edge of the solid. and that edge will become “rounded” based upon the radius you input.4. operates identically to Geometry. This command works slightly different than the Modify. Therefore. Chamfer.8 Geometry.2..

Geometry > 3.Introduction Page 115 of 707 Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.. with the “Out” direction being in the normal direction.. FEMAP will automatically remove the interior portion of the surface and leave an outer thickness equal to the input of the thickness and then move through the solid.11 Geometry..4.com Customer Support: http://support. 3. and remove material until it reaches within a thickness value of the opposing surface. 3. Offset The In and Out “Offset” directions are determined by the normal direction of the surface.2.4. For solids. allows you to “hollow out” a solid.10 Geometry. choose an offset direction (In and/or Out)...4..4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.2 Solids > 3. simply choose two opposing surfaces.. Shell. Examples FEMAP Product Info: http://www.2 Solids > 3.4. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.ugs.. .htm 25. you simply choose the surface(s) to “thicken”. and enter a value. Solid.2. .09.... Simply select the surfaces to pierce (the surfaces on the solid to be hollowed out).4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.11 Geometry. Solid. Thicken.10 Geometry.. When using “thicken” on a surface (sheet solid) not associated with any solid. Solid.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. allows you to “thicken” or “thin out” (depending on the selected options) an existing solid using a component surface or surfaces or “thicken” a surface (sheet solid) into a solid by extruding in one specified normal direction or both.2013 . and the thickness of the solid shell. Shell. normal to the surface.4. the Out direction will always face away from enclosed volume. To shell a solid completely and remove all material in the interior. Thicken.femap. Solid.2.2. Geometry > 3.4.

Essentially.Creates an individual solid for each surface that was selected to “thicken”.Runs a portion of the Solid.09. Thick Individually .2013 . choose the Tools and View Style category.. Is on by default. Surface Normal command. you will have some additional options.The new geometry will be created with no effect to existing geometry in the model.htm 25. None . and the Add Auto Boolean Option. Only “thickened” surfaces from a particular solid can boolean with that solid (i.e. Options These options are used to control the way the “thicken” command behaves. selecting the Out offset direction. This option is good to use when you want to “thicken” a portion of your model. Cleanup command to make sure any new solids that have been created are valid solids and also tries to remove any “extraneous” material (slivers.) or use in other operations..The new geometry will be “subtracted” from the solid after the “thicken” operation.Show Surface Arrows”. Once in the View dialog box. “thicken” it. See the examples below for how the “thicken” command can be used with Boolean operations. etc. even if the “new” solid created with “thicken” overlaps the original surface’s associated solid. you can NOT take a surface from a solid. selecting the In offset direction.The new geometry will be “added” to the solid after the “thicken” operation. Options command. Hint: You can reduce the diameter of a hole by choosing all the surfaces of the hole.) Auto Boolean When using “thicken” to alter a solid by choosing surfaces associated with the solid.Show All Arrows” of “3. but may be turned off if you would like to use the surface for additional geometry operations (extrude. Embed . These options allow you to combine the “thicken” operation with FEMAP Boolean operations. Doing this allows you to pick and choose which newly created solids to “boolean” (add. Some are only available in certain situations. revolve.. and the Embed Auto Boolean Option. Examples: file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. hanging edges) from the “thicken” process. Options Note: You can reverse the normal direction of a surface (sheet solid) using the Modify.Simply deletes the Original Surface that was used to “thicken”. the geometry will be “thickened” and then the selected Boolean operation will occur. and the Subtract Auto Boolean Option. embed. Delete Original Surfaces . Subtract . selecting the In offset direction.Introduction Page 116 of 707 Note: You can turn on the “Surface normals” using the View. This Boolean is a good option to select when you need “multiple elements through the thickness” and can be used in conjunction with “adjacent surface matching” to create a continuous mesh of this type. Auto Cleanup . This option is good to use when you want to “thin out” a portion of your model as natatorial will be removed. then choose “Curve and Surface Accuracy” from the Options list. This option is on by default and is a recommended every time this command is used. Change the option in Parametric Directions to either “1.The new geometry will be “embedded” into the solid after the “thicken” operation. Update Other. Hint: You can increase the diameter of a hole by choosing all the surfaces of the hole. Hint: You can create a cylindrical region for meshing around a hole by choosing all the surfaces of the hole. etc. and then boolean it into a different solid). Add .

4.. etc.4. For example.2013 . Remove Face.2. Simply select the surfaces to remove (surfaces that create fillets.htm 25. and the faces will be removed from the solid. Remove Face.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.2. 3.com Customer Support: http://support.). chamfers.femap.. tabs. ..12 Geometry. cut-outs. Solid.12 Geometry. Geometry > 3..4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.ugs.Introduction Page 117 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www.4.2 Solids > 3.. allows you to “Remove a face” from a solid..09. Examples file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. holes. bosses. a hole can be removed (material will be added to fill-in the hole) by choosing to “remove” the interior faces that make up the “sides” of the hole or a boss can be removed (material is taken away) by choosing to remove a surface that makes the “side” of a boss. FEMAP will automatically “fill-in” or “remove” the portion of the solid that was represented by the chosen face. Solid.

htm 25. Remove.ugs. Solid. Solid.Introduction Page 118 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3. Geometry > 3.4.com Customer Support: http://support.2.13 Geometry.4.2. . Geometry > 3. First select the base solid (the one to be modified).. The subtracted solids are removed from the model..4.2. 3.4.2. modifies one solid by subtracting other solids from it. FEMAP intersects all selected solids to form one solid composed of the volumes of all selected solids.2013 . Add. connected solids.14 Geometry. 3.13 Geometry...4... forms one solid from multiple..14 Geometry.. Solid.ugs.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.femap. Note: If a solid is not connected to any of the other chosen solids. Example FEMAP Product Info: http://www. . Add. Solid. The only input required for these commands are the solids which are selected through the standard entity selection dialog box.2 Solids > 3.femap.2 Solids > 3..4.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3. it will not be added and will remain as a separate entity. Example file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Remove. FEMAP removes material common to the solids from the first solid (the base solid).com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. and then select the solids to subtract..com Customer Support: http://support.09...

2.femap.4.Introduction Page 119 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www.4.htm 25....femap. Geometry > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. You are first asked to pick the base solid..2.4.. .4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.16 Geometry.4. Solid.2 Solids > 3... Geometry > 3.4.similar to the common command except that it forms multiple solids: one from the shared volumes of each “embedded” solid and one from the remaining volume of the base solid. Add except it creates a solid from the shared volumes between two solids instead of the total volumes of both.ugs.2013 . Solid.. Solid. 3.2.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.com Customer Support: http://support.com Customer Support: http://support. Solid.. Embed..09. 3. Common. then any number of solids to embed. Example FEMAP Product Info: http://www.16 Geometry. .2 Solids > 3.2. Solid. Common. Example file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.4. Embed. is very similar to Geometry.15 Geometry..15 Geometry..ugs.

4. If you need to mesh the entire model due to non-symmetric loading conditions.2.ugs.4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Most solid models in CAD systems will be of the entire model to generate drawings....com Customer Support: http://support.. Geometry > 3...2. .femap.ugs. Slice.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3. Intersect. You will be able to produce a much better mesh in less time. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. FEMAP will then slice the solid and form two individual solids from the first solid.com Customer Support: http://support..com Customer Support: http://support. Solid...2.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.. Solid.4. You will also be guaranteed to obtain a symmetrical mesh Hint: FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Intersect. than if you attempt to mesh the entire part. 3.femap.17 Geometry.4. forms two solids by using a cutting plane to slice through a solid.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.2 Solids > 3..4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.2 Solids > 3.2. This command simply requires you to select the solid.2 Solids > 3..18 Geometry. Geometry > 3. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630..automatically breaks surfaces on selected solids at their intersections.4. Slice Match.ugs. Solid.2.4. Solid.09. and define the cutting plane using the standard plane definition dialog box. Slice.4.18 Geometry.femap.4.2013 .Introduction Page 120 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. You can use this command to slice the part through its plane(s) of symmetry and produce a much smaller and efficient model for meshing and analyzing. simply mesh the sliced portion and then reflect the mesh. The figure shows the surfaces of two solids before and after intersection.htm 25. .com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3. This command is extremely useful when importing CAD files of symmetrical parts. Solid. 3.17 Geometry.19 Geometry.

3.2. Solid.Introduction Page 121 of 707 3. by pressing OK.2 Solids > 3.4.09.4. Solid..htm 25.21 Geometry.femap. the surface normal will be used as the embedding direction.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3..2. The face can be planar or curved.. Geometry > 3.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Slice Along Face.ugs.. Usually you will simply want to use the defaults.4.4.2. .4.com Customer Support: http://support. Slice Along Face... Slice Match.com Customer Support: http://support. Solid. but it will leave matching faces on both solids.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3.20 Geometry...2. .com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.21 Geometry.20 Geometry.2013 . You must first select a face. The faces can then be matched for meshing using the mesh size commands.similar to the slice match command but a face of the solid is selected instead of a plane. This command is useful for making multiple solid meshes (tetrahedrons or hexahedrons) that can be sewn together using the coincident nodes command.. Embed Face.19 Geometry.similar to the solid slice command. Geometry > 3. Embedding Direction and Distance The direction that the face will be embedded can be determined or specified in a number of ways.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. the direction can be automatically determined from the plane normal. then you will have several optional methods that you can use to embed the face. Solid.. .. If you are embedding a planar face.ugs.femap.. 3. Solid.extrudes a face into a new solid and embeds it into the solid that contained the face..2. If you choose Automatic.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.4. and the face will be embedded through file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.2 Solids > 3. Embed Face.4..

4. you will see a list of alternate ways that you can attempt to repair your geometry. Geometry > 3.4 Creating Solids or Volumes > 3. Check Geometry Once you have cleaned geometry. If a portion of your solid appears inaccurate. is used to “cleanup” a solid. Remove Redundant Geometry Redundant geometry is geometry that is not required to define the volume of the solid. These options give you more control over repairing specific problems.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.. This option is only available with Parasolid geometry. you will simply be asked for an offset distance. Advanced Cleanup If you press the Advanced Cleanup button.4. Remove Sliver Surfaces “Slivers” are small faces that are created because of numerical inaccuracies in Boolean or other solid modeling operations. points used to split curves. If you choose Specify Offset.2. curves on holes will also be used.. If you select a curved surface. FEMAP will ask you for a direction vector to use for the extrusion. You may even want to do this without any of the other options just to check the validity of a solid that you are creating.femap. This command will check the solid.. In most cases in the dialog box. it is often good to check it to be confident that it is still a good.holes are ignored. to specify the characteristic size where you want cleaning to take place. especially if you removed sliver surfaces. If you choose Specify Direction.4. and remove any extraneous features which are not part of the actual solid. usable solid. they can cause great difficulties in meshing. use this command to see if you can remove it. That means choosing the Outline Only mode. Solid. this command will take all selected geometry and adjust the geometry’s internal scale factor to the Solid Geometry Scale Factor that is currently set in File. This option removes these surfaces and attempts to restitch your solid without them.22 Geometry.com Customer Support: http://support.09. Curves In most cases.ugs. but may have developed during export from a CAD package or from Boolean operations on it. this geometry will be removed. Do not use this option if you have imprinted curves or performed some of the Note: matching commands since imprinted curves are considered extraneous and will be removed. resulting in a simplified solid. or multiple surfaces that are all really part of the same underlying geometric surface. If you check this option.2 Solids > 3. The sides of the solid are projected normal to the original surface.22 Geometry. If a planar face is selected FEMAP uses the face normals as the extrusion direction. you will see a check box to turn a specific cleanup option on or off. or drawn incorrectly. Preferences under the Geometry preference.. Cleanup. Match Model Scale Factor If you have a model containing geometry in more than one scale factor. so any geometry that is “inside” the holes will be sliced out of the embedded solid.. Typically these faces are much smaller than the other faces that define your solid. you will want to embed the entire face. They will often completely prevent a part from being hex meshed. where only the outline of the face is used . the resulting embedded solid will not be a simple extrusion.2013 . Examples of this could be curves that have been imprinted in a face to split it into regions. you will be asked for a vector to use for both the direction and the distance to embed. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630..htm 25. The surface will be offset through that distance and embedded. If you choose All Curves. Solid. Cleanup.2. . along with an associated tolerance (if appropriate).Introduction Page 122 of 707 your entire solid. 3. If you use this method with non-planar surfaces. While they are small.

If a surface contains self-intersections.com Customer Support: http://support. volumes. sphere or torus.Introduction Page 123 of 707 Cleaning Options “Repair Edges” allows you to specify a tolerance which will be used to repair the edges of your solid. The original B-Spline geometry must match the analytical representation within the specified tolerance or it will not be converted. and closed geometry is made periodic.2013 . “Remove Small Faces” removes small faces. They repair edge and vertex geometry by recalculating geometry that does not meet precisely. then turn off “Allow Surface Modifications” . FEMAP Product Info: http://www. if you check “Remove Surface Self Intersections”.femap.this will leave surface geometry unchanged. This option will also repair misalignment between the axes of analytical surfaces . “Remove Small Edges” removes very short edges which are below the length that you specify.5 Copying Geometry 3. Small Feature Options “Remove Spikes” attempts to heal surface trimming curves that have spikes as shown.ugs. If you are concerned that surface geometry be preserved at all costs. then surface or curve G1 discontinuities will be removed. then additional cleaning options are performed before stitching . and then connect them properly to form the new copies. If “Merge Edges” is on.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. If “Smooth or Split Discontinuities” is checked. Curves can be simplified to lines.09. In addition to simply stitching. if you turn on “Heal Surfaces”. The tolerance you specify is the tolerance to which the edges will be recomputed to meet the other constraints imposed by the model . curves. cylinder. two very nearly coplanar surfaces are made planar. any redundant edges in the model will be removed. that fits completely within a sphere of the radius that you specify in this option. then after healing the inaccurate edges. then an attempt will be made to fit surfaces in any remaining holes in the model to close it into a solid. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. and solids. which lie outside its face boundaries then this portion of the surface will be removed by splitting the surface. This may result in the surface being split into several surfaces. These are faces with high aspect ratios. Similarly. surface tangency. surfaces. Geometry > 3. When you copy geometry that is comprised of other geometry (such as surfaces which are comprised of curves). A surfaces can be simplified to a plane. Likewise.for example. cone. spheres and torii are corrected. B-Spline curves and surfaces are converted. whenever possible. they may only be small in one direction and long in the other. Geometry Simplification Options If “Convert to Analytic Geometry” is on. very small mismatches between the radii of cones.self intersections of curves will be removed.htm 25. If the change in tangent is greater than the tolerance then the face or edge will be split at the surface’s or curve’s discontinuity.for example. and self-intersections in sharp corners of 3-sided surfaces will be removed. and small area. including points. A small face is defined as any face. and repairs should be confined to getting face boundaries repaired as far as possible. Surface Heal and Stitch Options These options allow you to stitch surfaces into a solid. circles or ellipses. to simplified analytic geometry.5 Copying Geometry FEMAP provides robust tools to make duplicates of existing geometry. Each of these capabilities is described in more detail below. There are five commands which can be used to make duplicates of existing geometry: • Copy • Radial Copy • Scale • Rotate • Reflect These operations can be performed with any geometry. If “Replace Missing Geometry” is on. cylinders. Edge Healing Options These options attempt to heal inaccuracies in the edges of a solid or surface. If “Smooth or Split Discontinuities” is checked. no matter what shape. “Remove Sliver Faces” also removes insignificant faces. If the discontinuity has a change in tangent of less than the tolerance that you specify then the discontinuity will be smoothed. or automatically explode and restitch an existing solid. however in the case of slivers. G1-discontinuities in curves and surfaces will be removed. FEMAP will automatically copy these “framework” entities.

at the same distance from the previous copy. No curve-based loads or constraints will be applied to the copied curves. Color and Layer .htm 25.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Loads. not from the previous repetition. or solids.1 Geometry. You can specify the vector in any convenient coordinate system. and FEMAP will display the following dialog box.. the Mesh Sizes.1 Geometry. Radial Copy Commands file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. . If you select the Update Every Repetition option however.e. Copying in Non Rectangular Coordinates FEMAP always creates copies along the vector that you specify. the copied entities will use the “Active” Color and Layer in the model for that specific entity type. Note: When using “Geometry. Point). the copied entities will have identical mesh sizing. Repetitions: By default this option is one.5. Curves”. You must use the rotation commands to create rotated copies. FEMAP will only ask you for one vector that will be used to position the copies. based on the direction and length of the vector that you define. Geometry > 3. that is along a straight line. set this option to the number desired. each additional copy will be located along the same vector. Parameters command. FEMAP will always offset the position of the current repetition from the position of the previous repetition. This vector defines both the direction and distance from the selected entities to the first copy.ugs. After selecting the appropriate command for the type of entity you want to select. curves. All Geometry.com Customer Support: http://support.2 Geometry. Copy. You will want to check this option whenever you want to create multiple copies that do not lie along a single vector.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. In this mode. You have the following choices: Match Original: Used to choose what is transferred from the “original entities” to the new “copied entities”. Geometry > 3.5. FEMAP will automatically create local coordinate systems to define the loads and boundary conditions properly. then the copied curves will as well. Copy Commands You can use the copy commands to duplicate existing points. Geometry. This is the same as if you had created new entities using the geometry creation commands (for example. if necessary.femap. the standard entity selection dialog box will appear. Loads. Copy commands require the exact same input.. Copy Commands 3. Constraints.2013 . the copied entities will have the same Color and Layer as the original entities.ugs. You cannot however. you can specify a new vector for each repetition by selecting the Update Every Repetition option. you will see the standard vector definition dialog box.When this option is “on”.when this option is “on”.5 Copying Geometry > 3. creates coincident entities). Mesh Sizes. Copy in Same Location: Creates a copy of the selected entities without specifying a vector to move them (i. Simply choose the desired entities.Introduction Page 124 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. and geometry-based constraints applied. independent of the geometry you are copying. surfaces.com Customer Support: http://support. and choose what is transferred from the “original entities” to the “resulting entities”. Optionally. Constraints option is not available.femap. If you want multiple copies. One repetition will create one copy of each selected entity. Otherwise.09. The “Active” Layer and Color can be controlled using the Tools. After you set the Generation Options and press OK. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. use it to create a copy in a rotated location by choosing the angular direction in a cylindrical coordinate system. geometry-based loads. volumes. Specifying Generation Options The generation options control how many copies FEMAP will make.5 Copying Geometry > 3. This new vector will be used to offset from the original entities you selected. If you specify multiple repetitions. Update Every Repetition: When this option is off. If the original curves have a mesh size applied..5. FEMAP will ask you for a new vector before every repetition.

3 Geometry. to the entity. You must also be careful when using this command with Note: arcs. "Geometry. as those commands did. Note: If you use a scale factor of 1. Scale Menu". you next choose a location which defines the center of the pattern. When you choose one of these commands. Geometry > 3. the resulting copy will be located at the same location as the original in that coordinate direction. Clicking “No” prompts you to choose a vector for constant offset. as shown here. instead of specifying a constant offset from the original. as shown here.5. "Geometry. the Geometry. For this type of operation.5. In this case however. In a three dimensional case. Radial Copy Commands The commands on this menu provide an alternative to the Geometry.7. otherwise the arc formed by the copy may be significantly different than you would expect. the radial distance between each original and the associated copy.5 Copying Geometry > 3. You should typically use the center of the arc as the center of the radial pattern.5. Scale commands are very similar to the Geometry. Scale Commands 3. you must specify the scale factors. Just as in the Geometry. 1.0. to the entity. and a unit (1.1. the new copy is formed by scaling the distance from the center to the original.2. Copy Commands". These commands start by selecting the entities to be copied. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. and defining the generation options. Instead of copying all entities along a constant vector.5. For more information regarding the specifics of using the various generation options refer to Section 3. a coordinate system can also be chosen if the axes of the desired cylinder do not coincide with the global axes. FEMAP will compute a direction vector for each entity which runs from the center that you chose. Scale factors of (1.com Customer Support: http://support. Radial Copy commands use a different. Copy commands.09.3 Geometry. FEMAP will ask a question: Clicking “Yes” allows you to choose a location which defines the center of the radial pattern. This portion of the process is identical to the normal copy commands. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Finally. both the direction and magnitude of these vectors is used. and to define the generation options. For information on specifying scaling factors. Scale Commands The Geometry. These components are multiplied by the scale factors to calculate the final offsets from the center location of the copy. If you use different scale factors in different component directions. They create one or more copies of selected entities. a spherical copy can be made. Scaling can be done in one or more directions.femap. you will be asked to select the entities to be copied. Radial Copy commands. For more information on using various generation options. FEMAP will compute a direction vector for each entity which runs from the center that you chose.2 Geometry. "Modify. In these commands.0) scale factor in the third direction . A cylindrical copy can be accomplished by specifying the same factor in two directions. Finally. offset from a center location. It is used most often to copy arcs and other basic geometry. you must specify the Radial Copy Length. see Section 3. since the copy vector is computed from the “center of the sphere”.ugs.0. these commands are actually a spherical copy. The direction is used to determine the original “copy” vector components. the copy will not lie along the vector from the center to the original.1.htm 25.6. 1.along the axis of the cylinder. surfaces/curves created using the Parasolid modeling engine can also not be selected.2013 . When using the “Move Around Point/Spherical” method. This portion of the process is identical to the normal copy commands.5. Radial Copy commands. Also. By specifying the same scale factor in all three directions. see Section 3.Introduction Page 125 of 707 3.0. radial vector for each entity to be copied. Copy Commands" This command is not available for solids.0) will result in a completely coincident copy of the originals.

and will usually be zero when reflecting geometry. FEMAP displays one additional dialog box that asks for the Change per Repetition.Introduction Page 126 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www.1. and is translated along the axis vector by specified distance. Copy commands. You can specify both a Rotation Angle and a Translation Distance. All of the options in this box are used just as in the Geometry. or they can be on both sides of the plane. FEMAP displays the standard entity selection dialog box to allow you to select the entities you want to copy. you will use the standard entity selection dialog box to choose the entities to be reflected. Instead of copying along a vector. Geometry > 3. FEMAP will display the standard plane selection dialog box.femap. all of the entities that you select will be reflected.com Customer Support: http://support.5 Geometry. you can specify a Trap Width in the Generation Options dialog box. This option is used most often when reflecting elements.5. You can choose any plane that you want.5 Copying Geometry > 3. curves.5. All options work just like they do for Geometry. FEMAP will not make a copy of any selected point or curve if it is closer to the reflection plane than the trap width that you specify. so you can define the reflection plane. you do not have to specify a length for this axis. after you choose the vector. Just remember that the reflected entities will be located on the opposite side of the plane from the original. except that you cannot choose multiple repetitions. surfaces.ugs.htm 25. Unlike the copy command. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. This vector is used to specify the axis that you want to rotate around to generate the copies. They can be on one side. Reflect Commands 3. This is followed by the same Generation Options dialog box.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. As always. If you set the trap width to zero.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Each copy is rotated around the axis of rotation vector by the specified angle (following right-hand rule conventions). these commands rotate the duplicate copies around a vector. Copy Commands"). Rotate Commands Like the Geometry.4 Geometry. you will see the standard vector definition dialog box. Next. these commands create duplicate copies of model entities.com Customer Support: http://support.09. and solids across a plane.ugs. Rotate Commands 3. "Geometry. Copy commands. Instead. It does not matter how your selected entities are oriented with respect to the plane. (See Section 3.ugs.4 Geometry.femap.2013 . Copy command.5.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Following the Generation Options dialog box.5. you will be creating a spiral.5 Copying Geometry > 3.5.femap. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Then FEMAP will display the Generation Options dialog box. Geometry > 3.5 Geometry. Reflect Commands The commands on this menu allow you to generate a portion of your model by reflecting or flipping existing points. If you specify a nonzero translation distance.com Customer Support: http://support. volumes. In addition.

These commands essentially perform Boolean operations on curves. you specify which option to select.1 Curve Operations 3.Introduction Page 127 of 707 Home > Commands > 3. and input the coordinate location in the “Near” inputs. under the Geometry menu.1 Curve Operations The top portion of the Modify menu contains commands that will modify existing curves. either from “scratch” or as some type of duplicate from existing geometry.09.6 Modifying Geometry 3.6 Modifying Geometry The last major sections of commands involve the modification of geometry.ugs. The easiest method to use this option is to position the cursor so it will select the appropriate curve. you can always set the input back to the center location and pick new coordinates.com Customer Support: http://support. When you press the mouse button to select the curve. The bottom section of the Modify menu contains the edit/parameters commands (Edit. Each of these areas and their commands are discussed more thoroughly in the sections below.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Update Other menu).6.6. Note: These curve operations cannot be performed on curves that define a surface or a solid. All these commands are contained under the Modify menu. and the advanced updates (top portion of the Modify. The available commands are: • Modify • Trim • Extend • Break • Join • Fillet • Chamfer Each of these commands are explained below. The curve operation commands are contained on the top section of the Modify menu. Layer). than it is to create the curves from “scratch” in every model. but also so it is near the proper location. By inputting a “Near” location. If you make a mistake. Several commands also require input of a “Near” location. Other Boolean operations are performed directly on the solids menu. The commands on the first section of the Modify menu are specifically designed to manipulate only curves.femap. They are: • curve operations (Trim. It is often easier to modify geometry by using commands to trim or fillet curves. You must delete any entities that reference these curves before you can perform any of these curve operations.htm 25. were used to create new geometric entities. Color.) • move geometry operations • edit/parameters • advanced updates These commands are all contained on the Modify menu. This section deals with the actual modification of geometry. Geometry > 3. Extend. not its creation. These curve operations cannot be performed on curves that define a surface or solid.6 Modifying Geometry > 3. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. These commands can be separated into four specific areas for the purpose. FEMAP will automatically select the curve. etc.2013 . Geometry > 3. while the move geometry commands are contained in the middle section. When trimming or joining curves. several possible solutions may be obtained. Geometry commands explained above. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.

1 Modify. Press More if you want to trim more curves without selecting new cutting curves.com Customer Support: http://support. point at the portion of the curve that you want to remove and click the left mouse button. 3. The location must be specified relative to the coordinate system shown. With extended trim on. This will select both the ID and the Remove Near location. This command does not project curves onto a plane before intersecting . If extended trim is off. cuts curves at the locations where they intersect other curves. Assuming they intersect.com file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. The curves you want to trim must actually intersect. it will also automatically press the OK button and trim the curve.6 Modifying Geometry > 3. Geometry > 3. or a segment on the interior.1 Modify. the cutting curves stop at their end points and intersections can only be found between the end points. Choose OK if this is the only curve that you want to trim with the selected cutting curves. the coordinate system has no impact on this command. cutting curves extend past their end points toward infinity.1. Trim. You can choose as many cutting curves as you like.09.6.. The extended trim option controls how the cutting curves are used.it uses the three dimensional curve definition.1 Curve Operations > 3. By far. you must select the curves that will be used as the cutting edges using the standard entity selection dialog box. you can press OK or More. Trim.Introduction Page 128 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. The portion of the curve closest to the Remove Near location you specify will be removed. Choosing the Curve to Trim After you choose the cutting curves. . the easiest way to use this command is to use your mouse to graphically select the curve. If you double-click the mouse instead.htm 25.1..ugs. the cutting curves always divide the curve that you are trimming into at least two sections. When you have selected the curve and location you want to trim.6.. you will see the following dialog box: You must select the curve you want to trim and define a location (Remove Near) near the portion of the curve that you want to eliminate. This could be one of the ends of the curve.femap. Trimming intersections can be found anywhere along these extended curves. To trim... Examples FEMAP Product Info: http://www.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.2013 . but other than this. While input is set to the ID field. and possibly more.6.femap..

If the location does not lie along the curve. Only standard dialog boxes are used for this command. Normally.2 Modify.6.htm 25... You just end up with two new curves of the same type. must fall within the current end points of the curve that you are trying to break. Geometry > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. the curve is extended along its length to the location that is closest to the coordinates you specified.ugs. In this case.6. This command can either lengthen or shorten the curves depending upon the chosen location. This command only uses standard dialog boxes.6.6 Modifying Geometry > 3. you choose the location with the standard coordinate dialog boxes. You choose the curves to extend using the standard entity selection dialog.6.1. Then...1.. You can also use this command to extend or shrink B-Spline curves.1 Curve Operations > 3.. You cannot use this command to extend the existing curve beyond its end points. moves the end points of one or more curves to a specified location. any curves and any location can be chosen. or its projection. breaking a curve does not change its type.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.com Customer Support: http://support.. you end up with two arcs (a different type of curve) that represent the original circle. 3.. As described above. Extend.femap.Introduction Page 129 of 707 Customer Support: http://support. This command always modifies the end of the curve that is already closest to the specified location. The location that you choose.ugs.. The only exception is when you break a circle. Geometry > 3. You then specify the location using the standard coordinate dialog boxes. 3.6.1.1 Curve Operations > 3. Examples file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. make up the original curve. splits one or more curves into two pieces at a location that you specify.1. and the curve is split at that location. it is projected to the closest location on the curve.2 Modify.09... . Extend.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.2013 . that together. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Break.. . If the location is not along the length of a curve. The location is simply projected onto each curve at the point of closest proximity.3 Modify.6. You select the curves to break using the standard entity selection dialog box. Break.3 Modify.

This command cannot work. The Update 1 and Update 2 options control whether the respective curves will be extended (or shortened) to the join location. It simply extends or shrinks the curves so they will intersect.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. you can specify any location that you want since there will only be a single intersection.ugs. Here you select the two curves. Just like Modify.htm 25.nothing will be updated. If you turn one of these off.. Fillet. do not intersect..6.com Customer Support: http://support. This command cannot be used to create a third curve from the two selected curves.09.Introduction Page 130 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Geometry > 3. that curve will not be updated. the curves are joined at the intersection that is closest to the location you specify. and a location near the intersection where you want to join the curves.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.femap. If you are joining lines. but is not used otherwise.6. Join.6.combines the capabilities found in the trim and extend commands to allow you to quickly connect two intersecting curves.com Customer Support: http://support. For other curve types.1 Curve Operations > 3. the Near location is used to determine which portion of the curves will be kept after they are updated. or the extensions of the curves past their end points.femap. Only one dialog box is required for this command.4 Modify.6 Modifying Geometry > 3. . If an intersection is found the selected curves are either extended or shortened to that common location. if the curves. 3.2013 . Examples FEMAP Product Info: http://www. If the selected curves intersect within their original length.ugs..1.4 Modify. but the other curve will still be extended to the join location.. where multiple intersections are possible.1. The coordinate system can be used for convenience in specifying the location.. the portion of the curve closest to the Near location is kept. Do not turn both off . Join..

com Customer Support: http://support. Since splines cannot be precisely offset. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. the fillet that is created will probably not be tangent to both curves.1 Curve Operations > 3.6. this location is always important. It is always best to do filleting in a view where the curves and the workplane are normal to the screen. The coordinates that you pick are typically in the workplane and if it is skewed relative to the curves that you are filleting.6.femap. turn one or more of these options off. Fillet. Just like the Modify. the end points of the respective curve will be adjusted to be coincident with the ends of the fillet arc.5 Modify. it also chooses between the many possible intersection locations. If it does not. 3. the fillet arc will probably not be tangent to the spline. the other curve should lie in the same plane. the point you choose may not be in the quadrant that you expected. For other curve types. You will have to adjust the position manually or use another technique. like lines. Join command. If you just want to add an arc. • If you attempt to fillet splines. Fillet expects the geometry to be planar. Fillet..5 Modify.2013 . you can choose any fillet radius that you want. The arc is positioned so that it is tangent to both original curves at its end points. The lengths of the original curves can be adjusted so that they just meet the ends of the fillet arc..1. If you are filleting non-intersecting curves.. but not trim the curves..09. As long as the Trim Curve options are on.. circle or spline.. It must lie in the quadrant where you want the fillet arc. only one dialog box is required for this command.6 Modifying Geometry > 3. Since even at a line-to-line intersection there are four possible quadrants for the fillet. or no fillet will be created.ugs.com file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. If you are having trouble creating the arc that you want.1. Examples Limitations You may encounter the following limitations when you are attempting to fillet curves: • If you are going to fillet an arc. connects two curves with an arc of a specified radius. Geometry > 3. .htm 25. and a location that is near the center of the desired fillet. You must choose the two curves to fillet. the fillet radius must be large enough to span the gap between the curves. like two arcs or circles. check the location and alignment of your workplane. the center location of the fillet arc is not calculated precisely. If you are filleting intersecting curves.6.Introduction Page 131 of 707 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. The examples below will show you how to specify this location.

6 Modifying Geometry > 3.com Customer Support: http://support. Chamfer.. As long as the Trim Curve options are on.2 Moving Geometry > 3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. any geometry that reference that geometry is also moved. These commands are also very useful when assembling parts from different models into one large model. Project Menu file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.femap. Fillet command..6.6 Modify. Just like the Modify.09.6 Modifying Geometry > 3. It must lie in the quadrant where you want the chamfer line. The coordinates that you pick are typically in the workplane and if it is skewed relative to the lines that you are chamfering.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. When you move geometry.com Customer Support: http://support.6. check the location and alignment of your workplane. Since even at a line-line intersection there are four possible quadrants for the chamfer. Therefore. Solids menu to perform manipulations on solid entities. The figure shows you how to specify this location.6.6.1 Curve Operations > 3. but not trim the original lines. and a location that is near the center of the desired chamfer. give you the power to make large scale changes to the model with only a few changes to the geometry.6. Each of the individual commands is described in more detail below.femap... the point you choose may not be in the quadrant that you expected. This command is very similar to the Modify..ugs. Note: These commands cannot be used to move entities of solids.6 Modify. Fillet command. the end points of the respective line will be adjusted to be coincident with the ends of the chamfer line.2. however. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. you are actually modifying that surface. It is always best to do chamfering in a view where the lines and the workplane are normal to the screen.Introduction Page 132 of 707 Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3. Geometry > 3. only one dialog box is required.. Geometry > 3. circles or splines). You can move an entire solid.ugs.6.6. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.1. The lengths that you specify are the distances along the curves as shown here. turn one or more of these options off.1 Modify. Chamfer.htm 25. and you can independently control the chamfer length along each curve.2 Moving Geometry FEMAP also has robust tolls for moving geometry. You must use the commands under the Geometry. If you are having trouble creating the chamfer that you want. this location is always important. 3. but you must choose lines (not arcs.1. Geometry > 3. if you move a point that is referenced by a curve on a surface. If you just want to add a line. . The move commands can be separated into five major categories: • Project • Translate (Move) • Rotate • Alignment • Scale Both the Translate and Rotate categories have two capabilities based upon whether you move/rotate to a given position (Move To and Rotate To) or move along or rotate around (Move By and Rotate By) a vector. You can choose any chamfer lengths that you want. You must choose the two lines to chamfer. trims two intersecting lines at a specified distance from their end points and connects the trimmed ends with a new line.2 Moving Geometry 3. These move commands. therefore.2013 .

. Project Menu". Point onto Curve. For the purposes of these commands. Likewise..2013 .. you should avoid projecting onto a surface outside of its defined boundaries. Project. "Modify. This can be helpful if you are projecting points in a plane onto a surface with a high level or curvature and want to keep the spatial relationship between the points intact. For more information on how the projection will be done. which is helpful in cases where the vector was defined in the wrong direction. Modify. moves one or more points onto a surface.2. but not to infinity. FEMAP will ask if it is “OK to Project in Both Directions along Vector (No = Positive Only)?”..2. and all of the selected points will be projected onto it..Introduction Page 133 of 707 3. You then select the curve for the projection.6. . moves one or more points onto a curve.similar to Modify.. this may or may not result in the coordinates that you expected.1. These commands are only used for points (or nodes with finite element data). file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. In all of these commands. Project Menu". . Even though possible.1.. the projection direction will typically be normal to the curve or surface that you are projecting onto.2. and all of the selected points will be projected onto it.htm 25. Point onto Surface except it allows you to use a vector to specify a projection direction instead of always using the surface normal direction. The standard entity selection dialog box is used to choose the points that you want to project. Project. curves extend past their end points toward infinity.6. see Section 3. For more information on how the projection will be done. Project Menu The Project commands update the locations of points by moving them onto a selected curve or surface. Modify..1 Modify.. You can choose any surface. these commands move the entities to the closest location on the curve or surface. The standard entity selection dialog box is used to choose the points that you want to project. Modify.. . Actually however. Point along Vector. and then you must select the appropriate surface. or in the case of an arc. they extend a full 360 degrees. Depending on the surface type. You can choose any curve. see Section 3. surfaces extend past their edge curves. Project. "Modify.6..09. Point onto Surface.. Clicking Yes will extend the vector in both directions. Project.

is the most powerful Move To command. By specifying a non-rectangular coordinate system..htm 25. points. Only those coordinates that are checked will be updated. Other dependent file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.6.. For example. Nodes and Points.2 Modify. Although there are only commands to move coordinate systems. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.2 Moving Geometry > 3.. Project..Introduction Page 134 of 707 Modify.6 Modifying Geometry > 3. Since it is relatively useless to move multiple entities to a single location (they would all be coincident). In most cases. you will not want to check all three coordinates unless you are updating a single point. .. after you choose a location. If you just want to move the coordinate systems that you selected. For example. you can use these commands to move your entire model. Modify. Project. you could use the Move To.. If you did select that option. All of the coordinate systems that you select are updated as you requested.2 Modify. Point onto Plane.. each command allows you to limit the movement to any subset of the three coordinates.) that reference the point. the standard coordinate definition dialog box appears to specify the location to Move To. and nodes.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. you will see the Move To dialog box to select which coordinate (in a specific coordinate system) to update.com Customer Support: http://support. etc. Project. Coord Sys. leaving all Y and Z coordinates in their original locations. Move To Menu 3.2013 . For example.6. you can just update the X coordinates.. the geometry entities (curves.. Point onto Vector. do not choose Move CSys.femap. Move To Menu The Move To commands update the location of some portion of your model. Project. . Point onto Surface except it allows you to specify a 2-D plane (using any “method” in FEMAP) to “project to” instead of an existing planar surface. Not only does it update the location of the coordinate systems that you select.. you can also move to a selected radius or angle. but it can also move all points. .2.ugs.6. Point command to move all nodes to be in a specific plane (i. Finally. similar to Modify. nodes and other coordinate systems that are defined relative to those coordinate systems. are also updated.. Modify. similar to Modify. When you press OK. Geometry > 3. Move To. same value of X)..2.09. when you move a point.. The basic philosophy behind each of these commands is to specify a new coordinate to which selected entities will be moved.. FEMAP would move the coordinate systems you selected plus the dependent entities.e. surfaces. Each command on this menu displays the standard entity selection dialog box so you can choose the entities to move. Point onto Curve except it allows you to specify a vector (using any “method” in FEMAP) representing a straight line between two coordinates to “project to” instead of an existing curve.

e.. Modify. First.3 Modify.2. Update.. Coord Sys command. Again. Move file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.2. The vector you specify must contain both a direction and magnitude. just like the Modify.2. Coord Sys.. this command can quickly move large. If a coordinate system is both selected and dependent on other selected coordinate systems.2. Then. the standard entity selection dialog box is displayed. Use the Rotate commands to rotate your model. . Coord Sys command. The significant difference is that for these commands you specify a vector instead of coordinates. you can also use the Modify.2013 . dependent entities are moved as a rigid body. Move By. If your model was built in a hierarchical manner. see Section 3.6. Curves and any other geometry that reference the selected points will also be moved.09.6.. Move To.. "Modify.. Geometry > 3. For more information. This command only uses two dialog boxes. You should select the entities to be updated. If you want to update the location of a coordinate system but leave the entities that reference it in their original positions. You can define the vector in any convenient coordinate system.femap. Modify. All of the selected entities. . FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. You can not use the Move By commands to rotate your model by specifying a vector in the angular direction of a cylindrical coordinate system. For more information. Point. along a straight line). "Modify. Selected coordinate systems are all moved by the vector that you define. This essentially means that the location of the selected entity is updated by adding the components of the vector.6.com Customer Support: http://support.ugs. All of the entities that you select for modification are moved along (or by) that vector.3. but it will always represent a straight line.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 3. Move To. related portions of your model. since you selected it. it is updated based on your request. Move By Menu 3. Move By Menu These commands are similar to those found on the Move To submenu. Move By in Non-Rectangular Coordinate Systems The Move By commands always move along a vector (i. "Modify.6.3 Modify. and the entities that reference them will be moved by that vector. and any points.2.2 Moving Geometry > 3. Move To Menu". see Section 3. using multiple coordinate systems. see Section 3.2. will move all of the selected coordinate systems. Move To Menu" .2. For more information.6. or other coordinate systems that reference a selected system.6.. moves selected points to a specified coordinate. the standard vector definition dialog box will be displayed.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.htm 25. This can be very powerful if your model is constructed with multi-level coordinate systems. nodes.Introduction Page 135 of 707 entities are moved as a rigid body based on the transformation of the definition coordinate systems.

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By Menu". Modify, Move By Point, Curve, Surface, Volume, Solid... ... moves the selected points, curves, or surfaces and all geometry that references them, by the specified vector. For more information, see Section 3.6.2.3, "Modify, Move By Menu". When you move points that are connected to curves, those curves will be moved also. If you only move some of the points which are attached to a curve, the shape and size of the curve will probably change. Be especially careful when moving points that define arcs or circles. Small movements can sometimes lead to large changes in the curve definition.

Modify, Move By, Point;

Modify, Move By, Surface;

Modify, Move By, Solid

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.2 Moving Geometry > 3.6.2.4 Modify, Rotate To Menu

3.6.2.4 Modify, Rotate To Menu The commands on this menu rotate selected entities. Unlike the Modify, Move To commands, these commands treat the selected entities as a rigid body. All of them are rotated by the same angle. The Modify, Rotate To commands require four dialog boxes. First, the standard entity selection dialog box is displayed. You can select all of the entities that you want to rotate. Then, the standard vector definition dialog box defines the axis of rotation. Only the location of the base and the direction of this vector are important. The length is not used. Finally, the standard coordinate definition dialog box is displayed twice. The first time, you must define the coordinates of the starting point of the rotation. The second time, you must define the ending point of the rotation. Using these coordinates, and the axis of rotation, FEMAP will determine the rotation angle.

Modify, Rotate To, Coord Sys... ... just like the Modify, Move commands, will rotate all selected coordinate systems. Points and other coordinate systems that reference a selected system are also moved as a rigid body. Their movement is based on the motion of their definition coordinate systems. This can be very powerful if your model is constructed with multi-level coordinate systems. For more information, see Section 3.6.2.4, "Modify, Rotate To Menu". Modify, Rotate To Point, Curve, Surface, Volume, Solid... ... rotates selected geometry, and all other geometry that references them, around the specified vector. For more information, see Section 3.6.2.4, "Modify, Rotate To Menu".

Modify, Rotate To, Point;

Modify, Rotate To, Surface;

Modify, Rotate To, Solid

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3.6.2.5 Modify, Rotate By Menu These commands are similar to the commands on the Modify, Rotate To menu but you must specify a rotation angle instead of locations. You can also specify an optional Translation Distance with these commands. By combining both rotation about, and translation along the axis of rotation, you can move entities along a “screw-thread” or helix shaped path. Simply select the entities, chose a vector, and define the Rotation Angle and the Translation Distance.

The selected entities will be rotated (following right-hand rule conventions) around the axis of rotation by the specified angle. Simultaneously, they will be translated, along the same vector, by the specified distance. The actual length of the vector is not used. If you specify a zero rotation angle, these commands will simply translate along the vector - much like the Modify, Move By commands.

Modify, Rotate By, Coord Sys... ... just like the Modify, Rotate To commands, will rotate all of the selected coordinate systems. Points or other coordinate systems that reference a selected system are also moved as a rigid body. Their movement is based on the transformation of the selected coordinate systems. This can be very powerful if your model is constructed with multi-level coordinate systems. For more information, see Section 3.6.2.5, "Modify, Rotate By Menu". Modify, Rotate By Point, Curve, Surface, Volume, Solid... ... rotates the selected points, and all geometry that references them, around the specified vector. For more information, see Section 3.6.2.5, "Modify, Rotate By Menu" When you rotate points that are connected to curves, those curves will rotate also. If you only select some of the points which are attached to a curve, the shape and size of the curve will probably change. Be especially careful when rotating points that define arcs or circles. Small movements can often lead to large changes in the curve definition.

Modify, Rotate By, Point;

Modify, Rotate By, Surface;

Modify, Rotate By, Solid

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.2 Moving Geometry > 3.6.2.6 Modify, Align Menu

3.6.2.6 Modify, Align Menu These commands combine the capabilities of the Modify, Move and Rotate commands to provide a simple way of aligning portions of your model. Only three dialog boxes are necessary.

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First, you select the entities that you want to align using the standard entity selection dialog box. Next you need to specify two vectors using the vector definition dialog boxes. The first vector defines the original position and orientation that will be aligned. The second vector defines new or desired position and orientation. FEMAP will first move the entities that you selected from the origin of the first vector to the origin of the second vector. Then, FEMAP will rotate the entities to the new orientation. This is accomplished by a rotation based on the angle between the vectors. If you simply want to use this command as an alternate method of rotation, make sure both vectors have the same origin. If you do not, the entities will be translated before they are rotated Modify, Align by CSys... ... is just like the Move and Rotate commands. It will align all of the coordinate systems that you select, plus the entities that are defined relative to those systems. No option is available to skip alignment of the referencing entities. Modify, Align Point, Curve, Surface, Volume, Solid... ... aligns the selected geometry, and all geometry that references them, using the two vectors. For more information, see Section 3.6.2.6, "Modify, Align Menu".

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.2 Moving Geometry > 3.6.2.7 Modify, Scale Menu

3.6.2.7 Modify, Scale Menu These commands are used to change the size of your model. You specify a relative scaling factor and a point to scale around. FEMAP will adjust the selected coordinates appropriately. Like other modification commands, entities which reference the selected entities which you have selected to scale will also be scaled. Coordinate systems cannot be scaled. The first dialog box used by these commands is the standard entity selection dialog. You must select all of the entities that you wish to scale. After you press OK, FEMAP will display the standard coordinate definition dialog box. FEMAP will scale your model relative to these base coordinates. The equation used for the scaling is:

Finally, FEMAP displays the Scale dialog box which requires input of a coordinate system as well as scale factors. You can specify three different scale factors, one for each coordinate direction. For any coordinate direction that you do not want to scale, you must use a scale factor of 1.0. Scale factors that are larger than 1.0 increase the physical size of your model. Scale factors smaller than 1.0 decrease its size. You can use a negative scale factor to reflect the entities about the base location. Similarly, a scale factor of 0.0, will move all entities to the base coordinate, just like the Modify, Move To commands All scaling is done in the coordinate system that you select. The coordinate directions are along the axes of this system. If you select a non-rectangular system, you can scale your model radially or tangentially.

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or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada)

Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.3 Edit/Parameters

3.6.3 Edit/Parameters The first three commands in the third section of the Modify menu (Edit, Color, and Layer) enable you to change specific items in the geometry. Each of these commands are described below.

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.3 Edit/Parameters > 3.6.3.1 Modify, Edit Commands

3.6.3.1 Modify, Edit Commands The commands on the Modify, Edit menu are used to edit or “recreate” entities in your model. These commands are typically used when you need to perform modifications to a single or a few entities. You will be prompted for input for each entity selected. Therefore, to use this command to modify hundreds of entities, can be quite time consuming. For these type of gross changes to the model, please see the other Modify commands in this section of the Modify menu (Color, Layer, Update Elements and Update Other commands). For geometry, this command can only be used to modify points and surface boundaries (and coordinate systems). Each command first asks you to select the entities you wish to edit. As always, the standard entity selection dialog box is used. Following your selections, FEMAP simply displays the same dialog box (or boxes) used by the related command in the Geometry menu which you used to originally create the entities. In this case however, all of the data fields default to the current values for the selected entities. For example, if you choose Edit Point and then select points 1, 3 and 5, three additional dialog boxes will be displayed, one at a time. The first dialog box will display the coordinates of point 1. You can change them, or just press OK to accept the current values. Then dialog boxes for points 3 and 5 will be displayed. If you press Cancel at any time, you will immediately return to the FEMAP menu. Any entities that you had previously changed (and pressed OK) will still be changed.

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.3 Edit/Parameters > 3.6.3.2 Modify, Color Commands

3.6.3.2 Modify, Color Commands The commands on this submenu are used to modify the color of one or more selected entities of a specific type. All of these commands work in a similar fashion. Each of these commands uses the standard entity selection dialog box to select the entities to be modified. Then the standard Color Palette dialog box is displayed. The default color, will be the current color of the selected entity with the minimum ID. You can select a color, then click OK to change the color of all selected entities to that color. Alternatively, you can click the Random... button in the Color Palette dialog box (only available when using the Modify, Color... commands) to display the Color Assignment dialog box.

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Choose “Single Color” to have all selected entities be changed to the selected color. Choose “Multiple Colors By ID” (default) to have a random color applied to each entity. Alternatively, you can enter a value for “Color Match in Range” to create “ranges” of IDs to color with a different random color. For example, setting the range to a value of 1000 would make entities 0 to 1000 one color, 1001 to 2000 another, etc. Choose “Multiple Colors By Type” to have a random color applied to each entity of a particular “type”. Each entity has various types. For points, the types are either “FEMAP Points” or “Parasolid Points”. For Curves, they are “FEMAP Curves” (wireframe geometry such as Lines, Arcs, Circles, Splines, BSplines, Solids, and Combined) or “Parasolid Curves” (Edges). For Surfaces, there are “FEMAP Surfaces” (include Bilinear, Ruled, Revolution, Coons, Bezier, Solid, B-Spline, and Boundary) or “Parasolid Surfaces” (Faces). For Solids, there are Sheet Solids, Solids, and General Bodies. For Coordinate Systems, the types are Rectangular, Cylindrical, and Spherical. Choose “Multiple Colors by Group” assigns colors based on the ID of the group that contains the entities. If an entity is in multiple groups, the highest group ID is used. “Limit Groups” can be used to only consider certain groups (by default, all groups are used). Anything NOT in any group is also given a different color. For more information on the Color Palette, see Section 4.3.5, "Color Palette" of the FEMAP User Guide. You can also use the Modify, Edit commands to change colors, but these commands will be much quicker if you are changing multiple entities to the same color.

Modify, Color, Point;

Modify, Color, Curve;

Modify, Color, Surface

Modify, Color, Solid;

Modify, Color, Coord Sys

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.3 Edit/Parameters > 3.6.3.3 Modify, Layer Commands

3.6.3.3 Modify, Layer Commands The commands on this submenu are used to modify the layer of one or more selected entities of a specific type. These commands are very much like those on the Modify, Color menu. First, you select the entities you want to modify using the standard entity selection dialog box. Then, instead of selecting from the Color Palette, FEMAP will prompt you to choose a new layer number from the list of available layers. All of the selected entities will be modified to the specified layer. Again, Modify, Edit can be used to change layers, but this command is faster for multiple entities.

Modify, Layer, Point;

Modify, Layer, Curve;

Modify, Layer, Surface

Modify, Layer, Solid;

Modify, Layer, Coord Sys

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.3 Edit/Parameters > 3.6.3.4 Modify, Renumber Menu

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3.6.3.4 Modify, Renumber Menu The commands on this submenu are used to renumber the IDs of one or more selected geometry (points, curves, surfaces, volumes and solids).

Each of these commands uses the standard entity selection dialog box to select the entities to be renumbered. After you press OK, the Renumber To dialog box is displayed. You select a new Starting ID and Increment. The first entity to be renumbered is changed to the starting ID. The increment is then added to the starting ID before each subsequent entity is renumbered. Refer to Section 4.8.2.5, "Modify, Renumber Menu" for more information.

Modify, Renumber, Point;

Modify, Renumber, Curve;

Modify, Renumber, Surface

Modify, Renumber, Solid;

Modify, Renumber, Coord Sys

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.4 Advanced Updates - Modify, Update Other Commands

3.6.4 Advanced Updates - Modify, Update Other Commands The commands on this menu are used to update parameters which are referenced by one or more selected entities. Unlike the commands on the Modify, Color and Modify, Layer menus, the parameters that are updated by these commands are only applicable to one entity type. All of these commands work in a similar fashion, but since the parameters that they update vary, each command is documented in its own section.

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.4 Advanced Updates - Modify, Update Other Commands > 3.6.4.1 Modify, Update Other, Point Definition CSys...

3.6.4.1 Modify, Update Other, Point Definition CSys... ... works just like Modify, Update CSys, Definition CSys, except that you select points to update instead of coordinate Systems. If you want to create a new coordinate system while using this command, simply click the “Coordinate System” Icon Button in the Select Coordinate System... dialog box.

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.4 Advanced Updates - Modify, Update Other Commands > 3.6.4.2 Modify, Update Other, BSpline Order...

3.6.4.2 Modify, Update Other, BSpline Order... ... is used to change the order of B-Spline curves. B-Spline curves created in FEMAP will automatically default to an order of 3. Higher order splines can provide some shape smoothing, but may also cause sharp fluctuations for splines that have been driven through particular points. This command should be used with some care in these circumstances. The maximum order for any B-Spline is either the number of points (a mathematical limit) or ten (a FEMAP limit), whichever is smaller.

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.4 Advanced Updates - Modify, Update Other Commands > 3.6.4.3 Modify, Update Other, BSpline Knots...

3.6.4.3 Modify, Update Other, BSpline Knots... ... is used to insert control points on the selected B-Splines. This command provides you with a powerful tool to modify the curvature and smoothness of a particular curve by inserting control points at precise locations. You simply select the curve(s) to update and then enter the location of the Knot (control point).

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.4 Advanced Updates - Modify, Update Other Commands > 3.6.4.4 Modify, Update Other, Reverse Curve...

3.6.4.4 Modify, Update Other, Reverse Curve... ... enables you to reverse the direction of a curve. This command cannot be used on any curves that are referenced by surfaces, therefore no solid curves can be reversed. This option can be useful when creating curves to model entities that require a certain direction of the curves (for example, curves for an ABAQUS rigid surface). The only input to this command is the curves to reverse.

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.4 Advanced Updates - Modify, Update Other Commands > 3.6.4.5 Modify, Update Other, Nonmergeable Curve...

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3.6.4.5 Modify, Update Other, Nonmergeable Curve... ... allows you to designate curves as “non-mergeable”, meaning the curves will not be “merged” into a surface or solid and deleted during a clean-up operation. Clean-up operations will often occur as a part of stitching a solid, performing certain solid boolean operations, or using the Geometry, Solid, Cleanup command. This command can also be used to move “split-points” on fully circular curves to more desirable positions. In order for this to be effective, manipulate the curves until the break points are positioned, designate the curves as “non-mergeable”, then use the stitch, boolean, or clean-up commands to have the new positions be used for split lines in a feature (i.e. a hole).

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.4 Advanced Updates - Modify, Update Other Commands > 3.6.4.6 Modify, Update Other, Boundary on Surface...

3.6.4.6 Modify, Update Other, Boundary on Surface... ... is used to map a boundary surface, which is typically planar, onto a surface. This command enables you to provide curvature to any boundary surface. When you select this command, you will be asked if it is OK to map onto a surface. If you say Yes, you must then select the surface and the boundary will be mapped to it. If you say No, any connections to a surface which the boundary had previously are removed. Therefore, you can use this command to either attach a boundary surface to a surface, or remove a connection.

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.4 Advanced Updates - Modify, Update Other Commands > 3.6.4.7 Modify, Update Other, Surface Normal...

3.6.4.7 Modify, Update Other, Surface Normal... ... is used to reverse the normal of sheet solids. To begin, you simply select the sheet solid where you want to reverse the normal, using the standard entity selection dialog box. Then FEMAP will reverse the surface normal without further user input. This command works on solid surfaces only.

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.6 Modifying Geometry > 3.6.4 Advanced Updates - Modify, Update Other Commands > 3.6.4.8 Modify, Update Other, Solid Facetting...

3.6.4.8 Modify, Update Other, Solid Facetting... ... can be used to specify parameters in FEMAP which will control the number of facets on solids in your model. The values which appear in the Update Solid Facetting dialog box are the default values for facetting. Angle Error is a measure of the angle between the tangent of each facet at the point it touches the edge of the solid and the chord of each facet. Chord Error is a measure of the length of the chord of each facet to the distance it is away from the edge of the solid at the middle

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of the chord. Curve Factor is used to improve the curve accuracy of attached curves to the surfaces. Essentially, FEMAP takes the values specified for solid facetting and changes the curve accuracy to be the Curve Factor value times more accurate. This allows you to create very accurate curve representations without having to drive the solid facetting up to far, which could impact performance. The Cross Hatching options allow you to specify the number of cross-hatching lines will be seen on each surface of the solid when in Wireframe mode. To improve performance, you may want to raise the values of Angle Error and/or Chord Error, while making them lower will improve facet accuracy to the geometry.

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Home > Commands > 3. Geometry > 3.7 Deleting Geometry

3.7 Deleting Geometry The commands on the Delete, Geometry menu are all used to delete entities. All commands will delete entities from your model. Since most of the commands on this menu work in a very similar fashion, the documentation for the entire menu is given in this section. Deleting From Your Model If you want to delete any type of entity in your model, all you need to do is select the appropriate command (based on the entity type) from this menu. The standard entity selection dialog box will then be displayed to let you select the entities you wish to delete. When you complete your selection, and press OK, you will be asked to confirm that you really want to delete the entities. This final question will also let you know how many entities have been selected. Answering Ye, will delete the entities. Choosing No will simply cancel the command. You may also use the Delete, All or Delete, Geometry All command to remove all geometry from the model. When you choose this command, FEMAP will ask you to confirm that you really want to delete all geometry (and analysis model if you select Delete All). If you answer Yes, all geometry will be removed from the model. If you answer No, the command is canceled. The Delete, Geometry All command is useful for removing geometry from a meshed model when it is no longer of use (assuming you do not want to constrain or load geometry). No checking is performed to see if any entities are considered nondeletable since all geometry is removed. Non-Deletable Entities Sometimes when you try to delete, you will receive a message that a number of non-deletable entities have been skipped. These entities are skipped because FEMAP protects you from deleting entities which are needed by other entities in your model. For example, a point is non-deletable if it is connected to one or more curves. Similarly a curve is non-deletable if it has a load attached to it. To delete these non-deletable entities, you must first delete all of the entities which reference them.The following table lists the entities that can cause an entity to be non-deletable: When you are trying to delete... Point Curve Surface Could be referenced by...

Curves, loads, (solids) Surfaces, loads, (solids) Solids, volumes, surfaces, curves, loads

Hint:

You can use this feature to great advantage in “cleaning up” a model. For example, if you want to get rid of all of the unused points, simply choose Delete, Point, and select all points. This may seem dangerous, but in fact only those points which are not referenced by any other geometry or loads will be deleted. If you attempt to delete an entity, and FEMAP says it is non-deletable, and you believe that there are no connections to it, perform a File, Rebuild. This will check all connections in the model, and verify whether there are connections to this entity.

Deleting Geometry Icons

Delete, Geometry, Point...;

Delete, Geometry, Curve...;

Delete, Geometry, Surface...

Delete, Geometry, Solid...; After You Delete

Delete, Model, Coord Sys...

When you delete entities from a FEMAP model, the space that they occupied is simply marked as empty and available for reuse. The model file does not decrease in size. Normally, as long as you are going to create additional data, this is not a problem since the space will be reused. In some cases however, when you delete a lot of data you may want to immediately remove that empty space from your model and reduce the size of your model file.

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The File, Rebuild command can do just that. Choose the File, Rebuild command, then press Yes to perform a full rebuild and compact the model. If you had blocks of empty space, they will be removed and your model will decrease in size. You should only use this option after you delete large blocks of data (i.e., Output). FEMAP cannot usually compact space if you have only deleted one or two scattered entities, and the savings will not be worth the time it takes to perform the command.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling

4. Finite Element Modeling The Model menu provides the basic commands for creating finite element information in your model. It also lets you set up an analysis case for certain solvers. This topic describes how to use the sub-menus and commands under the Model menu. It includes these sections: • Section 4.1, "Creating Coordinate Systems" (Coordinate systems are separated from the finite element information in this structure because they are applicable for both geometry and finite element information.) • Section 4.2, "Creating Finite Element Entities" (on the Model menu) • Section 4.3, "Creating Loads And Constraints" (on the Model menu) • Section 4.4, "Creating Connections and Regions" (on the Connect menu) • Section 4.5, "Creating Aeroelastic Entities" (on the Model menu) • Section 4.6, "Using Optimization Analysis" (on the Model menu) • Section 4.7, "Working with Functions" (on the Model menu) • Section 4.8, "Modifying FEA Entities" (on the Modify menu) • Section 4.9, "Deleting FEA Entities" (on the Delete menu) • Section 4.10, "Preparing for Analysis" (on the Model menu) For information on the Model, Output sub-menu, see Section 8.5, "Output Manipulation".

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.1 Creating Coordinate Systems

4.1 Creating Coordinate Systems Coordinate systems are applicable for both finite element information and geometry. In general, coordinate systems can greatly simplify input to your model. They are also a convenient way to update the position of geometry and finite elements. If you use the Modify, Move commands to move coordinate systems, all geometry defined in that coordinate system will move with it - even other coordinate systems. In this manner, you can create a hierarchy of coordinate systems which greatly simplify movement of geometry. The methods of creating coordinate systems are explained below.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.1 Creating Coordinate Systems > 4.1.1 Model, Coord Sys...

4.1.1 Model, Coord Sys... ... allows you to define coordinate systems for coordinate, vector or plane entry or to align nodal degrees of freedom or material axes. Coordinate Systems 0 (Global Rectangular), 1 (Global Cylindrical), and 2 (Global Spherical) are always defined. You can create any additional coordinate systems that you need for your model with this command. When you choose this command you will see the Define Coordinate System dialog box, which allows you to define numerous parameters which determine the type of coordinate system to be created. ID, Title, Color/Palette and Layer These options set parameters for the coordinate system to be created. Titles can be up to 79 characters long. Ref CSys The coordinate system you create will be defined in this coordinate system. This will also be the default coordinate system for coordinate or vector definition - although you can change that system when those dialog boxes are displayed. The reference coordinate system is utilized to create a hierarchy of coordinate systems which can be used in later Modify, Move commands. Type Determines the type of coordinate system that will be created. Coordinate specification for each of the types is shown in Section 4.3.2, "Coordinate Definition"in the FEMAP User Guide.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.1 Creating Coordinate Systems > 4.1.1 Model, Coord Sys... > 4.1.1.1 Angles Method of Creating Coordinate Systems...

4.1.1.1 Angles Method of Creating Coordinate Systems... ... allows you to specify coordinates using the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes to define the coordinate system origin. The orientation of the coordinate system is then specified by three rotation angles, around the reference coordinate system directions. All angles are entered in degrees. Rotations about multiple axes are interpreted as a rotation about the reference coordinate system X-axis, then the rotated Y-axis and finally the rotated Z-axis, as shown here.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.1 Creating Coordinate Systems > 4.1.1 Model, Coord Sys... > 4.1.1.2 Workplane Method of Creating a Coordinate System

4.1.1.2 Workplane Method of Creating a Coordinate System This method of creating a coordinate system simply creates a coordinate system by placing the X-Y axes at the X-Y axes of the current workplane. The Z axis is created as the positive normal to the workplane. Since this command uses the current workplane, no additional input is required.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.1 Creating Coordinate Systems > 4.1.1 Model, Coord Sys... > 4.1.1.3 Coordinates Method of Creating a Coordinate System

4.1.1.3 Coordinates Method of Creating a Coordinate System There are three methods to create a coordinate system using coordinate locations. Each of these methods requires you to define three sets of coordinates using the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes. The first set of coordinates defines the coordinate system origin. The final two sets orient the coordinate system axes. The methods are titled XY Locate, YZ Locate, and ZX Locate. These names correspond to the orientation axes that you define. For example, for XY Locate, you specify coordinates on the X axis and coordinates in the XY plane. The final axes are calculated from the three locations that you define.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.1 Creating Coordinate Systems > 4.1.1 Model, Coord Sys... > 4.1.1.4 Axes Methods of Creating Coordinate Systems

4.1.1.4 Axes Methods of Creating Coordinate Systems Just like the Locate methods, the Axes methods require three inputs. Again you specify coordinates for the origin. Then instead of locations on the axes, you specify vectors in the direction of the axes, using the standard vector definition dialog boxes. The methods are titled XY Axes, YZ Axes, and ZX Axes, which correspond to the orientation axes that you define. Again, just like for XY Locate, for XY Axes, you specify a vector along the X axis and a vector in the XY plane. Always specify meaningful titles. They are shown along with the ID in the drop-down list boxes used for selection throughout FEMAP.

Hint:

Note:

In general, you can use any convenient method of entering the coordinates or vectors to define coordinate systems. However, you can not enter colinear or coincident coordinates or vectors, since they would not fully specify the coordinate system orientation.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.2 Creating Finite Element Entities

4.2 Creating Finite Element Entities These commands allow creation of finite element entities for your model. There are five commands contained under this section: Node, Element, Material, Property, and Layup. These commands are grouped together because four of these entities (all except Layups) are normally required to create a finite element in FEMAP. The relationship between these five entities is described below: • Node - define physical position of element in space (See Section 4.2.1, "Model, Node...") • Element - references nodes and property. (See Section 4.2.2, "Model, Element...") • Material - contains physical parameters of material. (See Section 4.2.3, "Model, Material") • Property - contains physical characteristics and references a material. (See Section 4.2.4, "Model, Property...") • Layup - contains physical characteristics of plies for laminate properties. (See Section 4.2.5, "Model, Layup...") These commands allow you to create these entities one at a time. Many times it is much easier to use the automatic meshing tools available under the Mesh menu to generate nodes and elements for the model. In this case, you can generate your individual properties, materials, and layups with these commands, then use the automatic meshing tools to create the finite element mesh.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.2.1 Model, Node...

4.2.1 Model, Node... ... allows you to define nodes by entering their coordinates using the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes. Just like all other coordinate locations, you may use any of the available methods and/or snap modes, along with keyboard or mouse input to define the location of a node. Even so, this command creates nodes one at a time. Much more powerful methods are available through the various Generate commands. Specifying Node Parameters When you are creating a node, choosing the Parameters command button will display the Node Parameters dialog box. The use of output coordinate systems and permanent constraints varies substantially between various analysis programs. For more information on how these features are supported for your program, see Section 8, "Analysis Program Interfaces" in the FEMAP User Guide. Output Coordinate System Here you can set the output coordinate system for the node. This is the coordinate system in which displacements, degrees of freedom, offset connections for line elements and constraints are defined. Increment, Color, Palette, Layer The Increment is added to the Node ID, which you create to determine the default ID for the next node to be created. The Color and Layer options define these parameters for the node to be created. Superelement ID The Superelement ID can be set for each node using this field. The Superelement ID is the only method available to define “Superelements” for Nastran in FEMAP. Type This option is almost always set to Node. You can change this option to Scalar Point or Extra Point for other node types, but this is not used for most analysis programs. Permanent Constraints

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Permanent constraints, like other constraints are defined relative to the output coordinate system. Unlike constraints that can be defined in multiple sets, there is only one group of permanent constraints per node. The six degrees of freedom which can be constrained are the X, Y and Z translations (TX, TY, TZ) and the X, Y and Z rotations (RX, RY, RZ). The permanent constraints are combined with the constraint sets that you request for analysis.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.2.2 Model, Element...

4.2.2 Model, Element... ....displays one of the element creation dialog boxes based on the active element type. You can set the active element type from any of the element creation dialog boxes (or any of the property creation dialog boxes) by choosing the Type button. This will display the Element/Property Type dialog box, where you can choose the type of elements to create. There are four main element types which often have to do with the shape or topology of elements • Line Elements (See Section 4.2.2.1, "Line Elements") • Plane Elements (See Section 4.2.2.2, "Plane Elements") • Volume Elements (See Section 4.2.2.3, "Volume Elements") • Other Elements (See Section 4.2.2.4, "Other Elements") For any of the plane or volume elements, other than Plot Only, you can choose the Parabolic Elements option to create elements with nodes at the middle of each edge. For other element types, you can only create linear elements - nodes at the corners only. For details on the full FEMAP element library, see Section 6, "Element Reference" in the FEMAP User Guide. For further information on how each element type is translated to the various analysis programs, see Section 7, "Translation Tables for Analysis Programs" in the FEMAP User Guide. You should review those sections prior to creating elements. This will ensure that you choose the correct element types to represent your structure, and element types that are supported by your analysis program.

Element Material Orientation For planar and axisymmetric elements, you can also define an element material orientation. Pressing this button will display an additional dialog box that lets you set the material orientation direction (material angle) or material coordinate system for all elements that are created until you change to a different orientation.

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Proper specification of material angles is extremely important if you are using nonisotropic materials. or an entire mesh.. Most other features are identical. These programs have several different subtypes. Update Elements. consult your analysis program documentation. see Section 4. When you select Formulation. the Element Formulation dialog box will appear. For Note: instance. you should also select the element formulation. Formulation If you are exporting to NASTRAN.2013 .htm 25. while most options for ABAQUS and MSC. all elements of that type created from that point on will have that formulation. LS-DYNA. Once the formulation is set.. or would like to change the formulation.".MARC change the name/number of the element. and MARC. and select from the available options If you do not set the formulation before meshing. Material Orientation. used to choose a new element type can be found here also.Introduction Page 150 of 707 This includes elements that are created using the various generation techniques. or MARC. ANSYS. The Type button. The element formulation for LS-DYNA is exported on the *SECTION cards as part of the property definition. Formulation command to change the formulation of a few elements. but all element types will have separate inputs for NASTRAN. for the same basic element. For more information. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. ABAQUS. To determine which formulation is best for your analysis.09. you can use the Modify. ANSYS.13. simply enter the element formulation dialog box with the appropriate element type active. see Section 6. You will be able to set options for NASTRAN. "Element Reference" in the FEMAP User Guide. The inputs to the dialog box will be slightly different based upon the current element type. or formulations.3. the hybrid option in ABAQUS and MARC is typically used for large elastic (hyperelastic) materials. Near the top of each dialog box. "Modify. Common Features of All Element Dialog Boxes There are quite a few different dialog boxes used for creating the various element types in FEMAP. DYNA and ABAQUS/MSC. you will notice a group of controls which are used to set various parameters for the element to be created. For more information on the different available formulations.8.. Update Elements. To change to a different formulation for future meshes.MARC/ANSYS.. Each element has a section on their formulations. Each element type has a different formulation which is stored as a global variable.. ABAQUS. The major difference between them is the changing number of nodes required to define the various element types. LS-DYNA.

You should try to specify the nodes in their proper sequence. you will be given a chance to automatically create a new property. This dialog also requires two nodes.com Customer Support: http://support. or by graphically selecting an existing element which references the property that you want. when you press OK. your choices are a brick. Spring/Damper. This technique can untwist planar elements. Using this technique. Bar.2. in addition to the nodes. The first. but lets you define element offsets. When you press OK. If you try this. creates all elements except the bar. For plane elements. Gap. Every time you create an element however. Curved Beam. the default ID will be automatically incremented. etc. If you do not specify a property (leave the option blank or 0). the required nodes proceed either clockwise or counter-clockwise around the corners of the element (followed by the midside nodes for parabolic elements).2 Model.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4. Tube.09. you can leave one or more of the node IDs blank (or 0). You should enter the nodes in this order. however. For your reference.1 Line Elements 4.Introduction Page 151 of 707 ID. FEMAP will ask you to create the fourth node. In addition to the standard parameters. The order of the text boxes in the dialog box matches the order of nodes shown for the various FEMAP element types. for plane elements. you can effectively create elements using specific coordinates. and curved beam however. For the bar.) do not require a property. and switch faces on solid elements. beam. orientation and releases.. You will receive a warning if FEMAP had to change the order. This is the same as using the Model.femap. without having to first create nodes. Selecting Nodes for your Elements No matter what element type you use. you can not define a triangle with the shape set to quadrilateral and then only entering three nodes. and simplest. wedge or tetrahedron. Because of the automatic node creation feature described above. A few element types (plot. Property: This drop-down list allows you to choose the property to be referenced by the element. Color/Palette and Layer: These options set parameters for the element to be created. DOF Spring. If you do specify the nodes in a different order. Curved Tube. The number of these boxes corresponds to the number of nodes required for the type of element which you are creating. For example. You must choose one which is of the same type as the element that you are creating. and curved beam.2. it just requires two nodes to define the element. you will be given a chance to automatically create new nodes for each of the blank entries. but most do. you will see a more complex dialog box. FEMAP will attempt to reorder them so that they result in the shape you were trying to create. rigid. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. You can choose nodes either by typing an ID or by selecting a node from any graphics window with the cursor. Alternatively. and Plot) connect two node points.2. FEMAP checks its shape. For this reason. all properties that are defined in your model will be shown in the list. you will see the number of required nodes change also. As you change the shape.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. You can make your choice by typing an ID. you must choose either a triangular or quadrilateral shape. For volume elements. Property command. Some element types require you to specify a shape. > 4. not with the midside nodes.htm 25.ugs.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Element. Parabolic plate and solid elements allow you to pick nodes at the midsides of each element edge in addition to the corner nodes. You can however skip the midside nodes by leaving them as blank or 0.2. Proper choice of the type depends upon the structural behavior that you want to represent. except that the Define Element dialog box is still visible and the resulting property ID will automatically be entered into the list. the automatic node creation feature can only be used with the corner nodes of parabolic elements. Link. Finite Element Modeling > 4. beam.1 Line Elements All line element types (Rod. you will see one of two possible dialog boxes. you will see text boxes which allow you to select the nodes to define the element. Beam. For all of these elements.2. You can also create a new property by click the Property “icon button” next to the Property drop-down list.2013 . Every time you create an element. choosing from the list.

2.RY.. FEMAP changes the button title to Releases. > 4. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Checking the Use Reference Point box will offset the nodes at both ends of the element to the location of the specified Reference Point selected in the Beam Property . You can choose the Releases command button to specify the degrees of freedom that you do not want to connect. FEMAP provides two methods of orientation. When offsets have been defined. and want to delete them.RZ) degrees of freedom to release at each end of the element.. you can simply define the offset at End A. Since midside nodes are not required and the automatic node creation feature only works for required nodes. there are additional inputs for Orientation and Offsets. RZ).Cross Section Definition dialog box..2.. Both the magnitude and direction of this vector are used to define the offset. (123456/123456). You can either specify another node or a vector. The default orientation is the same as the orientation that you specified on the last element that you created. the number of required nodes will also change. FEMAP remembers the releases that you define and uses them as the defaults for your next element.2 Plane Elements Standard Plane elements are created using one of two dialog boxes depending on whether you are creating linear or parabolic elements.TY. The numbers one through six correspond to the six elemental degrees of freedom (TX.Introduction Page 152 of 707 The number of inputs in the Define SPRING/DAMPER Element dialog box changes depending on the Type specified for the Spring/Damper property currently Note: selected in the Property drop-down list.. (On) to reflect the status. the next element will use the same offsets. For either of these dialog boxes you must choose either a triangular or quadrilateral shape. or choose the Vector Orient command button to orient using a vector. Releases: In some cases you do not want an element to be structurally connected to all six degrees of freedom at each node. Offsets: Offsets are used to move the end of the element a specified distance from the node. The numbers before the slash represent the releases on the first end of the element. TY. midside nodes can be specified. FEMAP will update the button title to Vector Orient. that vector.. The element X axis is always along the length of the element (between the nodes)..2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4. (On) to reflect the status.htm 25.2013 .2. after you define an element with offsets. Element.ugs.. Finite Element Modeling > 4. The Element Releases dialog box lets you choose the translational (TX. then press End B=End A to copy the offset to End B. By default. the titles of the End A and End B buttons will change to End A. Orientation: Each of these element types requires that you orient the cross section of the element. For parabolic plate elements. along with the element X axis will define the XY plane. The only difference between these two boxes is the addition of midside nodes for the parabolic elements. If you specify an Orientation Node. or some variation of those numbers.2 Model. but they can also be blank. If you attempt to specify both a vector and an orientation node. If you specify a vector orientation. The orientation defines the Y and Z axes. The numbers after the slash represent the second end..2 Plane Elements 4. If the plane element you are creating is a Axisymmetric Shell then the dialog boxes will be more like the line element. only the orientation node will be recognized. all degrees of freedom are connected. If the element has a constant offset at both ends.TZ) and rotational (RX. If you have already defined offsets. The End A and End B command buttons will display the standard vector definition dialog boxes to let you define the offset at each end of the element. the dialog box simply asks for two nodes.. (On) and End B.2. When the Type is set to Other (NASTRAN CROD/CVISC).com Customer Support: http://support. press No Offsets... This feature allows elimination of some elemental degrees of freedom and can be used to join linear and parabolic elements. When you specify releases.2. When you define a vector. You can enter the orientation node directly into the dialog box. The standard vector definition dialog boxes are used.. Just like offsets and orientations.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. or for transitioning between varying mesh densities. As you choose the shape. By default. When the Type is set to CBUSH. You can turn them off with No Offsets.. the element XY plane will be defined by the element X axis and the vector from the first element node to this orientation (or third) node.femap.09. you must specify an existing node or it will be left blank.

4 Other Elements Masses The mass and mass matrix element types require no input other than a single node to locate the element. The dialog box contains a “tab” for each distinct type of rigid or interpolation element. can also be created using this element type.2. Element.2 Model.. Wedge.. you must specify a shape (Brick.2. Rigid and Interpolation Rigid and Interpolation elements are different than other types.2013 . volume elements use one of two dialog boxes depending on whether you are creating linear or parabolic elements. Some common controls seen on various tabs are: file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Element.2.4 Other Elements 4. Offsets can also be defined for the shells.femap.09. For Solid Laminate elements..com Customer Support: http://support. The names of the tabs correspond to the names of the Nastran bulk data entries which will be created upon export.3 Volume Elements Just like plane elements.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.htm 25. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.2. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Also. Tetra) and parabolic midside nodes can be skipped.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4. these elements have the degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) of a single node connected or related to the DOFs of a number of other nodes. called an RSPLINE. the RBE1.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.2.2.2. just like plane elements.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Typically. Also.com Customer Support: http://support. A less commonly used “connection” element. a different type of connection element. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. The RSPLINE is for Nastran solvers only. Finite Element Modeling > 4.ugs. > 4.2.2 Model. only Brick and Wedge are viable.2. Stiffness Matrix Stiffness matrix elements connect two nodes and use the same dialog box described above for the simpler line elements.2.Introduction Page 153 of 707 Axisymmetric Shells are defined as lines with two nodes for linear and a third midside node for a parabolic type.ugs. > 4..femap.3 Volume Elements 4. can be created using a formulation.

RBE2 Defines a rigid element with a single Independent node which is rigidly connected to the DOFs and Nodes specified in the Dependent section. Independent At Center RBE3 Interpolation elements are used to define the motion at the Dependent node as the “weighted average” of the motions at the Independent nodes. There is a stipulation for RBE1 elements. Update can be used to update the DOFs (RBE1 and RBE3) and/or Factor for all highlighted nodes in a list (RBE3 only).Introduction Page 154 of 707 Use the DOF check boxes to choose which DOFs of the nodes selected using the Nodes button should be included in the appropriate Independent or Dependent list. All 6 nodes could each have a different DOF specified as well.DOF on Node “C”.2013 . and T--Z DOF on Node “D”.htm 25. RBE1 Defines a rigid element which is connected to an arbitrary number of nodes. For example. If you would like FEMAP to create a new node at the “center” of all the selected Dependent nodes based on the coordinates of the selected nodes. 4 nodes .TXYZ DOF on Node “A”. T-Y. Use the Delete button to remove any number of entries in the multi-select list or the Reset button to remove the entire list.09. You must specify at least one degrees of freedom to be rigidly connected between the Independent node and the Dependent nodes. then selected nodes as often as required to define an element. Specify DOFs and select nodes for both the Dependent and Independent sections. T--Z DOF on Node “B”. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. The DOFs are the same between the node and ALL Dependent nodes.T--Z DOF (DOF 3) only on each node. choose the New Node option in the Independent section. both these would be valid: 6 nodes . This is a helpful option when creating a “spider” rigid element at the center of a hole. You may use the process of specifying DOFs. The total number of DOFs for the Independent section MUST equal six.

See Section 8. and ANSYS (only when using the “2. you must turn on (check) the “Rigid Element Thermal Expansion” option in the “Plate. Show Entities. RSPLINE When defining Rigid elements for NASTRAN you have a two formulations available. choose the New Node At Center option in the Dependent section.. Thermal Expansion The Single RBE2 button opens a different dialog box which can be useful when creating RBE2 elements between an Independent node and a single Dependent node.3. Beam.. a CTE on the Rigid element is only supported for NX Nastran.. In FEMAP. Answering Yes will only add TX. This option is not available when using the New Node At Center option in the Dependent section. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. it will highlight in the graphics window. based on the current settings of the Window. while answering No will send all currently selected DOFs to the Independent list. Material. and/or TZ (based on the DOFs currently “on”) to the Independent list. which allows you to specify additional DOFs for RBE3 elements.Introduction Page 155 of 707 For interpolation elements. When you highlight a node in the list. Analysis command. then specify different DOFs and a Factor for each Independent node." for more details. If you would like FEMAP to create a new node at the “center” of all the selected Independent nodes based on the coordinates of the selected nodes. FEMAP will ask “OK to Convert only Translational Degrees of Freedom?”.MPC184 Lagrange Multiplier” formulation). TY.3. In order for the CTE to be used during an analysis. The “UM” can be used to eliminate some dependency issues inherent to rigid elements in Nastran. If you have rotational degrees of freedom specified for on the RBE2 tab. The UM DOF button displays the Define Rigid Element UM DOF dialog box..09. and Note: Rigid Options” section of the NASTRAN Bulk Data Options dialog box. "Bulk Data Options" for more information.1. All DOF and options are available. the use of the CTE for rigid elements is OFF by default in all Nastran Analysis Types.2013 . This dialog box can be reached by creating an Analysis Set for NX Nastran or MSC Nastran using the Model. See Section 6..3. Show Entities command. For more information.7. you may specify one set of DOFs for the Dependent node. Currently. MSC/MD Nastran. offers the ability to create varied interpolation factors based on distance from the Dependent Node and the specified factor.htm 25. Using the RSPLINE formulation for NASTRAN will display the following dialog box which allows you to pick multiple dependent and independent nodes. "Window. The Distance Weighting option in the Update Interpolation Element dialog box. Convert may be used to convert from a RBE2 to a RBE3 (Interpolation) element and vice versa. A coefficient of thermal expansion for any Rigid element can either be entered directly into the “Coefficient” field or copied from a defined material using the button in this dialog box.2. see the Nastran Quick Reference Guide entry for RBE3.

You may select as many master and slave nodes as you need. and Slave Nodes. Slide Lines Slide elements are used to define contact and sliding conditions between nodes on surfaces. Weld/Fastener This element allows you to specify a weld element (CWELD) or a fastener element (CFAST) for use with NX Nastran and MSC Nastran and is defined using the WELD/FASTENER Element dialog box. the button for the chosen nodes will contain (on). The difference is MSC Nastran will determine if the diameter of the weld overlaps onto additional elements. appear.Weld is defined from shell element to a single vertex of another shell element (node on the element) and a Weld Location will be normal to the selected element vertex (node). you will be asked whether you want to automatically reverse the order of the slave selection. A term of the RSPLINE is created by first selecting the type of term to be added (Dependent or Independent) then if a dependent term is being created then select the degrees of freedom which you would like to include..Weld is defined from a single vertex of a shell element (node on an element) to the single vertex of another shell element and the Weld Location will be between the two selected element vertices (nodes). • Elem Vertex to Elem Vertex (ALIGN) . A node may not be chosen as both a master and a slave.2013 . Once nodes have been chosen. • Prop to Prop (PARTPAT) . Weld Types There are several different Weld and Fastener Types to choose from: • Elem to Elem (ELEMID) ..09.Weld is defined from all elements of one shell property to all elements of another shell property and a Weld/Fastener Location must be defined manually.Weld is defined from a number of nodes (8 Maximum) on shell elements to a number of nodes (8 Maximum) on shell elements and the Weld Location must be defined manually using either the Projection or Axis Define methods • Nodes to Elem Vertex (GRIDID) . A term can be added dynamically to the list by placing the cursor in the Node field then simply picking the appropriate node. If you select them in the same order.Introduction Page 156 of 707 The RSPLINE is defined by selecting the nodes in the order they appear along the interface of the two regions being connected. Slide lines should have their master and slave nodes selected in reverse order compared to each other. but the order that you select them defines the order that they will be included into the element. Multiple terms of the same type and dof can be defined by first selecting the appropriate options and pressing the “Multiple” button. • • The First and Last term in the list must be independent and FEMAP will present a error until this requirement is satisfied.Weld is defined from a number of nodes (8 Maximum) on shell elements to a node on shell element and the Weld file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.htm 25. Otherwise. The Standard Entity Selection box will appear to choose nodes. only the headings Master Nodes. • Patch to Patch (ELPAT) .. which determines where the weld will intersect the properties • Nodes to Nodes (GRIDID) .Weld is defined in the same manner as Element to Element (from shell element to shell element and a Weld Location must be defined manually using either the Projection or Axis Define methods).Weld is defined from shell element to shell element and a Weld Location must be defined manually using either the Projection or Axis Define methods (see Weld Location Definition Methods later in this section for more information) • Elem to Elem Vertex (ELEMID) . The master and slave nodes are selected by choosing the appropriate button.. Independent terms are graphically shown as a filled in square and dependant terms are shown as open squares. based on the weld’s location. then automatically connect the nodes on those additional elements to weld.

09. The vector from the node along the vector direction must pass through both element or nodal patches in order for the weld to function properly. and Nodes to Nodes. • Elem to Elem (CFAST. Material 4.1.com Customer Support: http://support.. "Orthotropic Material Formulation") file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.e..ugs. Both nodes must fall within the boundaries of the element or nodal patches for the weld to function properly.3 Model. Finite Element Modeling > 4.2. ELEM) .2. Patch to Patch. "Isotropic Materials. If you are using 6 (triangle) or 8 nodes (quad) to define your Note: “patch”.Fastener is defined from shell element to shell element and a Weld/Fastener Location must be defined manually using either the Projection or Axis Define methods.. Prop to Prop.Weld/Fastener Location is defined by a single node and sometimes a defined vector direction.2013 . There are two different Weld/Fastener location Definition Methods to choose from: • Projection . Material FEMAP supports eight types of materials: • Isotropic (See Section 4. Not ordering the nodes properly will likely cause an error in NX Nastran.. which determines where the fastener will intersect the properties.") • 2-D and 3-D Orthotropic (See Section 4. Take care when selecting the nodes when using Weld Types “5.2.Introduction Page 157 of 707 Location will be normal to the selected element vertex (node). • Axis . The nodes must be chosen as you would choose nodes when creating a shell element (i.Weld/Fastener Location is defined using 2 nodes to represent the positions and direction.femap.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.3 Model. PROP) .2.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.Nodes to Nodes” and “6.Nodes to Elem Vertex”.2.3. you must first select the 3 or 4 corner nodes then select the “mid-side” nodes starting with the node between the first selected corner node and the second selected corner node and so on. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. • Location Prop to Prop (CFAST. Weld/Fastener Location Definition Methods A Weld/Fastener Location must be defined manually for Elem to Elem.htm 25.Fastener is defined from all elements of one shell property to all elements of another shell property and a Weld/Fastener must be defined manually. clockwise or counter-clockwise from the first node to the 3rd or 4th node).3.

The material constants are converted to a form which represents the material which you copied. Near the top of each box you will see controls which allow you to define the ID. "Analysis Program Interfaces" in the FEMAP User Guide. You can then modify those values in any way you want. You should always specify a meaningful title (up to 79 characters) because it will help you to identify the material later in drop-down lists throughout FEMAP. For some analysis programs.3. Title. there are numerous features that appear in all of them. Therefore all properties (stiffness. that is isotropic. If you copy the other direction..9. If you copy a material of one type into a material of a different type. When you choose a material from the list. However.2. FEMAP will convert it to a supported type (after giving you a warning) but the converted type might not correctly represent the material characteristics that you intended. Even though the material definition dialog boxes are quite different from each other. In general. "Hyperelastic Materials..2. nor updated when a material is loaded from the library.2.2. Just like Copy..3.2. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.. Copying Materials If you need to create a material that is similar to another in your model. just like Copy. the 2D material types should only be used by plane (and axisymmetric) elements and the 3D formulations should only be used by solid elements. see Section 2. "Fluid Materials..Introduction Page 158 of 707 • 2-D and 3-D Anisotropic (See Section 4. see Section 8.6.4. You should review carefully any materials which you copy between different types.femap.. the 3D formulations are used to add transverse properties to plate elements.Mooney-Rivlin/Polynomial form (See Section 4. Color. "2D and 3D Anisotropic Materials. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. "Library/Startup" and Section 4.") • Fluid (See Section 4. Also.5. stress limits. there is no way to represent the orthotropic nature of the material and that information will be lost. Working with Material Libraries Material libraries allow you to create standard materials that you can use over and over again in many different models. before pressing OK to create the new material. For more information on libraries. FEMAP allows any element/property type to reference any of the available material types.3. Pressing the Copy button will display a list of all existing materials.. which is directionless. you do not have to enter all of the material values manually. The ID will automatically increment after each material you create.3. Common Features of All Material Dialog Boxes..2.") These material formulations allow you to simulate different material characteristics. When you press Save.2. They can be used for any element type..1 Isotropic Materials. "Other Types.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.2.3. The Type button is also found near the top of dialog box and lets you choose the material type that you want to create.2013 . If you do reference a material type that is not supported by the translator. Finite Element Modeling > 4.1 Isotropic Materials.. The ID can not match the ID of any other existing material. however..com Customer Support: http://support.3.3. Materials of this type exhibit constant properties in all directions. There is also a Function “icon button” at the bottom of the dialog which can be used to conveniently create a new Function. the current material is added to the material library file.) are specified with a single value. 4.") • Other Types (See Section 4. For example. if you plan to use any type but Isotropic. are the simplest and most widely used material type. "Library Selection" of the FEMAP User’s Guide. the material values will be copied from that material and displayed in the current material creation dialog box.3 Model. when you load a material of a different type it is automatically converted..09.6..3.. copying an isotropic material to a 3D orthotropic material will result in stiffness values which are identical in all three directions. you can then modify the values before pressing OK to create the material.ugs. This topic describes how each type is translated to your analysis program.6. ..") • Hyperelastic .2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4. Layer and Coordinate System are not saved in the library.. Pressing Load will display a list of the materials in the library and let you choose one to be loaded into the material creation dialog box. Material > 4. The material ID. FEMAP automatically converts the material to the new type. Color and Layer for the material. thermal.htm 25. 3D orthotropic to isotropic. or even change your mind and copy a different material.

2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.where the bold constants in the shaded area are the ones that you enter.femap.. FEMAP will maintain its value as zero.2. there is no need to specify any of the thermal properties if you do not plan to do a thermal analysis. if required by the analysis program.2013 .com Customer Support: http://support..3. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.ugs.2. During translation.htm 25.2..3 Model.Introduction Page 159 of 707 Properties that are not required for your analysis may be left blank (or 0. Material > 4.2 Orthotropic Material Formulation Care must be taken when specifying structural properties for orthotropic materials. these terms are converted to the other ones. and which properties they require. Typically.2 Orthotropic Material Formulation 4. you can always leave one of the three stiffness parameters (E. Finite Element Modeling > 4.) For example. G. nu) blank also. Various analysis programs use different conventions regarding how they refer to the properties.3. 2D and 3D Orthotropic Materials..09. but most analysis programs recognize this situation and automatically calculate the third parameter from an isotropic formulation: FEMAP Product Info: http://www. FEMAP uses the following stress-strain relationship: .com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.

Either Stress Limits or Strain Limits may be input (for 2-D only).. respectively. When exporting solid elements which use a 3-D orthotropic material for NX Nastran.3.3 2D and 3D Anisotropic Materials. define different.2. FEMAP will create MAT12 and MATT12 (if needed) bulk data entries.com Customer Support: http://support.femap. .Introduction Page 160 of 707 .. These values are typically used in conjunction with the laminate property for failure calculations.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.2.2013 . or 6 x 6 (3D) matrix. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.htm 25.. FEMAP will create MAT11 and MATT11 (if needed) bulk data entries. These materials are typically used by planar or axisymmetric elements. For the same combination in NEi Nastran. In this case.3 2D and 3D Anisotropic Materials. 4. Material > 4.09.. material parameters are specified as a general 3 x 3 matrix (2-D)..ugs.3 Model. The Limit Stress/Strain section allows you to specify limits for tension and compression as well as a shear limit value..are a more general form of the 2-D and 3-D orthotropic materials.3. material characteristics in 2 or 3 primary directions. Finite Element Modeling > 4...com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.2. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. in-plane.

ugs. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.define properties for materials subject to large displacement.femap. or input stress/strain test data in the Experimental Data Functions area to allow the analysis program to calculate these constants.. You can input both the Distortional and Volumetric Deformation Constants and the Strain Energy Polynomial Order.2013 .Introduction Page 161 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www..3 Model.3.2.2.3. Finite Element Modeling > 4. stress type FEMAP functions with stress as the X value and strain as the dependent Y value.htm 25.. such as rubber. 4. . both translational and rotational..09.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.. These data functions must be defined as vs.com Customer Support: http://support..4 Hyperelastic Materials.2.4 Hyperelastic Materials.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4. Material > 4.

2. Please investigate the applicability/rules of hyperelastic materials in the analysis program that they plan to utilize.Stress vs.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.3. Finite Element Modeling > 4..femap.. Note: When entering the hyperelastic material constants.09. Note: Strain” function should be used with X = “Stretch Ratio” values. The properties on the fluid material type are similar to the heat transfer properties on other material types.3 Model. be careful. but for ABAQUS the values written are 1 / Di. 4. defines material properties for fluids.2.. Material > 4.com Customer Support: http://support.com Customer Support: http://support. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.ugs.ugs.2.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. When using the Experimental Data Functions with Nastran. not Strain and Y = Stress values.5 Fluid Materials. but is used in heat transfer and flow analyses. Di.3.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4. “Stretch Ratio” values = Strain values + 1.Introduction Page 162 of 707 Note: Many solvers do not support hyperelastic materials and those that do have restrictions...0.. Finite Element Modeling > 4. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630..6 Other Types. This material type is not normally used in a structural analysis.femap.2013 .5 Fluid Materials. including liquids and gases..3 Model. They are translated directly for Nastran and ANSYS. In general.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. however additional fluid specific properties are also available.2.2.3.. . a Type: “13. 4. Material > 4.2.3...htm 25.6 Other Types.

000. This dialog box is also used to specify the “Gasket Material” (MATG) for NX Nastran Advanced Nonlinear Analysis (SOL 601 only).None value when first entering a new material. "Output Requests" for more information on Nastran Results) A “Fluid Material” can be created for use with Solid Elements only to represent a fluid volume in Nastran (MAT10)..op2 file from NX Nastran. the “Yield Pressure” MUST match a point on the “loading curve”. orthotropic. The “Membrane Material ID”.000 for “Membrane-Bending Coupling”. Input can include real numbers. A default library file with the supported materials is shipped with FEMAP. Use Material Type “NEi Nastran NITINOL” to create a shape-memory material for use with NEi Nastran. An “Equivalent Laminate Material”. Arruda-Boyce. refer to the MS Word file.000 for “Bending”. The values are then stored with that material type in the FEMAP database. however. and functions.000 for “Transverse Shear”. is only useful for programs that access FEMAP through a neutral file since our dedicated translators will not recognize them. but do not to modify any numbers of materials you want to use. When you select this option.doc.999. They may also have input limits associated with them.. There should only be one layer of elements in the direction of gasket thickness. The default library file shipped with FEMAP contains these material types. Ogden. Support for the Mullins Effect (writes MATHEM) and Viscoelastic effect (writes MATHEV) is also available for all SOL 601/701 hyperelastic materials. but only 24 at a time can be displayed in the dialog box. and Sussman-Bathe.8. you must set your Results Note: Destination to “2.1.09. and dialog box text. but all other data must remain the same. integers. nitinol) can be defined for use in SOL 601. neutral. Function values are designated by the 0. storage area. installed with the FEMAP executable.. MSC/MD Nastran. ABAQUS or MARC materials. Note: In order to review “Gasket Results” in FEMAP.000. The MATG can only be used with 6-Noded (Wedge) and/or 8-noded (Hex) Solid elements. 200. these materials created by a Nastran run and are only used on planar elements.htm 25. You will need to input an existing function ID for these fields (or leave it at None). defines material properties that do not fall directly under the previous categories. the dialog box will scroll to show the other entities that can be input for the specific material model file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. you can edit the library file to remove other materials for easy reference. and 400. These “curves” should be defined using “functions” in FEMAP. The inputs to the dialog box will change based upon the material type that you choose. This library file can be set in File. The actual dialog box contents are read from a library file which contains the appropriate information for each material.000.2013 .PostProcess Only” or “3. A non-hyperelastic material with viscoelastic effect (writes MATVE) can be specified using Material Type “NX Nastran Viscoelastic (Sol 601)”.000 added to it for “Membrane”. Also. you will see the above dialog box. Next and Prev FEMAP supports over 200 inputs on the material card. and anisotropic defaults. Creating materials in this manner. The Bulk Modulus must equal the Speed of Sound (squared) multiplied by the Mass Density.000. When you press Next or Prev. ABAQUS and MARC. FEMAP will store the information in the appropriate data fields. including type of input. Preferences. but FEMAP also supports special Hyperelastic materials for MSC/MD Nastran. Libraries. “Tensile Modulus”. A “Shape-Memory Alloy” (for example. “Yield Pressure”. You can modify the text in quotes.. The hyperelastic materials for NX Nastran Advanced Nonlinear Analysis (SOL 601 & 701) can be specified using this material type. Material properties should be entered for both the austentite phase and martensite phase in order for this type of material to behave correctly. When exported. Typically. you must request results in the . This material type is also often used to define LS-DYNA materials instead of using the isotropic. To do this in FEMAP. can be created for Nastran. the material ID in FEMAP will have 100.7. Hyperfoam. This material requires a “loading curve” and at least one “unloading curve” (up to 10 can be specified) to properly define the “Pressure-Closure Relationship” for the gasket (“Closure” is defined as the “change in gasket thickness”/ “original gasket thickness”).999. For information on how to create your own materials. which writes multiple MAT2 entries with IDs higher than 99.. If you are only using NX Nastran. Each material has a distinct set of parameters which can be entered and these materials are then written to the MATHE entry for NX Nastran. This type of material cannot be used with beam elements. (See Section 8. The hyperelastic materials supported for SOL 601/701 are the Mooney-Rivlin. 300. and “Transverse Shear Modulus” MUST be defined for NX Nastran to be able to process the material. Simply press Ctrl+F to see a list of available functions when in the field. limits (if any).Print and PostProcess” in the Nastran Output Results dialog box of the FEMAP Analysis Set Manager. You can also create your own materials by adding to the current list.Introduction Page 163 of 707 . These materials are unique in that the dialog box wording can be modified.

2.com Customer Support: http://support. Material > 4.ugs. however.3 Model.Introduction Page 164 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. here you may select from a list of already defined functions from a drop-down list. Although they are not shown here.2013 .ugs.7 Function Dependent Materials 4. This tab allows you to assign function references to the various material properties.2. the Function References tabs for the other material types also contain the same fields found on the General tab of each material type. For example.2. Hint: All functions that you select for a material must be of the same type. See Nastran Translation Note 28 in Section 7. "NASTRAN Translation Notes" for more information regarding certain types of analysis.com Customer Support: http://support.1. then use the corresponding field on the General tab of the material as Note: a scalar. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.3. Function command. Instead of entering a material constant.femap.7 Function Dependent Materials You will notice that many of the material dialog boxes have a tab marked Function References. which many times should be “1”. any items that you leave blank will simply be considered as a constant value (not varying with any function). The preferred method for creating functionally dependent materials (especially temperature dependent materials) is to enter the actual desired material values into the function itself.3. This is the same as using the Model. The Function References tab contains all of the same properties as the General tab of the particular material type. Finite Element Modeling > 4.3. You do not have to choose a function for each property. you can not choose a time function for one value and a temperature function for another.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.09.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. except that the Define Material dialog box is still visible and the resulting function ID will automatically be entered into the list.htm 25.femap.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4. A new function can be conveniently created while defining a material using the Function “icon button” located in the lower left hand corner of the Define Material dialog box.

This allows you to add material constants which are normally required for nonlinear analysis. H. temp” function instead of a vs.function vs. Four yield criterion are available (von Mises. Von Mises and Tresca require input of the initial yield stress. ET. Von Mises When “0. ET(the slope of stress vs. then click the Extended Material Model button. This box is only relevant for elasto-plastic and plastic nonlinearity types. Fluid.Introduction Page 165 of 707 Home > Commands > 4.2. and Other Types have a Nonlinear tab.. where the Y value is the ID of the Stress vs Strain curve and the X value is the corresponding temperature at which that curve is valid. To begin.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.von Mises” is selected for Yield Criterion.8 Nonlinear Materials All materials but Hyperelastic. which is defined by a vs. The function for nonlinear elastic materials should be defined in the first and third quadrants to accommodate different uniaxial tension and compression properties. and FEMAP will use E to calculate the plasticity modulus. This is the work hardening slope. Nonlinear elastic materials can be made temperature dependent by referencing a “5.2.3 Model. stress function. and Drucker-Prager). plastic strain) by the following: If you have already defined Young’s Modulus (E). Nonlinear Materials . Nonlinear elastic properties can only be defined for isotropic materials. Mohr-Coulomb. Material > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.2.09. By selecting this feature. stress function and selected in the Function Dependence property. the following dialog box will appear. This is currently only available for the von Mises and Drucker-Prager yield criterion. you can simply input the tangential modulus. The Yield Criterion option contains information on the yield types to be used. while Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager require input of 2*cohesion and angle of internal friction. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.htm 25.2013 .3. Nonlinear elastic and plastic materials are defined by a stress-strain curve..8 Nonlinear Materials 4.3. H. you must select the type of nonlinearity that you are trying to model.Extended Material Model The Extended Material Model button enables you to define further information for the nonlinear material model. Tresca. Elasto-plastic materials use the linear constants coupled with the plasticity modulus. you may press Compute from Tangent Modulus. and is related to the tangential modulus.

Strain Rate 1. By proper selection of these functions.2013 . Strain Rate Resulting Stress Strain Curve(s) Single Curve Temperature Dependent Strain Rate Dependent Strain Rate and Temperature Dependent FEMAP Product Info: http://www.9 Ply/Bond Failure Material Properties 4. Drucker-Prager When you select Extended Material Model.3. Temp vs. strain rate.femap. all the required information can be input in the Nonlinear Properties dialog box except for yield function dependence on temperature and/or strain rate. Strain Rate TempFunction vs. or both.Function vs. Both a Ply Failure Theory and a Bond Failure Theory may be selected for each material.3.htm 25. Stress Function vs. If the yield criterion is von Mises. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. only certain fields in the dialog box will be available for data entry.com Customer Support: http://support. The function dependence must be of a consistent type with the type of function supplied in the Function Dependence under Nonlinear Properties.9 Ply/Bond Failure Material Properties You will note that the Isotropic. You may make the yield stress function dependent by selecting the Extended Material Model. you can generate yield and plastic region information as a function of temperature. Temperature Yield Function Not Used vs. vs. Stress Function vs. Furthermore. You should verify that both the FEMAP translator and the code itself supports the extended material model. Temperature Function vs.09. and Anisotropic (3D) material types have a Ply/Bond Failure tab. Function Dependence vs.. Finite Element Modeling > 4.2.2. the following dialog box will appear. Temp” function. Strain Rate 2.0” for this to “5. This enables you to define values for stress or strain used to determine ply and bond shear failure during analysis of solid laminate elements. and a selection box will appear which will enable you to choose the appropriate function.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. You can input both the dilitancy angle and stress ratio for the Drucker-Prager model and specify the type of stress-strain data that you are providing in the Nonlinear Function Dependence. and Drucker-Prager is specified. Function vs.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4. Orthotropic (3D).3 Model.Introduction Page 166 of 707 Note: work properly when using this to define temperature dependent materials with a The “Initial Yield Stress” in the Define Nonlinear Material dialog box must be set to “1. Depending on the selected Ply Failure Theory. you can provide the initial yield stress and can make this yield stress a function of temperature or strain rate. Strain Rate vs. Note: Support of the extended material model by analysis programs is limited.ugs.2. Material > 4.

2. Two creep formulations are available: Empirical Model. and Tabular Model.10 Defining Creep Material Properties You will note that many of the material types have a Creep tab.09.10 Defining Creep Material Properties 4. Reference Temp. Creep properties can be defined even if no other nonlinear/plasticity properties have been defined.3. Max Stress.htm 25.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4. They are used in conjunction with the values entered in the Define Property .2.LAMINATE SOLID Element Type dialog box to create the desired PCOMPS bulk data entries. Hoffman.2.3 Model. They are: file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. and Temp Dependent Rate must be defined as well as the Empirical Creep Law and Coefficients.femap. Note: FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Finite Element Modeling > 4. This enables you to define properties for creep analysis. For the Empirical Model. Material > 4.Introduction Page 167 of 707 The available options for Ply Failure Theory are Hill. Two classes of empirical creep law are available.2013 . Currently. The available options Bond Failure Theory are Traverse Shear and Normal Stress. the failure theories and values entered on the Ply/Bond Failure tab are only supported for NX Nastran and MSC Nastran.ugs. and Max Transverse Shear. the Threshold Strain.com Customer Support: http://support. Tsai-Wu. Max Strain.3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.

support of nonlinear and creep material properties by analysis programs is limited.2.ugs.com Customer Support: http://support.11 Defining Thermo-Optical Material Properties 4. The second creep formulation is tabular model which requires only function inputs under the Tabular Creep Law section.3.2.3 Model. stress for the three coefficients Kp. You must define FEMAP function types vs.11 Defining Thermo-Optical Material Properties Isotropic and orthotropic materials have the ability to also specify thermo-optical properties of the material.Introduction Page 168 of 707 The appropriate law and coefficients are defined by their equations in the dialog box.femap. ABAQUS or any of the other structural programs where FEMAP supports heat transfer analyses.htm 25. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Note: Similar to hyperelastic materials. Cp (primary creep) and Cs (secondary creep) of the uniaxial rheological model. Finite Element Modeling > 4. All inappropriate information will be grayed.2.2013 . These properties are used for heat transfer analyses in programs like TMG.09.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. They are not used by Nastran. Material > 4. ANSYS.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.3. You should verify that both the FEMAP translator for your analysis code and the code itself supports creep material properties.

FEMAP Product Info: http://www.3.femap. liquid-to-gas). You should specify the constant value in the field to the left.e.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.ugs.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.2. solid-to liquid.com Customer Support: http://support. where the “Front” is the face in the direction of the element normal. The “Front Side” and “Reverse Side” for InfraRed and Solar properties refer to planar elements.09.3 Model.2013 .12 Defining Phase Change Material Properties 4. Material > 4. If you do not select a function. This allows you to add material constants which are normally required for heat transfer and thermal analysis that involve a phase change (i.Introduction Page 169 of 707 All of the fields are function dependent. the values are simply constants. which is applied as a multiplier to any function you select from the lists. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.htm 25.12 Defining Phase Change Material Properties All materials but Fluid and Other Types have a Phase tab.2.3.2.

Introduction Page 170 of 707 The phase change material model is primarily available for Nastran and ABAQUS.femap. . Finite Element Modeling > 4. This button will display the same dialog box as described in the Model. radii. used to choose a different property type. The Elem/Property Type button.ugs. Title: This option allows you to provide a title of up to 79 characters for the property.4.2. if you create a Plate Property without a title. but properties also specify mass and inertia and select the materials to be used..2. You should always specify descriptive titles because they will appear in the drop-down selection lists and will help you identify the property. It can also be used for custom programs or programs that access the FEMAP neutral file. "Volume Element Properties") • Other Element Properties (See Section 4.. both the property and the element must be the same type.4. In fact both linear and parabolic elements can reference the same property. can be found here also. • Line Elements Properties (See Section 4.. Property.09. For an element to reference a property. FEMAP will create a title automatically based on the type of Property created (format is “Property ID”. Property.. The available property types match the available element types.1.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. ID. Near the top of each dialog box however.2.creates a new property. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.4 Model. "Line Element Properties") • Plane Element Properties (See Section 4. you will notice a group of controls which are used to set various parameters for the property to be created. areas.com Customer Support: http://support. Properties are used to define additional analysis information for one or more elements.2..4. "Other Element Properties") Common Features of All Property Dialog Boxes There are many different dialog boxes used for creating the various property types since different values are required for nearly every element type.4. “Property Type” property). 4. For example.2. FEMAP will simply title it file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4. etc. Color/Palette and Layer: These options set parameters for the property to be created. If you do not specify a title.. Every time you create a property.2. the default ID will be automatically incremented.4. Element command. Reference enthalpy need not be specified when using ABAQUS. "Plane Element Properties") • Volume Element Properties (See Section 4..2.2013 .4 Model.htm 25. Most property data is geometric (thicknesses.).3. The only exception is that there is no distinction between linear and parabolic properties.

numerous inertia properties must also be defined for the bar element. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Bar Element Properties In addition to the cross sectional area. all materials which are defined in your model will be shown in the list.) do not require a material. Also. For details on how various material types translate to your analysis program. "Analysis Program Interfaces" in the FEMAP User Guide. except that the Define Property dialog box is still visible and the resulting material ID will automatically be entered into the list.femap. the current property is added to the property library file.6. Curved Tube Element Properties Curved tube element properties are the same as the tube.3. For more information on libraries. see Section 2. you do not have to enter all of the property values manually.1 Line Element Properties 4. For more information. The property ID. Copying Properties If you need to create a property that is similar to another in your model. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. In general.2. Pressing the Copy button will display a list of all existing properties. you can use the Tube element to model pipe behavior. or anisotropic 2D material. In addition. These properties are identical to those required for beam properties except that beam elements contain additional inputs. "Library Selection" of the FEMAP User’s Guide. but many of the property constants may be meaningless. Pressing Load will display a list of the properties in the library and let you choose one to be loaded into the property creation dialog box. nor updated when a property is loaded from the library. You should review carefully any properties which you copy between different types.4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. This is the same as using the Model.4 Model. or even change your mind and copy a different property. nonstructural mass (per unit length) can also be specified. see Section 8. specifying an internal pressure and whether or not the ends of the element are closed. for certain analysis programs.09. "Library/Startup" and Section 4.. Just like Copy. all values are directly transferred to the new property. The coefficient for torsional stress is used in the calculation for torsional stress as follows: Tube Element Properties The tube element cross section is circular. nonstructural mass (per unit length) can also be specified.. when you load a property of a different type it is automatically converted. orthotropic 2D.2. Layer and Material are not saved in the library. When you press Save. For your reference.1 Line Element Properties Rod Element Properties Rod elements require cross-sectional properties . Some analysis programs however. you will get meaningless constants. It is defined by the outer and inner tube diameters.2. FEMAP converts the property to the new type. A few property types (mass.com Customer Support: http://support. see "Beam Element Properties" file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. the property values will be copied from that material and displayed in the current property creation dialog box. with the addition of a bend radius. when you press OK.ugs. You can then modify any of these values. When you copy properties of the same type. Distributed. or by graphically selecting an existing element which references the material that you want. Copying is only useful when you copy properties of the same or similar type.9. You can make your choice by typing an ID.4. or vice versa.2. Working with Property Libraries Property libraries allow you to create standard properties that you can use over and over again in many different models. If the property types are similar.htm 25.Introduction Page 171 of 707 “1. Property.area and the torsional stiffness. before pressing OK to create the new property. choosing from the list. like a bar and beam.. > 4. stiffness matrix. support 3D orthotropic materials for plate elements to add transverse properties. Material command. When you choose a property from the list. the similar properties will be copied. If you do not specify a material (leave the option blank or 0). just like Copy.PLATE property”. Similarly isotropic. but most do. Material: This drop-down list allows you to choose the material to be referenced by the property.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.2013 . Distributed.. You can also click the Material “icon button” next to the Material drop-down list to create a new material. for plane element/property types you should pick either an isotropic. Color. If you copy a property of one type into a property of a different type. you will be given a chance to automatically create a new material. you can then modify the values before pressing OK to create the property. If you attempt to copy a plate property to a beam..6. orthotropic 3D or anisotropic 3D materials should be used with solid elements.

L. For FEMAP. You can specify up to four stress recovery locations in the plane of the element cross section. If this option is off.09. Some people look at this as the moment of inertia in Plane 1. not the beam Property command. and structural shapes such as I. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. If you just specify the first location. trapezoidal. their orientations and relative inertias. C.Section Property Generator A graphical cross section property generator is available for this property type (as well as bar and curved beam). the plane formed by the elemental X and Y axes. which will resist bending in the outer fiber in the elemental Y direction. T. You must turn on the Tapered Beam option if you want to enter different properties at the second end of the beam.htm 25. This feature automates stress recovery for the four corners of a rectangular cross section. This offset is only used to offset the neutral axis from the shear center. I1 is the moment of inertia about the elemental Z axis. The neutral axis offsets should be specified in the local beam coordinate system. FEMAP will automatically assign the remaining three locations with positive and negative combinations of the location that you specified. Care must be taken in properly specifying these properties with respect to the element axes. Shape .Introduction Page 172 of 707 Beam Element Properties Beam properties are identical to bar properties except that you can specify different properties at each end of the beam. "Element Reference" in the FEMAP User Guide The figure will give some examples of cross sections. and leave the remaining ones blank or zero. For more information on the element directions.2013 . the properties at the second end will be equal to the first end. The common shapes include rectangular. circular. Distributed. Z and “hats”. The offset of the shear center (and neutral axis) from the vector between the two nodes defining the beam is input on the beam Element command. nonstructural mass (per unit length) can also be specified. Required input for these standard shapes is shown in the following figure. FEMAP can automatically compute the cross section properties and stress recovery locations for common or arbitrary shapes. and hexagonal bars and tubes. see Section 6. and you can define a neutral axis offset from the shear center. based upon the orientation node or vector for the particular elements.

Note: Stress Recovery and Reference Point The Stress Recovery section of this dialog box allows the selection of stress recovery locations at standard points on the cross section. FEMAP will move the location to the next standard point. By pressing the Forward Arrow button.09. Property. pushing the Surface button. and selecting the surface.Introduction Page 173 of 707 An arbitrary shape requires creating a surface before entering Model. Whether you select a common or arbitrary shape.htm 25. This dialog box can also be used to define the stress recovery locations and orientation vector direction. An error in the input will prevent drawing of the cross section. and then selecting General Section. Clicking the “?” icon on the title bar of this dialog box will bring up the cross-section dimension diagrams for reference purposes. while pressing the Back Arrow button will move the location to the file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.2013 . FEMAP will bring up the appropriate diagrams based on whether “Standard” or “NASTRAN” are selected at the top right of the Cross-Section Definition dialog box. you can have FEMAP draw the cross section by pressing Draw.

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previous standard point. Whether you specify stress recovery locations here or not, you still have the option to input values directly in the Define Property BEAM Element Type (previous) dialog box. The Reference Point is only used when mesh attributes are assigned to a curve (Mesh, Mesh Control, Attributes Along Curve). The reference point provides an easy method to automatically define the shear center/neutral axis offset for beams that are automatically meshed onto a curve. Any of the Stress Recovery or Reference Point locations can be turned on and off using the check boxes. FEMAP will remember the positions of the Stress Recovery and Reference Point locations even if they have been altered from the defaults (version 9.0.1 and above). When a curve is meshed containing mesh attributes, and the offsets method has been set to Location, FEMAP will place the reference point on the line joining the two nodes, and then calculate the offset of the shear center from this point. The result is stored on the element record as the shear center/neutral axis offset. The offset stored on the element record calculated from the reference point moves both the neutral axis and shear center from the line joining the two nodes of the beam. The offset stored on the property record and calculated when Compute Shear Center offset is checked offsets the Neutral Axis from the Shear Center.

Note:

The Attributes Along Curve command also has the capability to place the reference point at a distance from the line joining the two nodes of the beam by setting y and z values. For more information, see "Mesh, Mesh Control, Attributes Along Curve". Orientation Direction This section simply allows you to specify the direction of the orientation vector. This is very important since an inappropriate direction of the vector with respect to the beam mesh will result in erroneous results. The Cross Section Definition dialog box provides a visual representation of the required direction of the orientation vector for the beams. Change Shape This option is only available when editing a cross section for which properties have already been calculated. This option must be turned on before any properties can be changed. Once this option is selected, FEMAP will use the cross section generator to calculate new properties when exiting this dialog box via the OK button. If you simply want to edit stress recovery locations or orientation, FEMAP will use stored values to calculate any change in properties instead of creating an entire new set. This can save some time when making these simple changes. If you wish to convert beam sections to have no shape (but retain the property values), you can use the Modify, Update Elements, Shape... command. Compute Shear Center Offset, Compute Warping Constant These options are only available for beam properties. They are not available for bar or curved beam properties since they are not supported by most analysis codes for these types of elements. If Compute Shear Center Offset is on, FEMAP will use its cross section generator to compute the offset of the neutral axis from the shear center and store the result on the property record. This is on by default since this offset can be important with certain cross sections and such programs as Nastran, ABAQUS, and ANSYS provide support for these offsets. If Compute Warping Constant is on, FEMAP will calculate the warping constant for the cross section. This is off by default since warping is often not important in beam analysis and there is limited support among the analysis programs for warping. Section Evaluation This option allows you to choose the method FEMAP will use to calculate the cross-section property values. When “Standard” is selected in the top right corner of the dialog box, there are two methods: Original and Alternate. In many cases, Original is the only option you will ever need. However, there may be times when Original will calculate negative shear area values for certain thin-walled sections. If this is the case, use the Alternate option. There is a third option available when “NASTRAN” is chosen, which is PBEAML/PBARL. This option will calculate the section property values using the same algorithm Nastran uses during the solving process when evaluating PBARL and PBEAML bulk data entries. This option is helpful when using PBEAML or PBARL properties because FEMAP will calculate the exact same values as Nastran will when the model is solved. Poisson’s Ratio, Nu Allows the user to enter a value for Poisson’s ratio to be used with the “Alternate Section Property Calculator”. Special Note about the Alternate Section Property Calculator. The following section contains information about the “Alternate Section Property Calculator”. This portion of the documentation is intended for any user who would like to know how FEMAP is calculating Beam Section Property values and why FEMAP now has two separate methods for performing this calculation. Users who model with thin-walled beams may find the information in this section very useful in Note: creating more accurate finite element models.

For more information on the theory used to develop the “Alternate Section Property Calculator”, please consult the references listed at the end of this section. The alternative method is selected by going to File, Preferences..., choosing the Geometry/Model tab and checking Alternate Section Property Calculation. If the alternative method is selected, a poisson’s ratio keyin is available on the Cross Section Definition dialog box. In FEMAP version 9 and above, changes have been made to the Beam Section Property Evaluation. The original algorithm has been found to generate negative shear area values for some thin walled beam sections. For example, “I” beams with the following dimensions have a negative shear area: • • Height >4.023 Width, Top 1.0

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• • • •

Width, Bottom 1.0 Thick, Top 0.1 Thick, Bottom 0.1 Thickness 0.1

Apart from the one negative shear area, all other properties for the above dimensioned “I” beams are correct. Currently no problem can be found with the algorithm and it gives excellent values for all solid sections and low aspect ratio thin-walled sections. To overcome this issue, the original algorithm has been adapted and an alternative algorithm added. The original algorithm is still the default algorithm to ensure compatibility with files from previous versions of FEMAP. The original algorithm assumes an internal poisson’s ratio value of 0.3. Changing the internal value of poisson’s ratio value to zero prevents negative shear areas. However, this would not provide section property values consistent with previous versions of FEMAP. In order to provide the best compatibility and to prevent bad shear area, in FEMAP 9 the algorithm runs with an initial poisson’s ratio of 0.3 and if that results in a negative shear area or a shear area greater than the area, an error is issued and the algorithm is rerun with a poisson’s ratio of zero. While investigating this problem, an alternative and newer method of evaluating shear area was found (1,2). Instead of using deflection curvature to determine shear area via Timoshenko’s equation (3); the new method equates internal to external shear energy. The resulting shear areas are always positive and well behaved, but they do not exactly match classical values (4) when the poisson’s ratio is not zero. For example, consider a high aspect ratio rectangular beam. The original algorithm calculates a shear area in both directions that matches the equation for a rectangular section (4) with a poisson’s ratio of 0.3:

The alternative algorithm satisfies the above equation when poisson’s ratio is zero, but unlike the original algorithm, it calculates different shear areas in the two directions when poisson’s ratio is not zero. This does not agree with the classical equation above where aspect ratio in not included. However, applying shear load to a tall, thin beam is likely to be less effected by poisson’s ratio than applying the same load to a wide, shallow beam. It is therefore almost intuitive that the two shear areas for a high aspect ratio rectangle should be different. The choice between original and alternative is subjective. The original method calculates one “bad” shear area for high aspect ratio thin-walled beam sections but matches classical values for solid sections and gets good properties for low aspect ratio thin-walled sections. The alternative method gets good shear area values for all aspect ratios, but does not match classical values for solid sections with non-zero poisson’s ratio. 1) “Analysis and Design of Elastic Beams” By Walter D. Pilkey Published by Wiley 2) “Shear Correction factors in Timoshenko’s beam theory for arbitrary shaped cross-sections” By F. Gruttmann and W. Wagner Computational Mechanics 27 (2001) Springer-Verlag 3) “Elastic Shear Analysis Of General Prismatic Beams” By William E. Mason Jr. and Leonard R. Herrmann Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers August 1968 4) “Formulas For Natural Frequency And Mode Shape” By Robert D. Blevins Published by Robert E. Krieger Nastran PBEAML (and PBARL) Sections FEMAP also enables you to create Nastran PBEAML (and PBARL) sections. Although FEMAP evaluates the section properties and stress locations for these sections, if the translator writes PBEAML (or PBARL) Nastran cards, these properties are ignored and only the dimensions are written. In this situation, Nastran evaluates the section properties and stress locations and generates replacement PBEAM (or PBAR) cards. The property values evaluated by Nastran can differ from those evaluated be FEMAP. FEMAP uses a general section property evaluation tool. Nastran may be using different assumptions such as thin wall theory. Some values for some sections, especially warping values, differ considerably.

Note:

You can suppress the writing of PBEAML (and PBARL) cards when writing a Nastran deck using options on the Bulk Data and Bulk Data Options dialogs. If you do this, FEMAP evaluated properties will be written to the PBEAM and PBAR cards. The definition axes for the Nastran sections is different to the standard FEMAP sections. For the standard FEMAP sections, y is to the right and z is up on the dialog box. For the Nastran sections, y is up and z is to the right - this is to be consistent with Nastran documentation.

Note:

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Required input for the Nastran sections is shown in the following figure.

Link Element Properties Link element properties are used to define 5 different types of elements which link one node to another. When set to Structural, specify the stiffness values, in all six degrees of freedom, at each end of the element. The Structural link element is rigid between the ends. The other options are all used to set up thermal boundary conditions between nodes. There are options for Conduction, Convection, Advection, and Radiation. Curved Beam Element Properties The curved beam element properties are just like those for the bar element (see previous paragraphs), and similar to the beam property (except neutral axis offsets from the shear center and warping are not supported) except that you must also specify a bend radius. All elements which reference this property will use this constant radius. Spring/Damper Element Properties The FEMAP spring element is a combined linear spring and damper, which connects either translational (axial) or rotational (torsional) degrees of freedom. There are two Types of Spring/Damper elements, CBUSH (Nastran only) and Other (NASTRAN CROD/CVISC). When the default solver is set to any of the available Nastran solvers, the default is CBUSH, while Other is the default for all other solvers.

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You can specify both stiffness and damping values for the same elements, however, some analysis programs do not support the damping values. For Nastran solvers, stiffness and damping can only be specified on the same property when Type is set to CBUSH. When Type is set to Other, entering a Stiffness value for Note: Axial or Torsional will create an “equivalent” PROD/CROD property/element combination to represent the appropriate spring stiffness. Entering a Damping value for Axial or Torsional will create a PVISC property.

Nastran BUSH Property Values These properties are used to define the options for the Nastran PBUSH property. The PBUSH property allows you to define Stiffness, Damping, and Structural Damping for each individual DOF. Stress/Strain Recovery coefficients in the translational and rotational DOF can also be defined. The Spring/Damp Loc option defines where the Spring/Damper is located along the line between the nodes defining the element. If the option is off FEMAP will write a blank in Nastran to use the default. The Orientation Csys option defines the BUSH element csys for the element referencing this property. If the Orientation Csys option is off, then Nastran will determine the element csys from the orientation defined on the element.

Note:

Previous to FEMAP 10.3, an element formulation was required to correctly export CBUSH elements with a PBUSH property. This is no longer required and only setting Type to CBUSH for the Spring/Damper Property is required to write CBUSH/PBUSH entries to the Nastran input file.

Nonlinear/Freq Resp This button allows you to define the frequency dependent or stress dependant properties for the BUSH element.

For a Frequency Response analysis you can define Stiffness vs. Frequency, Force/Velocity vs. Frequency, and Structural Damping vs. Frequency in each DOF. For a Nonlinear analysis, Force vs. Displacement can be defined for each DOF. DOF Spring Element Properties Unlike the spring element which acts along the line between the elemental end points, the DOF Spring connects two nodal degrees of freedom - independent

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of their orientation relative to each other. You choose the degrees of freedom via the buttons at the left of the dialog box. Like the spring however, you can specify both stiffness and damping.

In addition, you can add both nonlinear behavior and frequency dependence to the spring by defining and choosing one or more functions. The “Force vs Displacement” function allows you to specify a nonlinear behavior for the spring as it extends. The “Force vs Frequency” and “Damping vs Frequency” functions allow you to control the behavior of the spring in a frequency analysis. A “Force vs. Frequency” function may also be specified for the Damping value. Gap Element Properties For gap elements you can specify an initial gap distance, tension, compression and transverse stiffness and friction constants. You should carefully review which of these options are supported by your analysis program before using gap elements.

For zero length gaps (coincident node gaps), you can specify a coordinate system for orientation. Additional Nastran options include limits on Penetration, and Adjustment, as well as an Adaptive option. For ABAQUS, gap properties are also used to define properties of interface elements, and you can specify the interface normal and width/area.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.2.4 Model, Property... > 4.2.4.2 Plane Element Properties

4.2.4.2 Plane Element Properties Shear Element Properties Shear panel properties are limited to element thickness and distributed nonstructural mass. For some analysis programs, you can also specify effectiveness

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factors which provide for treatment of the effective extensional area of the shear panel. Effectiveness Factors F3 and F4 are for use with NEi Nastran only.

Membrane, Bending, Plane Strain and Plate Element Properties

These property types are all variations of plate element properties. They all require the thickness property, but the plate type allows you to vary the thickness at each element corner. Be careful, though, these corner thicknesses will be applied to each element that references this property. The stress recovery locations are measured from the neutral axis of the plate toward the top fiber. These are not offsets, they are simply the location where stresses are recovered. By default, these are “off”, which writes a “blank” field to Nastran solvers. A “blank” in Nastran returns the results at +T/2 for “Top” and -T/2 for “Bottom”. NASTRAN Options The Bending Stiffness (12I/T**3) and Transverse Shear Thickness/Element Thickness (Ts/T) properties are used by Nastran to simulate non-isotropic or sandwich material behavior. In addition to these options, FEMAP now supports choosing different materials for the bending, transverse shear, and membranebending coupling behavior. By default, the plate will use the material that you select at the top of the dialog box, however, you can disable any of these properties, or select a different material simply by choosing the options in the lists. NEi Nastran Tension Only... This button is used to define options for the NEi/Nastran tension only shell.

Specify the Component Direction to define which element stress Component Direction will be used to determine element failure and the appropriate max Compression Allowable.

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The Shell Type After Reversion drop-down allows you to choose which type of element you are creating, whether it is a Tension Only Shell or a Shear Panel. For the Tension Only Shell, X and Y Compression Factors are used to determine the stiffness when the element fails. For the Shear Panel, Effectiveness Factors F1 through F4 can be defined to specify treatment of the effective extensional area of the shear panel. Laminate Element Properties Properties of this type are different than those for almost any other type of element. In this case, and for Solid Laminates, the normal material reference (at the top of the dialog box), is not used and unavailable. Rather, you must choose a pre-described Layup for your laminate property.

Laminate Definition Layup A Layup has information containing the material, physical thickness, and orientation angle for each “ply” in the laminate, as well as any “Global Ply” information. If a Layup does not exist in your model, you can create a new Layup by clicking the “Layup” icon button next to the Layup drop-down list. Offset Bottom Surface Specifies a distance from the reference plane to the “bottom” surface of the laminate. If the check box for this option is NOT checked, the default value will be -0.5 * the overall thickness of the specified Layup. If the check box is checked and the value is 0, FEMAP will align the bottom surface of the laminate with the reference plane. Options Symmetric In general, you must list all plys in your laminate in your Layup. If you are using Nastran or ANSYS, and your laminate is symmetric, you can choose the Symmetric option and only enter one half of the layers. Membrane Only (Nastran) This Nastran option on the PCOMP entry simulates a “derived PSHELL entry” with only membrane terms being computed. (MID1 on the “derived PSHELL”). Bending Only (Nastran) This Nastran option on the PCOMP entry simulates a “derived PSHELL entry” with only bending terms being computed. (MID2 on the “derived PSHELL”) Smear (Nastran) This Nastran option on the PCOMP entry ignores the stacking sequence, sets MID1=MID2 on the “derived PSHELL entry”, and the MID3, MID4, Ts/T, and 12I/T**3 terms are all set to zero. Also, when this option is used, your stress and strain output will be returned in “Top and Bottom” shell format instead of “Ply by Ply”. Smear - Core (Nastran) This Nastran option can be used when creating a laminate which has “Face Sheets” and a “Core”. The last ply of the Layup will be used to represent the “Core”. Half the overall thickness of the other plies that make up the “Face Sheets” will be placed above the “Core” and the other half below the “Core”. The stacking sequence of the “Face Sheet” plies is ignored. Also, when this option is used, your stress and strain output will be returned in “Top and Bottom” shell format instead of “Ply by Ply”. Laminate Properties and Failure Theory Many programs support the failure theories listed. You must specify the bond shear allowable, along with strength allowables on the materials if you want to use the failure theory calculations. For NEi Nastran, four additional options for Failure Theory are available. STRESS = Maximum Stress theory, LARC02 = NASA LaRC theory, PUCK = Puck PCP Theory, and MCT = Multicontinuum Theory. Axisymmetric Shell Properties The axisymmetric shell property contains only 1 property value for the thickness.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.2.4 Model, Property... > 4.2.4.3 Volume Element Properties

4.2.4.3 Volume Element Properties Axisymmetric Element Properties Actually, axisymmetric elements do not have any property values. The FEMAP property for these types is simply used to reference the desired material. Solid Element Properties Unlike the plane elements, which orient their material axes using an angle on each element, solid element properties can reference a coordinate system to align the Material Axes. This difference is due to the fact that solid elements require orientation of all three principal directions. Plane elements always have their Z direction normal to the plane and can therefore be oriented with a single rotation angle. You can also choose to orient solid elements based on the directions defined by the element's corner nodes. Solid Laminate Element Properties Properties of this type are different than those for almost any other type of element. In this case, and for Laminates, the normal material reference (at the top of the dialog box), is not used and unavailable. Rather, you must choose a pre-described Layup for your laminate property.

Material Coordinate System The Material Coordinate System is used to allow proper definition of the Ply/Stack Direction for the Solid Laminate elements, which always follow an axis of a coordinate system. By default, the “Basic Rectangular” coordinate system is selected, but may be set to any user-defined coordinate system. Laminate Definition Layup A Layup has information containing the material, physical thickness, and orientation angle for each “ply” in the laminate, as well as any “Global Ply” information. Unlike Laminates, a unique “Global Ply” is required for each ply when using Solid Laminates. If a Layup does not exist in your model, you can create a new Layup by clicking the “Layup” icon button next to the Layup drop-down list. Ply/Stack Direction Allows selection of the “ply orientation” and “stacking” directions of Solid Laminate elements. Choices are XY (12), XZ (13), YX (21), YZ (23), ZX (31), or ZY (23). Each letter (number) represents an axis of the Material Coordinate System, with the first letter specifying the axis for “ply orientation” (zero angle) and the second representing the “stacking” direction of the solid laminate. Laminate Properties Along with the Reference Temperature and the Damping Coefficient, which are found on other properties, there are two values which may be entered for calculation of Failure Indices and/or Strength Ratios. Bond Shear Stress Allowable Stress allowable for the inter-laminar shear stress of the bonding material. Represents the SB field on the PCOMPS bulk data entry for NX Nastran and MSC Nastran. Bond Normal Stress Allowable Stress allowable for the inter-laminar normal stress of the bonding material. Represents the NB field on the PCOMPS bulk data entry for NX Nastran and MSC Nastran.

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These values are used in conjunction with the Bond Failure Theory option specified on the Ply/Bond Failure tab of each material referenced by the Layup. For more information, see Section 4.2.3.9, "Ply/Bond Failure Material Properties".
Note:

Currently, Solid Laminate elements are only supported for NX Nastran and MSC Nastran.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.2.4 Model, Property... > 4.2.4.4 Other Element Properties

4.2.4.4 Other Element Properties Mass Element Properties FEMAP mass elements support differing mass and inertia properties in three principal directions. Many analysis programs do not support differing X, Y and Z masses. In this case FEMAP just uses the X mass that you defined. As an input convenience, if you leave My and/or Mz blank (or zero) they will be automatically set equal to the Mx value. If you really want almost no mass value in one of these directions, you must set the value to a small nonzero number like 1E-10. FEMAP can also align the principal mass directions to any coordinate system and offset the mass from a node. Check to see if your analysis program supports these options before using them. Use the Effective Diameter field for mass elements that are part of a model to be solved with FEMAP Thermal. The solver will use the implied area of a sphere with the specified diameter to calculate the relevant conductances. Mass and Stiffness Matrix Element Properties Properties for mass matrix and stiffness matrix elements are input as a symmetric 6x6 matrix. Since mass matrix elements are only connected to one node, this fully defines all six mass degrees of freedom for that node. Stiffness matrix elements connect two nodes, and hence 12 degrees of freedom. The 6x6 stiffness matrix is simply replicated to form a 12x12 matrix in this case. The following form is used (A is the 6x6 matrix you specify):

Note:

This formulation does not take into account any geometric transformations required to connect non-coincident nodes, so care should be taken when using this element type.

Slide Line Element Properties You must define the interaction property values for the slide line element which include the slide line plane, width of surfaces, and stiffness and frictional conditions. Both symmetrical penetration and unsymmetrical penetration (for the slave nodes only) are available. No material reference is required for slide line element properties.

Weld/Fastener Element Properties Weld/Fastener connector elements are only available for NX Nastran and MSC Nastran. Only isotropic materials (MAT1 entries in NASTRAN) can be used as the material for a weld/fastener element. First choose if you are creating a CWELD or a CFAST property in the Weld Type section. CWELD

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There are a few options to choose in the Define Property - WELD/FASTENER Element Type dialog box when CWELD is used.

Diameter - This value represents the diameter of the weld. The diameter, length, and material are used to calculate the stiffness of the connector in 6 directions. Spot Weld - When this option is on, “SPOT” is written to the TYPE field on the PWELD entry. This causes the actual length of the weld element to be ignored and instead the stiffness is calculated using an effective length (Le). Le = 1/2 (ta + tb), where ta and tb are the thicknesses of the shell elements A and B which are being connected with the weld. Eliminate M-Set DOF - When this option is checked, it writes out “OFF” for the MSET field on the PWELD entry in the Nastran Bulk Data File. With MSET = OFF, the 2x6 constraint equations are built into the stiffness matrix of the CWELD element thereby condensing the 2 x 6 degrees of freedom of the nodes used to create the weld connection. This option is available for 0..Elem to Elem, 1..Elem to Elem Vertex, 5..Nodes to Nodes, and 6..Nodes to Elem Vertex weld types (ELEMID and GRIDID) only. CFAST Options in the Define Property - WELD/FASTENER Element Type dialog box when CFAST is chosen.

Diameter - This value represents the diameter of the virtual fastener, which is used to locate the virtual grids (nodes) on the shell element patch. Mass - Mass of the fastener. Struc Damping - Structural damping of fastener Material CSys - Material Coordinate System in which translational (KTX, KTY, and KTZ) and rotational stiffness (KRX, KRY, and KRZ) are applied. This option is unchecked by default and Nastran uses a predefined method to determine the x, y, and z-axis of the fastener element. Please see Note below When unchecked, the x-axis of the fastener element will be colinear to a vector from the location the fastener intersects “Patch 1” (Element ID or Property ID) to the location the fastener intersects “Patch 2”, which is defined when creating the element. Note: The y-axis will then be perpendicular to the element x-axis and oriented to the closest basic coordinate axis (in case of identical proximity, basic x-axis first, then y, then z will be chosen for orientation). Finally, the z-axis is the cross product of the element

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x-axis and z-axis. Absolute - When checked, specifies the Material Coordinate System is an “Absolute” Coordinate System. Unchecked specifies the Material Coordinate System is a “Relative” Coordinate System. KTX, KTY, and KTZ - These values represent the translational stiffness of the fastener in the x, y, and z-axis specified for the element. KRX, KRY, and KRZ - These values represent the rotational stiffness of the fastener in the x, y, and z-axis specified for the element. Plot Only and Rigid Element Properties There are no properties required for these element types, so they are not normally defined. You can however create properties of these types if you want to use them in any of the other generation / meshing commands.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.2.5 Model, Layup...

4.2.5 Model, Layup... ...creates a new layup. Layups are used to define the make-up of both Laminate and Solid Laminate properties, ply by ply. You can choose a material ID, physical thickness, and orientation angle for each “ply” in the laminate. There is also an optional “Global Ply” which can be defined. The plies can be sorted by attribute (Ply ID, Material, Thickness, Angle, etc.) in the list by clicking the appropriate column header. The total thickness of the entire layup is displayed above the list of individual plies and is updated each time a ply is added to the layup. Also, a graphical representation of the layup can be viewed by clicking the “Layup Viewer” button next to the New Ply button.

Layup Features ID and Title: These options set the ID and Title for the layup to be created. Every time you create a layup, the default ID will be automatically incremented. Title allows you to provide a title of up to 79 characters for each layup. Global Ply ID (optional): This option can be used to save a particular ply of one layup for use in other layups in your model. If a “Global Ply” is set for each and every Ply in a Layup, FEMAP will write out a PCOMPG as the Property for NX or MXC/ND Nastran. Otherwise, FEMAP will write a PCOMP as the Property. See below for additional uses of the “Global Ply” concept in Post-Processing.

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If the AutoCreate option is “on”, then a global ply will be created every time the New Ply button is used to create a new ply in the layup. The “Global Ply” concept can also be used for Post Processing purposes by allowing you to choose any ply of any layup to be the same “Global Ply” as any ply of a any other layup. For instance, a model has two layups, Layup 1 has 7 plies and Layup 2 has 9 plies. If you wanted to post process the results of a particular output vector on the “middle ply” of the model, the “middle ply” for Layup 1 would be ply 4, while the “middle ply” for Layup 2 would be ply 5. Once these plies have been designated with the same Global Ply ID, you can use the Laminate Options functionality of View, Select to create a contour/criteria plot using a the results of the “Global Ply”. You can create a new Global Ply by clicking the Global Ply Icon Button next to the drop down list. In the Global Ply Definition dialog box, you may create a new global ply using the New Ply button. In the New Global Ply dialog box, you may enter a Title (up to 79 characters), and optionally choose a Material, and/or enter a Thickness.

Once you have at least one global ply, you may highlight any ply from the list and then use Edit Ply to change the Title, Material, and/or Thickness, Renumber to renumber the selected ply, or Delete to delete the selected ply, Delete All will simply delete all of the global plies in the model, while Show will highlight all of the elements in the graphics window which are currently using the Global Ply.
Note:

A Global Ply can only be referenced in a Layup one time. If you use a Global Ply more than once in a Layup, the most recently entered instance of the Global Ply will have the Global Ply designation.

Material, Thickness and Angle: The Material drop-down list allows you to choose the material to be referenced for each ply. If you want to create a new material, simply click the “Material” Icon Button next to the Material drop-down list. Thickness allows you to enter the physical thickness of each ply. Angle is used to enter the orientation angle of each ply. The angles are specified relative to the material axes which were defined for the element. If you did not specify a material orientation angle, these angles are measured from the first side of the element (the edge from the first to the second node). They are measured from the rotated material axes otherwise. Layup Editor Buttons There are several buttons in the Layup Editor that allow you to perform different functions. Some buttons are available all the time, while other require that certain fields be filled, one row highlighted, or multiple rows highlighted.

Each button or group of buttons is explained in greater detail below. New Ply

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Once you have a Material, Thickness, and Angle specified, click this button to add the ply to the layup. By default, it will add this ply to the Top of the List (Designated in the dialog box above the list of plies with “Top of Layup”). If you have a ply highlighted in the list, the new ply will be added UNDER the highlighted ply (i.e., closer to the “Bottom of Layup”). If you have multiple plies highlighted, this button is not available

Layup Viewer button Clicking this button will bring up the Layup Viewer window. For a more detailed description of the Layup Viewer, see Section 4.2.5.1, "Layup Viewer". Update buttons Once a ply has been added the list, the definition of that ply can be updated using the Update Global Ply, Update Material, Update Thickness, or Update Angle buttons. These commands are available when one or more plies are highlighted in the list of plies (except Global Ply, which can only be used for one ply at a time). Once the desired plies are highlighted, enter the new value for Material, Thickness, and/or Angle, then click the appropriate button to update all highlighted plies with the new value. Duplicate Available when one ply or multiple plies are highlighted. Simply highlight the plies you would like duplicated in the list of plies, click the Duplicate button, and the duplicated plies will be added to the top of the list of plies. Delete Available when one ply or multiple plies are highlighted. Simply highlight the plies you would like delete in the list of plies, click the Delete button, and the plies will be deleted from the list of plies Symmetry Available only when multiple plies are highlighted. Simply highlight the plies you would like to “mirror” in the list of plies, click the Symmetry button, and the “mirrored” plies will be added to the top of the list of plies in reverse order as the were originally in the list. Reverse Available only when multiple plies are highlighted. Simply highlight the plies you would like to “reverse” in the list of plies, click the Reverse button, and the order of the selected plies will be reversed in the list based on the original position (i.e., the selected ply which was closest to the “Bottom of Layup” will now be closest to the “Top of Layup” in the list). Move Up and Move Down Available when one ply or multiple plies are highlighted. Simply highlight the plies you would like moved up or down in the list of plies, click the Move Up or Move Down button, and the selected plies will be moved closer to the “Top of Layup” (Move Up) or “Bottom of Layup” (Move Down) one ply at a time. Rotate Available when one ply or multiple plies are highlighted. Simply highlight the plies you would like to rotate (alter angle) in the list of plies, click the Rotate button, and the “Angle” of the selected plies will updated by adding or subtracting the number entered in the Rotate Ply By dialog box. Enter a negative number to subtract from the current angle. Compute Always available once a single ply has been added to the layup. This command will calculate the equivalent mechanical properties for the layup. These values will be sent to the Messages dockable pane.
Note:

If you have the Entity Info window open while creating or modifying a Layup, the equivalent properties will be calculated “live” every time a ply is added or modified. This is a great way to create a layup which will behave as expected in your model.

The calculated “equivalent laminate property” values include: • • Total Thickness In-Plane Properties (2-D orthotropic)

Modulus of elasticity (X and Y directions) Shear Modulus (XY) Poisson’s Ratio Coefficient of thermal expansion (X,Y, and XY) • Bending/Flexural Properties (2-D orthotropic)

Modulus of elasticity (X and Y bending) Shear Modulus (XY bending) Poisson’s Ratio Coefficient of thermal expansion (X,Y, and XY bending)

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Compliance Matrices - These are provided for advanced users working with composites. The inverse are also provided for your convenience.

A Matrix (extensional stiffness) B Matrix (coupling stiffness) D Matrix (bending stiffness) A-Inv Matrix B-Inv Matrix D-Inv Matrix Copy, Copy to Clipboard, and Paste Copy allows you to copy all plies of an existing Layup in the model by simply selecting a Layup from a selection dialog box. The Copy to Clipboard icon button is only available when one ply or multiple plies are highlighted. Simply highlight any number of plies in the list of plies, click the Copy to Clipboard icon button, then the selected plies will be placed on the clipboard. Clicking the Paste icon button will Paste the plies into the current layup at the top of the list of plies. You can now reposition the plies using the Move Up and Move Down buttons.
Note:

The “copied” plies will remain on the clipboard until over-written by another copy operation from a windows program. If you desire, you can “copy” from a layup, then open another layup (new or existing) and “paste” those plies into that layup.

Working with Layup Libraries (Save and Load buttons) The layup library allows you to create standard layups that you can use over and over again in many different models. When you press Save, the current layup is added to the Layup library file. Pressing Load will display a list of the layups in the library and let you choose one to be loaded into the layup editor dialog box. You can then modify the values before pressing OK to create the layup. The layup ID is not saved in the library, nor updated when a layup is loaded from the library. For more information on libraries, see Section 2.6.2.9, "Library/Startup" and Section 4.3.6, "Library Selection" of the FEMAP User’s Guide.

FEMAP
Product Info: http://www.femap.com Customer Support: http://support.ugs.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada)

Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.2 Creating Finite Element Entities > 4.2.5 Model, Layup... > 4.2.5.1 Layup Viewer

4.2.5.1 Layup Viewer The Layup Viewer allows you to graphically visualize the current layup being created or edited. Each ply currently in the layup will be shown and labeled with Ply Number, Thickness, Orientation, and Material in the Layup Viewer. The ply at the top of the viewing area always represents the “top” of the layup. Initially, all of the plies are shown in the viewing area, with all plies being scaled based on the size of the largest ply. In layups with a large number of plies or plies with large variation of thickness, this can create a somewhat cluttered display. The entire Layup Viewer can be resized and the viewing area scaled and scrolled to allow in-depth examination of specific plies.

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This option is OFF by default. Display Color • Material Color . The options are explained in greater detail below.ugs. You will still be able to copy the visible portion of the layup. the ply orientation angles will be displayed graphically on each ply. the Visible Only option will become unavailable and can NOT be turned OFF.000 pixels.Assigns a random color to each material in the model for Layup Viewer purposes only. There are several options in the Layup Viewer which enable you to choose how the layup should be displayed. • Monochrome .3 Creating Loads And Constraints file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Ply Angles When this box is Checked. try scaling the image less. this is an easy way to see differentiation between layers of different properties.09. you will notice that the “top line” of the “top ply” and the “bottom line” of the “bottom ply” will stop at the “middle” of the display area. Note: In certain cases. This is not a restriction when running FEMAP on 64-bit operating systems.femap.Changes the layup display to Monochrome (Grayscale) which can be useful if copying the layup display to another program for printing purposes. the entire layup will be copied to the clipboard. which means only the plies currently in the display area will be copied to the clipboard. One way to do this and still get a useful image of the layup may be to use the Constant Thickness option. you can explore different sections of the layup by moving the scroll bar up and down on the right side of the Layup Viewer. all of your plies will be the same color. On 32-bit operating systems.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.3 Creating Loads And Constraints 4. Note: The “constant thickness” is determined by dividing the available display area height by the number of plies (when the layup display is NOT scaled). Note: When using the scroll bar. When unchecked. this represents the default display and the “middle” of the layup will always be returned to the “middle” of the display area. if the image of the entire layup becomes larger than 13.Introduction Page 188 of 707 General Controls and Options The layup display can be scaled using the Scale slider bar. another program (such as Microsoft Word) may not be able to paste the image from the clipboard. the Visible Only option is checked. If you have not defined material colors. the display can copied to the clipboard then pasted into other windows programs. Also.Uses the material color assigned to each material. Copy to Clipboard button Copies the layup display to the clipboard. By default. Thickness Allows you to choose if each ply should be displayed based on a scaled representation of the ply thickness or if each ply should be shown with a Constant thickness. This option is ON by default. Finite Element Modeling > 4. but not the entire thing at once. If you have not specified any special material colors. Titles When this box is Checked.2013 . the Title of the ply material will be displayed instead of only the ply material ID. If this is the case. • Random Color .500. Once the layup has been scaled. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.htm 25. When the slider is all the way to the left.com Customer Support: http://support.

. press None Active.com Customer Support: http://support. renumber. The titles are displayed. Loads and constraints are applied in a similar manner. The Load Set Manager can be used to create new load sets. you can define multiple load and constraint sets for your analysis. update the title of an existing load set. .1 Model. Load Set Type file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. no loads will be visible in the FEMAP graphics window..Selected Load Set is Active list of the Load Set Manager.1.3. press the New Load Set button. The sections that follow will first explain the application of loads.ugs. delete. To deactivate all load sets. This menu command is also available on the tray at the bottom right portion of the graphics window. Therefore. as well as define “Nastran LOAD Combination sets” for Nastran..09. but any load set ID not currently being used in the model may be entered.3.Introduction Page 189 of 707 This section describes methods to load and constrain your model. Creating New Load Sets To create a new load set. Note: When a “combined” load set is “Active”. Both are input as part of sets. Create/Manage Set.. Visibility) and Model Info tree. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.femap. or copy the active load set. it will automatically become the “Active” load set. You may also enter a Title. Load. and then move on to constraints.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) 4. regardless of options set in the Visibility dialog box (View.1 Create/Activate Load Set 4. As always.2013 .. simply highlight it from the Available Load Sets.htm 25. then be prompted to make another. along with the IDs. in the Available Load Sets . as well as by choosing New from the Loads object context-sensitive menu in the Model Info tree. The next available load set ID will automatically be entered in the ID field when creating a new load set. You can apply loads and constraints to geometry and/or FEA entities. To activate a load set that already exists. Press OK to create a load set or press More to create a load set. When a new load set is created. you should choose a descriptive title.. list. You can even copy or combine sets for either loads or constraints. displays the Load Set Manager.

highlight it from the list in the Load Set Manager and press the Referenced Sets button. Finite Element Modeling > 4. A Standard load set is any combination of Load Definitions. and Model. Update Scales Factors will update the scale factors of all sets currently highlighted in the Referenced Sets list. listed. Pressures. Once a Nastran LOAD Combination has been created.htm 25. If desired. 5 individual loads would be modified using one command.Introduction Page 190 of 707 You may choose a Set Type for the new load set. The Referenced Load Sets for Nastran LOAD dialog box will appear: Highlight any number of Standard load sets from the list of Available Sets.. loads on Scalar points (SPOINTS). and Gravity Loads may be combined using the LOAD entry.2 Load Definitions Every time a load is created on finite element entities (i. command.ugs. Customize command. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Each Load Definition will contain all of the individual loads which were created at the same time using a Model. Nodal on Face. Model. Nastran LOAD Combinations in FEMAP are only used when performing a Static Analysis. Also. Load.09. Elemental) or geometry (Model. Model. Load.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. the For Referenced Set “Scale Factor” can be changed before pressing the Add Referenced Set button and all highlighted load sets will be placed in the Referenced Sets list using that Scale Factor. all of the selected Standard load sets referenced by a Nastran LOAD Combination Set are written to the Nastran input file and combined by Nastran via a LOAD entry also written to the input file. a single “Load Definition” would appear in the Model Info tree. listed. Load. Click Add Referenced Set to have them placed in the Referenced Sets list. Load Definitions can then be edited. deleting. Moments.e. Load.2013 . an Overall “Scale Factor” may be entered for the entire set.com Customer Support: http://support. Body Loads. Model. each load set placed into the Referenced Sets list will be included with a Scale Factor of “1.3.0”. On Point. Toolbars. Note: A Referenced Load Sets command may be added to any menu or toolbar using the Tools. By default. Note: Only Forces. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. which is written to the “S” field of LOAD entry. Rotational Velocity Body Loads. When used.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. if the Load Definition were to be edited.3. Load. A Nastran LOAD Combination is a special type of load set which is a combination of “referenced” Standard load sets in the model. This command is located in the Additional Commands category on the Commands tab of the Customize dialog box.2 Load Definitions 4.. Load. A Bolt Preload will also create a Load Definition. and modifying individual loads are still available in FEMAP. if you chose to put a Force load of 1 unit on 5 selected nodes.femap.. These scale factors will be written to the appropriate “Si” fields of the Nastran LOAD entry for each load set. or deleted. Nodal. and Other Loads used to define the loading conditions for that load set. On Curve. while the Remove Referenced Set button is used to remove highlighted load sets from the Referenced Sets list. Note: All of the commands for listing. on Surface) a “Load Definition” will also be created in FEMAP. For example. Model. In this case. and deleted and all individual loads contained in that Load Definition will be edited. Also. These Load Definitions will appear in the Loads branch of the Model Info tree and can be given a title. Load.

09. any number of Nodal Forces. Each type of load and its command is discussed in more detail below..3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.femap.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.. Loads can be applied to the entire finite element model (Model.2.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. If instead. On Mesh. Body file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. element face where load applied). These types of loads will be exported directly to the solver on translation. For instance. Load. along with the process of combining Load Definitions. this command would make two separate load definitions.3 Finite Element Loads FEMAP allows you to create loads directly on finite element entities. this command will create a single load definition.3.3 Finite Element Loads > 4.3. Load. the Model.1. a Load Definition can be created from any number of loads of the same type (i.e.2013 . Model Info" under “Loads and Constraints in the Model Info Tree” FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Load.ugs. Body command). assuming that the translator supports the type of loading input. Node.1 Model. Elemental Pressures.htm 25. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Load. Load. Element command). load value.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. to individual or groups of nodes (the Model.3. For more information about the Remove Definition and Create Definition commands.femap. 5 with one value and 5 with a different value. you choose 10 pressure loads.3 Finite Element Loads 4. The Other Loads branch contains headings for On Geometry. Bolt PreLoad.3. and additional loading parameters (i. Nodal. if you choose 10 pressure loads from the list of Other Loads which all have the same values and are all applied to the same element face. Also.ugs.e. and the Model. or Displacements on Curves. FEMAP will create a Load Definition for each separate type of load that was highlighted. The Auto Create Definition command goes one step further and will create load definitions based on load type.3. If you choose loads of various types and then use the Create Definition command.com Customer Support: http://support. Nodal Temperatures. Finite Element Modeling > 4.com Customer Support: http://support. Nonlinear Force commands). and Elemental Temperatures. "Tools. and to individual or groups of elements (the Model. please see Section 7. etc) by highlighting them in the Model Info tree and using the Create Definition command from the context sensitive menu.Introduction Page 191 of 707 Load Definitions can be removed at any time using the Remove Definition command on the context sensitive menu in the Model Info tree and the individual loads from that Load Definition will be moved under the appropriate heading in the Other Loads branch. Nodal. Finite Element Modeling > 4.

and thermal.Introduction Page 192 of 707 4. these are not always specified in “g’s”. Body Body loads act on all elements of your model and represent global motions. Y.09. Rotating Around Vector.. Thermal The Default Temperature is the temperature of all nodes/elements which are not given a specific temperature in this load set by nodal or elemental temperature loads. Translational accelerations are often used to represent gravity loads. Time and Frequency Dependence can be specified for Translational and Rotational Accelerations. by checking the various Active boxes. In addition. an “Acceleration vs. This coordinate system will be written out to the CID field of the GRAV and/or REFORCE entires for Nastran. You must activate the body loads that you want prior to defining load values. button This utility allows you to specify a “Rotation Vector” (using any vector method in FEMAP) for all “rotational” body loads in a particular load set. Center of Rotations This specifies the location of the center of rotation for the rotational body loads (rotational velocity and rotational acceleration). Input must always be in the axis directions of the coordinate system selected in Coord Sys. while the Axis to Vary Along drop-down is used to specify the axis of variation. To select a precise position. Rotational Velocity This type of body load represents a rotational velocity and the resulting loads which are caused by centripetal acceleration. Note: The Varying Translational Acceleration body load type is only supported for NX Nastran and MSC Nastran. and Z components. Ay. Ay. the Ax. Snap to Point.. or Snap to Node mode. Watch the units however. Clicking OK will return you to the main Body Loads dialog box and the “transformed” values for the entered Velocity and Acceleration will now appear in the appropriate X. velocity. The Ax. A Coordinate System other than “Global” may be specified for all “body loads” in a particular load set.3. and Az values will be used as scalars if the “actual” values are in the function.1 Model. accelerations or temperatures. Location” function (Type = 36) MUST be created to represent the different acceleration values at each location along the chosen coordinate system axis. as well as. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. The load creates the ACCEL bulk data entry for both solvers.2013 . you may want to use Snap to Grid. Load. Rotational Velocity by selecting an existing FEMAP function from the drop-down list. Translational Accel/Gravity and Rotational Acceleration These body loads represent translational and/or rotational acceleration. Varying Translational Acceleration This type of body load represents a translational acceleration which varies along a selected coordinate system axis.3. You can also create a new function by clicking any of the “Function” icon buttons next to the Time/Freq Dependence dropdown list boxes. Once you select the vector. Remember. You can graphically select the Center of Rotations graphically by highlighting one of the fields in this portion of the dialog and then clicking in the graphics window. Body loads can be separated into acceleration. The coordinate system itself is specified in the Coord Sys drop-down.htm 25. This option can be used to quickly assign a temperature for the entire model. and Az fields are used to specify the values of the acceleration load with regards to the selected coordinate system. FEMAP allows you to enter a value for Velocity and Acceleration around this specified vector.

Normal to Plane.com Customer Support: http://support.2013 . enforced rotations. Title: Allows you to enter a title for the “Load Definition” being created. FEMAP will disable or hide any controls in the load definition dialog box which are not required. rotational velocities. Color/Palette and Layer: These controls define parameters for the load to be created. the default title will be “Force on Nodes”. Load. a positive radial force goes in a different direction if the node is at 0 degrees. Only loads attached directly to geometry store any information regarding the direction method. if you create a Force on a selected node or nodes. If you do not enter a title. If you select a cylindrical or spherical system. this is done using the standard entity selection dialog box. define the plane (FEMAP standard plane definition dialog box will appear). rotational accelerations. Direction: All non-thermal load types are vector quantities which require a direction.3. Vector. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. After you select the nodes. If you attempt to edit or list the load. The Components method simply requires input of components in the three directions.Introduction Page 193 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www.ugs. a default title will be created based on the type of load which was created. First. For example. Since these loads are created on the nodes themselves. velocities.2 Model. moments. Along Curve. the true direction of the loads also depends on the location of the node where it is applied. Load.htm 25. For all methods except Components. These methods provide great flexibility for defining the direction of the loads.forces. The last 10 load types available are Fluid specific and are only accessible through the FEMAP neutral file. The components are defined relative to the selected coordinate system.2 Model. the values listed will be in component form.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. and Normal to Surface. As always. nodal temperatures. displacements. FEMAP provides five methods to define the direction of a load: Components. you must select the nodes where the load will be applied. and then stores the result in component form. The first selection you should make is the type of load you wish to create. Nodal Creating nodal loads is a two step process. FEMAP calculates the direction from the method.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. you must check the Specify button to either define the vector (FEMAP standard vector definition dialog box will appear). As you choose a load type. select the curve. Coordinate System: This option is only available if you select the Components method for direction for non-thermal load types.3 Finite Element Loads > 4.3. FEMAP supports eleven (11) types of nodal loads for various types of thermal and structural analysis . For example.3. This enables you to modify or Note: remove any geometry that was created to specify the direction without changing the load direction.3. Finite Element Modeling > 4.3. nodal heat generation and nodal heat fluxes. Nodal 4. After choosing a load type you can proceed to define the other load parameters and values. the actual method of computing the direction is not stored.09. you will see another dialog box which defines the load.femap. accelerations. than if it is at 180 degrees. or select the surface.

velocities. like 1E-10 or smaller. Do not confuse frequency dependence of the load value (specified here) with frequency dependence of the phase (specified at the bottom of the dialog box for frequency analyses).3. moments. simply set this option to 0. However. Finite Element Modeling > 4. if your loads vary with either time. There are several different types of Data Surfaces which can be created and in most cases. Phase: Non-thermal loads also allow you to specify a phase. For example. you enter a numeric value. parametric locations on geometry).. Function command to create the functions. that component is free to move (displace) freely. enter an equation in Value which uses the variable.6. just as if you had specified a constant.. a Data Surface allows you to vary a value based on specific parameters of an entity (i. Equations are only stored for geometric loads. For forces. and ZND() functions will use a load’s definition coordinate system. and the actual calculated value of the load is stored as a nodal load. With the component deactivated. Then. and rotational accelerations) you must activate the various load components.must select Advanced under Variable to change it) which will be updated to contain the ID of the node where loads are being defined. FEMAP will allow you to activate load components which have a zero (or blank) load value.09. Nodal On Face.3 Model. accelerations.) For component of non-thermal loads (forces. If you want to use displacement loads as pseudo-constraints. this is equivalent to activating the component and then applying a zero (or blank) load. that value will be assigned to every node. spatial locations .ugs. Moments. temperature or frequency. Temperature or Frequency Dependent Loads If the loads that you are creating are constant. displacements. "Tools. prevents all movement of that component. Node or Element ID.Introduction Page 194 of 707 Hint: When choosing the Along Curve or Normal to Surface options. is to assign a constant load value to each of the nodes. As an alternative. if you choose to enter an equation in Value such as: 10*(xnd(!i)-xnd(1))+50 each node will receive a load which is equal to fifty. however. XND() would be the radial Note: coordinate of the node..com Customer Support: http://support. YND(). plus ten times the length in the X direction between that node and node 1.2.3. in a cylindrical coordinate system. or 3-D. If you choose this method. In addition. these two alternatives are not equivalent. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. velocities. you can make the phase frequency dependent by selecting an additional function. since it will have no effect.None. This value is only used for frequency analyses. you must specify at least one small nonzero value. rotational velocities. and rotational accelerations. You should never have to create a zero force or acceleration.e. using the option boxes.1-D.2013 .3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. FEMAP will attempt to project the position of the nodes onto the curve to determine the direction of the curve at that location. If the projection falls well outside the curve or surface actual bounds. etc. prior to setting the load value. instead of entering a numeric value for the loads. and default method. enforced displacements. be careful that the nodes fall within the length of the curve or the area bounded by the surface. but also set Constant. for frequency response analyses. Load. The XND(). You may not however. Data Surface Editor"). The equation. XYZ coordinates.. so that they can be selected from the list. For displacements and enforced rotations.3. These Data Surfaces can be created prior to load creation using the Data Surface Editor (For more information on the Data Surface Editor. Conversely. you must select a variable (default is i . Activating the component and then specifying a zero displacement (or a blank).com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Prior to creating your loads. If instead of entering an equation. There is no load applied to any component which is not activated. YND() and ZND() functions very useful in defining loads in terms of the locations of the nodes that you are loading. if you enter an equation.htm 25. you can choose the appropriate function to define that dependence. itself is not stored. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. You will find the XND(). Creating Component Loads (Forces. A third method is to use a “Data Surface”. rotational velocities. For example. mapped results from different mesh. As just described. you must use the Model. Time. see Section 7. YND() would be theta coordinate of the node.femap. Choosing a Load Creation Method There are three methods available to create loads on the nodes that you selected. accelerations. Note: The equation is evaluated at each node. You can also click the “Data Surface” Icon button in the Create Loads dialog box and choose from the list of available Data Surfaces to create a new one. The Y values of the function are used to multiply the constant values that you specify in this dialog box. moments. This is similar to a constraint. the equation will be evaluated prior to load definition and the constant result will be assigned to all selected nodes. If the curve is anything but a line. unexpected values for the direction may result. 2-D. The simplest. have all load values equal to zero. and ZND() would be the coordinate in the Z-axis of the node.3 Finite Element Loads > 4. you can define an equation which defines the value at each node. A similar projection is also required for the Normal to Surface method.

Note: FEMAP Product Info: http://www. you should select the load type first.com Customer Support: http://support. You will first use the standard entity selection dialog box to select the elements which reference the nodes where you want to place loads. specify the other load parameters and values. The process is very similar to Model.3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Load. If you leave End B blank.3. which can be along any of the elemental or global axes. but also set Constant.. Load. Nodal. another dialog box allows you to define the load type and values similar to the Create Loads on Nodes dialog box..3. Then. is the same as Model.3. When you have selected the element faces.4 Model. you enter a numeric value. temperature. You may not apply pressure to line..09.. FEMAP will automatically determine the nodes where loads will be defined. If instead of entering an equation. Load. the face selection dialog box (as described later in Model.3. Nodal On Face. You must first select the elements where the load will be applied using the standard entity selection dialog box. Finite Element Modeling > 4. if you enter an equation. just like the normal Model. you must specify the same End A and End B values.femap.). Load. you can only apply pressure to plane or solid elements. that value will be assigned to every element. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Elemental.. If you want a constant load along the length. Elemental.4 Model. press OK. You will find the XEL( ).3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.3. and this command will continue. axisymmetric shells.2. Finally. . especially on solid models where you can use the adjacent faces approach (see Section 4..3.htm 25. XEF( ). For this reason. The elemental axes are determined by the element orientation. 4. You can not specify an arbitrary direction or the axis of any other coordinate system. the equation will be evaluated prior to load definition and the constant result will be assigned to all selected elements. YEF( ) and ZEF( ) functions very useful in defining loads in terms of the locations of the elements and element faces that you are loading. You can specify a different value at each end of the element. Nodal"). Distributed Load Direction After you specify the load magnitude and phase.3 Model. Elemental) is used to limit the nodal selection to specific element faces.3. pressure. heat flux. YEL( ). Load. Creating Pressure Loads Elemental pressure loads always act normal to an element face or edge.. In this case the same function dependence will apply to the loads at both ends of the element. just like nodal loads. All elemental loads have a certain prescribed direction (typically normal to face of application).ugs. For elements that do not require an orientation (rods.is used to create elemental loads. and four types of heat transfer loads ... zero load will be applied at that end. This choice will disable or hide all controls which are not necessary for the type of load you are defining. beams. Load. Again. Their load values are specified as a force per unit length. just like nodal loads. Load. This command can be a convenient method of specifying nodal loads on complex models.3 Finite Element Loads > 4. This is an alternative to creating geometric loads and can be very useful to create loads on a portion of a surface. Load.. "Model. Nodal command. .2013 .... here you select the faces of elements. Nodal. just as if you had specified a constant.Introduction Page 195 of 707 4. You will be prompted for the load direction. except that instead of directly selecting the nodes where the loads will be applied. Creating Distributed Loads Distributed loads are forces applied along the length of line elements (bars. Then.heat generation. convection and radiation. as well as input a constant or variable load.) you should always use the global directions.. The one major difference is that you will not be able to specify a direction. Conversely.3. ZEL( ). You can also make elemental loads function dependent. There are seven types of elemental loads in FEMAP: distributed loads on line elements. or other element types.

Note: Not all analysis programs support pressures at the corners of elements. Choosing Faces Near a Surface If you have used geometry to define your elements. when you press OK. This defines a planar surface. if loads are applied to face 2. You then specify a tolerance angle.3. Specifying a direction for pressures is only supported for Nastran. This method can only be used to apply pressure to Face 1 of planar elements (not to the edges). Specifying Face IDs For pressures. especially for complex solid and planar element models. You also have the option to specify the direction of the pressure. If pressures are defined in this manner for other solvers FEMAP will simply create pressures normal to the selected element face. While this method is easy to understand.2013 . This capability is most useful when defining a variable pressure load across a surface. Therefore a positive pressure on face 2 is equivalent to a negative pressure on face 1." In most cases. You choose just one initial face (and the associated element ID). see Section 6. FEMAP will automatically average the corner pressures and output a centroidal value. you can apply loads to element faces which are close to a selected surface.Introduction Page 196 of 707 Just like distributed loads. is Adjacent Faces. This is strictly a way to choose a particular face without having to rotate the model. FEMAP will search all selected elements for faces that are connected to the face that you chose and that are within the specified tolerance from being coplanar (colinear for planar elements) with an already selected face. toward the element center. This can be used to find all faces on an outer surface (or edge) of a solid (or planar) . you choose a coordinate system. Alternatively. Reverse/Orient First Edge. When this option is selected FEMAP will prompt you for the direction of the pressure using coordinates or a vector. they can be applied to faces 3 through 6 as shown. you have the option to select the “Front Face” or the “Back Face” when choosing the face of a plate element. The selected face will be highlighted. You have the option to input the pressure at corners.regardless of the shape. You will either need to use one of the other methods. this method is not very effective. Their positive direction is inward. In this case positive pressure acts in the same direction as the face normal (as determined by the right-hand rule). The most obvious is to simply choose Face ID and select the ID of a face. If you need to apply edge loads. Update Elements. their positive direction will be opposite to the face normal. When you choose Near Surface. loads on plane elements will be applied to face 1.. Loads will be applied to the faces of the selected elements that are closer than your specified tolerance from the surface. "Element Reference" in the FEMAP User Guide. Also.. however. you must also choose a surface and specify a tolerance. or if you just have surfaces in your model. simply move the mouse and click again until you get the face you want. If the elements where you need to apply loads are oriented randomly. which is used along with the tolerance to find the closest faces.12. then any function dependence.8. "Modify. Choosing Adjacent Faces The final and most powerful method for choosing faces.09. or in some cases you can reorient the elements (see Section 4. it has the disadvantage of applying the loads to the same face number on all selected elements. you can simply choose the face graphically by moving the cursor near the center of the face and clicking the left mouse button. you will be presented with the following dialog box to choose the face or faces where the pressure will be applied: This provides four ways to select the faces.htm 25. For details on how face numbers for plane and solid elements are defined. direction and position. By selecting the option Matching Normals Only you can further limit the faces selected by allowing only elements with matching normals to be selected. Instead of specifying a surface. If you translate to a program that does not support corner pressures. Choosing Faces Near a Plane The Near Coordinates method is very similar to Near Surface. Conversely. If you chose an unexpected face. This will require input of four values and enables you to specify a varying pressure load across an element. you first define the load magnitude and phase. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. This can be done very easily by graphically selecting the face.

For more information about determining “Free Faces” see Section 7. the face is chosen after you press OK. Heat Generation For heat generation. As with Face ID. With the top defined as the positive normal direction from node 1 to 2. Loads could have been applied just in the hole by selecting a face inside the hole and specifying a fairly low tolerance. This value is assigned to all selected elements. by choosing three functions which contain the components defined as a function of time.htm 25. the only difference is the parameters that need to be specified. Loads. you have the option to select the “Front Face” or the “Back Face” when choosing the face of a plate element. although only for a 1-D type analogy.3. This is strictly a way to choose a particular face without having to rotate the model. For this type of analysis. you can define a directional heat flux. Alternatively. you will also have to specify numerous fluid properties in the Model. or as a time varying vector. As always. forced convection loads can also be used to model one or more flows over a plate. Creating Elemental Temperatures For temperature loads. In this case. after pressing OK. Body command described earlier. and.Forced Convection Over a Plate or Surface For Nastran. Pressures on Axisymmetric shells Axisymmetric shell elements only have a top and bottom surface. Creating Loads for Heat Transfer All of the loads for heat transfer analysis are created similarly to pressure and temperature loads. In this case you must specify the flow rate and diameter along with the temperature. you must specify a flux direction. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.Introduction Page 197 of 707 In the picture above. Finally. For more information about choosing faces. And. If you translate Note: to a program that does not support corner pressures. "Free Face". FEMAP will automatically average the corner pressures and output a centroidal value. just like pressure. you can specify a single Temperature value. Heat Flux Elemental heat flux is applied normal to an element face. This is a very specialized capability and requires a thorough understanding of Nastran’s thermal capability before you attempt to perform this type of analysis. in the standard fashion. see "Creating Pressure Loads". so the proper coefficients can be calculated. you must also specify a surface absorptivity and temperature for the selected face.09. you will choose the face(s) where the fluxes will be applied. along with the face where the convection is acting. Not all analysis programs support pressures at the corners of elements.the generation rate. Special Case . Choosing Faces Model Free Faces The Model Free Faces method simply applies the load to every “free element face” in your model. see "Creating Pressure Loads". You have the choice of loading either the top or bottom surface. The direction is defined either as a constant by giving the components of a vector in the direction of the flux. You may also specify a Gradient value which will be also simply be assigned to the element and will vary the temperature by this amount between the top and bottom face of the element. by choosing a tolerance greater than 90 degrees. Forced convection loading is also supported. Convection Free convection loads require the convection coefficient and the film temperature. including those inside the hole. they apply to the entire element. You must specify the rate of flux. after defining the direction.6.2013 . In either case the components must be specified in global rectangular coordinates. No face specification is required for temperatures. loads could have been applied to all exterior faces. apply the flux to a specific face. only a single constant is required . For more information about choosing faces.

Enclosure radiation problems also require a cavity/enclosure number . Radiation Two forms of radiation can be defined: radiation to space. Make sure that you always specify a small number (<< 1). Optionally. Layer command to change it later. The mass flow is modeled by applying forced convections to each of the flow tube elements. Update. just define both the inner and outer diameters of the tube property as 0. FEMAP uses the layer number that is defined with each radiation load (not the layer for the element). Use the Create Layer command to create a layer. If you do not. Body command and choose the Heat Transfer button. Unlike most general modeling techniques in FEMAP. These links represent how each of the “convection only” plates are linked to the “advection only” flow tubes. To provide maximum flexibility in viewing and verifying cavity Note: definition. If you do want the tube to be translated. Go to the Model. however a rectangular mapped mesh will be much easier to understand.this indicates that you want the tube to be skipped during translation. Set the convection load layer to the same ID as that of the associated flow tubes.e. the translator creates Plot-Only elements to represent the CHBDY elements that are required. once again you must use the FEMAP layer capability to assign these convections to a flow number. Since Nastran really has no way to disable these portions of the problem. otherwise advection and convection will not be properly disabled.Introduction Page 198 of 707 To model this condition you must follow these steps: 1. absorptivity and temperature. place all tube elements from each flow on a separate layer. and also create the links shown above. Surfaces in each cavity are totally independent of other cavities. You must also specify the flow diameter (hydraulic diameter). In addition. If you created your elements in a manner where this does not really represent the direction of your flow you should use the Modify. For all of these loads you must check the Disable Convection option. All forced convections on plate elements are placed on Face 1. Load. and enclosure radiation. This will result in a load that simply models the mass/energy transfer down the flow stream. as well as a view factor from the surface (element face) to space. In most cases. Next. It is very important that as they are displayed. tube elements are required for this special capability. or use the Modify. Also.htm 25. you can speed up the view factor calculations by limiting calculations to surfaces which can shade or can be shaded by other surfaces. In that case. i. when you check this option you will see an additional option displayed that is titled Area Factor. Model the plate. You can use any general mesh. In this way. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. all of these convections on the plate point along the general flow direction. a 1-D case.even if you are using only a single cavity. flowing from the middle of the first edge of the plate to the middle of the third edge (to the opposite node for triangular plates). Currently only one fluid and set of parameters can be specified. and indicate that you are trying to associate this load with a flow tube. They neither shade nor radiate to any surfaces other than the ones in their own cavity.09.Nastran). 3. then choose that layer when creating the elements. apply forced convections to the plate elements where the flow is occurring. For radiation to space. This will display a dialog box where you can specify the fluid properties and other flow parameters. On all of these plate convections you should check the Disable Advection option. during the translation you will be asked to specify a factor that is used to disable the convection and advection. If you are going to have more than one discreet flow. FEMAP uses the plate areas to compute coefficients in the heat transfer equation. If you are working with multiple discreet flows. Model the convection on the plate.0 . as the specification of the cavity number. and the view factor will be automatically calculated by the analysis program (currently only supported for NX Nastran or MSC. it is necessary to properly connect the convections from the plate. you must define a series of tube elements that represent the flow location and direction. we simulate this effect by scaling the appropriate components downward by the scale factor that you specify. This will effectively eliminate the mass transfer. you MUST place them on a layer that is not used by any of the forced convections that you will later apply to the plate elements.2013 . If you need to use tube elements in your model that are not being used to represent flow tubes. Reverse command. Translate to Nastran. where these tubes are simply a modeling convenience and do not represent a physical tube with thermal properties. For enclosure radiation only an emissivity is required. When you translate these loads to Nastran. 2. you can turn on/off as many cavities/layers as you want to visually verify the loading that you have defined. Typically you will want to specify a value that is near (or at least the same order of magnitude) the flow diameter for the plate convections. If you do not specify anything here. Even though it is not required for the mass transfer equations. Model “flow tubes”. FEMAP may create improper links that do not represent the situation that you are attempting to represent. 4. This is the step that can become very difficult if you have an arbitrary (non-rectangular or non-mapped) mesh. Specify additional fluid/heat transfer options. and the Align First Edge to Vector option to realign your plates so that the flow is properly represented. These are typically placed at some location above/below the plate. The absorptivity is assumed to be equal to the emissivity. you must specify the surface emissivity. and not the convection effects. and will more accurately represent the flow. Model the mass flow. By specifying a value you can scale that computation to allow for fins or any other area correction that you wish to apply. Since Nastran only has forced convection along “line elements”. This diameter will be used in the calculation of the Reynolds number. 5. you will not want them to be written to your Nastran model. just specify nonzero diameters. You must specify a flow diameter on these loads.

Since FEMAP does not currently contain a “vs. Nonlinear Force.5 Model.. You must define the type of relationship. make sure that you set the same layer on all of the radiation loads. and the node(s).. For the Positive and Negative Power relationships. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Force” function.09.3 Finite Element Loads > 4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Relationship Tabular Function Product of Two Variables Definition (F=Force.. power is the exponent. four types are available. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. of the equation shown. degree of freedom. In all cases.Introduction Page 199 of 707 If you are working on a single enclosure problem. . displacement/velocity function which will be used by the analysis program to calculate the force. As shown in the table. The X(t) arguments represent the displacement or velocity at node/DOF j (the first node) or k (the second). Load.ugs. and value (displacement / velocity) that the force will be based upon. For Tabular Function loads.htm 25.femap.3. Relationship defines the type of nonlinear transient loads to be created.3. Load. A.femap. 4..3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.. any function type can be used.3. X=Disp/Vel) Positive Variable to Power Negative Variable to Power The other options simply define the arguments to these equations. is used to define nonlinear transient loads that apply forces to a node based upon displacement and/or velocity at one or two other nodes. the node and degree of freedom for the applied force.com Customer Support: http://support.com Customer Support: http://support.2013 .com Phone: (714) 952-5444 file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.. you must define and select a force vs. Nonlinear Force.5 Model.ugs.3. The nodal degrees of freedom must be specified as 1 through 6.3. but it should contain the appropriate force values. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. you must specify a scale factor.

htm 25.4 Geometric Loads > 4.com Customer Support: http://support. and/or supplement to finite element loads. Expand.4 Geometric Loads As an alternative. They are On Point. Load. A rigid element is then created with the newly generated node as the independent node and the selected nodes as the dependent nodes. Load. links it to a set of “base nodes” in your model with a rigid element.3.6 Model.3 Finite Element Loads > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.09.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. On Curve. based upon the type of load to create. change them here. Enforce Motion 4. and applies an equivalent base force.4 Geometric Loads 4. The geometric load section contains four commands.femap. Next you define the base acceleration using the standard load creation dialog box.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. When you create a variable geometric load.. Defining loads by geometry can greatly simplify load input. Since analysis programs require loads directly on nodes and elements. You can also request to “expand” geometric loads to individual nodal or elemental loads for visual verification or permanently (see Section 4. You must choose a time or frequency dependent function to associate with the acceleration.3.3. Edit commands.3.enables you to define a base acceleration. Enforce Motion .1 Model.. Load.. Load. or edit the force later with the Modify. The type of load to create will be limited to either acceleration or rotational acceleration.3. The final required input is the mass and the acceleration scale factor. while the fourth command allows you to convert between FEA (nodal/elemental) and geometric (point/curve/surface) loads. especially in complex solid models. and Expand. .3.3. allows creation of loads directly on points. 4.. "Model. The first three commands enable you to create a load on the selected geometric entity. On Point. A node will be automatically created at this location.3.ugs.. The next dialogue box is the standard entity selection box. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4. This option creates a base mass. Nodal to create nodal loads directly. All loads are converted directly to nodal loads upon translation or expansion. It also provides a convenient method of load distribution..1 Model. FEMAP will store the equation and evaluate it upon translation. The values are automatically computed based on your current model and the acceleration that you chose.3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Nodal command. which asks you to choose the nodes on the base. On Point. FEMAP Product Info: http://www."). FEMAP will automatically distribute that load over the surface based upon the area of the elements. They are utilized to generate a nodal force (force = base mass * specified acceleration) at the independent node of the newly created rigid body.4. You can either simply press OK to accept them. Load.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. Most often you may want to simply use Model.. Load.com Customer Support: http://support. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. Geometric loads also offer the advantage of storing equations and methods of direction. The type of loads available are identical to those that are available through the Model.3. since a many times you will know the total load on a surface. Each of these commands are discussed in more detail below.femap. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630..6 Model.ugs.2013 .3. FEMAP allows you to create loads on geometry.4.4.Introduction Page 200 of 707 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.4. The default for the mass value is several orders of magnitude larger than the mass of the current model so the large mass will drive the rest of the model.. Load. To begin you specify coordinates for the base mass using the standard coordinate definition dialog box. On Surface.. FEMAP will convert these loads to nodal and elemental upon translation.

htm 25. which again simplifies the selection process.". all nodes on a face of an element must be attached to that curve.3. and heat generation) or elemental nodes (element heat flux. The load is distributed identically to a “total” load. The first is that the Direction file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Points will typically be one of the first entities created in your model. you will generally have fewer points than nodes in your model. Temperature is converted to a nodal temperature while elemental temperature obviously is an elemental load.09. Nodal" or Section 4. For loads converted to elemental loads. this type of load input will allow you to describe an equation or function to simulate that loading condition.3.4 Geometric Loads > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4. see Section 4. Load.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.4. The “total” loads include force. For more detailed information on the specific inputs for each load type. "Model. Input is a total load that is then automatically distributed along the nodes attached to the curve. which are then converted to nodal or elemental loads (based upon the type of load) upon translation or expansion.4. Load. moment per node.2013 . Loads input as “per length” loads (force per length. and heat flux per length) are very similar to “total” loads. FEA Attachment All loads on curves must be eventually expanded to nodal or elemental loads when translated to a finite element analysis program. heat flux at node...ugs. If you have a load which varies along the length of the curve. The direction is identified identically to the specification of nodal load direction (see Section 4.. the element is not considered to be on the curve. Total Load is the default for these load types when more than one curve has been selected. and force per node are just different input methods for the same nodal load type (force). There are 10 fluid loads that are scalar quantities and can only be accessed through the neutral file for use in analysis. velocities. Nodal command. as well as variable loading conditions for forces. These values are applied directly to the node with no distribution. The only item which may alter this calculation is if you have turned on Midside Node Adjustment (see "Midside Node Adjustment").2 Model. 4. which will make selecting the points relatively simple. Load. They cannot be variable. These types of loads must also be input as constant. and heat flux. Total Load Only available for Force and Moment load types applied to curves. This procedure is relatively simple for nodal loads. Nodal") with two small differences. If a parabolic element is along a curve. Direction Structural loads (i. force/length. The distribution will be based upon the total length associated with each node. These different input methods enable FEMAP to distribute loads along the curve.) which are converted to nodal loads upon expansion require input of the direction. FEMAP determines which nodes are attached to the curve and creates the loads on these nodes. it creates loads for nodes or elements that were originally from that curve during a meshing procedure (or manually attached). On Curve. Load Input Values There are also three basic types of load input values: Total.2. moment.. This load type is most commonly used for displacements. Total loads must be input as constant. When FEMAP expands the loads on curves into elemental or nodal loads. Load. Load. Load. All other loads are input on an “per node” basis.3. heat flux per node. Uses curve length to spread the load out proportionally. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. heat flux per length. force per length.femap. etc. Allows you to enter the “Total” Force or Moment to be applied over all selected curves.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. radiation. and Per Node. moment per length.2. The sum of all these loads is simply the input value multiplied by the total length of the curve... even before any FEA entities are created.3. These include force per node. All structural loads except pressure are converted to nodal loads. and fluid loads. and element heat generation).3.3.3. Per Length.3. not applied to each curve.2 Model. Load Types There are 33 loads available for loads on curves. convection. temperature.e.4.Introduction Page 201 of 707 There are two major advantages of using this method over the Model. The first is the ease of picking the correct entities. . Many of the load types. The heat transfer loads include loads which will be converted to nodal loads (heat flux.3. such as force. and accelerations.. On Curve. Also. only 2-D elements can be attached to the curve. It does not go into detailed explanation of the input values for each type of load. except the values are then multiplied by the length along the curve associated with each node. This section documents unique features of loads on the curves. The listing in the dialog box of the load type are separated into four sections: structural loads. heat transfer loads. and translational and rotational displacements. but the midside node has been detached from that curve for some reason..creates loads on curves. "Model. For an element to be attached to the curve. The second advantage is that you can create a variable load which stores the equation and can then be easily modified. "Model. force.com Customer Support: http://support. Elemental.

all nodes on a face of an element must be attached to that surface. Two types of functions are acceptable for variable loads on curves: vs. FEMAP will expand the load on the 2-D element. you cannot specify the curve. preceded by an !. and z the coordinate in the Z-axis. You simply define the two locations and then define the load values associated with them. Function The second type. simply choose Constant and input the values. Loads cannot be applied to these elements. FEA Attachment All loads on curves must be eventually expanded to nodal or elemental loads when translated to a finite element analysis program. or Interpolation.htm 25. The node locations are used to evaluate the equation for all loads converted to nodal loads. you must select Advanced. etc. IF FEMAP finds faces of 2-D and 3-D elements that are identical. and vs. This function must be created before defining the load by using the Model. When FEMAP expands these loads. For loads converted to elemental loads. Interpolation. Nodal loads that are total (i. Secondly. Midside Node Adjustment file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.2013 . or the parameter value. This is a useful method for defining loads on a segment of a curve. Therefore. if you were working in a cylindrical coordinate system. you can model any irregular load pattern over the curve. For an element to be attached to the surface. force. y. etc. Function command. and z positions of the nodes or elements.e.) must be constant. Note: A variable load is only available for elemental loads and nodal loads that are “per node”. This procedure is relatively simple for nodal loads. therefore all functions such as XND. Each of these values may be used in the equation definition. FEMAP does not convert the loads into components until you expand or translate. allows you to define a function to describe the loading. and XEL are not applicable and should not be used. Function. Equation Equation allows you to specify a variable loading in terms of the x. it creates loads for nodes or elements that were originally generated from that curve during a meshing procedure (or manually attached). Once again.) and per length (force per length. is really a shortcut version of Function. you will see the same direction method you originally specified.Introduction Page 202 of 707 method is saved. When you select Interpolation. By creating a function. curve parameterization. element face centroid. which allows you to define the type of definition for your variable load: Equation. FEMAP does not perform any extrapolation of these values. The only exception to this procedure is if the 2-D elements are plotonly planes. Method The Method allows you to choose between a constant or variable load. Interpolation The third type. Note: Loads are not expanded on plot-only planar elements since these elements are not translated as structural elements. The position of the centroid of the elemental face attached to the loaded curve is used for all elemental face loads while the centroid of the element is used for nonNote: face loads such as elemental temperature and elemental heat generation. FEMAP will interpolate between these values to obtain loads on the nodes or elements attached to the curve. FEMAP will use the position of the node. moment. if you list or modify these loads. Function. y the theta coordinate. For example 4. y. Simply create this type of function with the load value as Y.09. the element is not considered to be on the curve. but midside nodes have been detached from that surface for some reason. and evaluate it only upon translation or expansion. If Variable loading is required (not available for “total” and “per length” loads). The variable i is not used for loading on geometry. x would be the radial coordinate. curve length. the Locate 1 and Locate 2 areas become accessible. both 2-D and 3-D elements can be attached to the Surface. For instance. or element centroid and linearly interpolate a value at that position from the function.2*!y would multiply the x coordinate of each node (or element) and then subtract the product of 2 and the y coordinate. and issue a warning message.35*!x . The only item which may alter this calculation is if you have turned on Midside Node Adjustment (see "Midside Node Adjustment"). Therefore. you should take care to define the values of the curve at the beginning and end points. and the X value as either the length along the curve. and z coordinates are in the coordinate system defined in the main load dialog box. The only exception is FEMAP will use the node locations to calculate pressure if the At Corner option for pressures is selected. If a parabolic element was created on a surface. FEMAP will perform no extrapolation. FEMAP will store the equation. FEMAP determines which nodes are attached to the curve and creates the loads on these nodes. You can then select Locate for 1 and 2 and the standard coordinate definition dialog box will appear. If constant loading is required. The x. if you choose the Along Curve method. FEMAP will automatically use the curve(s) to which the loads are applied. if a load occurs over the entire length of the curve. Load.

3. "Model. Bearing Force and Torque are only available when applying loads to surfaces. Nodal" and Section 4. Many of the load types.Introduction Page 203 of 707 Some methods such as force/length and force distribute the loads over the entire length.3 Model. Load. There are 10 fluid loads that are scalar quantities and can only be accessed through the neutral file for use in analysis. When FEMAP expands these loads. For many parabolic elements. but midside nodes have been detached from that surface for some reason. This means that 2/3 of the load will be applied to the midside node. heat transfer loads.com Customer Support: http://support. FEMAP will expand the load on the 2-D element and issue a warning message. . All structural loads except pressure are converted to nodal loads. Load. heat flux per length. When creating a Bearing Force... and force at node are just different input methods for the same nodal load type (Force).4. which is standard for many programs. FEA Attachment All loads on surfaces must be eventually expanded to nodal or elemental loads when translated to a finite element analysis program.. on the Edge Factor. Since plot only elements are not translated as structural elements. This procedure is relatively simple for nodal loads.2013 . file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Finite Element Modeling > 4. On Surface. and heat generation) and elemental nodes (element heat flux.3 Model. This section documents unique features of loads on surfaces.09.3. and element heat generation).. it creates loads for nodes or elements that were originally generated from that surface during a meshing procedure (or manually attached). which will apply the loads radially to cylindrical surfaces. This value defaults to 2/3. entered in degrees. These different input methods enable FEMAP to distribute loads along the surface. and Phase (if needed).". If FEMAP finds faces of 2-D and 3-D elements that are identical.. the load may be a Traction Load (“off “by default). convection. Also.2. Additionally. If a parabolic element was created on a surface. Geometry. loads cannot be applied to these elements.. For an element to be attached to the surface. and fluid loads. while elemental temperature obviously is an elemental load.3. such as force. force per area. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. which will essentially have the load “pull” on a surface instead of “push”. For loads converted to elemental loads. all nodes on a face of an element must be attached to that surface. Elemental. 4. The only exception to this procedure is if the 2-D elements are plotonly planes. Load Angle (specifies the area in which the “bearing” is in contact..3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. "Model. Temperature is converted to a nodal temperature. If your results are inappropriate for your analysis program. Load. You must apply a larger value to the midside nodes than the corner nodes. FEMAP determines which nodes are attached to the curve and creates the loads on these nodes.. You can specify the factor you want on the midside nodes under File Preferences. which are then converted to nodal or elemental loads (based upon the type of load) upon translation or expansion. radiation. The only item which may alter this calculation is if you have turned on Midside Node Adjustment (see "Midside Node Adjustment"). then specify a vector to represent the direction of the load.htm 25. Two load types. enter a Magnitude.ugs.3. The heat transfer loads include both nodal (heat flux. the element is not considered to be on the curve. see Section 4. 180 is the default). temperature.4 Geometric Loads > 4. Both use the Midside Node Adjustment and Total Load options by default. and this value is in excess of 1/2 the value of the total load on the element. and 1/6 to each corner node. please consult the documentation for your program. On Surface. heat flux at node.creates loads on surfaces. you cannot simply distribute the force evenly and obtain an even displacement result. Load Types There are 35 loads available for loads on surfaces. It does not go into detailed explanation of the input values for each type of load. For more detailed information on the specific inputs for each load type.3.4. The listing in the dialog box of the load type are separated into four sections: structural loads. You can also remove the option to adjust for midside nodes by clicking this option off. These options are explained in greater detail below. there is an option to have the Bearing Force be Normal to Surface (“on” by default). Load.3.3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. both 2-D and 3-D elements can be attached to the surface.femap.4.

Introduction Page 204 of 707 For example. Total Load Only available for Force. force/length. The direction is file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Allows you to enter the “Total” Force.) which are converted to nodal loads upon expansion require input of the direction. and Torque load types applied to surfaces.htm 25. moment per area. If you have a load which varies over a surface. bearing force. this type of load input will allow you to input an equation to simulate the loading condition. except the values are then multiplied by the area associated with each node. Total Load is the default for these load types when more than one surface has been selected. and heat flux. When used. not applied to each surface. These types of loads must also be input as constant. Loads input as “per area” loads (force per area. Load Input Values There are also three basic types of load input values: Total. Uses surface area to spread the load out proportionally. and heat flux per area) are very similar to “total” loads. All other loads are input on a “per node” basis. The load is distributed identically to a “total” load. force. Per Area. Input the total load value. Moment. Direction Structural loads (i. then specify a vector representing the axis the load acts about.e. velocities. the 4 copies of a “block with a hole” geometry are all loaded with bearing forces using different options : When expanded. Bearing forces will have varying values: When creating a Torque load. The total loads include force. The distribution will be based upon the total area associated with each node. “Total” will appear in the default Load Definition title. Bearing Force. Bearing Force.2013 . and FEMAP will automatically distribute it over the surface. The sum of all these loads is simply the input value multiplied by the total area of the elements. These values are applied directly to the node with no distribution. They cannot be variable.09. These include any “per node” loads as well as translational and rotational displacements. moment. or Torque to be applied over all selected surfaces. etc. Total loads must be input as constant. and Per Node. and accelerations. Moment. enter a Magnitude and Phase (if needed). These are most commonly used for displacements and variable loading conditions.

and z positions of the nodes or elements.09.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. and evaluate it only upon translation or expansion.2013 . The location of the nodes are used to evaluate the equation for all loads converted to nodal loads. 4. The position of the centroid of the elemental face is attached to the loaded curve is used for all elemental face loads. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Load.3.htm 25. therefore all functions such as XND. simply choose Constant and input the values. the same direction method is shown. Nodal loads that are total (i. Equation Equation allows you to specify a variable loading in terms of the x.3.e. please consult the documentation for your program.3. Geometry. you must select Advanced and select the Equation method. For instance.2. Load.ugs. These value represent the percentage of the load on each midside node. These values are standard for many programs. You can also remove the option to adjust for midside nodes by clicking this option off.Introduction Page 205 of 707 identified identically to the specification of nodal load direction (see Section 4. if you were working in a cylindrical coordinate system. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.com Customer Support: http://support. The first is that the Direction method is stored.4 Geometric Loads > 4. and z the coordinate in the Z-axis. if you choose the Normal to Surface method. If a variable load is required (not available for “total” and “per length” loads).3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. For example 4.. The only exception to the above is FEMAP will use the position of the nodes to calculate pressure loads if you select the At Corner option for pressures. preceded by an !.4 Model.3.e. moment. Nodal") with two differences. Load.2*!y would multiply the x coordinate of each node (or element) and then subtract the product of 2 and the y coordinate. etc. x would be the radial coordinate. The values default to 1/3. The Function and Interpolation methods are not available for loads on surfaces. The variable i is not used for loading on geometry. If your results are inappropriate for your analysis program. There are two factors available for Midside Node Adjustment. if you list or modify these loads. and a -1/12 factor is applied to quad-face corner nodes. FEMAP will automatically use the surface(s) to which the loads are applied. and z coordinates are in the coordinate system defined in the main load dialog box. FEMAP does not convert loads into components until you expand or translate. force. Therefore. Tri-Face and Quad-Face factors. Expand. FEMAP stores the equation and only evaluates it when the load is expanded upon translation or when the Model. Midside Node Adjustment Some loads such as force/area and force distribute the loads on the nodes over the entire area. Each of these values may be used in the equation definition. Finite Element Modeling > 4.. y.4 Model. For many parabolic elements.35*!x .) must be constant. FEMAP will store the equation.) and per area (i. Expand command is used. The position of the centroid of the Note: element is used for non-face loads such as elemental temperature and elemental heat generation.3. etc. y. You must apply a larger value to the midside nodes than the Corner nodes. y the theta coordinate.4. you cannot specify the surface. If a constant load is required. Load. You can specify the factor you want on the midside nodes under File. Second. no loads are applied to the corner nodes. Method The Method allows you to choose between a constant load or a variable load.. you cannot simply distribute the force evenly and obtain an even displacement result. "Model. force per area. and this value is in excess of 1/2 the value of the total load on the element. and XEL are not applicable and should not be used. Note: A variable load is only available for elemental loads and nodal loads that are “per node”. Expand. Preferences. The x. which means for tri-faces.femap..4.

This option can be useful when a load is mostly constant (or easily described as an equation) over a surface. Update Other. Load.4. individual types of loads cannot be selected.3. If any of those elements are not the right type of Note: element (Bar and Beam elements ONLY). For loads such as displacement or acceleration.5 Model. You can permanently expand the load.ugs. FEMAP file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. an error message will be supplied and the load will not be expanded a second time. On Surface) or to expand the entire set (All in Set). Modal Analysis. they will not be added to the list and an error message stating “Skipped ‘#’ of Elements which have invalid types for this command” will be sent to the Messages window. or elements can be chosen in this dialog box and the Bolt Regions will then be created automatically. Finite Element Modeling > 4. time/temp/freq reference functions.htm 25. With loads such as forces and moments. You must choose the entity type (Bolt Region(s) or Element(s)) and specify the Preload value before you can actually choose the entities to apply the load. Compression is always performed on the entire set. any expanded geometric loads which appear as elemental or nodal loads before expansion... Therefore.com Customer Support: http://support. and Advanced Nonlinear Analysis (Solution 601). When translating to an FEA model.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Bolt Preloads can only be applied to Beam and Bar elements. Load. or expand the entire set. FEMAP will allow you to choose ANY type of element when selecting elements for applying a Bolt Preload.3. FEMAP will add the components. Many analysis programs require only one load on a DOF.4 Geometric Loads > 4. The option to permanently convert to nodal loads could be used in this case to expand and then modify the displacements on the nodes. each “connected set” of beam/bar elements will become and individual Bolt Region with appropriate Bolt Preload.. Each Bolt Preload must be associated with a Bolt Region. Be careful when using this option.creates a load representing a “Bolt Preload” for NX Nastran. In this case.2013 . Bolt Preload. If you select an option other than All in Set. FEMAP will not add values for the same DOF. The Model. except at a few nodes (or elements). will be converted back to geometric loads. or different freq reference functions for the phase. because you cannot convert back to the original geometric loads. On Curve. When compressing loads.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. and then use the Modify. Load. This procedure prevents duplication of loads. and to evaluate all loads with their current equation. .. it will attempt to combine all similar nodal loads into one load for each DOF. the loads will remain separate and a warning message will be written. and you select to expand it again. and finally compressed again after translation. Bolt Preload.. Combined Nodal Loads When FEMAP expands multiple geometric loads. You will need to modify the input to obtain the desired values at the nodes.Introduction Page 206 of 707 . This command operates only on the current active load set. 4. The Create Bolt Preload dialog box allows you to enter a title which will used as the Load Definition title and assign a color and layer for each Bolt Preload..4. the standard entity selection box will appear. you have the option to specify which loads to expand (On Point. The Bolt Region can be created prior to creating the Bolt Preload.5 Model. you will see the following dialog box. different phases. This is actually very useful when creating Bolt Preloads as you can choose all of the Beam or Bar elements in a model otherwise consisting of solid or shell elements. In these cases. If a load has already been expanded. The only exception is if the loads contain either different vs. then expanded through the translator. When using it to expand loads. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.enables you to visualize the nodal and elemental loads which will be created from geometric loads. Currently.09. Buckling. When this command is selected. all loads used in the translation will be compressed.. FEMAP will combine any selected elements which are “connected” into a single bolt region.femap.. Scale Load command to change individual loads. It will keep these values separate and provide a warning message that two different values were found for the same DOF. If you choose multiple elements to apply Bolt Preloads. Convert To Node/Elem This option allows you to permanently convert the selected loads to nodal/elemental loads. Expand command can be used to either expand or compress the geometric loads. The Bolt Preload is available for use in Linear Static Analysis. to prevent duplication.3.

based upon the type of analysis required: heat transfer analysis. it is included in the load menu because it does relate to the other loading conditions and how they will be applied. ..09. Five different update methods are available.com Customer Support: http://support.. and Transient. 4. While this information does not typically represent a load.femap.1 Model.htm 25. and nonlinear analysis.5 Load Analysis Options These three commands enable you to set options for different analysis types.3.5. but not all are appropriate for all each solution type. Solution Type The solution type determines the type of solution that will be performed for the particular load set. Nonlinear Analysis. They control the Number of Increments and the Time Increment to be used.5.2013 .Introduction Page 207 of 707 Product Info: http://www.femap. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.. as well as the Maximum Iterations for each step.. Rather. Stiffness Updates This specifies the number of iterations to be performed before the stiffness matrix is updated.5 Load Analysis Options > 4. Load.. Each load set to be used in a nonlinear analysis must have the appropriate solution type activated.ugs. Creep. Basic These values provide the time and iteration control information for the nonlinear analysis steps.com Customer Support: http://support. These commands are not used to put loads onto the model. Three commands are available. Only appropriate control information in the remainder of the window will be available based upon the type of solution you choose.ugs. Available options are Static. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.5 Load Analysis Options 4.3.defines the information that is typically required to perform a nonlinear analysis. Load.. dynamic analysis.3.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. No time increment is used for static analysis.1 Model. Nonlinear Analysis. If an inappropriate method is selected. the translator will provide an error message and automatically choose the default method. they simply define certain parameters which are required for the analysis type.3.3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. These commands are not used if you are performing simple static or modal analysis. The options contained in each of these commands are discussed below. as well as the update Method. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.

Advanced This button enables you to access additional nonlinear analysis options as well as damping inputs for nonlinear transient analysis. In addition. or zero. a dynamic analysis load is required for nonlinear transient analysis to define structural damping..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.. In general.Introduction Page 208 of 707 Output Control Output Control information allows you to request or eliminate output at intermediate steps (static and creep) or request Output Every Nth Step (transient). Displacement. Copy Copy allows you to duplicate the nonlinear analysis information from any other load set in the current model. therefore.5.3. Defaults When you first choose this command.3. If you specify a negative value for Quasi-Newton Vectors. are used to define the parameters on the NLPARM statement. therefore several special cases have been implemented. For some of these fields however this distinction is important. Convergence Tolerances The type of Convergence Tolerances (Load.2013 .htm 25. Finite Element Modeling > 4.. when written to Nastran. Dynamic Analysis. in the dialog box for any of these cases. 4. Solution Strategy Overrides This area provides you with the capability to further control the strategy that will be employed to converge toward a solution.09. Load. For most problems. the nonlinear options are not required. Each load set to be utilized in a dynamic analysis must have the appropriate solution method activated.5 Load Analysis Options > 4. you will get a blank in your Nastran file.. Similarly. Dynamic Analysis. Load.femap. Using Advanced Options with NASTRAN The options in the Advanced Group. you will get a “0”. . The damping values for nonlinear transient analyses can be input here or under Model.2 Model.2 Model. for Max Bisections / Increment.com Customer Support: http://support. Load. when the values are written to Nastran it is normally not possible to control whether a blank or a zero will be written. FEMAP does not distinguish between blanks and zeros when you enter values into dialog boxes.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.3.ugs.5. and/or Work) as well as the tolerance values themselves are defined in these boxes. but they are available for experienced analysts to modify the default solution controls.provides the solution type and control information for dynamic analyses. By pushing this button.. You can then modify these defaults as appropriate. If you specify a blank.. all values will be zero. you will get a zero. nonzero default values will be entered for all properties. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. or for Max Line Searches/Iter. Dynamic Analysis. Values less than -10 were chosen because values down to this value are valid for that field. if you specify a value that is less than -10.

You can create a Function directly from this dialog box by clicking the Function Icon Button. These values provide the conversion from the frequency domain. You can create a Function directly from this dialog box by clicking the Function Icon Button. Direct Frequency. you can automatically create a solution frequencies function/table from that output. and then select this function under Random Analysis Options. in which damping is usually defined. This table defines the frequencies to be analyzed for both direct and modal frequency analysis. these options allow you to choose the number and/or range of modes to include in the frequency response or transient formulation. frequency function type). The frequency table is just a function with a list of frequencies in the X position. The Modal Damping Table requires a function to define damping information as a function of frequency. You can create a Function directly from this dialog box by clicking the Function Icon Button. and the output interval. and Amplification vs. and mass damping in ABAQUS. these options are overridden by the nonlinear transient time step input. A solution frequency table can be automatically created by pressing the Modal Freq button. You simply use the Model.Hz) is used in combination with the material damping values to obtain structural damping in Nastran. Critical Damping vs. these options control the number of steps. you may also select the Advanced option to define the range of solution frequencies. Choosing three points per mode will select the modal frequencies and two additional frequencies at the modal frequency plus and minus the spread value.Introduction Page 209 of 707 Solution Method The solution method chooses the type of dynamics solution to be performed. The Frequency for System Damping (W3 . If this load is to be used in a nonlinear transient analysis.Hz) is divided into the overall damping coefficient (for Nastran and ANSYS). Equivalent Viscous Damping This box provides damping information for the structure. and LS-DYNA. and you will see the following: The modal frequency in each output case will be selected for the Solution Frequency table. Three types of FEMAP functions can be chosen: Viscous Damping vs. Response Based On Modes For the modal solution methods. frequencies in a band near each modal frequency can be chosen by using the Additional Solution Frequency Points. Simply press Modal Freq. size of steps. This option is used only for random response analysis. The number of points must always be odd so that the modal frequencies are selected. The Overall Structural Damping Coefficient is input for all four solution methods. Modal Transient. Frequency Response The Solutions Frequencies table is chosen in this section.htm 25.2013 . Choosing only one point per mode will select just the modal frequencies. Enforced Motion file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. If you are using Nastran. The Frequency for Element Damping (W4 . The y position is irrelevant and will be ignored. Equivalent Viscous Damping Conversion Information for both system damping and element damping is provided in this box. Four available options exist: Direct Transient. while the Frequency Band Spread defines the placement of the additional frequencies. Frequency. Random Analysis Options This option allows you to define a Power Spectral Density (PSD) function to be used for random analysis. The inappropriate boxes for each Solution Method will be grayed automatically. or the material damping values for each material (for ABAQUS and LSDYNA) and then multiplied by the stiffness to obtain element (or stiffness) damping. Function command to define the PSD values as a function of frequency (a vs. Modal Freq If you have previously performed a modal analysis on your model. Transient Time Step Interval For transient analyses. and have the solution information in the current model. Additionally. Frequency.09. Frequency. and Modal Frequency. ANSYS. into the time domain. These values are only input in direct and modal transient Analysis. while the Modal Damping Table is utilized for only the two modal methods. The Number of Points per Existing Mode defines the number of frequencies to be included for each modal frequency.

which asks you to choose the nodes on the base.1) Copy This selection allows you to copy dynamic analysis options from any other load set in the current model. velocity.5. and applies an equivalent base force. then a second FREQi card will be used. This option creates a base mass. and Spread Around Modes (Nastran FREQ4 card).ugs. The second is Nastran PSD Interpolation: Nastran has the ability to define the PSD table in the following four formats. displacement. Linear). The first is the ANSYS PSD type: ANSYS has the capability to input acceleration (in g2/Hz or acc units2/Hz. of Intervals) options will be available. or edit the force later with the Modify. Advanced As with nonlinear analysis. Cluster around Modes will also have a logarithmic interpolation option.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.COUPMASS.5 Load Analysis Options > 4. Next you define the base acceleration using the standard load creation dialog box. although logarithmic interpolation can also be employed for the frequency range.09. (Log. links it to a set of “base nodes” in your model with rigid elements. The values are automatically computed based on your current model and the acceleration that you chose.-1). If you have selected a direct frequency analysis. YLog). (X Log. If you select Modal Frequency as the analysis type. (Linear. If additional frequencies are defined..COUPMASS.3. By simply changing this option. the type of input on the PSD Function in the main Dynamic Analysis dialog box is modified. You can either simply press OK to accept them. Edit commands. An additional set of frequencies with all the same options as in the first frequency set can be defined in the Additional Frequencies section. (X Lin.htm 25. This is currently only supported for Nastran. The next dialogue box is the standard entity selection box. Mass Formulation Specifies the solver to use Lumped or Coupled Mass Formulation in Dynamic Analysis. The following dialog box is provided to enable choices for Mass Formulation and Dynamic Data Recovery. only the Default List and the Frequency Range (Min. These are Cluster around Modes.Introduction Page 210 of 707 Pressing the Enforced Motion button enables you to define a base acceleration. Nastran generates “Lumped” mass matrices (PARAM.3. They are utilized to generate a nodal force (force = base mass * specified acceleration) at the independent node of the newly created rigid body. additional types to determine the solution frequencies from the natural modes will be available. No. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Y Lin). Choosing Coupled instructs Nastran to generate “Coupled” mass matrices for elements with coupled mass capability (PARAM. The type of load to create will be limited to either acceleration or rotational acceleration.3 Model. The final required input is the mass and the acceleration scale factor. the type of Interpolation used on the PSD table input (Nastran TABRND1) in the main Dynamic Analysis dialog box is modified. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. A rigid element is then created with the newly generated node as the independent node and the selected nodes as the dependent nodes. Load. By simply changing this option. A node will be automatically created at this location. Solution Frequencies / Additional Frequencies This option provides an alternative method to the Solution Frequencies function on the main Dynamic Analysis dialog box. change them here. By default.2013 .. Heat file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. which corresponds to the Nastran FREQ3 card. The default for the mass value is several orders of magnitude larger than the mass of the current model so the large mass will drive the rest of the model. Random Analysis There are currently two options supported for random analysis. You must choose a time or frequency dependent function to associate with the acceleration. To begin you specify coordinates for the base mass using the standard coordinate definition dialog box. Max. an Advanced button is provided to give experienced analysts more control over the solution strategy. You can also specify addition analysis inputs for Solution Frequencies and Random Response Analysis. or force).com Customer Support: http://support.femap. Log). The Solution Frequencies section defines the first set of frequencies defined on a FREQi card.

com Customer Support: http://support. From Output.3 Model. There are four commands available: Copy. Each command is briefly discussed below.Introduction Page 211 of 707 Transfer Analysis 4.6 Load Set Manipulation This section of the menu works to create either additional load sets or new loads from output. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.3. and select the type of formulation to use for different types of heat transfer problems. thermal characteristics for convection. and From Freebody.3. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Heat Transfer Analysis This command enables you to define heat transfer constants. Radiation If you are going to perform a radiation analysis.3.5.6 Load Set Manipulation 4. These options are currently used for NX Nastran and MSC.htm 25. Combine. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. They are The Convection Exponent is the value shown as EXPF in the above equations. Refer to the Nastran documentation for more information about the proper values for these options. you can choose between two alternative forms of the free convection temperature exponent.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.09. you must specify the temperature difference between absolute zero and zero in the temperature system that you are using.2013 .3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.femap. Free Convection For free convection analysis. Forced Convection The forced convection values specify the properties and behavior of the fluid to be analyzed.Nastran only. Load. These options correspond directly to the options on the Nastran PCONVM and MAT4 commands.ugs. and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant.

Once the Load Set(s) are selected from the From list. and geometric loads are copied to the new set. the scale factor and To are set. 4.com Customer Support: http://support.2 Model..09.Introduction Page 212 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www.2013 .6.6. Load.htm 25. Load. Load. Combine.. Input for this command is minimal. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. you can give the new “combined” Load Set a title. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Copy. click Add Combination to add the selected Load Sets to the Combinations list.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. .3. Create/Manage Set command to modify the title of the new copy.3. Answer Yes to work with the new copy.. If conflicting temperatures exist for the file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.3.. enables you to combine two or more load sets into one new load set based upon the following formula Choose any number of load sets from the From list (Hold the CTRL key when you click to choose multiple load sets one at a time or the SHIFT key to choose a range of Load Sets). . Hint: You may want to use the Model.1 Model.1 Model.2 Model.ugs.ugs.New Set” to create a new load set).3. Load. FEMAP will create a duplicate copy of the active set with the ID that you specify.. use the Delete...com Customer Support: http://support. FEMAP will simply copy the nodal and elemental temperatures..3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.6. nodal elemental. Load. then select an existing Load Set to place the load combination when finished (or use the default “0. then enter a Scale factor (Default is “1”)..6 Load Set Manipulation > 4. If you are creating a new load set. FEMAP will ask whether you want to activate the new set.3.. Model. Temperature loads will not be linearly combined. You will notice that the scale factor will proceed the Load Set number and title when placed in the list.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Combine. If you do not want to duplicate all of them. All loads. duplicates the active load set.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.. After the copy has been made.3. FEMAP will always create it with the same title as the original set that was copied... Load commands to remove the ones that you do not want from the new set.6 Load Set Manipulation > 4. Simply specify the ID of the load set that you want to create. You can use the Remove Combination button to remove any number of load combinations from the Combinations list.femap. 4. This new set must not exist. including body. Copy.6.femap. Answer No if you want to continue working with the original load set.

six vectors can be selected. Similarly. Finite Element Modeling > 4.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. therefore the output must also be in global rectangular.3 Model.ugs. Convert to create an additional output vector of the opposite type.09. pressures or heat transfer loads.6. no loads will be created in that direction. Then use Model. From Load command. the standard entity selection dialog box will be displayed. in which case all output will be converted. If you leave any vectors blank (or zero).htm 25. use Model. FEMAP will use the last temperature.6. Finite Element Modeling > 4. You can either select your entire model. From Output and select the vector created with Model. FEMAP displays a dialog box to let you choose the type of load you want to create. You cannot create output on different element faces at the same time with this command. Load. Output.femap. In either case. When creating elemental pressures.com Customer Support: http://support. The loads are always created in the active load set. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. you will be able to specify an output set and output vector which contains the temperature data. Finally.. After you make a selection. . lets you convert output data from one or more output vectors into various load types.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. For example. You must select the nodes or elements where loads will be created.3.6 Load Set Manipulation > 4. after you complete these options and press OK. convert your current temperatures to output data using Model. which can then be combined with Tools. For other types of loads. the Create Loads From Output dialog box will be displayed.6. If you are creating nodal or elemental temperatures. Check. Load. or many of the elemental heat transfer loads. When you choose this command. or vice versa.3. Why Create Loads from Output? The primary reason to convert output data to load data is for use in future analyses.ugs.6 Load Set Manipulation > 4. you must also specify a Face ID where the load will act.. Finally. From Output..2013 .com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.. Output. Also.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.3 Model.3. or limit the conversion to some selected portion of your model. You must always specify at least one vector. Convert. you may want to convert that data to temperature loads from a heat transfer run in a structural analysis. If loads exist on the same node or element in different sets that are combined. 4. You can choose the Color and Layer for all new loads.Introduction Page 213 of 707 same node or element in the individual load sets. First... you might want to use displacement. the resulting set will simply obtain multiple loads on that node or element. If you have defined temperatures and need to convert them to the opposite type. all loads are created in global rectangular coordinates. Coincident Loads.3. Map Output From Model.com Customer Support: http://support. Output. Load..3. and press OK. force or acceleration output from one structural analysis as a loading condition for further analyses. From Output. Data from the six vectors will be converted to the six loading degrees of freedom. loads will only be created if output exists for a particular node or element. this command can be combined with several others to accomplish that task. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.4 Model.. Load.femap. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Also. Converting Between Nodal and Elemental Temperatures Another reason to use this command is to convert nodal to elemental temperatures.

all of the groups will appear in the Results on Group drop-down menu. (Default) • 4.. The value can be specified as a constant or in X.Extend Closest . . Default value is the “Merge Tolerance” of the “Target” model. You will know you have enough data in your “Source” model if all the drop-down menus have selectable values. all of the output sets will appear in the Output Set drop-down menu. which is optional. When To Data Surface is used. FEMAP will create a new “Data Surface” to be used in any loading condition of the current model. The options for nodes that are not mapped: • • • • 0.. Map Output From Model.Applies no output values to any entities which do not have a direct “map”. Results on Group This menu allows you to choose a Group in the “Source” model to use for the “mapping” process. Map Tolerance When a “Target” location is projected onto the “Source” data surface and the distance to a discrete data point is less than the tolerance.. The “Source” model must have output which can be “mapped” onto the nodes of a “Target” model.2013 . The following figure shows an example of a common use for this command: file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. FEMAP will also automatically create a group of “Target” nodes which have not been “mapped”. or Temperatures on Nodes. the “Source” value of the “coincident” location is directly mapped to the “Target” without interpolation.Set to Zero . Output Vector This menu allows you to choose an Output Vector in the “Source” model to use for the “mapping” process. When a node is not “mapped” it is because a “Target” node’s normal projection does not fall within any “Source” Element. Load. If you have more than 2 models open inside one instance of FEMAP.09. Pressures or Temperatures on Elements) will be created directly on the target model’s nodes or elements in the current load set.Does a linear interpolation using the source values. Only available Output Vectors in the “Source” model will appear in the Output Vector drop-down menu. If multiple nodes fall within this tolerance.Sets all entities without a direct “map” to the value of zero (0...4 Model. If you have multiple groups in your “Source” model. There are a few things required for this command to be used effectively: 1.Introduction Page 214 of 707 4. then the first one encountered numerically will be directly mapped. loads of the chosen type (Forces. 2. You must have both the “Source” and the “Target” models open in the same instance of FEMAP 2.htm 25. all of the other models except the current model will appear in the From Model drop-down menu.. Y. but recommended. The group can only contain 2-D elements (Quad and Triangular elements) Output Set This menu allows you to choose an Output Set in the “Source” model to use for the “mapping” process. If you have multiple output sets in your “Source” model. Values for Locations with No Map This menu allows you to choose a “mapping” option for entities which do not have a “one-toone mapping” from the “Source” to the “Target”. 3. The only input additional input for the To Data Surface method is Data Surface Name.. When the To Model Loads option is used..0) 1.Sets all entities without a direct “map” to a specified value.Set to Value . The “Source” model must have a group containing all the elements which have output data to be “mapped” onto the nodes or elements of the “Target” model. and Z components. Target You can choose to “Map” Output to the target model using either the To Model Loads or To Data Surface method.Interpolate .No Output . From Model This menu allows you to choose a Model to use as your “Source” model for the “mapping” process.Extends the value to the closest “Target Entity”.3.6. The two models can have completely different meshes and FEMAP gives you a few options for the method used to “map” the output. lets you “map” certain output data from 2-D elements on one model (Source) onto another (Target).. Output to Map All fields must have values for this command to function properly. Displacements. Output which can be “mapped” is restricted to the output types listed in the Nodal or Elemental drop-down lists for 2-D elements only (Quad and Triangular elements) 3.

From Freebody.3. If a single Freebody using a single Output Set is selected. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. In the Loads section of the dialog box.ugs..3..2013 . Load. "Freebody tool" for more information). the newly created loads can be placed in an existing Load Set selected by the user or a new Load Set.htm 25. Finite Element Modeling > 4.. You must have at least one Freebody entity defined in the model to use this command.5 Model.6.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Otherwise.3. choose a destination for the newly created force and/or moment loads. For example. 4.6 Load Set Manipulation > 4. 8 new Load Sets will be created. select any number of existing Freebody entities from the Freebodies section. if 2 Freebodies and 4 Output Sets are selected.3..3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.Introduction Page 215 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Load.com Customer Support: http://support.. Freebody display is controlled by the Freebody Tool in the PostProcessing Toolbox (see Section 7..creates loads directly from a freebody display.09.femap.2. From Freebody. .6. along with any number of existing Output Sets from the Output Set(s) section.3.5 Model. In the Create Load(s) from Freebody dialog box. the forces and/or moments from each Freebody/Output Set combination will always be placed into a new Load Set.

ugs. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.2013 . Finally.7. Constraint. The user also has the ability to “Include Freebody Interface Load” and/or “Include Freebody Nodal Load(s)”. as well as define “SPCADD/MPCADD sets” for Nastran.09.3.1 Model. This menu command is also available on the tray at the bottom right portion of the graphics window.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. One drawback is editing loads.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.. Finite Element Modeling > 4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.3. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. renumber.. you must always activate a constraint set prior to creating either of them. there is an option to “Create Single Load Definition for Freebody Nodal Loads”. The Constraint Set Manager can be used to create new constraint sets. Therefore.3. Use the Sum Data on Nodes option in the Freebody Tool to display exactly what will be created in the new or selected existing Load Set.displays the Constraint Set Manager. Same is true about Moment loads if “Moment Vector Display” is set to “Off”. Finite Element Modeling > 4..htm 25.com Customer Support: http://support. and geometric constraints are created in the active constraint set.7 Activate/Create Constraint Set 4. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. a single Load Definition will be created in each Load Set containing the various Freebody Nodal loads. Constraint. then no Force loads will be created.. Create/Manage Set.3.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. If “Display Mode” is set to “Freebody” in the Freebody Tool. These options determine which loads will be created. as well as by choosing New from the Constraints object context-sensitive menu in the Model Info tree.1 Model.femap. constraint equations. When on. or copy the active constraint set. 4. only the setting of “Include Freebody Nodal Load(s)” will be used when creating loads. . One positive aspect of creating a single Load Note: Definition is deletion of all loads created by this command in a particular Load Set is very easy.7 Activate/Create Constraint Set > 4. delete.com Customer Support: http://support..ugs. Creating a single Load Definition may or may not be useful considering that almost all load values will be different.femap.7. as the values of all loads in the Load Definition will be changed to a single value entered by the user. Create/Manage Set..7 Activate/Create Constraint Set All nodal constraints.3.Introduction Page 216 of 707 If “Force Vector Display” is set to “Off” in the Freebody Tool for a particular Freebody. update the title of an existing constraint set.

. The next available constraint set ID will automatically be entered in the ID field when creating a new constraint set. When a new constraint set is created. command. simply highlight it from the Available Constraint Sets. Note: When a “combined” constraint set is “Active”. A Nastran SPCADD/MPCADD Combination is a special type of constraint set which “references” any number of existing Standard constraint sets in the model. The titles are displayed. then be prompted to make another. Press OK to create a constraint set or press More to create a constraint set. list. This command is located in the Additional Commands category on the Commands tab of the Customize dialog box.Selected Constraint Set is Active list of the Constraint Set Manager.Introduction Page 217 of 707 To activate a constraint set that already exists. you should choose a descriptive title. Toolbars.. Visibility) and Model Info tree. Once a Nastran SPCADD/MPCADD Combination Set has been created. Creating New Constraint Sets To create a new constraint set.htm 25. in the Available Constraint Sets . but any constraint set ID not currently being used in the model may be entered instead. When used. The Referenced Constraint Sets for Nastran SPCADD/MPCADD dialog box will appear: Highlight any number of Standard constraint sets from the list of Available Sets. highlight it from the list in the Constraint Set Manager and press the Referenced Sets button.09. regardless of options set in the Visibility dialog box (View. Click Add Referenced Set to have them placed in the Referenced Sets list. You may choose a Set Type for the new constraint set. no constraints will be visible in the FEMAP graphics window. press the New Constraint Set button. press None Active. it will automatically become the “Active” constraint set. all of the selected Standard constraint sets referenced by a particular Nastran SPCADD/MPCADD Combination are written to the Nastran input file and combined by Nastran via a SPCADD entry when dealing with normal constraints or a MPCADD when dealing with constraint equations. You may also enter a Title. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. A Standard constraint set is any combination of Constraint Definitions and Other Loads used to define the boundary conditions for that constraint set. along with the IDs. As always. Note: Customize A Referenced Constraint Sets command may be added to any menu or toolbar using the Tools. To deactivate all constraint sets.2013 ..

2013 .9 Finite Element (Nodal) Constraints FEMAP allows you to apply constraints directly to nodes or create constraint equations which provide a relationship between DOFs of nodes. Constraint. Model.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. command. Constraint. The Other Constraints branch contains headings for On Geometry. and Equations. Constraint Definitions can then be edited. There are three commands which apply constraints directly to the nodes: Nodal. or deleted.9 Finite Element (Nodal) Constraints > 4.femap.com Customer Support: http://support. Constraint. Nodal on Face.. on Surface Each Constraint Definition will contain all of the individual constraints which were created at the same time using a Model. Note: Each Constraint Equation created will also create a new Constraint Definition. Note: For example. Constraint. a single “Constraint Definition” would appear in the Model Info tree. Constraint. or Constraint Equations. Note: If you combine multiple constraint equations into one constraint definition. Nodal. along with the process of combining Constraint Definitions. and Model. if you chose to put a constraint for Degrees of Freedom TX.ugs.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.9 Finite Element (Nodal) Constraints 4. any number of Nodal Constraints.com Customer Support: http://support. and deleted and all individual constraints contained in that Constraint Definition will be edited.3.8 Constraint Definitions Every time a constraint is created on finite element entities (i.09. On Curve. Model.3. listed. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.3.. FEMAP will create a Constraint Definition for each separate type of constraint that was highlighted.com Customer Support: http://support. TY. In this case.femap. Model Info" under “Loads and Constraints in the Model Info Tree” FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Equation) or geometry (Model. "Tools.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4..3.9.8 Constraint Definitions 4. For more information about the Remove Definition and Create Definition commands.3. If you choose constraints of various types and then use the Create Definition command.htm 25. Each of these commands is discussed below. Model.e.1. ) a “Constraint Definition” will also be created in FEMAP.. you will be prompted to edit each constraint equation one at a time. Nodal on Face. Constraints on Curves. and TZ on 5 selected nodes.ugs. Constraint Definitions can be removed at any time using the Remove Definition command on the context sensitive menu in the Model Info tree and the individual constraints from that Constraint Definition will be moved under the appropriate heading in the Other Constraints branch. listed. On Mesh.1 Model. On Point. Constraint. Finite Element Modeling > 4.ugs.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. and modifying individual constraints are still available in FEMAP. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. These Constraint Definitions will appear in the Constraints branch of the Model Info tree and can be given a title. and Equation. Finite Element Modeling > 4.Introduction Page 218 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. deleting.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.2. All of the commands for listing.femap. please see Section 7.e. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Model. 5 individual constraints would be modified using one command. etc) by highlighting them in the Model Info tree and using the Create Definition command from the context sensitive menu. a Constraint Definition can be created from any number of constraints of the same type (i. Constraint. Also.3.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. These Constraint Definitions can then be combined. if the Constraint Definition were to be edited.

you are implicitly changing their orientation every time you change the output coordinate system. The following table shows the combinations which are available. Be careful when you change the output coordinate system. as well as everything else that references nodal degrees of freedom.9.. Specifying Degrees of Freedom Any combination of the six nodal degrees of freedom (TX. followed by OK. Nodal. In the table. Constraint. * indicates a constrained degree of freedom. For some types of analysis (usually modal analysis) other sets of degrees of freedom can be used. "Model. and hence the constraint directions. Node. standard combinations of degrees of freedom will be needed. Command Button Fixed Free Pinned No Rotation X Symmetry Y Symmetry Z Symmetry X AntiSym Y AntiSym Z AntiSym TX * * * * * * * * * * * * * * TY * * TZ * * * * * * * * * * * RX * RY * RZ * Simply choose the command button you need. if you create a constraint on a selected node or nodes."). even in other constraint sets. you can only have one output coordinate system per node.Introduction Page 219 of 707 Constraint... TY. Nodal. TZ. ANSYS M set.3. Title: Allows you to enter a title for the “Constraint Definition” being created. to create the constraint. For these situations.2013 .2.. or component directions. If the coordinate system that you choose is different from your previous selection. which will be constrained.1 Model. 4.htm 25. In many cases however. you can quickly select the combination by pressing the appropriate command button.09. One typical example of this is the analysis set (Nastran ASET.constrain your model.1. STARDYNE file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. If you do not enter a title. the default title will be “Constraint on Node”.. and (2) choose the degrees of freedom. Remember. All constraints. Color/Palette and Layer: These controls define parameters for the nodal constraint to be created. For example. for all selected nodes. are specified relative to that coordinate system. at each of these nodes. Nodal constraints are used to prevent movement in one or more nodal directions (degrees of freedom). If you have other constraints defined on the same node. Other Uses for Nodal Constraints In most cases. These Note: changes can result in modeling errors which FEMAP can not detect. in all sets.Use Nodal Output System” to use the coordinate system that was selected as the nodal output coordinate system (see Section 4. The same constraints will be applied to all of the nodes that you select in a single command. Coordinate System: This list allows you to choose a coordinate system which will define the nodal degrees of freedom.. You can also choose “-1. RX. Creating nodal constraints is a two step process: (1) select the nodes to be constrained using the standard entity selection dialog box.. a default title will be created based on the type of constraint which was created. you will want to create nodal constraints to do exactly what their name implies . RY and RZ) can be selected using the check boxes. you will be asked to confirm that you want to overwrite the previous selection for all selected nodes.

". just like you specified your constraints..2 Model.ugs. non-constraint sets.femap. "Model.9 Finite Element (Nodal) Constraints > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Constraint.3. which contains the nodal degrees of freedom that you want. Nodal on Face.2013 . For more information. Nodal On Face.9.9.3 Model...9 Finite Element (Nodal) Constraints > 4.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.3. When you create a constraint equation. Constraint.constrains the three translational degrees-of-freedom . .. It is a good idea to specify a title that will help you to properly identify the set. Equation.3.2 Model..htm 25. Quick Constraint Icons These icons create specific types of nodal constraint combinations on a selected set of nodes: .3..Introduction Page 220 of 707 GUYAN set) which is often used for reduced modal analysis. Constraint. Finite Element Modeling > 4.Fixed .3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4..works just like Model.3.No Rotation ..constrains all six degrees-of-freedom . Then when you translate your model. Equation. FEMAP then automatically finds all of the nodes on those faces and applies the specified constraints. 4.3.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.09. Constraint.3.. Nodal on Face.com Customer Support: http://support... simply choose this set for its intended purpose. Constraint.9.9.. see Section 4.. . instead of translating it as a constraint set.constrains the three rotational degrees-of-freedom FEMAP Product Info: http://www. FEMAP's translators support these additional. All you have to do is create an additional set..Pinned . you select elements and element faces.com Customer Support: http://support.3.3 Model. 4. you must specify all of the terms in the following equation: file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Load...femap.relates the motion or displacement of two or more (up to 70) nodal degrees of freedom.ugs... but instead of directly selecting the nodes where constraints will be applied. Nodal.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4..

FEMAP will combine the constraints. X Translation TY. X Rotation RY.10 Geometric Constraints 4. Standard geometric constraints only allow you to specify either all translations (DOF 123 . Multiple Nodes. If you have already defined nodal constraints for nodes on the geometry. When a selection is highlighted. Delete: Nodal degrees of freedom are identified by selecting a node number and selecting the degree of freedoms (see table below). Geometric constraints are expanded to nodal constraints upon translation or expansion. it is possible to specify combinations of advanced geometric constraints that can not be solved in a single analysis. You can also add multiple nodes. and then create a no rotation condition on one of the nodes through Model.2013 . You will then see the standard entity selection dialog box.standard and advanced. but require more care when you are specifying them. Nodal.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. Y Rotation RZ. and then select/input the node and press Add. This will add these nodes with the selecting degrees of freedom and coefficient to the constraint equation.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.Pinned). Finite Element Modeling > 4. Color. Layer: In addition to the equation terms. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.com Customer Support: http://support. The ID will automatically increment each time that you create a new equation. if you have multiple nodes in the constraint equation that have identical degrees of freedoms and coefficient. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. you can remove it by pressing Delete. Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 DOF TX.femap.3. in any combination.Introduction Page 221 of 707 Equation coefficients are directly specified in the constraint equation definition dialog box: Add. define the coefficient. These combinations do not require setting or changing the nodal output coordinate systems during translation. ID. In this manner. Advanced geometric constraints give you full control of the degrees of freedom to constrain. This ID must be unique within each constraint set. select the degrees of freedom. Select the appropriate nodes and press OK. You can also modify your selections by highlighting a selection in the dialog box. all translations + all rotations (DOF 123456 . or change it to your current pick by pressing Replace. Replace. Since analysis programs only support one output coordinate system per node. you could pin nodes on a curve. and the combined result would be a pinned surface with one node as fixed. select the degrees of freedom. FEMAP will automatically transfer these constraints to nodes attached to the constrained geometry upon translation or expansion. you must define an equation ID.3.Fixed).09. Simply input the coefficient. Y Translation TZ. Y and Z directions defined by the nodal output coordinate systems. and is used only to identify the equation within FEMAP.10 Geometric Constraints You may also create nodal constraints in FEMAP by constraining geometry. This will add it to the constraint equation. or all rotations (DOF 456 .ugs. the nodal degrees of freedom are in the X. There are two types of geometric constraints . and can therefore be defined in any number of constraint sets. Z Translation RX. and then press the Multiple Nodes button. You can also specify a Color and Layer for each equation. Constraint.htm 25. Z Rotation As always. To input one node at a time.No Rotation).

then request will not precisely match the coordinate system .2013 .both of the in-surface directions will be constrained.in this case every degree of freedom that is partially constrained will be fully constrained. Expanding Advanced Constraints Any time you expand advanced geometric constraints. and assigned as nodal output coordinate systems. which is used to align the resulting output coordinate systems.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Once the coordinate systems have been computed and assigned. constraining the in-surface translations and optionally the insurface rotations. similar to the geometric loads. If you attempt to do this. as necessary. the desired constraint directions are considered individually. gives you full control over the six nodal degrees of freedom in any coordinate system you specify.the normal to the surface .for example constraining sliding in surface. “Surface” constraints are intended to automatically select the degrees of freedom necessary to match certain physical conditions. Advanced Constraints There are three available approaches to defining advanced geometric constraints. “Move Normal to Surface” does just the opposite.com Customer Support: http://support.ugs. If you pick a coordinate system. On Curve. as long as they are in-surface. then FEMAP will start the process of actually assigning constraints. this will not in general be possible. If you choose “Sliding in Specified Direction”. The Standard constraint types are available at the top of the dialog box.femap. curves or surfaces. At this time. and can therefore be arbitrarily specified. or simply translate the model for analysis. Starting with the first constraint set required/selected. and you can constrain any combination of the three directions. For example. Because of the restriction in analysis programs of a single output coordinate system per node. and Expand. In the case of translation for analysis. “Cylinder/Hole” is only available if you select one or more cylindrical surfaces. If they match with the coordinate directions of the output coordinate system. “Cylinder/Hole” is very much like “Surface”. as all should if they meet the “single output coordinate system” restriction. FEMAP will first attempt to define the output coordinate systems for each node. “Arbitrary in CSys”. You can either pick a coordinate system from the list. the required coordinate directions at the nodes will be defined. In all of these cases. the rotational degrees of freedom around the two axes that result in rotations out of the surface. the output coordinate systems are needed for proper interpretation of the analysis results. curves and surfaces.09. These output coordinate systems will not be removed if the expanded constraints are compressed. and the constraints will be applied. This may allow proper matching of more than one constraint request . only the constraints will be applied . there are many conditions that can not be represented in a single analysis. lets assume that you wanted to analyze one condition that constrained some arbitrary set of DOF in a specified coordinate system (using “Arbitrary in CSys”). are divided into four commands: On Point. As stated before. “Sliding along Surface” will constrain the direction perpendicular to the surface. since the output coordinate system specified for the first condition may not match the one required for the second. you will also be asked to specify the sliding direction. Even if you defined two constraint sets.Introduction Page 222 of 707 The geometric constraints. This allows FEMAP to also properly handle another constraint request that might require a specific insurface direction. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. except that they can only be applied to cylindrical surfaces. The first. really only requires one direction be specified . The Advanced types are at the bottom of the box.htm 25. On Surface. new coordinate systems will be created.it is up to you to manually define the nodal output coordinate systems so that the degrees of freedom are properly interpreted. some care must be taken when applying advanced geometric conditions. FEMAP will do attempt to match the second condition as closely as possible to your request. the nodal output coordinate systems will be created and assigned. If multiple requests force the coordinate system to be improperly defined. In this case. or choose “Use Nodal Output Sys”. This will happen whether you use the Expand command. “Arbitrary in CSys” is available for points. to create the selected conditions. and if “Include Rotational DOF” is checked. The process will continue until all coordinate directions at each node have been defined. If you choose “Use Nodal Output Sys”. degrees of freedom normal to that direction will be constrained. In this case the output coordinate system will be aligned with the axis of the cylinder/hole. Whether you are defining constraints on points. “Surface” is available for all surface constraints. you will see the same dialog box. all nodes will have their output coordinate systems changed to that system. and you also wanted to analyze another condition that specified “Sliding in Surface”. it is good to understand the process FEMAP uses to expand these constraints. To investigate this a little further. but you should carefully check your model to see that it is what you want. they are simply applied to the nodes.

3.10 Geometric Constraints > 4. Nodes attached to that curve will then be constrained upon translation or expansion.10 Geometric Constraints > 4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.Introduction Page 223 of 707 Home > Commands > 4.. Constraint. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. Constraint. Nodal command..10. Expand.htm 25.. . which are then transformed to nodal constraints upon translation or expansion.allows you to apply constraints directly to curves. Constraint.10. Finite Element Modeling > 4.. On Point.3 Model.. Finite Element Modeling > 4. and then select the type of constraint. Nodes attached to that curve will then be constrained upon translation or expansion. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.3.10.3.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.2013 .2 Model..allows you to apply constraints directly to points. On Curve...3. On Point.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.3. however.. You simply select the surfaces through the standard entity selection box. Finite Element Modeling > 4..3.10.10.com Customer Support: http://support.3.femap.. it is often just as easy to apply the constraints directly to the nodes with the Model.. This command can ease the entity selection process since you will typically have many more nodes than points in your model.10 Geometric Constraints > 4.3..com Customer Support: http://support. Finite Element Modeling > 4. On Surface.1 Model.09..ugs. and then select the type of constraint.com Customer Support: http://support.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. Constraint..3.1 Model. . FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Constraint.2 Model. Constraint.allows you to apply constraints directly to surfaces.. You simply select the curves through the standard entity selection box.3 Model.10 Geometric Constraints > 4.3. ..3..ugs.10. On Curve.femap. 4.femap.ugs.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.10..4 Model. Constraint. Constraint. 4. On Surface. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. 4.

1 Model...Individual commands to remove unwanted constraints from the new set.11 Constraint Set Manipulation This section contains command to copy or combine entire constraint sets. . or an entire set. You can select individual types to expand.Definition or Delete. Model. Copy. Constraint. Create/Manage Set command to modify the title of the new copy.11 Constraint Set Manipulation > 4.11.3. All nodal constraints and constraint equations are copied to the new set. . Expand command. FEMAP will ask whether you want to activate the new set.11. the geometric constraint will be removed and be replaced by nodal constraints.4 Model. Finite Element Modeling > 4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.duplicates the active constraint set. use the Delete. Answer yes to work with the new copy. Load.com Customer Support: http://support. Copy. Expand.2013 .ugs.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.3. Constraint.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.. You cannot go back to the original geometric load. be careful when converting to nodal.ugs.. This new set must not already exist.1 Model.3.femap. This conversion is permanent.htm 25.. Constraint. It operates identically to Model. Just like with the Model.09.com Customer Support: http://support.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. You can also compress an entire set.3. If you choose Convert to Nodal.3. FEMAP will create a duplicate copy of the active set with the ID that you specify. After the copy has been made.. Model.Introduction Page 224 of 707 4.. Constraint . FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. Constraint.ugs.3.. Simply specify the ID of the constraint set that you want to create. Finite Element Modeling > 4. 4. FEMAP will always create it with the same title as the original set that was copied.femap. Answer no if you want to continue working with the original constraint set. Input for this command is minimal. Load. Hint: You may want to use the Model.10.is used to expand or compress geometric constraints.11 Constraint Set Manipulation 4.com Customer Support: http://support. Constraint . If you do not want to duplicate all of them. Expand.femap. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.

09. There is also a command which allows you to set-up contact conditions by choosing specific surfaces (or sets of surfaces) to use as Connection Regions.4 Creating Connections and Regions The commands under the Connect menu are used to create connections usually by creating all of the different entities required to set up contact conditions.2 Model. element. A “+” in front of the Load Set name designates Combine. Constraint.. Finite Element Modeling > 4.com Customer Support: http://support. Load. There are basically three steps in creating contact for these programs..3.. elements.2013 . Connection Properties. Combine. The middle portion of the Connect menu allows you to create each separate type of entity required to set up contact conditions. Constraint. ANSYS. and you have the option to Combine or Overwrite constraints for each set that you add to the Combinations list.Introduction Page 225 of 707 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. then selecting a Connection Property which is used to create a Connector between the Connection Regions. Bolt Regions (used to apply a Bolt Pre-load in NX Nastran only).3. These commands allow you to use nodes. "Model. LS-DYNA. Load. curves can sometimes be used to create “analytical rigid surfaces” for use with axisymmetric models. How these contact conditions are used depends on the selected options and the Finite Element solver being used to perform the analysis.femap. The top portion of the Connect menu aids in the creation of connections based entirely on geometry. Connection regions are usually geometry.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.6. Finite Element Modeling > 4. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. The bottom portion of the Connect menu may be used to create three specialized types of regions useful for Nastran users.3 Creating Loads And Constraints > 4. as well as geometry. Also.htm 25.4 Creating Connections and Regions 4.11 Constraint Set Manipulation > 4. enables you to combine two or more constraint sets into one new constraint set.ugs. Combine. MARC.. . and Connectors. and NEi/Nastran. or node-based regions for contact.2.") except there is no scale factor input. or property information to generate Connection Regions. They involve three different entity creations: • Connection Property • Connection Region • Connectors This type of contact is currently supported for NX Nastran.11. ABAQUS. the solver you are using determines which Connection Property will need to be used to create appropriate contact conditions.. while an “O” designates Overwrite. Combine. (See Section 4. Fluid Regions. In most cases.2 Model.11..3. and Rotor Regions (used to define “rotors” for Rotor Dynamics in NX Nastran only) file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. 4. depending on your solver. but the same concept can be used to create regions for other types of analysis conditions..3. This option works much like Model. FEMAP has a command to automatically determine which geometric bodies will come into contact with one another based on some factors and automatically generate the Connection Regions. Combine.

The number is 1/10000 of the “model box diagonal” (think of the model box being an Note: invisible box that completely encapsulates every entity in the model).. Connection Region.". ship floating in a body of water). If you would like to create these entities one at a time. You can override the default node merge tolerance by specifying a value in Tools. "Connect. Bolt.5. a specific Connection Property (or use one that has already been defined)..1 Connect. "Connect.3... Finite Element Modeling > 4.com Customer Support: http://support..2013 . FEMAP Product Info: http://www. (Contact Pair)" Coincident Surface Detection Tolerance Essentially. Angle Tolerance file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.. damping values. Connector.4.09. there are additional options which can be set up for creating the MFLUID entry for the Nastran solver. Section 4..4..4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4. Connection Property. please see Section 4. . and Rotors in different analysis runs. When analyzing “preloaded bolts”.4. and Connectors between bodies which are within the tolerance values and fit the Detection Strategy criteria. 4. FEMAP gives you the ability to “enable “and “disable” Fluid..ugs. Automatic. Parameters. A Bolt Region is used to create a region of elements where you would like to apply a bolt “preload”. arising from components in an assembly being bolted together... The default value for Tolerance is set to be 5 times the default node merge tolerance in FEMAP. A Rotor Region is used to create a region of nodes which you would like to specify as a “rotor” for Rotor Dynamics in NX Nastran. FEMAP will automatically create Connection Regions. The regions can be created in a similar manner to Connection Regions by using element IDs and face numbers OR elements associated to the positive or negative side of a surface. Each Bolt Region represents a “bolt” and there can be multiple “bolts” in a single model. a fluid in a contained area) or an infinite volume “external” fluid (i.e. The “preload” is a specified torque which has been translated into an axial load.4.htm 25.creates connections automatically based on the proximity of geometric entities selected in your model using a number of parameters. "Connect. you may be interested in obtaining the stresses due to the preload condition alone or due to a combination of the bolt preload and additional loading conditions.e. and Section 4. as well as choice of a “Detection Strategy” (Minimal to Aggressive) and options for the way multiple Connection Regions will be combined on the same solid. Automatic. These parameters include specific values for Tolerance (distance between bodies) and Angle Tolerance. and Rotor Regions which can be very useful when trying different numbers of MFLUIDs. the Tolerance value is a distance between bodies that FEMAP will use to determine if automatic connections should be generated between surfaces.4.4.. In some cases. Bolt Preloads. you may need to change this value to have FEMAP detect more or less surfaces for auto-connection. There are also options to set the rotation axis..Introduction Page 226 of 707 A Fluid Region allows you to create a region of elements to simulate either a finite volume “internal” fluid (i.1 Connect.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Along with defining the physical regions that can be affected by the fluid.femap. all with unique “preloads”.". FEMAP determines the default node merge tolerance based on overall model size. and individual rotor load sets.

. Here is a little more information on each option going from Left (Minimal) to Right (Aggressive) • Analytical . Solid. If you are on Detection Strategy 5. This option is off by default. All Connections. This is especially the case for setting up “Glued/Bonded” contact. a t-junction). spherical. This option is on by default but if you turn it off you will be able to see exactly which surfaces FEMAP is detecting to create Connection Regions and which sets of Connection Regions are being connected with Connectors automatically. Note: Connection Property This portion of the of the Auto Detection Option for Connections dialog box allows you to create a new default Connection Property or choose an existing Connection Property to use when automatically creating connections. Look For Two different types of connections can be created automatically in FEMAP. Many times you will only want to create contact conditions between the surfaces of bodies which are somewhat “planar” to one another. • Intermittent Swelling. and are within the other criteria. Connections will be created between the surfaces on those bodies which fulfill the detection criteria. If not.FEMAP will only create connections between “planar” surfaces on bodies within the Tolerance and Angle Tolerance detection criteria.e. FEMAP will combine all Connection Regions it has created automatically on a single solid into a single Connection Region for that particular solid. Define Connection Property file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. and toroidal surfaces.FEMAP will actually “swell” all of the selected solids by 1/2 the value specified in Tolerance and then attempt to Boolean the “swelled” solids together. As you move from left to right. and Toroids (Default) . so be sure to see if a particular solver supports “Edge to Face” contact. This can be helpful if you are performing an analysis on a part (often times a circular part) where the two ends will be “clamped” together or a rubber “boot” which may contact itself in many places as it is displaced. FEMAP will search for surfaces on the same solid which fulfill the detection criteria and then create a connection between those surfaces. “Face-to-Face” connections (usually between multiple solids or “stacked” surfaces) and “Edge-to-Face” connections (usually between non-manifold junctions of multiple surfaces. If after swelling a Boolean can take place. Spheres.. Add.FEMAP will actually “swell” all of the selected solids by intermittent values based on the Tolerance value and then attempt to Boolean the “swelled” solids together after each iteration. You may want to turn this option off when using the Check for Connection in same Solid option in order for FEMAP to create Connectors between surfaces on the same solid.Cylinders. you are adding methods of detection. then Boolean . Detection Strategy FEMAP gives you 5 different options for Detection Strategy. Connections will be created between the surfaces on those bodies which fulfill the detection criteria.. so you can use larger Tolerance settings and more Note: “Agressive” Detection Strategies to have FEMAP detect additional connections. the geometry will not actually be changed in the model) and attempting to Boolean them together for the purpose of finding the maximum number of surfaces for use in creating connections. which some analysis codes will require in order to create “self-contact” conditions on the same part. Choose to find Face-Face Only (default). For example. • Contact . • Analytical . it is better to start with the default values for the Tolerance and Angle Tolerance and the “Minimal” Detection Strategy options.. Also. if you are on Detection Strategy 2. FEMAP will also look for connections between sets of cylindrical.Creates a new Connection Property using “1.In addition to creating connections between “planar” surfaces.Allows you to choose any previously created Connection Property from a from a drop-down list. Note: Only certain FEA solvers support “Edge to Face” contact.Introduction Page 227 of 707 The Angle Tolerance can be used to allow FEMAP to detect connections between surfaces on bodies which are not “planar” to one another.Contact” as the Type and will enter the same default values which are entered when the Defaults button is used in the Define Connection Property dialog box • • Glued .2013 .FEMAP will create Connections using adjacent surfaces on bodies which could Boolean together if you were using a command such as Geometry. By default. This is the default setting for FEMAP and will often find the most appropriate surfaces for creating connections.Face-Face Only”. FEMAP will only create contact between surfaces which are within 1 degree of being “planar” to one another. conical. connections will not be created between surfaces linked with “Adjacent Surface Matching”. be sure Look For is set to “1. If you don’t know which settings to use for Automatic Detection. Cones.htm 25. Check for Connections in same Solid When this option is on. FEMAP will actually perform Detection Strategy 1 and then Detection Strategy 2.. then Boolean (Aggressive) . This option specifies what type of connections the command should be looking for in the model. FEMAP will not overwrite any Connections or create duplicate Connections which have been created.Planes Only (Minimal) .09. or Edge-Face Only.. Combine all Connections between Solids When this option is on. If after swelling a Boolean can take place.Glued” as the Type and will enter the same default values which are entered when the Defaults button is used in the dialog box Property . Depending on the Detection Strategy you choose FEMAP will go from detecting a minimal amount of connections using a limited number of geometric entities to actually swelling bodies (internally.Creates a new Connection Property using “0. This limits the number of Connection Regions which will be created in an assembly model containing a number of solids. Detection Strategies 1-4 will be attempted and then Detection Strategy 5. i. • Boolean . • Swell.

if a cylindrical surface is split into two periodic faces by Parasolid (which is common). There is also an option to create a new Connection Property. A “Related Surface” is defined as a surface which was created from the same underlying geometry to the selected surface(s).com Customer Support: http://support.3 Connect. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.2013 .. Other examples include surfaces split using imprinted curve or surfaces separated by a Boolean operation such as Geometry.4. or two sets of surfaces. it allows you to create 2 separate Connection Regions then a automatically creates a Connector between those Connection Regions using a specified Connection Property.4. Surfaces. Slave (Source) . the other face would also be included in the Slave Connection Region when this option is turned on.Introduction Page 228 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. For example.ugs. Connection Property. Basically.femap..Creates a new Connection Region using a selected surface or surfaces if Multiple has been chosen to be used as the “Slave” in a Connector.com Customer Support: http://support. Connect Surfaces • • Master (Target) . Surfaces. Finite Element Modeling > 4.Creates a new Connection Region using a selected surface or surfaces if Multiple has been chosen to be used as the “Master” in a Connector.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. .allows simple creation of a “connection” between two single surfaces. Solid.4..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.ugs.4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4..4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4. a set of surfaces and a single surface. FEMAP will search for “Related Surfaces” to also put into the Master or Slave Connection Region.htm 25. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Connection Property FEMAP allows you to choose an existing Connection Property to use when creating this connection. 4..2 Connect.. Search for Related Surfaces When this option is turned on. Remove. and one of the faces is selected for the Slave Connection Region.09. This option is on by default.femap.2 Connect.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www..

Load Copy allows you to copy the values from an existing Connection Property in your model to a new Connection Property. almost all contact options are available for all solvers. all solution sequences except SOLs 144-146.. The first 3 tabs are used for creating contact conditions for different solution sequences in NX Nastran. The typical entity information contained in FEMAP: ID. "Library Selection" of the FEMAP User’s Guide. Layer and Title are available for the Connection Property.2..9.Introduction Page 229 of 707 4. only the options required to create “Glued” or “Bonded” contact are available.6. usually located in the FEMAP directory) and Save is used to store a new or modified Connection Property in that same library. Connect Type is a specialized entry for the Connection Property and allows you to choose between 0. Clicking the Defaults button will insert a different set of “Default values” on each tab. NX Linear (SOLs 101. Note: Connect Type has no effect on the MARC.6. and 701 for “Glued Contact”).3. When Connect Type is set to 1. Also common to the Define Connection Property dialog box. DYNA.htm 25.Contact. and 112 for “Linear Contact”. are the Defaults. or NEi Nastran tabs. 601. Color. is used to load a saved Connection Property from the Connection Property Library (conprop. MARC. The options available for each solver are discussed in greater detail below file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Each tab creates program specific input for one of the following solvers: ABAQUS. For more information on libraries. NX Advanced Nonlinear (SOL 601)..esp file. These are recommended values for each solver and/or type of analysis and FEMAP fills them in on all tabs at once. The rest of the dialog box is separated into 8 tabs.09. "Library/Startup" and Section 4. or NEi/Nastran.. regardless of what “Tab” is chosen.3 Connect. When you define a Connection Property.Contact and 1. 111. ANSYS.2013 .Glued. It is important to give each Connection Property a descriptive title so you may easily select one from the drop-down property list when defining a Connector.. LS-DYNA.Glued. A Title is required in order to save the a Connection Property to the Connection Property Library and all values on all tabs will be stored together. When Connect Type is 0. Connection Properties You must define interface information for the Connector with a Connection Property. you will see the Define Connection Property dialog box for contact pairs. Each of the other 5 tabs contain options required to set up contact conditions for a particular solver. 103. Load. Connection Property. Each tab has the required input for a particular solver and/or analysis type. You must have a least one Connection Property in your model for Copy to be available. see Section 2. Save. and NX Explicit (SOL 701) each have a tab containing different options associated with a particular analysis type.. and Copy buttons.4.

FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Finite Element Modeling > 4.Enters a value in the MINDi field on the BCTSET entry... Note: For example.4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4.femap.4. which is available in all NX Nastran solution sequences except SOL 144-146 (Aeroelasticity) and SOL 701 (Explicit Transient Dynamics).3. Note: In general.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Modal Analysis (SOL 103). Designates the Static Coefficient of friction for contact pair “i”. These options will be written out to the BCTSET entry for each individual contact pair.4. Designates the Minimum search distance for contact pair “i”.1 NX Nastran Linear and Glued Contact Properties (NX Linear tab) The linear contact property for NX Nastran contains options for linear contact which is available in Linear Statics (SOL 101).09. Modal Frequency Response (SOL 111).NX Nastran” and your Analysis Type to “22. the “ABAQUS tab” will be “active” until you select a different tab. and Modal Transient Response (SOL 112).3. Connection Property. Connection Property command.htm 25. Each contact pair will be designated in the graphics window with a single line going from one Connection Region to another and this line is a contact element. If you were to then change your Interface to “45. when you use the Connect. These options can be reached by pressing the NX Linear tab in the Define Connection Property dialog box.com Customer Support: http://support..Enters a value in the FRICi field on the BCTSET entry. if different friction values are NOT needed then the contact pairs should all reference the same contact property. if you have your Interface set to “16. It also contains options for “Glued Contact”. > 4.3 Connect.ABAQUS”.Advanced Nonlinear Static”. the “NX Adv Nonlin tab” would be “active” until changed. Contact Pair (BCTSET) The options in this portion of the dialog box can be set individually for each Connector (contact pair) that is created in the model. Friction .ugs.. Min Contact Search Dist .Introduction Page 230 of 707 FEMAP will use the information you have set on the Interfaces tab of the Preferences dialog box to set which tab of the Define Connection Property dialog box should be “active” by default. The glued option for SOL 601 can be found on the NX Adv Nonlin tab..4.2013 . file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.1 NX Nastran Linear and Glued Contact Properties (NX Linear tab) 4.

Number of Changes .The averaging of the Pressure/Traction values for a contact grid will exclude those contact elements which are not active in the contact solution and thus have a zero Pressure/Traction value.Calculated.. 1. Num for Convergence must be an integer > 1. The value and type of number (real or integer) entered for Num For Convergence depends on the option set for Convergence Criteria: • 0.Zero Gap/Penetration . Designates the Minimum Contact Set Percentage (Default = 100).Starts from initial state..Include Z-Offset (Default) . regardless of how many Connectors (contact pairs) are defined in the model... Setting the parameter to “1. Note: The max distance must be defined for all contact problems. Contact Inactive . which will appear as 0. For example. Shell Offset . FEMAP will use the Connection Property referenced by the Connector with the lowest ID to define the BCTPARM entry for the entire model.Sets the penetration/gap to zero for all contact elements.01 to 0. Max Force Iterations . but if penetration is detected. if a model has 2 Connectors (contact pairs) with ID numbers 101 and 102.When this option is set. these two values create the NCHG field on the BCTPARM entry.01).Introduction Page 231 of 707 Note: The minimum distance can be negative and used for an interference fit condition modeled as overlapping surfaces. (Default = 0) • • 0.Together..Starts from previous subcase.Z offset of shells is NOT included for determining glued surfaces.2013 ..Start from Init State. Max Status Iterations . all of the contact elements could become inactive which may lead to singularities.Creates the CTOL field on the BCTPARM entry. The solver treats this value as a percentage of the number of active contact elements in each outer loop of the contact algorithm..Creates the MAXF field on the BCTPARM entry.Creates the MPER field on the BCTPARM entry. Flag to indicate if the contact status for a specific subcase is to start from the final status of the previous subcase.Use the value calculated from the grid coordinates.Does not include thickness offset.Restrict From Inactive”.When this option is set.Include half shell thickness as surface offset.The averaging of Pressure/Traction values for a contact grid will include the results from ALL contact elements attached to the grid regardless of whether they are active or inactive in the contact problem • 1... Shell Thickness Offset flag.Enters a value in the MAXDi field on the BCTSET entry. The number of active contact elements is evaluated at each outer loop iteration.Percentage of Active .. Each Connector has an ID assigned to it and can reference a different Connection Property.Solver will reduce the likelihood of all of the contact elements becoming inactive.Z offset of shells is included for determining glued surfaces. Force Convergence Tol .Creates the INIPENE field on the BCTPARM entry. Contact Status . Under certain conditions... Designates the maximum number of iterations for a status (outer) loop (Default = 20).Can Be Inactive (Default) . Avg Methods . Designates the maximum number of iterations for a force (inner) loop (Default = 10).. • • 0. Max Contact Search Dist .Restrict From Inactive .Same as 0. (Default =0) • • 0.No not Include Z-Offset . In the case of penetrations. 3.Creates the AVGSTS field on the BCTPARM entry.Include shell thickness .Creates the MAXS field on the BCTPARM entry. • • 2. This value defines the allowable number of contact changes.Start from Prev Subcase .09.. Convergence Criteria and Num For Convergence . prevents all of the contact elements from becoming inactive. 1. a model may experience “press fit” behavior when using this option.Calculated/Zero Penetrations ..Do not include thickness .Restrict From Inactive” will reduce the possibility of this happening. This is the distance that NX Nastran will search for contact from the element normal. • 0.. Designates the Maximum search distance for contact pair “i”. set the value to zero.99 in the NX Nastran input file).. Determines the averaging method for contact pressure/traction results (Default = 0). Contact Property (BCTPARM) These options need to only be defined once for a contact analysis.Allows you to choose if the Z-Offset on shell elements should be included in determining “Glued Contact. 1.Calculated .Creates the RESET field on the BCTPARM entry. The Defaults button will automatically fill in the dialog box with the default values file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. • 1. When set to “1.Creates the SHLTHK field on the BCTPARM entry. Note: Shell Z-Offset .” Creates ZOFFSET field in BGPARM entry and gives you 2 choices for the corresponding Value field: • • 0. Controls how Nastran handles initial gap or penetration of the generated contact elements (Default = 0). • 0. Initial Penetration .htm 25. the Connection Property values defined in the property associated with Connector ID 101 would be used for the analysis. Min Contact Percentage . Designates the Contact Force convergence tolerance (Default = 0.Creates the CSTRAT field on the BCTPARM entry. Num for Convergence must be entered as a percentage (between 1 and 99.Include Active Elements ..All contact elements can become inactive 1.Include All Elements .

1/Length (Default) .Scale Factor . when checked places a “1” (Adaptivity adjusts contact stiffness) into the PENADAPT field.0 for BCTPARM. Normal Factor .1 and above. Tangential Factor .Determines the number of “Linear Contact or Glue Points” for a single element on the source region.0 for BCTPARM. the longer the solve will take. Glued Contact Property (BGSET) A brief description of Glued Contact: An option to “Glue” elements together during a solution is available in NX Nastran version 4. Penalty Factor Units .Spring . Creates INTORD field in BCTPARM or BGPARM entry and gives you 4 choices: • 0. Glue definitions can be used in all solution sequences except SOL 144-146 (Aeroelasticity) and SOL 701 (Explicit Transient Dynamics).A “weld like” connection will be used to define the connections.Spring (GLUETYPE=1) • • 1.09.htm 25.Normal and tangential springs will be used to define connections. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. 2.Force/(Length x Area) .. Simply uses the default value for “Linear” or “Glued” contact built into the NX Nastran solver.Refine Source to Target (Default) . When setting penalty factors for linear contact or glued contact when Glue Type = 1..Refines the “Linear Contact/Glue” source region using the NX Nastran 7.Do Not Refine .Does not refine the “Linear Contact/Glue” source region based on target surface definition. • • • 1.. • 2. May use the Auto Penalty Factor or a combination of values for Normal Factor and Tangential Factor. 3. The “Glue” option creates stiff springs or a “weld like” connection to connect pre-defined Connection Regions and prevents relative motion in all directions (these springs and “weld like” connections are essentially “glue elements”). Auto Penalty Factor . it places a “0” (No Adaptive adjustment) into the PENADAPT field.0 Method .Introduction Page 232 of 707 Note: suggested by NX Nastran.Creates the GLUETYPE field on the BGPARM entry.NXN 7.. Please see the NX Nastran Quick Reference Guide for more information.Glue Factor (PENGLUE) is a unitless value. Glue Type .Medium .. This is the default. This is the default for NX Nastran.F/L^2 .0E-4). When setting penalty factors for glued contact when Glue Type = 2.. Refine Source .Determines if the source region is refined for the “Linear” or “Glued” Contact solution. Creates REFINE field on the BCTPARM or BGPARM entry and gives you 2 choices for the corresponding Value field: • • • 0. Designates the penalty factor for the normal direction (Default = 10. 2.Glue Factor (PENGLUE) has the units of F/Length squared.2013 ..Normal Penalty Factor (PENN) and Tangential Penalty Factor (PENT) are entered in units of 1/Length. 2. 2...Medium order of points on source region. Glue Factor .Low . • 1.. Common Contact (BCTPARM) and Glue (BGPARM) Parameters This section contains options for Glued contact and several options available for both Glued Contact and Linear Contact. Designates the penalty factor when Glue Type is set to 2.Default .This is a flag to indicate whether normal and tangential penalty factors will be automatically calculated.Lowest order of points on source region. Specifies the glue formulation.Creates the PENTYP field on the BCTPARM or BGPARM entry. It may be helpful to try and run the analysis with the defaults and then run it again if any modifications are needed to create more accurate results or achieve convergence. 100 for BGPARM). no special field will be written to the BCTPARM. Adaptive Stiffness . When this box is checked in FEMAP.Weld (GLUETYPE=2) • • 1.Does NOT write the INTORD field or corresponding value field to the BCTPARM or BGPARM entry. Penetration Factor .Weld (GLUETYPE=2).High .. Creates PENADAPT field on BCTPARM entry (Default=0).Refines the “Linear Contact/Glue” source region based on target surface definition. The higher the integration order...Creates the PENGLUE field on the BGPARM entry (Default = 100). Note: Glued contact works differently in NX Nastran SOL 153 than any other solution sequence. When not checked.Creates the PENT field on the BCTPARM or BGPARM entry.Creates the PENN field on the BCTPARM or BGPARM entry. Only GLUETYPE=1 may be used. Only uses the Glue Factor.Weld (Default) . Specifies how contact element stiffness is calculated. 100 for BGPARM).. Only used when Adaptive Stiffness is “on” and should usually only be set to a lower value to reduce the amount of penetration allowed to occur in an analysis.0 method. 1.Creates the PENETFAC field on the BCTPARM entry (Default = 1. Designates the penetration factor for adaptive penalty stiffness adjustment.. Designates the penalty factor for the tangential direction (Default = 1.This is a flag to indicate whether adaptive stiffness is activated.Normal Penalty Factor (PENN) and Tangential Penalty Factor (PENT) are entered in units of Force/(Length x Area).Highest order of points on source region.. Eval Order .

Note: Glued contact is currently NOT available when using the Element Iterative solver in NX Nastran.4. more than 1 Connector (contact pair) can be defined and each pair can have a different Connection Property. the Glued Contact must be set up in the first subcase for all Note: solutions sequences except in SOL 101. this is telling NX Nastran that if the Connection Regions of the Connector (contact pair) are within this distance. For more information.htm 25. In this case. Finite Element Modeling > 4.. Even if you have several different properties created for Glued Contact.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.3 Connect.2 NX Nastran Contact Property Options .4. FEMAP will automatically combine them all in to one BGSET entry in NX Nastran.Advanced Nonlinear Analysis (NX Adv Nonlin tab) 4. which they should be.Advanced Nonlinear Analysis (NX Adv Nonlin tab) For NX Nastran Solution 601. then Glued contact will be active for this contact pair. when Linear Contact is defined.3. Many different glued connections can occur in the same model and all of the connections will be placed in the same “Glue Set” (BGSET entry) in the NX Nastran input deck. Glued Contact can be defined in any subcase. both Glued Contact AND Linear Contact can be defined in the same subcase.2 NX Nastran Contact Property Options . "Advanced Nonlinear Analysis (NX Nastran Only)". Also.4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4.ugs.23. see Section 8. Connection Property. ALL of the values defined on the NX Adv Nonlin tab of the Define Connection Property dialog box are used for each respective Connector (contact pair). file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.2013 .femap. By setting the value of search distance to a value larger than the largest distance between connection regions using Glued Contact.4.Enters a value in the SDISTi field on the BGSET entry. > 4.Introduction Page 233 of 707 “Glue elements” are created from the “free face” of one Connection Region to another if the regions are within the specified separation distance (Search Distance) for gluing to occur. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.09. Search Distance . only one Glued Contact property is Note: needed per model. For each Connection Region..3. Advanced Nonlinear Analysis has two NXSTRAT solver parameter dialog boxes in the Analysis Case Manager.7.1. In Linear Statics (SOL 101). Designates the Search Distance for the contact pair “i”.com Customer Support: http://support. Essentially.

You get to choose between 0.Flags how initial penetrations are handled.Use large displacement formulation (contact conditions are updated) Consistent Stiffness (check box) .Single/Double-Sided . some portion of the dialog box will be available. For more information about using contact with NX Nastran Solution 601.Parameter for frictional constraint function.. Specifies an “extension factor” for the target region. penetration is deemed not to occur..0).Constraint Function or 1. A Negative Gap Distance means initial penetrations which will be eliminated.Lets you choose the contact algorithm type and writes the TYPE field on the BCTPARA entry.This is a flag for single or double-sided contact.Penetration Depth for single-sided contact (NSIDE=1). Creates TDEATH field on BCTPARA entry (default = 0.0E-12). Note: For TYPE=0 or TYPE=1. Creates OFFSET field on BCTPARA entry. The “extension value” sent to the solver is calculated by multiplying the Extension Factor (EXTi) by the largest element edge in the source and target region. it places a 1 (Single-sided contact) into the NSIDE field.. see Nonlinear Analysis Theory and Modeling Guide.0.Used . while other portions are “grayed out”.001. If PDEPTH > 0.Type of offset for contact regions.Segment Method) Disp Formulation .0). “w”.Enters a value in the EXTi field specified on the BGSET entry for the contact pair “i”. Compliance Factor .Initial penetrations are ignored. Choose from: • • • 0. Creates EPST field on BCTPARA entry (Default = 0. it is ignored.. In successive steps. Note: Offset Distance . You can choose: • • • 0.Not Used . Death Time .Use specified offset of NSIDE=1. Initial Penetration .Eliminate . Creates TBIRTH field on BCTPARA entry (default = 0.Introduction Page 234 of 707 Glued Contact Property (BGSET) Extension Factor . When not checked.Constraint Function. Double Sided (check box) ..Selects the displacement formulation used for this contact set.Use NXSTRAT CTDISP .. Creates EPSN field on BCTPARA entry (Default = 1. must be greater than 0).Specify with Gap Distance . then Penetration is detected when penetration is less than or equal to PDEPTH.Compliance Factor. Creates the SEGNORM field on the BCTPARA entry.Birth time for contact set..Half Shell Thick .Small Disp Formulation .25.Eliminate/Print . Standard Contact Algorithm (Contact Type = 0.Use the formulation selected by CTDISP in NXSTRAT entry (Default) 1.. use offset value of 0.....Continuous segment is used -1. Default = 0.Use specified offset for NSIDE=1 or NSIDE=2 2.Initial penetrations are eliminated 1.Default . individual offset distances can be specified for each contact region using the BCRPARA entry to override the default offset distance specified here Birth Time . Creates the OFFTYPE field on the BCTPARA entry.Default offset distance value for contact regions. (Default = 0. SEGNORM = -1 if NSIDE = 2 1.Indicates whether a continuous (interpolated) contact segment normal is used for the contact surfaces. Segment Normal . Choose from: • • • 0..Constraint Function only) Normal Constraint ..2013 .Initial penetrations or gaps are overridden by specified Gap Distance. Constraint Function Contact Algorithm (Contact Type = 0..SEGNORM = 1 if NSIDE = 1. Frictional Constraint ..Use small displacement formulation (contact conditions are not updated) 2. when checked places a 2 (Double-sided contact) into the NSIDE field.htm 25.Rigid Target. You can choose between: • • • • 0. Creates CFACTOR1 field on BCTPARA entry.Single Sided .. Creates NSIDE field on BCTPARA entry. This option is not available for rigid target algorithm Gap Distance . or 2. Writes the Initial penetration option to the INIPENE field on the BCTPARA entry.001 for NSIDE=2 1. Depending on the contact algorithm.Ignored .Half the shell thickness is used for contact regions on shell elements and no offset for is used otherwise OFFTYPE = 2 can only be used with rigid target algorithm (TYPE=2). Creates the DISP field on the BCTPARA entry. 1. If TDEATH is less than or equal to TBIRTH..Specifies a constant gap distance (GAPVAL) between the source region (contactor) and the target region when The Initial Penetration option is set to “3.Continuous segment is not used Offset Type . (Value must be between 0. Penetration Depth .Segment Method.Large Disp Formulation . Creates CSTIFF field on BCTPARA entry file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630..09.Initial penetrations are eliminated and the list of penetrating nodes is printed 2.Specify with Gap Distance”. each contractor node is allowed to penetrate the target up to its initial penetration 3.0). Write PDEPTH field on BCTPARA entry.. “v”.Death time for contact set. and if Penetration > PDEPTH.0 and 0.Parameter for normal constraint function.This is a flag to indicate whether consistent contact stiffness is used.01) General Contact Type .

0) Note: Currently. uses FPARA1 and FPARA2. and FPARA3. uses FPARA1. FPARA2. If TZPENE=0.vs Sliding Velocity (1. The field is the actual Tied Tolerance value used to determine whether contactor nodes are tied to the target region when TIED=1 is specified. FPARA3. FPARA2. Tied Tolerance (check box and field) . 1.. and FPARA5.Friction parameter A4.Friction coefficient varies with time. 4.Friction parameter A5.Constant (Param1) . Creates TIED field on BCTPARA entry (Default=0).Friction parameter A3.Anisotropic (1-5) ..Creates FRICDLY field on BCTPARA entry. default =0). This indicates that the application of friction will be “delayed”. 6. Init Penetration Duration . the tied contact option assumes small rotations of the contact regions. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.0. Friction Param 2 . 8. Creates an integer from 0 to 13 (except 10 and 11) in the FRICMOD field on the BCTPARA entry to indicate which friction type is to be used. 2.001) Friction Model .0.Constant coefficient of friction specified for each contact pair (FRICi field(s) on BCTSET entry).Constant coefficient of friction specified by FPARA1 (FPARAi refer to Friction Parameter 1-5 below).Modified Friction Model 2. A contactor node is tied to its target region if the distance between them is less than or equal to TIEDTOL.Friction Model 1.unchecked in FEMAP). (Default=0.1. FPARA2. uses FPARA1 and FPARA2.Friction coefficient varies with consistent contact force.Modified Friction Model 1. 7.Factor for extending contact surfaces beyond their boundaries. it places a 0 (Consistent contact stiffness is not used) into the CSTIFF field.0.Friction parameter A1. Creates FPARA2 field on BCTPARA entry Friction Param 3 . Creates TZPENE field on BCTPARA entry. Creates FPARA1 field on BCTPARA entry.2) .2) .2. FPARA2. you will need to also check the Use Old Rigid Target Algorithm box in the NXSTRAT Iteration and Convergence Parameters dialog box of the Analysis Set Manager (see Section 4..Modified Model 2(1. FPARA2.. the initial penetrations are eliminated gradually over time TZPENE. and INIPENE=0 or 1. places a 1 (Tied) into the TIED field. FPARA3.Friction coefficient varies with coordinate values.2. By using TZPENE > 0.Model 2 (1. The amount of extension is given by this factor multiplied by the length of the contact segments.Time to eliminate initial penetrations (Must be greater than of equal to 0. When not checked.Allows you to choose the type of friction model using a drop down menu. when checked places a 1 (Consistent contact stiffness is used) into the CSTIFF field. 9. 13.Rigid Target only) This Contact Type is not applicable for 2D contact. and FPARA3. When not checked.. and FPARA3. uses FPARA1. (Default = 0.10. and FPARA5.Friction parameter A2. FPARA2.Use different static and dynamic friction coefficients.2.Static/Dynamic (1. You can choose from the following friction types: • • • • • • • • • • • • 0. This may cause convergence difficulties for certain problems. "Preparing for Analysis").vs Time (1..Friction Model 2. (Values must range from 1. when checked..Friction coefficient varies with sliding velocity. uses FPARA1. 5. then the initial penetrations are eliminated in the first time step. FEMAP will specify a “1” in the value field for the corresponding FRICDLY field. uses FPARA1. You should only enter values in either the Current Algorithm section or Old Algorithm section. Default = 0.2013 .. Creates the TIEDTOL field on the BCTPARA entry. Note: If you are using the values in the Old Algorithm (RTALG=1 on NXSTRAT) section.Introduction Page 235 of 707 (Default=0).Default (Param 1) . meaning friction is applied on a node one time step after the node comes into contact.. Creates FPARA5 field on BCTPARA entry Friction Delay .Model 1 (1.htm 25.3) .vs Contact Force (1. 3. and FPARA3. Creates FPARA4 field on BCTPARA entry Friction Param 5 . uses FPARA1.2. and FPARA3.2) . 12. Friction Param 1 .. FPARA2.3) . it places a 0 (Not tied) into the TIED field..09.Modified Model 1(1. Rigid Target Options (Contact Type = 2. When “checked”. FPARA4. uses FPARA1. Surface Extension Factor .. FPARA4.vs Coordinate (1-5) . not both.3) .0E-6 to 0.Anisotropic friction model.. uses FPARA1. Creates FPARA3 field on BCTPARA entry Friction Param 4 ..3) . The “delay” of friction may improve convergence of the solution. uses FPARA1 and FPARA2.3) .2..The check box is a flag to indicate whether contact regions in each contact pair are tied together. Creates EXTFAC field on BCTPARA entry.

Maximum tensile contact force allowed for a converged solution. If the absolute value of the sum of the forces is larger than LFORCE. When set to 0.4.Maximum sliding velocity used in modeling sticking friction.0E-10) Oscillation Check .Max Pen*Model Length .htm 25.Penetration is checked and subdivision of the time step occurs if the penetration exceeds the value specified in the Max Penetration * the maximum model length.0E-8) Tangential Modulus ..Default . Creates GAPBIAS field on BCTPARA entry (Default=0. > 4.Surface .No Checking .Specifies whether oscillation checking is performed and when it is done.0) • 0. oscillation checking will occur after every third iteration. Contact occurs between points on the “constructed surfaces” and the target surface.. Creates PENETOL field on the BCTPARA entry.09. if the normal tensile force is greater than RFORCE. otherwise oscillation checking will be performed after each “OCHECK value” equilibrium iteration. Creates RFORCE field on BCTPARA entry.femap..4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4.Normal contact Modulus.001) Max Sliding Velocity . oscillation checking will not be performed. Old Algorithm (RTALG=1 on NXSTRAT) Penetration Tolerance .3. see Nonlinear Analysis Theory and Modeling guide. • 2.Limit (Maximum) for the sum of all contact forces for nodes changing from the stat of “node in contact” to “free node”. Creates OFFDET field on BCTPARA entry.001) on BCTPARA entry. If velocity is less than this value.0 (Default=0.com Customer Support: http://support.ugs.Penetration is not checked. For instance. Finite Element Modeling > 4. (Default=1.0) Min Tensile Freeing Force . Value must be greater than or equal to 0.NX Nastran chooses the implementation based on the shape of the target surfaces. Contact is detected between the sphere and the target surface.4.Introduction Page 236 of 707 Common Options Normal Modulus . Contact Gap .2013 .3 Connect. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. then automatic time stepping (ATS) method will be activated to subdivide the current time step into smaller time increments (Default = 1. This value must be an integer greater than zero (Default=5). For more information about using contact with NX Nastran Solution 601. Creates NCMOD field on BCTPARA entry (Default=1. Creates TCMOD field on BCTPARA entry (Default=0. sticking is assumed.Tangential contact Modulus. The surfaces are constructed using the offsets and the averaged source normals.001) Max Total Freeing Force .Contact is detected when the distance between the target and contactor (accounting for any offsets) is less than this value. sliding is assumed.Two surfaces are constructed for each source surface (an upper and a lower surface). Creates SLIDVEL field on BCTPARA entry (Default=1.0) Offset Method .Penetration Tolerance which gives the maximum penetration allowed into a rigid target surface. Creates OCHECK field on BCTPARA entry. • 0.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. (Default=0.Max Penetration ..Specifies whether penetration will be checked against the specified maximum allowable penetration. if set to 3..Penetration is checked and subdivision of the time step occurs if the penetration exceeds the value specified in the Max Penetration. If the velocity is higher.Sphere . • 1..0) Penetration Cutback and Max Penetration . • 2.3 NX Nastran file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Creates RTPCHECK field (Default=0) and RTPMAX field (Default=0.. This creates the possibility that the rigid target surface may penetrate the source excessively • 1.0E11) Current Algorithm (RTALG=0 on NXSTRAT) Max Tensile Contact Force .. For example.Selects the method used for the implementation of offsets. (Default=0.Creates a sphere with a radius equal to the offset around each connector node on the source. a node in contact becomes a “free node”.Minimum tensile contact force required to change the state of a contact node from “node in contact” to “free node”. Creates TFORCE field on the BCTPARA entry. Connection Property. Creates LFORCE field on BCTPARA entry.

Half Shell Thick (Half the shell thickness is used for contact regions on shell elements and no offset for is used otherwise). You can choose 0. Write PDEPTH field on BCTPARA entry.7. Contact Type . each contractor node is allowed to penetrate the target up to its initial penetration). it places a 1 (Single-sided contact) into the NSIDE field. SEGNORM = -1 if NSIDE = 2).. In successive steps.Default (SEGNORM = 1 if NSIDE = 1.001 for NSIDE=2).Explicit Transient Dynamics (NX Explicit tab) General For NX Nastran Solution 701.Penetration Depth for single-sided contact (NSIDE=1).09.Default offset distance value for contact regions.Single Sided (Use specified offset of NSIDE=1.Single/Double-Sided (Use specified offset for NSIDE=1 or NSIDE=2). Depending on the contact algorithm. Creates NSIDE field on BCTPARA entry..24.Constraint Function.Indicates whether a continuous (interpolated) contact segment normal is used for the contact surfaces.Eliminate/Print (Initial penetrations are eliminated and the list of penetrating nodes is printed). when checked places a 2 (Double-sided contact) into the NSIDE field. Note: For TYPE=0 or TYPE=1. some portion of the dialog box will be available. use offset value of 0. more than 1 Connector (contact pair) can be defined and each pair can have a different Connection Property... Choose from 0.Introduction Page 237 of 707 Contact Property Options . Note: OFFTYPE = 2 can only be used with rigid target algorithm (TYPE=2).3. Writes the Initial penetration option to the INIPENE field on the BCTPARA entry. For more information. Offset Distance . while other portions are “grayed out” Double Sided (check box) .Explicit Transient Dynamics (NX Explicit tab) 4.2013 . Like solution 601.1. Creates OFFSET field on BCTPARA entry. Penetration Depth .Not Used (Continuous segment is not used) Offset Type . You get to choose between 0.Lets you choose the contact algorithm type and writes the XTYPE field on the BCTPARA entry.Rigid Target. penetration is deemed not to occur.Penalty Method... 1... 1. If PDEPTH > 0.. You can choose between 0. "Advanced Nonlinear Explicit (NX Nastran Only)". or 2.Used (Continuous segment is used).4. and if Penetration > PDEPTH. Creates the SEGNORM field on the BCTPARA entry. or 1. ALL of the values defined on the NX Explicit tab of the Define Connection Property dialog box are used for each respective contact pair. Initial Penetration ..3 NX Nastran Contact Property Options .0. or 2. Segment Normal . individual offset distances can be specified for each contact region using the BCRPARA entry to override the default offset distance specified here file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. When not checked. Note: Advanced Nonlinear Explicit has a NXSTRAT solver parameter dialog in the Analysis Case Manager. then Penetration is detected when penetration is less than or equal to PDEPTH. Creates the OFFTYPE field on the BCTPARA entry..Ignored (Initial penetrations are ignored.htm 25.Eliminate (Initial penetrations are eliminated). see Section 8. or 3. 1.This is a flag for single or double-sided contact.Flags how initial penetrations are handled..Type of offset for contact regions. 1.

Death time for contact set.. Creates EXTFAC field on BCTPARA entry..Damping is used and the Damping Coefficient (XNDAMP) is specified directly.NX Nastran chooses the implementation based on the shape of the target surfaces.Rigid Target only) Note: If you are using the values in the Old Rigid Contact Algorithm section. This may cause convergence difficulties for certain problems.User specifies the normal penalty stiffness (XKN). sticking is assumed.0) Offset Method . (Values must range from 1.Penetration tolerance which gives the maximum penetration allowed into a rigid target surface. The surfaces are constructed using the offsets and the averaged source normals.Sphere . • 2. Current Rigid Contact Algorithm (Contact Type = 3. Old Rigid Contact Algorithm (Contact Type = 3.Constraint Function or 1.This drop-down menu selects the criterion for evaluation of tangential penalty stiffness. Death Time .Two surfaces are constructed for each source surface (an upper and a lower surface). the initial penetrations are eliminated gradually over time TZPENE. (Default = 0. Tangential Stiffness .e.Factor for extending contact surfaces beyond their boundaries.Creates the XKN field on the BCTPARA entry.As Crit Damping Factor or 2.0) and Initial Penetration (INIPENE) is set to 0 or 1. Creates GAPBIAS field on BCTPARA entry (Default=0.Damping is used and is a factor of the critical damping (i.This drop-down menu selects the criterion for evaluation of normal penalty stiffness.0). Creates SLIDVEL field on BCTPARA entry (Default=1.Contact is detected when the distance between the target and contactor (accounting for any offsets) is less than this value. Damping Coefficient (XNDAMP) is ignored.Damping is not used.. Creates PENETOL field on BCTPARA entry (Default = 1.0E-6 to 0. If velocity is less than this value..Program Calculated .. Creates the XKNCRIT field on BCTPARA entry.0).Penalty Method) Surface Extension Factor ... If TDEATH is less than or equal to TBIRTH..User Defined is specified for Tangential Stiff Criteria (XKTCRIT = 1) Damp Coefficient Method . Creates the XKTCRIT field on BCTPARA entry. you will need to also check the Use Old Rigid Target Algorithm box in the Contact Control portion of the NXSTRAT Solver Parameters dialog box of the Analysis Set Manager (see Section 4.10.Creates the XKN field on the BCTPARA entry.0.1. the damping coefficient.Time to eliminate initial penetrations.. Normal Stiffness .0).Creates a sphere with a radius equal to the offset around each connector node on the source. Time Activation Birth Time ...User specifies the tangential penalty stiffness (XKT).This drop-down menu selects whether damping will be used and whether or not the damping used will be a factor or critical damping.0) If there is no duration for initial penetration (TZPENE = 0. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.2013 ... "Preparing for Analysis").Surface . Specifies the normal penalty stiffness when 1.Default ..Specifies the relative or absolute damping coefficient (for normal penalty stiffness) when the penalty explicit contact algorithm is used and the Damp Coefficient Method is 1.. • 1.NX Nastran calculates the normal penalty stiffness. Creates TDEATH field on BCTPARA entry (default = 0. Specifies the tangential penalty stiffness when 1. (Default=0.. This is the recommended choice if damping is used.001) Init Penetration Duration . sliding is assumed..Tangential contact modulus. 1. then the initial penetrations are eliminated in the first time step. There are 2 choices: • • 0.NX Nastran calculates the tangential penalty stiffness. Creates OFFDET field on BCTPARA entry. Creates TZPENE field on BCTPARA entry. Tangential Modulus .0E-10) Contact Gap . There are 3 choices: • 0.0) • 0.Directly Defined (XDAMP = 1 or 2).0E-8)..As Crit Damping Factor .Maximum sliding velocity used in modeling sticking friction. 1. Note: Penalty Contact Algorithm (Contact Type = 1. • 2.Penalty Method only) Penalty Stiffness Criteria . Creates FRICi field on BCTSET entry.Program Calculated .Rigid Target only) Max Sliding Velocity . Contact is detected between the sphere and the target surface.htm 25. Standard Contact Algorithm (Contact Type = 0. Creates TBIRTH field on BCTPARA entry (default = 0.09.Directly Defined .Static coefficient of friction for contact pair “i”.User Defined is specified for Penalty Stiffness Criteria (XKNCRIT = 1) Tangential Stiff Criteria . Contact occurs between points on the “constructed surfaces” and the target surface. By using TZPENE > 0.. Default = 0.Selects the method used for the implementation of offsets.User Defined . Creates the XDAMP field on the BCTPARA entry. specified in XNDAMP. • 1.Not Used . Penetration Tolerance . Damping Coefficient .Birth time for contact set. is multiplied by the critical damping). There are 2 choices: • • 0.. If the velocity is higher. Creates TCMOD field on BCTPARA entry (default = 0. The amount of extension is given by this factor multiplied by the length of the contact segments. it is ignored.Introduction Page 238 of 707 Friction .User Defined .

To turn on these options in a time step.Max Slide Distance and Approach.ugs. Max Slide Distance limits finite sliding in 3D deformable contact. Friction Values.4.1. the STEP Control options apply to the load set.. Some interesting options include Friction Type. the most important input in this section is the Critical Penetration (HCRIT in ABAQUS). STEP Controls.3 Connect.femap.are included on the *FRICTION card in ABAQUS. This value can greatly affect convergence and accuracy of the overall solution. Slip Value (dependent on Friction Type).4 ABAQUS Contact Properties (ABAQUS tab) 4. On this dialog box. you must specify them on the ABAQUS STEP Options dialog box.2. Finite Element Modeling > 4. This dialog box is broken into three separate segments.. "Preparing the Model for Analysis" in the FEMAP User Guide.09.. Approach activates automatic viscous damping for a contact pair. This value defines the maximum allowable penetration of a slave node into a master surface.4 ABAQUS Contact Properties (ABAQUS tab) The ABAQUS-specific section allows you to specify parameters found on the *CONTACT PAIR option and the *FRICTION entry.Introduction Page 239 of 707 For more information about using contact with NX Nastran Solution 701. Connection Property... Penetration values above this value will cause ABAQUS to abandon the current increment and start again with a smaller increment.4. are input to the *CONTACT PAIR option.htm 25.4.3. Friction Values . FEMAP Product Info: http://www. and Other. see Nonlinear Analysis Theory and Modeling guide. STEP Controls . > 4.3.com Customer Support: http://support.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. see Section 8. and Decay Exp (parameter allows separate static and dynamic (kinetic) friction coefficients with a smooth transition zone defined by an exponential curve).. Other Typically. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. For a detailed process.2013 .1. as well as the thickness/area for input for 1 or 2-D contact.4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4.

Be sure to review the ANSYS Element Reference Guide as well as the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide before beginning any type of nonlinear contact analysis. and (12). All of these parameters correspond to KEYOPT entries on the ANSYS contact and target elements. > 4.. CONTA173 (3-D). This will turn on the Tied and Adjust options that are typically used in conjunction when created “Tied” contact in ABAQUS. For a description of the other parameters.Introduction Page 240 of 707 Note: If Connect Type is set to “1.2013 . CONTA171 (2-D). which offer additional options that can be chosen to create a more realistic contact model. This dialog can be used to specify additional contact parameters. and (11)..4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4. (5).4.Glued” a good idea is to click the Defaults button at the bottom of the Define Connection Property dialog box. This option is only available when the Small Sliding and/or Tied options are also turned on. Connection Property. The check boxes in the KEYOPT Overrides section of the dialog box allow you to toggle between two options for KEYOPTs (2). For complete definitions of these real constants..3. (4). see the ANSYS Element Reference Guide as well as the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide.3 Connect. Only contact elements and target elements of the same dimension (2-D or 3-D) can be in contact with each other. The pull-down boxes in the lower portion of the dialog box correspond to KEYOPTs (7). If Connect Type is set to “1.femap.4.. Surface to Surface Contact (TYPE=SURFACE TO SURFACE) must be specified for shell thicknesses to be included during contact instead of using nodal locations (default). and ANSYS only looks for contact between surfaces with the same real constant set.09. (9). FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Finite Element Modeling > 4.5 ANSYS Contact Properties (ANSYS tab) The ANSYS-specific section allows you to specify the real constants on the TARGE169 (2-D).Glued” a good idea is to click the Defaults button at the bottom of file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. These are more advanced options used to create contact models which require additional parameters.htm 25.ugs. CONTA172 (2-D with midside nodes).5 ANSYS Contact Properties (ANSYS tab) 4. TARGE170 (3-D).3. (8).4. and CONTA174 (3-D with midside nodes). Contact surface elements are associated with target segment elements through a shared set of real constants.com Customer Support: http://support. see the ABAQUS Standard and Explicit User’s Manuals.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.

2013 .4.com Customer Support: http://support.6 MSC.MARC Contact Properties (MARC tab) Pick the MARC tab to specify parameters found on the *CONTACT and *CONTACT TABLE options. if you choose No Relative Contact Disp.com Customer Support: http://support.3 Connect.MARC Contact Properties (MARC tab) 4. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Contact Checking. Separation Checking The remaining contact parameters are only relevant if the contact property is chosen in translation to be output to the *CONTACT option. Finite Element Modeling > 4. They will also be used in the *CONTACT option if the property is chosen.4..femap. You can specify the tolerance for contact (when two bodies are considered touching). the defaults will be chosen if none of the options are selected for the contact property. In most cases. In addition. "Marc Interfaces" in the FEMAP User Guide.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. and an interference closure amount. Connection Property. This will choose an appropriate setting for Surface Behavior that will create “Bonded” contact in ANSYS. Contact Options This section contains all property inputs for the *CONTACT TABLE option. For details. see Section 8.ugs.6.4.09.htm 25..3. Stick-Slip Model.6 MSC.3.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.ugs.4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4. Refer to your MARC Program Input Manual for descriptions of these options.Introduction Page 241 of 707 Note: the Define Connection Property dialog box. the separation force to separate a node from a body. Friction Values. Rigid Plasticity. the glue option will be invoked. > 4. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.femap.

Rigid. If not.4. Thickness Overrides. the defaults will be used. you will want to specify the appropriate information. as well as a toggle to use a penetration formulation. This rest of the options found on the DYNA tab allow you to specify additional contact parameters for LS-DYNA.2013 . errors may result. > 4. An offset for TIED contact types can be toggled on and off. which may or may not be appropriate. Time Activation.3. You can select from 13 different types of contact including Automatic.4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Connection Property. Eroding.. If you select an option that requires additional information beyond the standard inputs.09. which can also be based on the shortest diagonal. The Optional ABCD button will display the LS-DYNA Contact ABCD dialog box. Refer to your LS-DYNA User’s Manual for more information for each of these options. Tiebreak. If no values are input or set. Finite Element Modeling > 4. The Friction. and Output sections are pertinent for all contact types. or at minimum your analysis will run with all defaults. etc.7 LS-DYNA Contact Properties (Dyna Tab) 4. the most important option is the Type (found in the General section) of contact you want to define.7 LS-DYNA Contact Properties (Dyna Tab) Usually.3 Connect. If you have selected one of these options from the Type drop-down in the General section. The Rigid.3..4. The General portion of the dialog box also contains options to choose ONE_WAY contact for those types of contact that support this (default is two-way contact between surfaces).htm 25.4. Tied. you must determine the options needed and enter this information.Introduction Page 242 of 707 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Scale Factors. and Eroding sections of the dialog box contain information specific to certain contact types. Constraint.

8 NEi/Nastran Contact Properties (NEiNastran tab) Pick the NEi/Nastran tab to specify fields found on the BSCONP entry for NEi/Nastran. Again.3 Connect.htm 25.3. FEMAP Product Info: http://www..8 NEi/Nastran Contact Properties (NEiNastran tab) 4.4. different areas of the dialog box become available.3. Please consult your NEi/Nastran documentation to determine the correct usage of Connection Region and contact property cards before beginning contact analysis. please refer to your LS-DYNA User’s Manual for more information for each of these options.4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4.09.4.femap. > 4.Introduction Page 243 of 707 This dialog box has a slider control at the top of the dialog box which allows you to choose what level of “ABCD” contact you would like to be using.2013 .. Finite Element Modeling > 4. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Connection Property.com Customer Support: http://support.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. As the slider is moved from left (Off) to right (A to AB to ABC to ABCD).4.ugs.

Symmetric • 3.Symmetric bi-directional slide • 7. • 1. These factors will be entered on the BSCONP entry of your NEi/Nastran input file. Frictional Stiffness for Stick.ugs... These factors will be entered on the BSCONP entry of your NEi/Nastran input file.Unsymmetric • 2.... Penetration Type There are several options when choosing the penetration type for NEi/Nastran. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.Offset welded contact Please refer to NEiNastran documentation to determine which Penetration Type will work best for your analysis..09.Introduction Page 244 of 707 Static Friction Coefficient.Symmetric rough contact • 9.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.com Customer Support: http://support.. Either a value for MAXAD or values for MAXNAD and/or MAXRAD may be entered for each Connection Property.RBE3 element • 10.htm 25.Symmetric weld • 5.Unsymmetric rough contact • 8.Unsymmetric weld • 4.femap..2013 . Other Penetration Factors These parameters need to be set for you to attain accurate results from contact analysis from NEi/Nastran.Unsymmetric bi-directional slide • 6. Stiffness Scale Factor These parameters need to be set for you to attain accurate results from contact analysis from NEi/Nastran...

. Each of these sections are described more fully below. Finite Element Modeling > 4. layer and title. The Connect.4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4. clicking on the entity will highlight the entity in the graphics window. You will be able to graphically select them..4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4. Multiple allows you to select multiple entities. color. 4.com Customer Support: http://support. The default is to show the entity using transparent Note: highlight.4 Connect. Connection Region command creates the individual segments for contact.ugs. Thus. Connection Region..htm 25. making it difficult to accurately pick them. Connection Region. you can simply select these from a list when creating the contact pair. By using the titles.4 Connect.2013 . Finite Element Modeling > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4. This dialog box is partitioned into four major sections: standard entity information.. Connection Region.1 Entity Information This section includes the typical entity information contained in FEMAP: ID. Add includes one item. but often these segments will be very close to one another. Once an entity is in the selection window. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.Introduction Page 245 of 707 Home > Commands > 4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. An entity is not selected until it appears in the large window on the right of the dialog box. that option will be used instead. It is important to give each Connection Region a descriptive title so you may easily select them when defining a contact pair..4. Connection Region. > 4.2 Segment Definition file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. In addition.femap. you will see the Connection Region dialog box..4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4. Reverse swaps “positive side”/“negative side” for surfaces or “Face 1”/”Face 2” for elements.4.. Show Entities command or in the Show When Selected command in the Data Table or Model Info tree.4.1 Entity Information 4. Type. Defined By. When you access this command. Delete removes the highlighted items from the list.ugs.09.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.4 Connect.4.com Customer Support: http://support.4.4. but if you have another option selected in the Windows. You must select <<Add before exiting for single entity input.4.4.4. an item manually entered in the entry area (shown as Surfaces above) will Note: not be included if you enter the entity and press OK. > 4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.4. and Reset removes the entire list. and Output.4 Connect.femap.

or nodes. Simply specify two points. The Output options of Nodes. Property/Part Contact This type of definition allows input of FEMAP properties only. First. FEMAP automatically exports all elements referencing that property as the contact body for ABAQUS and MARC. only elements with centroidal values in the box will be exported. or Curves will also be disabled. This is a very convenient method of limiting contact to certain regions.. you must use standard contact. This happens automatically when FEMAP Note: meshes as surface.09. Note: You cannot limit contact in segments for ABAQUS and MARC to element faces or nodes when using part contact. which allows selection of only FEMAP properties. to chose multiple entities. button. FEMAP determines which element faces are attached to the geometry. NX Nastran.. which is then referenced on the *CONTACT option for the referenced segment. simply select the appropriate entities.4. the actual Part ID (typically the FEMAP property ID) will be selected for contact. the standard coordinate definition dialog box will appear. When you press the Multiple command with Elements chosen. simply push the Delete button. • With Output set to Curves. The points on the contact box are exported directly to LS-DYNA as a *DEFINE_BOX. ANSYS and NEi/Nastran do not support this option. FEMAP exports element faces to ABAQUS. • With Output set to Elements. thus potentially decreasing execution time dramatically.2 Segment Definition The Defined By group in the Connection Region dialog box creates the Connection Region. This option is not available for NEi/Nastran.. FEMAP also provides the capability to limit the number of elements with the contact box definition. or properties for the contact. press Multiple. which are the corners of a box. For elements. Since a larger number of elements could be associated with the property. In this case. SEGMENTS (corresponding to the element faces) to LS-DYNA. this is no longer is valid and FEMAP will default face selection to “Face 1” of the elements.3. and then you will see the Face Selection dialog box.. This is used to determine if the top or bottom face of plates is in contact when attached to a surface. Only the elements will be exported. or standard contact. Only elements referencing the chosen property that have centroidal values inside the box will be considered in contact. If you create a contact box and then later want to remove all restrictions. Pure node sets are not supported for MARC. You must pick both the element and its face number. Although there are five entities shown. then graphically select an element and its face.Introduction Page 246 of 707 4. FEA Selection You can also select the FEA entities directly. For LS-DYNA. pick the elements. there are really two methods available: Property/Part Contact. Select the type of entity. It is not currently implemented for curves.2013 .htm 25. but the user can manually “flip” the element normal or surface normal. enter the ID. Connection Regions defined by surfaces require the element normal and the surface normal to be facing the same direction.4. all of its nodes must be attached to the curve (for edges of planar elements) or surface (for planar and solid elements). Elements. nodes. "Model. see Section 4. For ABAQUS and MARC. For more information on these methods. If you want to limit contact to certain faces.. Nodes are selected by the standard picking method. output must be set to nodes as well. When exporting the model. a procedure identical to element loading is followed. For NEi/NASTRAN. which allows selection of the other four entities. and press <<Add. Region Options file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. the only option for geometric selection will be curves (for analytical rigid surface definition). but not properties. If you pick the Contact Box. the dialog box changes to allow specification of a contact box. • With Output set to Nodes. elements. Elemental. For an element face to be selected. There will also be a check box for positive side. For “edge-to-face” glued contact in NX Nastran. Standard Contact This contact method allows selection of both geometry (Surfaces and Curves) and finite element entities (Nodes and Element Faces). Select the method.4.. When selecting the Property/Part Contact option. the nodes will be exported.". and elements to MARC.3. The conversion from geometry to export of FEA entities is very similar to expanding geometric loads. Load. set this for the “Edge Region”. You can select both geometric and FEA entities in the same Connection Region. You can select surfaces. curves. Geometry Selection When selecting geometry for contact. element faces are actually chosen. which must also be as the “Source” in the Connector. FEMAP determines all nodes that are attached to the particular geometry. FEMAP will also export the CONTACT NODE option to MARC to limit contact to the face nodes attached to the geometry. The same is true for 2-D contact of axisymmetric elements in NX Nastran solution 601.

A Connection Region used for Linear Static Analysis for NX Nastran has the same definition as Advanced Nonlinear except Type cannot be set to Rigid and the Ref Node is not available. as well as constraints on the *MAT_RIGID material. FEMAP also supports the writing of an analytical rigid surface for ABAQUS.4 Output You must also specify the type of output for the segment.09. Finite Element Modeling > 4. In ANSYS. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630..4. you must define the Ref Node (rigid body reference node). and the material referenced on the property must be a *MAT_RIGID type (FEMAP Other Type No.4. > 4. 601 and 701.com Customer Support: http://support. etc.3 Type of Segment FEMAP supports both deformable and rigid contact segments.4. in both 2-D and 3-D contact the Ref Node will written to the “MGP” field of a BCRPARA entry along with a corresponding RIGID in the “TYPE” field.) assigned to the reference node will be assigned to the rigid segment. velocities. Constraints will be exported to the *MAT_RIGID material for this rigid body. Note: You can use the OFFSET field to analyze an interference fit problem in SOL 101 if unconnected elements are modeled coincident. Finally.4. For 3-D contact in Advanced Nonlinear (SOL 601 and 701). with all the motions and constraints on the node itself..4 Output 4. For 2-D Contact in SOL 601.4. The offset value can represent the theoretical interference of these faces. and loads of a reference node to be exported as rigid body values. For this type of segment.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. does not contain a reference node. Rigid contact segments are not currently supported for NEi/Nastran or MARC.4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4.4. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Creates the OFFSET field on the BCRPARA entry for NX Nastran. Ref Node (Rigid Body Reference Node) The Ref Node is used to apply constraints and motions to the rigid segment.4 Connect. two conditions must be met: Property/Part Contact must be used..4. however.htm 25. LS-DYNA. For rigid segments. Connection Region.3 Type of Segment 4.ugs. constraints. the Rigid option can also only be used on “target” regions and allows you to use Ref Node to specify a rigid reference node. FEMAP will automatically assign all displacements and velocities on the reference node to the rigid body exported to LS-DYNA. you must define a rigid body reference node and set the output selection to Curves.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.2013 . the Note: “Rigid” Type can only be used for a target Connection Region when the Contact Type is set to Rigid Target in the Connection Property.4 Connect. but references the rigid body directly on its *PRESCRIBED_MOTION_ and *LOAD_ options for motions and loads. For deformable segments. 20). Note: FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Constraints and motions (displacements.femap. > 4. the FEMAP reference node is the “pilot node” in the TSHAP definition. the reference node is exported. For ABAQUS..4.com Customer Support: http://support. and will be written as deformable.4.4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4. For motion.ugs. You can apply nodes and constraints to this node as in ABAQUS.Introduction Page 247 of 707 Allows for an offset distance to be entered for use with NX Nastran Solutions 101. For NX Nastran. no other input is required in this section.4. Connection Region. ABAQUS will automatically assign these conditions to the rigid body or analytical rigid surface defined by curves.femap.

5 Connect. and to define the output as Elements for ABAQUS and Property/Part Contact for LS-DYNA.09. (Contact Pair) The Connect. In MARC. It is usually best to use Property/Part Contact with LS-DYNA in combination with the Box Definition. For both ABAQUS and DYNA. For Nonlinear Analysis (SOL 106) you must use gaps or slideline elements to create any type of nonlinear contact. If you want to specify self-contact (or single surface contact in LS-DYNA). when using rigid contact segments.. Connection Region command. (Contact Pair) 4. you will need to specify a Connector to have contact occur in your model. FEMAP will then export the appropriate elements to the contact entity when exporting. If no Connectors exist in the model. For NX Nastran. Note: FEMAP file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. By selecting Elements as output for ABAQUS and MARC.4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4. FEMAP will write out an analytical rigid surface definition.5 Connect.. You must specify both a Master (Target) and a Slave (Source). • The option for Curve output is only available for ABAQUS. ANSYS..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. and Element output for ABAQUS and MARC. LS/DYNA. you will not be able to pick nodes for the definition. and NEi/NASTRAN. you should always use Elements as output. For NX Nastran. Finite Element Modeling > 4. all Connection Regions will be able to contact one another.2013 . where you can input values such as static and dynamic friction. a contact element) is created. you only specify a Connector when you want to limit contact to just certain Connection Region pairs. Connector menu selection brings up the Define Contact Connector . In addition to selecting existing Connection Regions. the Output option will be disabled and FEMAP will export parts for LS-DYNA and elements for ABAQUS and MARC. • If you select Property/Part Contact under Define By. or NEi/Nastran. while Edit Master or Edit Slave access the Modify. You must also specify a Connection Property. you will need to specify Connectors to have contact occur in your model. These options will limit contact to certain areas. Contact segments defined by nodes are not supported for MARC and an error message will occur on export.femap. ANSYS does not support nodal output. you can also define a new segment or edit an existing segment for use in this connector.Select Connection Regions dialog box: You can pick the master and slave Connection Regions graphically. Connector. Connection Regions are not placed into contact in these programs unless a Connector (basically. For ANSYS.htm 25. you limit the number of nodes checked for contact to the appropriate faces. it is best to create a separate node that is not part of the structural model to be the reference node. or use the drop-down box to select from a list of Connection Regions.4. Define Region simply accesses the Connection Region option to create a new Connection Region.Introduction Page 248 of 707 • If you select Elements. ABAQUS. select the same segment for both the Master (Target) and the Slave (Source). Also. When this is selected. ABAQUS. • If you select Nodes. Connection Regions are not placed into contact in these programs unless a Note: Connector is created. Hint: FEMAP Product Info: http://www. decreasing analysis time. you only specify a Connector when you want to limit contact to just certain Connection Region pairs. Connector.. For MARC. Advanced Nonlinear Analysis (SOL 601) and Explicit Transient Dynamics (SOL 701). Edit. LS-DYNA. FEMAP will export nodal lists for contact to NX Nastran. If no connectors exist in the model. all Connection Regions will be able to contact one another. Also. Connectors are available for “glued” and “linear” contact in many solution sequences.ugs. as well as other properties and limits on the contact.com Customer Support: http://support.4.

as any elements or surfaces that are in the Fluid Region AND in the below the XY plane of the user-defined coordinate system will be “filled” with fluid. Connection Region command. The difference is that instead of creating regions for Contact purposes.2. It is important to give each Fluid Region a descriptive title so you may easily select them from the Model Info tree if they need to be edited.2013 . Finite Element Modeling > 4.. and 200 (Optimization). It can be useful to create a Local Rectangular coordinate system for each Fluid Region. This coordinate system MUST be a rectangular Coordinate System. as any other type will cause a Nastran fatal error. Fluid Options These options fill out particular fields on the MFLUID entry in Nastran. Fluid Region. Plate elements which have 1 face “wetted” by the fluid will be placed into and ELIST with a unique ID in Nastran and this ID is used in the ELIST1 field on the MFLUID.4. For example. The Free Fluid Surface for the “Shallow Section” is defined by coordinate system 3. Fluid Region command is very similar to the Connect.4.6 Connect. In this case.09. 107 through 112 (Complex Modal Analysis and Dynamic Analyses). "Segment Definition" for more details) there are additional parameters which may be entered in the Fluid Options portion of the Fluid Region dialog box. while the Free Fluid Surface for the “Deeper Section” is defined by coordinate system 4. CSys Coordinate System to be used to specify the orientation of the free surface of the fluid and any planes of symmetry. This capability is available in FEMAP supported Nastran Solution Sequences 103 (Modal Analysis). layer and title.ugs..4. These options are very important to creating the MFLUID properly.. (See Section 4.femap. Choosing the coordinate system properly is very important. 4. Connection Region.4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4. Although the methods used for selecting elements and surfaces are identical to Connect. Fluid Region. Represents the CID field on the MFLUID entry in Nastran. The Connect.htm 25. Make sure the Z axis of the user-defined coordinate system is facing in the normal direction of the plane you would like to represent the “Free Fluid Surface”.. 129 (Nonlinear Transient Analysis).6 Connect. these Fluid Regions would be “filled” because all of the entities that make up the Fluid Region lie below the XY plane of the coordinate systems used to set the Free Fluid Surface file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. color. Entity Information This section includes the typical entity information contained in FEMAP: ID.4. in the figure below there are two fluid regions.com Customer Support: http://support. the “Shallow Section” and the “Deeper Section”. If Both faces of the element are “wetted” then these elements will be placed into an ELIST with a different ID in Nastran and this ID is used in the ELIST2 field.Introduction Page 249 of 707 Product Info: http://www. this command creates individual segments representing incompressible fluid volume regions used for the purpose of generating a virtual mass matrix (MFLUID entry in Nastran input files).

0 Units from the “Bottom” of the Fluid Region. Represents the ZFS field on the MFLUID entry in Nastran. make sure to define the coordinate system to the appropriate plane of symmetry with regard to the structure.op2 file).PostProcess Only (. Based on what is selected in the drop down list. Exact Integration Factor . then the free surface will be inplane with the XY Plane of Fluid Region Coordinate System. In this special case.2013 . Not available for NEi Nastran.htm 25.f06 file)... FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Value is written out to the RMAX field of the MFLUID entry. Value is written out to the FMEXACT field on the MFLUID entry.op2 and .Print and PostProcess (. Not available for NEi Nastran Fluid-Structure Pressure Output When a Fluid Region is present in your model.com Customer Support: http://support. This “fluid-structure pressure” will only be retrieved from Nastran when using the 1. “S”. 2. then the “fluid” will reach the “Top” of the Fluid Region. or 2. FEMAP will place a “N”. if the Fluid Region Coordinate System is at the “Top” of a the Fluid Region and Z Free Surface is set to “0.femap. There is a Check box which enables you to turn the Z Free Surface OFF completely..0”.Interactions between elements with separation that is greater than this number are neglected. If the Coordinate System is again at the “Bottom” of the Fluid Region.Punch and PostProcess (. then the “fluid” will reach a height of 2. 1.Print Only (.. as well as.Exact integration is used if the distance between two elements is less than this number multiplied by the square root of the area of the larger element. For example.f06 files). For Example: If the Fluid Region Coordinate System is at the “Bottom” of a the Fluid Region and Z Free Surface is set to “0. If you are using these symmetry options.0”.Introduction Page 250 of 707 Z Free Surface Intercept of the free surface on the Z-axis of the Coordinate System specified in CSys. Finite Element Modeling > 4. the figure below shows the appropriate position for the Fluid Region Coordinate Systems for a model which is using a YZ Plane Fluid Symmetry condition.ugs. or 5.7 Connect. Otherwise.op2 file) options for Results Destination in the Nastran Output Requests dialog box.Symmetry. but the Z Free Surface is set to “2. then there is effectively no “fluid” acting on the structure. When the Z Free Surface is completely OFF and the XY Plane and YZ Plane fields are NOT set to Antisymmetry. so no value is written out to Nastran for the ZFS field.Antisymmetry. On the other hand. 3.None.4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4. center point integration is used by default.. or “A” in the PLANE1 (XZ Plane) and PLANE2 (YZ Plane) fields in the MFLUID entry in Nastran.. the user should define a coordinate system with the origin located as close to the center of the enclosed volume as possible in order for this type of MFLUID to behave properly. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Region Options Characteristic Length .. XZ Plane and YZ Plane Allows you to choose symmetry conditions for the fluid region using the XZ Plane and/or YZ Plane of the Fluid Region Coordinate system.09. Fluid Density Density of the fluid.4. These options are not available when using NEi Nastran. This special case is only available for Nastran Solution Sequence 103 (Modal Analysis).com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Nastran will treat the MFLUID card as a special form of “external fluid”.0”. NonStructural Mass Region. If the Z Free Surface is set to Zero... The three options are 0. SOLs 107 through 112 (Complex Modal Analysis and Dynamic Analyses). Value is written to the RHO field on MFLUID entry in Nastran. FEMAP provides an Output Request (Nastran only) called “Fluid Pressure” which will return an elemental “fluid-structure pressure” along with any other requested results.

09. Entering a NSM value of 1.0 for an area of 1. or Properties options are available and entities of the type currently selected may be added to the list one at a time. enabled. and/or NSMADD entries in Nastran input files.ugs. Region Options These options determine which type of entry will be created in Nastran. Entity Information This section includes the typical entity information contained in FEMAP: ID. NonStructural Mass Region.4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4.0.. individual NonStructural Mass Regions may be “enabled” or “disabled” at any time via the Model Info tree. It is important to remember that the value of NSM must be entered properly based on selection of “Mass” or “Total Mass”.0 on an area of 1. while only line elements and properties will be added when using one of the “Length” options.7 Connect. when Total Mass on Area is set.4. etc. then a single NSMADD entry referencing the various NSM1 and NSML1 entries will be added to the Nastran input file. Elements.. NonStructural Mass Regions may be used in conjunction with or as an alternative to specifying non-structural mass via Properties in FEMAP.0 for an area of 100. NonStructural Mass Region command is very similar to the Connect. the NSM field is used to enter the value of the non-structural mass. or elements referencing selected properties in not Note: taken into account.0 or 100.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4..).com Customer Support: http://support. "Segment Definition" for more details). NonStructural Mass Regions are currently not supported for NEi Nastran. For instance. NSML1. Bolt Region.0 will add the same amount of “Mass” to the model.4. Curves. the Surfaces. only shell elements or properties will be added to the list when set to an “Area” option. coatings. The difference is that instead of creating regions for Contact purposes. In addition.4. paint.e. Finally. If more than one NonStructural Mass Region is included in the model. This capability is available for all Nastran Solution Sequences supported by FEMAP. When using the “Multiple” button. (See Section 4. Depending on definition. The Connect.Introduction Page 251 of 707 4. The Region Options portion of the NonStructural Mass Region dialog box offers several options for how the mass will be applied. a NSM value of 1. Elements. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. the total area of the selected elements.2013 . On the other hand. It is important to give each NonStructural Mass Region a descriptive title so you may easily select them from the Model Info tree if they need to be edited. or disabled. the same holds true except the Curves option is available instead of Surfaces. Finite Element Modeling > 4.0 adds mass of 1.8 Connect.4.2. this command creates individual segments representing non-structural mass regions. there is no need to choose which face the mass is applied. while adding mass of 100.femap. and Properties are similar to Connect. Although the methods used for selecting Surfaces. For the “Length” options. Connection Region command. Connection Region. while Total Mass on Area and Total Mass on Length will create NSML1 entries.0..htm 25. Mass Per Area and Mass Per Length will create NSM1 entries. NonStructural Mass Regions may create NSM1. surfaces. wiring. Defined By When set to either of the “Area” options.. color. When a region is “disabled”. when set to Mass per Area. which are used to represent the mass of “nonstructural components” which must be considered for a model (i. it will not be exported to the Nastran input file. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. layer and title.

set the Apply To option to Element(s). then choose the elements. only 1 element should be in each bolt region.htm 25. To create multiple “bolt preloads” on Beam/Bar elements at once..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Curves. while Dir is written to the IDIR field of the Nastran BOLT entry. Both curves and elements can be used at once to define a single Bolt Region.9 Connect. 107 through 112 (Complex Modal Analysis and Dynamic Analysis) and 601 (Advanced Nonlinear Analysis). Rotor Region. Load. layer and title.4 Creating Connections and Regions > 4. Bolt Axis CSys is written to the CSID field. Each region represents a “bolt” and there can be multiple “bolts” in a single model. the “preload” is created using the Model.4. Bolt Preload command. The IDs of the nodes or elements in each Bolt Region will be written out to the Gi or EIDi field(s) of the Nastran BOLT entry. the Curves and Elements options in Defined By section are available and entities of the option currently selected may be added to the list one at a time. In FEMAP. Bolt preload is only available for FEMAP-supported Nastran Solution Sequences 101 (Linear Static Analysis). Bolt Preload command. FEMAP will allow you to choose ANY type of element when selecting elements for a Bolt Region. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. and Nodes can be selected from the graphics window one at a time in the main Bolt Region dialog box. If you would like to choose multiple curves.. Solid Bolt Regions should be defined using nodes along a single plane for each bolt.8 Connect. Elements.. If you would like to delete all of the Bolt Region entities at once. but the Bolt Options section also becomes available. When Beam/Bar is selected. all with unique “preloads”. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. elements. The “preload” is a specified torque which has been translated into an axial load. they will not be Note: added to the list and an error message stating “Skipped ‘#’ of Elements which have invalid types for this command” will be sent to the Messages window. Bolt Region. Elements. It is important to give each Bolt Region a descriptive title so you may easily select them from the Model Info tree if they need to be edited. Bolt Region command creates individual regions of a single element or multiple elements where you would like to apply a bolt “preload”... you can simply click the Reset button.Introduction Page 252 of 707 4.2013 .ugs. When Solid is chosen. and Nodes can be deleted one at a time from the list in the Bolt Region dialog box by highlighting an entity in the list and clicking the Delete button. Bolt Type Choose between Beam/Bar or Solid. you may be interested in obtaining the stresses due to the preload condition alone or due to a combination of the bolt preload and additional loading conditions. their IDs can be typed into the appropriate field and added to the list using the <<Add button. button will bring up the appropriate Entity Selection dialog box for the selected entity type. only the Nodes option is available in Defined By. The Connect. allows selection of an existing coordinate system and an axis on the selected coordinate system to define the direction of the “Bolt Axis”. For all these solution sequences except SOL 601 (Advanced Nonlinear Analysis). Bolt regions may be defined on either Beam or Bar elements (ETYPE = 1) or the nodes of Solid elements (ETYPE = 2). When analyzing a model with “preloaded bolts”. 103 (Modal Analysis).. it is often easier to use the Model. 105 (Buckling Analysis). color. If any of those elements are not the right type of element.femap. clicking the Multiple.09. Finite Element Modeling > 4.com Customer Support: http://support. In addition.4. Defined By Beam/Bar Bolt Regions can be defined using either Curves (selects Beam and Bar elements associated with the selected curves) or Elements (element IDs). Curves. Bolt Options Only used when Bolt Type is set to Solid. or nodes at one time. Entity Information This section includes the typical entity information contained in FEMAP: ID. arising from components in an assembly being bolted together. Load.

It is important to give each Rotor Region a descriptive title so you may easily select them from the Model Info tree if they need to be edited. Load. Writes out to the W3_i field on the ROTORD entry for each Rotor Region. Rotor Options These options fill out particular fields on the ROTORD entry in Nastran. For Complex Modal Analysis. Writes out to the W4_i field on the ROTORD entry for each Rotor Region. Freq for Material Damping (W4) Reference frequency for structural damping set for each unique material in NX Nastran for the current Rotor Region.5 Creating Aeroelastic Entities file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.2013 . Writes the ID of the Load Set to the RFORCEi field of the ROTORD entry for each Rotor Region. Dynamic Analysis command. you may want to include that information in the title. Writes out to the RCORDi field on the ROTORD entry for each Rotor Region..Introduction Page 253 of 707 4. The Connect. G” value can be set in the NASTRAN Modal Analysis dialog box of the Analysis Set Manager. Note: this value can be set using the Model.. Note: Material Damping can be set in the Define Material dialog box for each material in the model. For Modal Frequency Response Analysis. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.com Customer Support: http://support. The Axis of rotation coincides with the Z-Axis of the selected coordinate system. Entity Information This section includes the typical entity information contained in FEMAP: ID.09. Rotor Region command creates individual regions of nodes to be used as individual “rotors” in rotor dynamic analysis in NX Nastran.htm 25. The IDs of the nodes in each Rotor Region will be written out to the GRIDi field(s) of the Nastran ROTORG entry. Finite Element Modeling > 4.4. The ID of each Rotor Region is written out as the RIDi field on the ROTORD entry. Defined By Only nodes can be used to define a Rotor Region. Rotation Force Applied Allows you to choose a Load Set with a prescribed Rotational Velocity only.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. if any “Rotational Force” has been applied to the rotor. Rotation Axis (Z Axis) Coordinate System to be used to specify the rotation axis for the current “rotor”. Also. which is then applied to the current rotor. Rotor Dynamics is only supported in FEMAP supported Nastran Solution Sequences 110 (Complex Modal Analysis) and 111 (Modal Frequency Response Analysis). layer and title. Freq for Overall Damping (W3) Reference frequency for structural damping set by PARAM.femap. Different Load Sets can be used to apply different Rotational Velocities for each rotor in your model. Simply change the Solution Method to “Modal Frequency” in the Load Set Options for Dynamic Analysis dialog box and enter a value for “Overall Structural Damping Coefficient (G)”. Rotor Region.ugs. the “PARAM.9 Connect. color.G in NX Nastran for the current Rotor Region.

If an Aero Property does not currently exist. The Type on the Areo Property must correspond to the Aero Body Type on Aero Panel/Body (i. as well as the Orientation CSys and IGID fields in the Options section.. Each Aero Body Type contains different inputs. Number of Body Elements for “Aero Slender Body”) and Note: each “Aero Element” must have a unique ID.Aero Body (CAERO2)”..ugs.09.. Several Aero Panels/Bodies may reference the same Aero Property.10. Select an existing Aero Property from the Property drop-down.com Customer Support: http://support. Any number of “aerodynamic boxes” (Aero Mesh) may be selected from the referenced Aero Panel/Body..femap.Introduction Page 254 of 707 4. When Aero Body Type is set to “0. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. They are numbered 2000 to 2049 for this Aero Panel. Note: Update Other.Aero Panel (CAERO1)”. while IGID designates the “Interference Group ID” and writes out the IGID field to CAEROi entry (aerodynamic elements with different IGIDs are uncoupled). the panel will have 4 corners. The Aero Spline entities connect the “aeroelastic model” to the underlying “structural model”.5 Creating Aeroelastic Entities The commands under the Model. The dialog box changes depending on what is specified for Aero Body Type. The values represent two “leading edge” locations and the length of two “side chords”. each Aero Spline must reference an Aero Panel/Body and a group of “structural” nodes in the model. but can have 3 by setting the length of one “side file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. then FEMAP is making an “Aero Panel”. This is due to the fact that each Aero Panel/Body has a Mesh Control section which defines the “Aero Mesh” (Number Chord * Number Span for an “Aero Panel”. Typically.. Type must be “Aero Body (PAERO2)” on the Aero Property used by an Aero Panel/Body with Aero Body Type set to “1. . which will be written to Nastran as a CAERO1 entry. will be discussed in greater detail later. Layer. The ID value for Aero Panel will increment by 1000 automatically. Finite Element Modeling > 4. and Property fields are common to both Aero Body Types.. Next. There are 4 different types of aeroelastic entities supported for Nastran: • Aero Panel/Body • Aero Property • Aero Splines • Aero Control Surfaces The various “Aero entities” interact with one another in several ways. then FEMAP is making a “Slender/Interference Body”. Color. Once all the Aero entities have been defined. Aero Body Type = “0.. The ID. this underlaying “structural model” consists of only beam and/or shell elements. Aeroelasticity. Aeroelasticity. Finally. When Aero Body Type is set to “1.1 Model.htm 25. The number of divisions for “chord” and “span” are also entered to define the “Aero Mesh”. Aeroelasticity menu are used to create entities required to perform Static Aeroelastic analysis (SOL 144) and Aerodynamic Flutter analysis (SOL 145) with Nastran solvers.e. Aero Interference Group To change the IGID value on multiple Aero Panel/Body entities all at once.. Panel/Body. For example. which will be written to Nastran as a CAERO2 entry..5. Orientation CSys is used to orient the locations of Point 1 and Point 4 (Aero Panel Only) and is written to the CP field of the CAEROi entry..5 Creating Aeroelastic Entities > 4. An underlying finite element model is also needed to properly run an aeroelastic analysis..Aero Body (CAERO2)”). 4. click the Create Aero Property icon button to create one “on-the fly”. Title.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. each Aero Control Surface needs to reference at least one “aerodynamic box” (Aero Mesh) on an Aero Panel/Body set to “Aero Panel”.Aero Panel (CAERO1)” This Aero Body Type will create an “Aero Panel”. an “Aero Panel” with ID of 2000 has Number Chord set to 10 and Number Span set to 5 for a total of 50 “Aero Elements”.1 Model.2013 . Typically. "Preparing for Analysis").creates an Aero Panel or Aero Body (Slender Body and/or Interference Body). Every Aero Panel/Body is required to have an appropriate Aero Property assigned. Panel/Body.5. command. additional options for Static Aeroelasticity and Aerodynamic Flutter will need to be set using the Analysis Set Manager (see Section 4. use the Modify. FEMAP numbers the “Aero Mesh” using the Aero Panel/Body ID as a prefix.

enter a Number. Values MUST be between 0.Specifies the number of evenly spaced divisions used to represent the “Aero Mesh” (Aero Boxes) from “Point 1” to “Point 2” (“Point 4” to “Point 3”) on the Aero Panel. choose a type of Bias (“Bias Equal”. Same options as Point 1. or Z field and select a location from the graphics window. or use the Specify Location icon button. “Bias at Center”. Writes value to X43 field of CAERO1 entry. “Bias at Start”. The Reset button can be used to clear all values from the list. Writes value to X12 field of CAERO1 entry.Specifies the “side chord length” from “Point 4” to “Point 3” in the X-direction of the Orientation CSys. to specify a custom set of “division points” for the “Chord” or “Span”. except writes values to the X4. Mesh Control Number Chord . Enter values directly as text. When Division Spacing is set to “Bias”. and Z4 fields on the CAERO1 entry. Once a value is in the list. Click the Add button to add the current value in Location to the list of values. and Z1 fields on the CAERO1 entry. Point 4 .XYZ values of the other “leading edge” location in the Orientation CSys. Surface Point 1 .Introduction Page 255 of 707 chord” to 0. Writes values to the X1. Writes value to NSPAN field on the CAERO1 entry. The Apply button will show the current divisions on the Aero Panel in the graphics window.09. Click Update button to change a highlighted value to the value currently in the Location field or click Delete button to remove the value from the list. The Copy to Clipboard and Paste from Clipboard icon buttons can be used to copy/paste the current list of values to/from the clipboard. The Copy button can be used to copy the “custom” panel division list from another Aero Panel/Body in the current model. then click the (0) Defined button to open the Create Panel Divisions dialog box. Writes value to NCHORD field on the CAERO1 entry. enter text values directly into the Location field or click the Specify Location icon button to select from the graphics window. Y.Alternatively.0 and 1. Once these parameters have been specified.0 to create a valid aero mesh. or “Bias at Both Ends”) and a enter a Bias Factor (if needed). turn on the Custom option.Specifies the “side chord length” from “Point 1” to “Point 2” in the X-direction of the Orientation CSys.0.htm 25. Y4. When Division Spacing is set to “Custom”.0 and the list MUST include 0. click the Add button in the listing section to add values. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Custom option . Edge Chord 1-2 . “Bias at End”. it can ben highlighted and the location will be shown in the graphics window. Y1.2013 .Specifies the number of evenly spaced divisions used to represent the “Aero Mesh” (Aero Boxes) from “Point 1” to “Point 4” (“Point 2” to “Point 3”) on the Aero Panel. click in X. Number Span .XYZ values of the first “leading edge” location in the Orientation CSys. Edge Chord 4-3 .0 and 1.

. Additionally.Introduction Page 256 of 707 When “Custom” is used for Number Chord. The values for the “Slender Body Radius”.0.0. 0.09. Orientation CSys = Basic Rectangular: Aero Body Type = “1. The number of divisions for “Slender Body” is also entered to define the “Aero Mesh”. an AEFACT entry will be written to Nastran and the ID of the AEFACT will be referenced by the LCHORD field on the CAERO1. click in X.2013 . or Z field and select a location from the graphics window.Aero Body (CAERO2)” This Aero Body Type will create an “Aero Slender/Interference Body”. Only the divisions along the length of the “Slender/Interference Body” are specified using this dialog box. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. 0.XYZ values of the first start of the Slender/Interference Body in the Orientation CSys. Point 4 at (2.Point 1 at (0.0).0. and Z1 fields on the CAERO2 entry.0). Y.Specifies the “side chord length” from “Point 1” to “Point 2” in the X-direction of the Orientation CSys. Y1. Writes value to X12 field of CAERO2 entry. Writes values to the X1. the AEFACT is referenced by the LSPAN field of the CAERO1. 0. Edge Chord 4-3 = 3. Edge Chord 1-2 = 5. and the “Theta Arrays” are defined using the Aero Property with Type set to “Aero Body (PAERO2)”. a value for the number “Interference Body” divisions needs to be entered. Surface Point 1 . 10.0. When “Custom” is used for Number Span. Edge Chord 1-2 . Enter values directly as text. Some example Aero Panels .htm 25. or use the Specify Location icon button. “Interference Body Radius”. The values required are a location for the start of the body and the length of the body.

which will be written to Nastran as a PAERO1 entry. When Type is set to “Aero Panel (PAERO1)”. then FEMAP is making a “Aero Panel” property. an AEFACT entry will be written to Nastran and the ID of the AEFACT will be referenced by the LSB field on the CAERO2.creates an Aero Property for an Aero Panel or an Aero Body (Slender Body and/or Interference Body). Property.2013 .Introduction Page 257 of 707 Mesh Control Number Body Elements .09. Title.2 Model. Aspect Ratio (h/w) .Alternatively.. Writes value to NSB field on the CAERO2 entry.Aero Panel (CAERO1)” section above. there is nothing else to enter for an “Aero Panel” property. Aeroelasticity. Writes value to NINT field on the CAERO2 entry.2 Model.. Title. Color.. Other than ID. Along with the ID. Number Interference Elements .Specifies the number of evenly spaced divisions used to represent the “Aero Mesh” (Aero Boxes) on the “Slender Body” from “Point 1” to “Point 2” on the “Slender Body”. When “Custom” is used for Number Interference Elements.. Color.com Customer Support: http://support.. and Layer. and Layer fields. These additional options are described in greater detail below. see the “Custom option” portion of the Aero Body Type = “0. 4. there are several other values which many be entered and effect the display and behavior of all Aero Body entities which reference a particular Aero Property. Property.5.Aspect Ratio of interference tube (height/width). The dialog box changes depending on what is specified for Type.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. then click the (0) Defined button to open the Create Panel Divisions dialog box.. Writes the AR field to the PAERO2 entry. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.femap. When Type is set to “Aero Body (PAERO2)”.Is the reference half-width of “Slender Body” and the half-width of the constant width “Interference Tube. Common Reference Radius . Finite Element Modeling > 4.ugs.htm 25.Specifies the number of evenly spaced divisions used to represent the “Interference Body” from “Point 1” to “Point 2”. Custom When “Custom” is used for Number Body Elements.5 Creating Aeroelastic Entities > 4. turn on the option.. the AEFACT is referenced by the LINT field of the CAERO2. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.5. For more information on using the Create Panel Divisions dialog box. to specify a custom set of “division points” along the length of the “Slender Body” or “Interference Body”. Aeroelasticity. Custom option . Writes the WIDTH entry to the PAERO2 entry. then FEMAP is making a “Slender/Interference Body” property. which will be written to Nastran as a PAERO2 entry. .

highlight a value. and 1 value for the “end”). Values must be above 0.Static Aeroelasticity”. you need to enter 9 Radius values (1 value for the “start” of the aero body.Specifies the type of motion allowed for bodies. it is specified by the Aerodynamic CSys drop-down in the NASTRAN Aerodynamic Data (AEROx.. The Copy button can be used to copy the “custom” divisions from another Aero Property in the current model. When off. Click the Custom List. then click Add and the value will be added above the highlighted line. button to enter values in the Create Custom Cross Section dialog box. 7 for each “division location”. if there are 8 constant divisions. The number of Radius values entered for the Aero Property MUST correspond to the number of divisions specified Number Interference Elements (constant or custom) on the Aero Note: Body. Once a value is in the list. Click Update button to change a highlighted value to the value currently in the Radius field or click Delete button to remove the value from the list.2013 . if there are 8 constant divisions. Analysis” command). Click the Custom List. allows you to enter a list of slender body half-widths at the “end points” of the slender body “Aero Elements”. Create Custom Cross Section dialog box Used to enter list of custom Radius (half-width) values for the slender body and interference body. Click the Add button to add the current value in Radius to the list of values... When Divisions is set to “Custom”.Introduction Page 258 of 707 Slender Body Properties Orientation . or ZY) is in the specified “aerodynamic coordinate system” for the analysis.. The selected direction (Z. The Reset button can be used to clear all values from the list. Writes “Z”. In FEMAP. When Analysis Type is set to “26.When on. When Analysis Type is set to “25. Interference Body Division Radius . you need to enter 9 Radius values (1 value for the “start” of the aero body. or “ZY” to the ORIENT field of the PAERO2 entry.Aerodynamic Flutter”. Therefore.htm 25. enter the new value.09. Slender Body Division Radius . See Create Custom Cross Section dialog box section below for more details.When on.. it can ben highlighted. button to enter values in the Create Custom Cross Section dialog box. the “aerodynamic coordinate system” is defined using the Analysis Set Manager (“Model. Y. Note: Therefore. and 1 value for the “end”). The Apply button will show the current radius values at each division on the “Aero Body” in the graphics window. The Copy to Clipboard and Paste from Clipboard icon buttons can be used to copy/paste the current list of values to/from the clipboard. See Create Custom Cross Section dialog box section below for more details. enter text values directly into the Radius field.. To add a value to a specific place in the list. the half-width of the entire slender body is specified by the Reference Radius value in the Common section. allows you to enter a list of slender body half-widths at the “end points” of the interference body “Aero Elements”. The number of Radius values entered for the Aero Property MUST correspond to the number of divisions specified Number Body Elements (constant or custom) on the Aero Body.0. “Y”. 7 for each “division location”. the aerodynamic coordinate system is specified by the Aerodynamic CSys drop-down in the Note: NASTRAN Aerodynamic Data (AEROS) dialog box. MKAEROx) dialog box. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.

Spline file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.5. Interference Body Theta Array 1 and Interference Body Theta Array 2 Divisions .. Also...htm 25.use the Define Div.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.2013 . which “connects” an Aero Panel/Body entity to nodes on the underlying “structural model”. Aeroelasticity. The ID... enter a Radius value. or “Bias at Both Ends”) and a enter a Bias Factor (if needed)..choose between “0. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. at least 2 “aerodynamic points” (aero elements/aero boxes) from the referenced Aero Panel/Body must be selected. Color.0 to the Radius value based on the type of bias selected..1.5." for examples of various Slender Body and Interference Body options specified on the Aero Property.femap. then click the Add button in the listing section to add values from 0..5. each Aero Spline must reference an existing Aero Panel/Body and must reference a FEMAP Group containing nodes on the structural model.. “Bias at End”.. Once these parameters have been specified..Surface Spline” the Aero Spline will be written as a SPLINE1 entry to Nastran and additional entries for the SPLINE1 may be specified in the Surface Spline section. Spline. Aeroelasticity.3 Model. A “1. Divisions The portion of the Interference Body Theta Array 1 section where you can enter 3 different Interference Element 1 and Interference Element 2 “ranges of aero body elements” is used to define THIi (first aero element) and THNi (last aero element) entries on the PAERO2 entry. “Bias at Start”.5 Creating Aeroelastic Entities > 4. Type Spline Type . The Create Body Theta Locations dialog box is very similar to the Create Custom Cross Section dialog box described above. The only difference is that you are entering Angle values instead of Radius values. Aeroelasticity. “Bias at Center”. 4. while all other aero body elements referencing this Aero Property will use the Divisions of Interference Body Theta Array 2.. The Angle values must be between 0 and 360 degrees.3 Model. choose a type of Bias (“Bias Equal”.Aero Body (CAERO2)” portion of Section 4.Beam Spline” will be written as SPLINE2 and additional entries for SPLINE2 may be specified in the Beam Spline section. Up to 3 ranges can be specified. The Divisions set in the Interference Body Theta Array 1 will be written to an AEFACT entry in Nastran which is referenced by the LTH1 field of the PAERO2 entry. button to open the Create Body Theta Locations dialog box.Beam Spline”. The set in the Interference Body Theta Array 2 will be written to an AEFACT entry in which is referenced by the LTH2 field of the PAERO2 entry.. and Layer fields are common to both Spline Types. Spline. . When using “0. Title.ugs. See figures in Aero Body Type = “1. enter a Number. Panel/Body. "Model. This is done by interpolating motion (displacement) and/or forces from the aeroelastic analysis. Surface Spline and Beam Spline.Introduction Page 259 of 707 When Divisions is set to “Bias”.. There are two “spline types”.09.Surface Spline” and “1.creates an Aero Spline. where you can then enter a list of “theta divisions” for the interference body. Finite Element Modeling > 4.com Customer Support: http://support. All aero body elements specified in these ranges will use the Divisions of Interference Body Theta Array 1.. Regardless of Spline Type.

only “aero panels”. Click the Select Aero Mesh for Aero Spline icon button to bring up a dialog box which may make graphical selection of the aero element easier. Use 1. Not used for “aero bodies”.2013 . an “aero panel” and an “aero body” are shown on the left. or Exclude nodes to/from the group. The Show When Selected icon button will highlight nodes in the group in the graphics window. Remove. Value written to DTOR field on SPLINE2.FPS” option for Spline Fit Method.. Writes IPS. This value will be written to the BOX2 field on the SPLINE1 entry and to the ID2 field of the SPLINE2 entry . which can be used to create a new Group or edit an existing one. For display purposes. In addition.specifies the linear attachment flexibility.. Only rectangular coordinate systems will be available for selection. Value written to MELEM field on SPLINE1 Spline Fit Method .. The ID may be entered in manually or an Aero Panel/Body may be chosen from the graphics window. This value will be written to the BOX1 field on the SPLINE1 and to the ID1 field of the SPLINE2 entry. then click Edit Group to Add.used to specify the ID of a Group in FEMAP containing nodes on the structural model. press Hide. To “Show” the highlighted group in the graphics window.enter the ID or select an aero element (aero box) from the screen to be the first aero element in a “range of aero elements” where motions (displacements) will be interpolated.Beam Spline” and will be written to the appropriate field on the SPLINE2 entry. Displacement transformation. Not used for “aero bodies”. Value written to the DZ field on SPLINE1 Nelem. the only thing which can be selected using this dialog box is nodes. Value written to DTHY field on SPLINE2.specifies the rotational attachment flexibility about the spline’s x-axis (in-plane bending rotations) is specified in Y CSys. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.. Structural Grid Group ID . Y Rot Flex . 1. Choose between 0.. Since these groups only need to contain nodes. The corresponding Aero Splines for these Aero Panel/Body entities are shown on the right.specifies the rotational attachment flexibility about the spline’s y-axis (torsion) is specified in Y CSys. no attachment.specifies the torsional flexibility ratio (EI/GJ). DISP. click New Group to create a new group. Highlight the new group or an existing one. Aerodynamic Points Box1 . All Boxes button . or BOTH to the USAGE field for the SPLINEi entry.09. but is last aero element in a “range of aero elements” where motions (displacements) will be interpolated. The selected group will be written to as a SET1 entry to Nastran which is referenced by the SETG field of the SPLINEi entry. places the aero element with the lowest ID on the referenced Aero Panel/Body into the Box1 field and the one with the highest ID in the field. X Rot Flex . Value written to DCID field on SPLINE2.designates which spline fit method to use for the Aero Spline. Writes FORCE.when chosen.FPS (Finite Plate Spline).htm 25. therefore. then clicking Rename. Note: Box2 The values for Attachment Flexibility.. no smoothing).similar to Box1.0 in these fields imply rigid attachment (i. Flexibility values of 0.e. Box2 .number of structural elements along the local spline y-axis if using “2. and Y Rot Flex are used for smoothing. In the Quick Group dialog box. or Both. straight “connection lines” will be drawn from each node in the referenced Structural Grid Group to the centroid of the referenced Aero Panel/Body.specifies the linear attachment flexibility.used to enter the ID of an existing Aero Panel/Body entity. Value written to NELEM field on SPLINE1 Melem . You can rename any group by highlighting it in the list. each Aero Spline will be drawn “on top” of the selected “aero mesh” of the referenced Aero Panel/Body. Usage Determines if the Aero Spline applies to Force transformation. or 2. The Show When Selected icon button will highlight the specified Aero Panel/Body in the graphics window. or FPS to METH field on SPLINE1 Beam Spline These options are only used for Aero Spline entities with Spline Type set to “1.Introduction Page 260 of 707 CAERO ID .. Value written to DTHX field on SPLINE2. Click Done to exit the Quick Group dialog box.Rectangular coordinate system where the y-axis defines the axis of the spline. This value will be written to the CAERO field on the SPLINEi entry.. Surface Spline These options are only used for Aero Spline entities with Spline Type set to “0. Attachment Flexibility .IPS (Harder-Desmarais Infinite Plate Spline). May be used for “slope” of “aero bodies”.Surface Spline” and will be written to the appropriate field on the SPLINE1 entry. Negative values for X Rot Flex and Y Rot Flex imply infinity. When done looking at the Group. For example. while the Select Aero Panel icon button will allow you to choose an Aero Panel/Body from a list. X Rot Flex. only “aero panels”. Value written to the DZ field on SPLINE2 Torsional Flexibility .FPS” option for Spline Fit Method. Attachment Flexibility . Y Csys . The Quick Group icon button will open the Quick Group dialog box.TPS (Thin Plate Spline).number of structural elements along the local spline x-axis if using “2.0 for “aero bodies”. click Show. TPS.

ugs. 4. Control Surface.. Text written to the LABEL field on AESURF.5.2013 . Usage These options allow you to create an easy to recognize label which will be written to the Nastran input file and effect how each Aero Control Surface is used in the aeroelastic analysis.creates an Aero Control Surface..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Aeroelasticity.4 Model. The ID.. Aeroelasticity. which is used to specify an aerodynamic control surface.Introduction Page 261 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www.htm 25. Finite Element Modeling > 4.. Two ranges of aero elements may be specified on each Aero Control Surface. Color. Limited to 7 characters..femap.com Customer Support: http://support.4 Model.. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. with each “control surface” range able to use a different “hinge orientation coordinate system”. Each Aero Control Surface uses ranges of aero elements on “aero panels” (not “aero bodies”) to represent the aerodynamic control surface. Label .5. .specifies the name of the control surface.09.5 Creating Aeroelastic Entities > 4. Title. Control Surface. and Layer fields work as the do for other entities.

specifies the reference surface area of the control surface.Introduction Page 262 of 707 Linear Downwash/No Linear Downwash . These results are stored as XY functions in FEMAP that demonstrate the history of the design variables over the requested number of cycles. Effectiveness .htm 25. Value written to CREFC field on AESURF entry. then click the Aero Mesh. Finite Element Modeling > 4.ugs. Ref Chord Length . to achieve 40% reduction of effectiveness. Deflection Limits vs Pressure Allows you to choose functions to specify Lower and Upper deflection limits for the control surface as a function of dynamic pressure. Ref Surface Area . Values written to HMLLIM and HMULIM fields on AESURF entry.. When you select this command. The result of an optimization analysis is values for the design variables which enable the structure to stay within the design limits. Writes LDW or NOLDW to the LDW field on AESURF. Value written to CREFS field on AESURF entry. then referenced by the corresponding ALIDi field(s) on the AESURF entry Aero Control Surfaces are displayed “on top” of the “aero panel elements”. Functions written as TABLED1 entries to Nastran then referenced by TQLLIM and TQULIM fields on AESURF entry. Hinge Moment Limits Specifies the Lower and Upper hinge moment limits for the control surface in force-length units. the Design Optimization dialog box will appear file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Values written to PLLIM and PULIM fields on AESURF entry.6 Using Optimization Analysis This command defines the goals.femap.. which cause forces to be modified by this value (i. specify this value as 0.specifies if “Linear DownWash” is computed as part of the database (Linear Downwash) or if the effects of the control surface must be entered by the user directly (No Linear Downwash). This capability is currently only supported for Nastran. The selected “aero mesh” in each section will be written as an AELIST to Nastran. and limits for Optimization analysis.specifies the reference chord length of the control surface.6).6 Using Optimization Analysis 4. A “complete” Aero model shown below with Aero Control Surfaces: FEMAP Product Info: http://www. variations. Control Surface 1 and Control Surface 2 Specify a rectangular coordinate system as the Hinge Orientation CSys (writes CIDi to AESURF entry). Value written to EFF field on AESURF entry. Deflection Limits Specifies the Lower and Upper deflection limits for the control surface in radians..com Customer Support: http://support.specifies the control surface effectiveness.09.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.2013 . button to choose “aero panel elements” using a typical Entity Selection dialog box.e.

Those items that are selected for either Vary or Limit will appear in the large window on the left of the dialog box when you select that option. you can select Rod Area and Torsion. The only input available input for this option is maximum number of design cycles.2013 . FEMAP Product Info: http://www.6.09. then select the properties. Torsion.6.femap.htm 25. The specific item is not selected unless it appears in the window to the left of the dialog box.2 Vary . The only design objective currently supported is Minimize Weight. To select multiple entities.6. and Plate Thickness. Once the values are input. Bar Area. Vary (design variables) and Limit (design constraints).com Customer Support: http://support.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. You must specify the specific item to vary by selecting the Attribute and associated Property. Each of the these areas is discussed more fully below.6 Using Optimization Analysis > 4.Introduction Page 263 of 707 This dialog box has three sections: Goal.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. select Multiple.6. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.Design Variables 4. Delete will remove a single entity from the list. Finite Element Modeling > 4.com Customer Support: http://support. The allowable inputs will change based upon your active selection. Multiple allows you to select multiple values. the Add button adds one entity. and Edit allows you to change the selected entity.ugs.1 Goal When this option is selected.Design Variables This section defines design variables in the analysis. enter the design variable information. with a limit on the max allowable change per iteration. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Maximum and Minimum inputs (Value or Percent of original value) can then be specified. I1.2 Vary . Currently. and I2.1 Goal 4. the Goal Design Objective portion of the dialog box is active. Finite Element Modeling > 4.6 Using Optimization Analysis > 4.ugs. You will not be able to change this selection. while Reset will delete the entire list.femap. At the bottom left of the dialog box. select the <<Add.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.6 Using Optimization Analysis > 4.6.3 Limit - Design Constraints

4.6.3 Limit - Design Constraints This section defines the constraints on the analysis. These values define limitations on the response of the structure. They are typically displacements, stresses, and strains. To select a specific limit, select the type of Response, and input the Maximum and Minimum values. Once this is complete, enter a Node or Element ID. Press <<Add if you only want to add a single item, or press <<Multiple to select multiple nodes or elements. The values will then appear in the window of the left of the dialog box. The analysis program will then cycle through the analysis attempting to limit the response to the design constraints, while modifying the design constraints to Minimum Weight.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.7 Working with Functions

4.7 Working with Functions

Functions can be created using the Model, Function menu command. Functions allow you to input tables of parameters that are used to describe loading, material, or property behavior. Functions are created using the Model, command. Their most common use is to define time or frequency dependent loading for transient/frequency response analyses, as well as nonlinear material properties (including temperature dependence). You must always create the function first before referencing it when creating a load or material property. Some commands in FEMAP that commonly use functions will have a function “icon button” which will allow you to create a function during another command. When you assign a function to a material property or a load, the Y function values are used to multiply the constant values that are defined by those entities. As values are entered or removed for a function, a graph of the function will be plotted in the dialog box. You can change the “scale” used by the X axis and/or Y axis to logarithmic by checking the “X Axis Log Scale” and/or “Y Axis Log Scale” options.

Function

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The Function Definition dialog box includes the following fields: ID and Title These options simply specify a unique ID and a Title by which the function can be identified. Type Currently, 34 types of functions are available: Dimensionless (0), vs. Time (1), vs. Temperature (2), vs. Frequency (3), vs. Stress (4), Function IDs vs. Temp (5), Structural Damping vs. Freq. (6), Critical Damping vs. Freq (7), Q Damping vs. Freq (8), Strain Rate (9), Function IDs vs. Strain Rate (10), vs. Curve Length (11), vs. Curve Parameterization (12), Stress vs. Strain (13), Stress vs. Plastic Strain (14), Function vs. Value (15), and Function vs. Critical Damping (16), vs. Angle of Incidence (17), vs. Direction of Incidence (18), vs. Temp (TABLEM1 Linear, Linear) (19), vs. Temp (TABLEM1 Log, Linear) (20), vs. Temp (TABLEM1 Linear, Log) (21), vs. Temp (TABLEM1 Log, Log) (22). You define functions of each of these types in an identical manner. The type simply determines how the X values will be interpreted. Types 19, 20, 21, and 22 are for Nastran only. The next 11 function types (23-33) are used for output functions created by the Model, Output, Forced Response command. Two function types, Mach Number vs. Freq (34) and vs. Aerodynamic Factor (35), are for use with Nastran Aeroelasticity analysis. Finally, the Acceleration vs. Location (36) function type is used to define the “Acceleration vs. Location” function of the “Varying Translational Acceleration” body load. For Types 5, 9, and 15, the Y values are the IDs of other functions (typically vs. Stress functions). The X values are the temperatures or strain rates that will be assigned to each function.
Hint:

It is very important to identify the proper type for the function that you are trying to define; otherwise, it will not be properly used when you try to analyze your model.

Data Entry Options These options are used to define the XY function. • You can specify single values in the table by choosing Single Value and filling in the X and Y values.

• If you want to define equally spaced points along a linear function, choose Linear Ramp. Then fill in the X, Y, To X and To Y values, along with the Delta X value. All data points between X and To X will be linearly interpolated at every multiple of Delta X. • For more complex relationships choose Equation. In this case, just like the Linear Ramp, fill in the X, To X and Delta X options. However, for Y, type in any equation (in terms of the X Variable - !x by default) that defines the function that you want to represent. A typical example, might be setting Y to sin(!x). If you do not want to use the !x variable, you can change it, but make sure that you use the new variable in your equations. If you need to replicate a portion of a function, you can choose periodic. In this case, the input options switch to those shown. You specify X and To X as the range of the existing function that you want to replicate. Specify Inc X as the value that you want to add to the original X function values for each copy that you are going to make. Specify Copies as the number of additional copies of the function range that you want to create. The Y values are unchanged by this command. After creating the copies, you can use the Edit Magnitude option to update those values. The XY table of values will always be shown (and used) in sorted order based on ascending values of X. You do not, however, need to input the values in that order - they will be automatically sorted as they are defined. If you want to define a step function, you can define multiple Y values with the same X value. In this case, they will be added to the function in the order that you specify them, and will not be reordered by the sorting. Editing Options The Edit Phase and Edit Magnitude options allow you to modify the data that you have already defined. After selecting either of these choices, specify the range of data points that you want to edit by first entering the X and To X values, then entering Scale and Add values. All data between X and To X will be multiplied by Scale, then be increased by the Add value. The Edit Phase option modifies the X values. The Edit Magnitude option modifies Y. Add, Update, Delete, and Reset buttons

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These buttons allow you to manage the list of data points in the function. • Add will add the point or points that you are currently defining to the function.

• Update will update the data point currently highlighted in the list with the values specified for X and Y. Only the “Single Value” Data Entry option may be used to update a highlighted data point. • • Delete removes a selected point from the function. To use this option, first select the point from the list that you want to remove, then press Delete. Reset simply clears all data from the function.

Copying Functions and Creating Functions from Data Series If you have another function in the current model that is similar to the one that you are trying to create, you can press the Copy Function button. This will display a list of all functions in the model. When you choose a function from the list, all data from that function will be loaded into the current function. You can then add or delete additional items as you choose. The Get Data Series Data button is only available when at least one Data Series exists in the model. Data Series are used to create XY plots in the Charting pane. The Select Chart Data Series dialog will appear for selection of an existing Data Series. The Existing Data Series may be “filtered” using text found in the Title. Once the values are loaded into the Function Definition dialog box, additional points may be added or existing points deleted from the XY list before pressing OK to create the function. Working with Function Libraries Function libraries allow you to create standard functions that you can use in many different models. When you press Save to Library, the current function is added to the function library. Pressing Load from Library displays a list of the functions from the library and lets you choose one to be loaded into the current function. For more information on libraries, see Section 2.6.2.9, "Library/Startup" and Section 4.3.6, "Library Selection" of the FEMAP User’s Guide. Working with Other Programs Since functions are just general XY data, they are easy to work with in other programs like spreadsheet and graphing applications. To move functions between programs, you can use the Paste from Clipboard and Copy to Clipboard buttons. Copy to Clipboard copies the current function to the clipboard. Paste from Clipboard retrieves clipboard data into the current function. The clipboard format that is used is simply a free format, one XY data point per line table. The Copy to Clipboard button places a TAB character between the X and Y characters, but Paste from Clipboard can interpret any space, comma or TAB separated values.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.8 Modifying FEA Entities

4.8 Modifying FEA Entities This section describes commands which are available to perform modifications to FEA entities. They can be separated into three major areas: • moving entities: in the second partition of the Modify menu • edit/parameters: in the bottom partition of the Modify menu • advanced updates (Modify, Associativity and Modify, Update commands) Each of these commands are discussed more fully below.

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4.8.1 Moving FEA Entities

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The following commands allow you to move the location of nodes. Certain commands also allow movement of coordinate systems as well as elements. There are several commands under this section, but they all involve some type of movement, whether it be projection, rotation, or translation. Each of these menu commands are described below. Many of these commands are also applicable to geometric entities. For more information, see Section 3.6, "Modifying Geometry".

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.8.1 Moving FEA Entities > 4.8.1.1 Modify, Project Menu

4.8.1.1 Modify, Project Menu The Project commands update the locations of points or nodes by moving them onto a selected curve or surface. When you project points or nodes, any geometry, elements or other entities that reference those points/nodes are also moved. In all of these commands, the projection direction will typically be normal to the curve or surface that you are projecting onto. Actually however, these commands move the entities to the closest location on the curve or surface. For the purposes of these commands, curves extend past their endpoints toward infinity, or in the case of an arc, they extend a full 360 degrees. Likewise, surfaces extend past their edge curves, but not to infinity. Even though possible, you should avoid projecting onto a surface outside of its defined boundaries. Depending on the surface type, this may or may not result in the coordinates that you expected.

Modify, Project, Node onto Curve... ... moves one or more nodes onto a curve. The standard entity selection dialog box is used to choose the points that you want to project. You then must select the curve. You can choose any curve, and all of the selected nodes will be projected onto it. For more information on projection, see Section 4.8.1.1, "Modify, Project Menu".

Modify, Project, Node onto Surface... ... moves one or more points onto a surface. The standard entity selection dialog box is used to choose the points that you want to project. Then, simply select the surface. You can choose any surface, and all of the selected points will be projected onto it. For more information on projection, see Section 4.8.1.1, "Modify, Project Menu".

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Modify, Project, Node along Vector... ... similar to Modify, Project, Node onto Surface except it allows you to use a vector to specify a projection direction instead of always using the surface normal direction. This can be helpful if you are projecting nodes in a plane onto a surface with a high level or curvature and want to keep the spatial relationship between the nodes intact. FEMAP will ask if it is “OK to Project in Both Directions along Vector (No = Positive Only)?”. Clicking Yes will extend the vector in both directions, which is helpful in cases where the vector was defined in the wrong direction.

Modify, Project, Node onto Vector... ... similar to Modify, Project, Node onto Curve except it allows you to specify a vector (using any “method” in FEMAP) representing a straight line between two coordinates to “project to” instead of an existing curve.

Modify, Project, Node onto Plane... ... similar to Modify, Project, Node onto Surface except it allows you to specify a 2-D plane (using any “method” in FEMAP) to “project to” instead of an existing planar surface. Modify, Project, Mesh onto Solid... ... moves a mesh onto a solid or group of surfaces. The standard entity selection dialog box is used to select the nodes (on the mesh) that you want to project onto the solid, then the Project Onto dialog box is displayed. With this dialog you can either directly pick a solid, or choose to project onto surfaces. If you choose surfaces, you will be asked to choose the surfaces after you press OK to close this dialog. Projecting onto a solid will simply use all of the surfaces of that solid for the projection. If you want to limit the projection to a certain group of surfaces, then you must choose them explicitly. The method used to project your mesh is to find the closest point on the solid/surfaces to the initial node in the mesh. If you select smoothing of the projected mesh, the mesh is repeatedly smoothed and re-projected onto the surfaces. In general, because of the “closest location projection”, it is usually best to start with your mesh somewhere close to the final surfaces, especially if there is a large amount of curvature in the surfaces. As you can see in the graphic, in areas of high curvature, you will probably still have some cleanup to do using this approach, but the closer you can start the mesh to the final surface, the better your results will be.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.8.1 Moving FEA Entities > 4.8.1.2 Modify, Move To Menu

4.8.1.2 Modify, Move To Menu The Move To commands update the location of some portion of your model. Although there are only commands to move coordinate systems, points, and nodes, you can use these commands to move your entire model. For example, when you move a node, the elements, constraints and loads that reference the node are also updated. The basic philosophy behind each of these commands is to specify a new coordinate to which selected entities will be moved. Since it is relatively useless to move multiple entities to a single location (they would all be coincident), each command allows you to limit the movement to any subset of the three coordinates. For example, you can just update the X coordinates, leaving all Y and Z coordinates in their original locations. By specifying a non-rectangular coordinate system, you can also move to a selected radius or angle. Each of the commands on this menu displays the standard entity selection dialog box, so you can choose the entities that you want to move. When you press OK, this will be followed by the standard coordinate definition dialog box. The entities that you selected will be moved to the location that you specify. Finally, after you choose a location, you will see the Move To dialog box. Here, you can choose the coordinates to update (X, Y and/or Z) and the coordinate system to use for the modification. If you choose any coordinate system other than Global Rectangular, the location you chose previously is transformed into that system, before the entities are moved. Only those coordinates that are checked will be updated. In most cases, you will not want to check all of the

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coordinates, unless you are updating a single entity. Modify, Move To, Coord Sys... ... is the most powerful Move To command. Not only does it update the location of the coordinate systems that you select, but it can also move all points, nodes, and other coordinate systems that are defined relative to those coordinate systems.

If you just want to move the coordinate systems, do not choose Move CSys, Nodes and Points.... If you did select that option, FEMAP would move the coordinate systems you selected plus the dependent entities. Coordinate systems that you select are updated as you requested. Other dependent entities are moved as a rigid body based on the transformation of the definition coordinate systems. If a coordinate system is both selected and dependent on other selected coordinate systems, it is updated based on your request, since you selected it. For more information on other options, see Section 4.8.1.2, "Modify, Move To Menu". All of the coordinate systems that you select are updated as you requested. Other dependent entities are moved as a rigid body based on the transformation of the definition coordinate systems. If a coordinate system is both selected and dependent on other selected coordinate systems, it is updated based on your request, since you selected it.

If your model was built in a hierarchical manner using multiple coordinate systems, this command can quickly move large, related portions of your model. If you want to update the location of a coordinate system but leave the entities that reference it in their original positions, you can also use the Modify, Update Coord Sys command. Modify, Move To, Node... ... moves selected nodes to a specified coordinate. Elements, loads, constraints and any other entities that reference the selected nodes will also be moved. For more information, see Section 4.8.1.2, "Modify, Move To Menu".

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.8.1 Moving FEA Entities > 4.8.1.3 Modify, Move By Menu

4.8.1.3 Modify, Move By Menu These commands are similar to those found on the Move To submenu. The significant difference is that for these commands you specify a vector instead of coordinates. All of the entities that you select for modification are moved along (or by) that vector. This command only uses two dialog boxes. First, the standard entity selection dialog box is displayed. You should select the entities to be updated. Next, the standard vector definition dialog box will be displayed. The vector you specify must contain both a direction and magnitude. All of the selected entities and the entities that reference them will be moved by that vector. This essentially means that the location of the selected entity is updated by adding the components of the vector.

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Move By in NonRectangular Coordinate Systems The Move By commands always move along a vector, that is, along a straight line. You can define the vector in any convenient coordinate system, but it will always represent a straight line. You can not use the Move By commands to rotate your model by specifying a vector in the angular direction of a cylindrical coordinate system. Use the Rotate commands to rotate your model. Modify, Move By, Coord Sys... ...just like the Modify, Move To, Coord Sys command, this command will move all of the selected coordinate systems, and any points, nodes, or other coordinate systems that reference a selected system. This can be very powerful if your model is constructed with multi-level coordinate systems. Again, dependent entities are moved as a rigid body. Selected coordinate systems are all moved by the vector that you define. For more information, see Section 4.8.1.3, "Modify, Move By Menu".

Modify, Move By, Node... ... moves the selected nodes, and all parts of the model that reference them, by the specified vector. For more information, see Section 4.8.1.3, "Modify, Move By Menu".

Modify, Move By, Element... ... is identical to Modify, Move By, Node, except that you choose elements. FEMAP will automatically move all nodes which are connected to those elements. For more information, see Section 4.8.1.3, "Modify, Move By Menu". The Modify, Move By, Element command, unlike the other commands in this menu, will also update the orientation nodes, orientation vectors and offsets of any line elements that you select. This allows you to move those elements as a rigid body. Modify, Move By, Radial Node... Modify, Move By, Radial Node will move the selected nodes along a vector directed from either a single point or from a specified vector. After the nodes to move are selected, FEMAP will ask “OK to Move Around Point/Spherical (No=Around Vector/Cylindrical)”. Once the question has been answered, FEMAP will prompt you for either a Point (answer = Yes) or a Vector (answer = No). When this command is used with the “point method” on a set of planar nodes, the nodes will be moved in the plane the r distance from the point to move about. . Moving radial around a vector is a great way to increase or decrease the radius of a hole in a solid mesh. One thing to remember when increasing the radius of solid Note: elements is to make sure you are not moving the selected nodes past other nodes of the same element. This could lead to elements being “inside out”, which will cause most solvers to not be able to use the elements properly. Modify, Move By, Radial Element... ...is identical to Modify, Move By, Radial Node, except that you choose elements. FEMAP will automatically move all nodes that are connected to those elements by the radial length. For more information, see "Modify, Move By, Radial Node...". Modify, Move By, Offset Element... ...is somewhat different than the other commands on this menu. In fact, in function, it is very similar to the Mesh, Extrude, Element command. It is intended for use with planar elements. You simply select the elements that you want to offset, then choose the offset method.

If you choose Vector, you will simply be prompted for a vector (just like an extrusion vector), and the elements will be offset along that vector. Using the command with this option is equivalent to using the Modify, Move By, Element command. All elements are simply moved by a constant amount.

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The other two options are more interesting. If you choose the Normals or Normals with Thickness Correction options, you will be asked for the offset distance. In this case, however, each element will be offset along its normal direction. For most cases however, you will want to choose the Normals with Thickness Correction option. For more description of these two options and the effect of using thickness correction, see "Mesh, Extrude, Element...". Using this command with this option can be a simple way to create midsurface meshes in constant thickness parts. You simply mesh one of the sides of the thin walled solid. Whether it is the “outer” or “inner” surface really does not matter. You then use this command to offset the element by half the thickness to the midsurface. When doing this, you will normally need to use a negative offset value. Since all solid surfaces have normals that point outward, the planar elements meshed on those surfaces will also have elements that point outward. By specifying a negative offset distance, you will move the elements toward the interior of the solid. Parts with multiple constant thicknesses can be handled by using this command several times and selectively moving the elements. Modify, Rotate To Menu The commands on this menu rotate selected entities. Unlike the Modify, Move To commands, these commands treat the selected entities as a rigid body. All of them are rotated by the same angle. The Modify, Rotate To commands require four dialog boxes. First, the standard entity selection dialog box is displayed. You can select all of the entities that you want to rotate. Then, the standard vector definition dialog box defines the axis of rotation. Only the location of the base and the direction of this vector are important. The length is not used. Finally, the standard coordinate definition dialog box is displayed twice. The first time, you must define the coordinates of the starting point of the rotation. The second time, you must define the ending point of the rotation. Using these coordinates, and the axis of rotation, FEMAP will determine the rotation angle

.

Modify, Rotate To, Coord Sys... ...just like the Modify, Move commands, this command will rotate all of the selected coordinate systems. Points, nodes, or other coordinate systems that reference a selected system are also moved as a rigid body. Their movement is based on the motion of their definition coordinate systems. This can be very powerful if your model is constructed with multi-level coordinate systems. For more information, see "Modify, Rotate To Menu".

Modify, Rotate To, Node... ... rotates the selected nodes, and all parts of the model that reference them, around the specified vector. For more information, see "Modify, Rotate To Menu".

Modify, Rotate To, Element... ... is just like the Modify, Rotate, To Node command, except that you choose elements. FEMAP will automatically rotate all nodes that are connected to those elements. The Modify, Rotate To Element command, unlike the other commands in this menu, will also update the orientation nodes, orientation vectors and offsets of any line elements that you select. This allows you to move those elements as a rigid body, and retain their original characteristics. For more information, see "Modify, Rotate To Menu".

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.8.1 Moving FEA Entities > 4.8.1.4 Modify, Rotate By Menu

4.8.1.4 Modify, Rotate By Menu These commands are similar to the commands on the Modify, Rotate To menu. Instead of using a starting and ending location, however, you must specify a rotation angle. You can also specify an optional translation distance with these commands. By combining both rotation about, and translation along, the axis of rotation, you can move entities along a “screw-thread” or helix shaped path. This time, only three dialog boxes are necessary. The first is the standard entity selection dialog box. As always, you should select all of the entities that you want to rotate. Next, the standard vector definition dialog box will be displayed. This defines the axis of rotation. As in the Modify, Rotate To commands, only the location and direction of this axis are important. The length is not used. Finally, the Rotation and Translation dialog box will appear. You must specify the Rotation Angle and the Translation Distance. The selected entities will be rotated (following right-hand rule conventions) around the axis of rotation by the specified angle. Simultaneously, they will be translated along the same vector by the specified distance. If you specify a zero rotation angle, these commands will simply translate along the vector - much like the Modify, Move By commands.

Modify, Rotate By, Coord Sys... ...just like the Modify, Rotate To commands, this command will rotate all of the selected coordinate systems. Points, nodes, or other coordinate systems that reference a selected system are also moved as a rigid body. Their movement is based on the transformation of the selected coordinate systems. This can be very powerful if your model is constructed with multi-level coordinate systems. For more information, see Section 4.8.1.4, "Modify, Rotate By Menu".

Modify, Rotate By, Node... ... rotates the selected nodes, and all parts of the model that reference them, around the specified vector. For more information, see Section 4.8.1.4, "Modify, Rotate By Menu".

Modify, Rotate By, Element... ... is just like the Modify, Rotate By, Node command, except that you choose elements. FEMAP will automatically rotate all nodes which are connected to those elements. The Modify, Rotate By, Element command, unlike the other commands in this menu, will also update the orientation nodes, orientation vectors and offsets of any line elements that you select. This allows you to move those elements as a rigid body, and retain their original characteristics. For more information, see Section 4.8.1.4, "Modify, Rotate By Menu".

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.8.1 Moving FEA Entities > 4.8.1.5 Modify, Align Menu

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4.8.1.5 Modify, Align Menu These commands combine the capabilities of the Modify, Move and Rotate commands to provide a simple way of aligning portions of your model. Only three dialog boxes are necessary. First, you select the entities that you want to align using the standard entity selection dialog box. Then you need to specify two vectors using the vector definition dialog boxes. The first vector defines the original position and orientation that will be aligned. The second vector defines new or desired position and orientation. FEMAP will first move the entities that you selected from the origin of the first vector to the origin of the second vector. Then, FEMAP will rotate the entities to the new orientation. This is accomplished by a rotation based on the angle between the vectors. If you simply want to use this command as an alternate method of rotation, make sure both vectors have the same origin. If you do not, the entities will be translated before they are rotated.

Note:

The Modify, Align Element command, unlike the other commands in this menu, will also update the orientation nodes, orientation vectors and offsets of any line elements that you select. This allows you to move those elements as a rigid body, and retain their original characteristics.

Modify, Align, Coord Sys... ... is just like the Move and Rotate commands. It will align all of the coordinate systems that you select, plus the entities that are defined relative to those systems. No option is available to skip alignment of the referencing entities. Modify, Align, Node... ... aligns the selected nodes, and all parts of the model that reference them, using the two vectors. For more information, see Section 4.8.1.5, "Modify, Align Menu". Modify, Align, Element... ... is just like the Modify, Align, Node command, except that you choose elements. FEMAP will automatically align all nodes which are connected to those elements. The Modify, Rotate By, Element command, unlike the other commands in this menu, will also update the orientation nodes, orientation vectors and offsets of any line elements that you select. This allows you to move those elements as a rigid body, and retain their original characteristics. For more information, see Section 4.8.1.5, "Modify, Align Menu".

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.8.1 Moving FEA Entities > 4.8.1.6 Modify, Scale Menu

4.8.1.6 Modify, Scale Menu These commands are used to change the size of your model. You specify a relative scaling factor and a point to scale around. FEMAP will adjust the selected coordinates appropriately. Only points and nodes can be scaled. You can also choose to scale curves or elements, but FEMAP will just automatically select the proper points or nodes for you. Like other modification commands, entities which reference the selected points and nodes will also grow or shrink with them. Coordinate systems cannot be scaled. The first dialog box used by these commands is the standard entity selection dialog. You must select all of the entities that you wish to scale. After you press OK, FEMAP will display the standard coordinate definition dialog box. FEMAP will scale your model relative to these base coordinates. The equation used for the scaling is:

You can specify three different scale factors, one for each coordinate direction. For any coordinate direction that you do not want to scale, you must use a scale factor of 1.0. Scale factors that are larger than 1.0 increase the physical size of your model. Scale factors smaller than 1.0 decrease its size. You can use a negative scale factor to reflect the entities about the base location. Similarly, a scale factor of 0.0 will move all entities to the base coordinate, just like the Modify, Move To commands.

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All scaling is done in the coordinate system that you select. The coordinate directions are along the axes of this system. If you select a non-rectangular system, you can scale your model radially or tangentially. Modify, Scale, Node... ... scales the selected nodes, and all parts of the model that reference them, along the specified directions. For more information, see Section 4.8.1.6, "Modify, Scale Menu". Modify, Scale, Element... ... is just like the Modify, Scale, Node command, except that you choose elements. FEMAP will automatically scale all nodes which are connected to those elements. For more information, see Section 4.8.1.6, "Modify, Scale Menu".

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.8.2 Edit/Parameters

4.8.2 Edit/Parameters Four commands in the third section of the Modify menu (Edit, Color, Layer, and Renumber) enable you to change specific items for the FEA information. Each of these commands are described below.

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4.8.2.1 Modify, Edit Menu The commands on the Modify Edit menu are used to edit or “recreate” entities in your model. These commands are typically used when you need to perform modifications to a single or a few entities. You will be prompted for input for each entity selected. Therefore, to use this command to modify hundreds of entities can be quite time consuming. For these type of gross changes to the model, see the other Modify commands in this section of the Modify menu: Color, Layer, Update Elements, and Update Other. Each command first asks you to select the entities you wish to edit. As always, the standard entity selection dialog box is used. Following your selections, FEMAP simply displays the same dialog box (or boxes) used by the related command in the Model menu which you used to originally create the entities. In this case however, all of the data fields default to the current values for the selected entities. When modifying multiple Loads of the same type (nodal forces, elemental pressures, etc.) using the Modify, Edit, Load... command, FEMAP will ask a question “OK to Update All Selected Loads with same values?” after you have modified the first selected load. Clicking Yes will change all selected loads to the value specified for the first load, while clicking No will allow you to modify each load individually.

Note:

A similar question relating to constraints is asked when using the Modify, Edit, Constraint... command and works in a similar manner. For example, if you choose Edit, Node and then select nodes 1, 3 and 5, three additional dialog boxes will be displayed, one at a time. The first dialog box will display the coordinates of node 1. You can change these values or just press OK to accept the current values. Then dialog boxes for nodes 3 and 5 will be displayed. If you press Cancel at any time, you will immediately return to the FEMAP menu. Any entities that you had previously changed (and pressed OK) will still be changed.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.8.2 Edit/Parameters > 4.8.2.2 Modify, Color Menu

4.8.2.2 Modify, Color Menu The commands on this submenu are used to modify the color of one or more selected entities of a specific type. All commands work in a similar fashion. Entities to be modified are selected with the standard entity selection dialog box. The standard Color Palette dialog box is displayed. The default color, will be the current color of the selected entity with the minimum ID. You can select a color, then click OK to change the color of all selected entities to that color. Alternatively, you can click the Random... button in the Color Palette dialog box (only available when using the Modify, Color... commands) to display the Color Assignment dialog box..

Choose “Single Color” to have all selected entities be changed to the selected color. Choose “Multiple Colors By ID” (default) to have a random color applied to each entity. Alternatively, you can enter a value for “Color Match in Range” to create “ranges” of IDs to color with a different random color. For example, setting the range to a value of 1000 would make entities 0 to 1000 one color, 1001 to 2000 another, etc. Choose “Multiple Colors By Type” to have a random color applied to each entity of a particular “type”. Each entity has various types. For Coordinate Systems, the types are Rectangular, Cylindrical, and Spherical. For Nodes, the types are regular Node, Scalar Point, Extra Point, and Fluid Point. For Properties and Elements, there are 38 types (see Section 4.2.2, "Model, Element..." and Section 4.2.4, "Model, Property..."). For Materials, there are 8 types (see Section 4.2.3, "Model, Material"), all “Other Types” will get the same color. Choose “Multiple Colors by Group” assigns colors based on the ID of the group that contains the entities. If an entity is in multiple groups, the highest group ID is used. “Limit Groups” can be used to only consider certain groups (by default, all groups are used). Anything NOT in any group is also given a different color. For more information on the Color Palette, see Section 4.3.5, "Color Palette" of the FEMAP User Guide. Modify, Edit can be used to change the colors of entities, but this command is much faster for multiple entities.

Modify, Color, Region;

Modify, Color, Coord Sys;

Modify, Color, Node

Modify, Color, Element;

Modify, Color, Material;

Modify, Color, Property

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4.8.2.3 Modify, Transparency Menu

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The commands on this submenu are used to modify the transparency of one or more selected entities of a specific type. All commands work in a similar fashion. Entities to be modified are selected with the standard entity selection dialog box. A Transparency dialog box is displayed. You can enter a number from 0 to 100, with 0 being Opaque (Not Transparent) and 100 being Clear (Completely Transparent). The default transparency level is 0.

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.8.2 Edit/Parameters > 4.8.2.4 Modify, Layer Menu

4.8.2.4 Modify, Layer Menu The commands on this submenu are used to modify the layer of one or more selected entities of a specific type. These commands are very much like those on the Modify, Color menu. First, you select the entities you want to modify using the standard entity selection dialog box. Then, instead of selecting from the color palette, FEMAP will prompt you to choose a new layer number from the list of available layers. All of the selected entities will be modified to the specified layer. Again, Modify, Edit can be used to change layers, but this command is faster for multiple entities.

Modify, Layer, Region;

Modify, Layer, Coord Sys;

Modify, Layer, Node

Modify, Layer, Element;

Modify, Layer, Material;

Modify, Layer, Property

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Home > Commands > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.8.2 Edit/Parameters > 4.8.2.5 Modify, Renumber Menu

4.8.2.5 Modify, Renumber Menu The commands on this submenu are used to renumber the IDs of one or more selected entities of a specific type, sets (load, constraint, and output sets), or groups.

Each of these commands uses the standard entity selection dialog box to select the entities to be renumbered. After you press OK, the Renumber To dialog box is displayed. You select a new Starting ID and Increment. The first entity to be renumbered is changed to the starting ID. The increment is then added to

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the starting ID before each subsequent entity is renumbered. If an entity which is not being renumbered has an ID which conflicts with the renumbering, that ID will be skipped. The increment will simply be added extra times until an unused ID is found. If you choose Verify Renumbering, a list of the existing and new IDs will be created in the Messages window, and you will be asked to confirm that you wish to renumber the selected entities. Your choice of sorting options determines the order that FEMAP will use to renumber the selected entities. These sorting options are identical to those used by the corresponding list commands. The specific sort options which are available for each command are shown in the following table. Sorting Options Original ID Selection Order Color Layer Type Definition CSys Property Material Min Node ID X Y Z
Layups

Connect Region Connector CSys Node Elem Matl Prop Function Layer Prop * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * x * * * * * * *

, Load Sets, Constraint Sets, Analysis Sets, Output Sets, and Groups can only be renumbered using the “Original ID” and “Selection Order” sort options.

Original ID... ...keeps the original entity order. The IDs will change, but not the relative sequence of entities within your model. This option is the default. It is most often used to do a simple renumbering from one ID range to another. Selection Order... ... is the most flexible option, but the one which requires the most work from you. Entities are renumbered in the sequence that you have chosen them in the original standard entity selection dialog. You can force FEMAP to renumber into any sequence that you want, simply by choosing them in that order. This option is usually not appropriate for renumbering large numbers of entities, but can be very useful for making specific changes to a portion of your model. Color or Layer... ... both use the data on the entity records to sort the renumbered entities. These options will group entities with the same color or layer in the same ID range. Type... ... is only available for elements, properties and materials. Just like renumbering by color, this option uses the entity type to renumber similar entities into the same ID range. You can use this option in models which use many different element types. It will group each type into similar IDs. Definition CSys... ... is only available when you renumber coordinate systems or nodes. It is just like renumbering by color or type, except that it uses the entity definition coordinate system. Property or Material... ... are also just like renumbering by color or type. These options sort based on the element property reference or the property material reference. Min Node ID... ... finds the minimum node ID on each element. The renumbered elements will be in the order of the minimum node ID which the element references. X, Y or Z... ... will renumber entities based on their coordinates in your model. If you are renumbering nodes, the X, Y, or Z nodal coordinates are used to determine the renumbering sequence. Coordinate systems use the coordinate system origin, and elements use the center of the element. When you choose any one of these options, you must also choose a coordinate system. The entities coordinates are transformed into the coordinate system that you choose prior to being sorted for renumbering. By defining and choosing different coordinate systems, you can implement many different renumbering sequences. For example, if you choose a cylindrical coordinate system, and renumber by X (or R) you can renumber entities based on their radial distance from the origin of the coordinate system. When renumbering by coordinates, you can also check Absolute Value if you want FEMAP to ignore the sign (positive or negative) of the coordinate value. If this option is not checked, negative values will be different, and numerically less than positive values. Ascending/Descending You can choose to either renumber entities in Ascending or Descending order. Ascending order is the default, and will sequence entities from the lowest to the highest value of the sort option that you select. Descending order will reverse that sequence. Constant Offset

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The second time based on Y. Renumber. Modify. Aero Control Surface FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Renumber. Update commands work in a similar fashion. selecting the sort options in reverse order. but it is very easy to do.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4. then Y (for all identical X) then Z (for all identical X and Y) position.8.. Renumber. This is an easy method to maintain a numbering structure while shifting it to another level (such as changing all IDs from 1-1000 to 10. Associativity. No sorting will take place. Renumbering Based on Multiple Options Sometimes. Aero Panel. Renumber. Load Set. Group. These commands are separated into three major areas: Associativity. Constraint Set Modify. and no gaps will be filled. you may want to renumber your model based on more than one of the options. Renumber. Coord Sys. and Update Others. Update Elements.09. Renumber.3 Advanced Updates > 4. Modify. Renumber.8. Renumber. Aero Spline. Region. all Sort Renumbered Order by options are grayed. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Color and Modify. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Renumber. Y. Modify.000-11. Aero Property. Multiple options can always be used. you should use Modify. Renumber. Renumber. Modify.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. and you can only choose the Starting ID and the Verify Renumbering option. Property Modify. Element.ugs.8. Modify.2013 . Renumber. Modify. Modify. Modify. Node Modify.3 Advanced Updates 4. Modify. not just with X. then finally based on X. FEMAP cannot do this in one command.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.com Customer Support: http://support. Modify. the parameters which are updated by these commands are only applicable to one entity type.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. you wanted all of your node IDs to be sorted based on their X. each command is documented in its own section FEMAP Product Info: http://www. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. If for example. and Z.3 Advanced Updates The commands on the Modify. Renumber. Modify.ugs. FEMAP will simply change the lowest ID value to the starting increment. Renumber. Renumber. Update menus are used to update parameters which are referenced by one or more selected entities. You must just remember to choose the sort options in reverse order. Renumber.000). All Modify.3. Layup.femap. Material. The first time you would sort based on Z.8.femap.1 Modify. Node three times. Layer Modify. Layer menus.com Customer Support: http://support. Unlike the commands on the Modify. Renumber. but since the parameters that they update vary. Modify.Introduction Page 278 of 707 If you select this option. Analysis. It will then add the constant difference between the original lowest ID and the new starting increment to all other IDs.htm 25..

Attach/detach of elements will only affect certain picking options. Associativity. There are two separate sections under Modify. curves on those surfaces. or elements. Note: When attaching nodes.8. On by default and should probably remain on when you have chosen multiple solids. and nodes on the points that define the curves. surfaces. you can effectively remove an element from a surface by simply detaching one of its nodes. Interior Nodes Only The Interior Nodes Only option is available when you are removing geometry from curves. You will typically want to use this command with nodes only. You have the option to choose automatic. If you select Any.. If a node from a selected element is not within this distance to any of the selected geometry. If you select a specific type of geometry.09. FEMAP then goes about attaching the nodes of those elements to each solid one at a time. Node/Element . for example.Introduction Page 279 of 707 4. include nodes attached directly to the surface. Therefore.. all attachments will be removed. FEMAP uses a hierarchal system of attachment. you can remove all attachments.2013 .. If you do not select Interior Nodes Only. Nodes on a surface. Also. The first section contains the Automatic command which is designed to automatically associate a solid mesh with solids or shell mesh with surfaces (sheet solids). it will not be attached. You will still be able to load or constrain the curves. or solid/volumes.). This can be a very useful command to eliminate some areas of a mesh from a curve or surface to prevent geometric loading from applying to them. chances are the command will not be very successful. Check Solid Element Containment in Multiple Solids is only available when tet or hex elements have been selected. although command will run faster when this option is off. The Search Tolerance is used as a tolerance for attachment. nodes attached to the curves that define the surface. Expansion of geometric loads onto finite elements is always performed on a nodal basis. You must choose between Detach From or Attach To. You also will not be able to develop the hierarchy that FEMAP creates automatically when file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. This command is very useful if you have an analysis model and the original geometry from which the model was created. the Search Tolerance is the Merge Tolerance set in Tools. and points on those curves allowing you to use geometry based commands in FEMAP (i. any selection method using a geometric entity. the attachments directly to the surface will be removed. In addition to the nodes and elements being associated to the main entity (solids or surfaces/sheet solids). nodes. Loads and Constraints on geometry. etc.will attempt to associate the nodes of selected elements with selected solids (Tet or Hex Elements) or surfaces/sheet solids (Shell Elements).. Hint: When you select this command. This first runs a check of all the element centroids to determine which elements are “inside” which solid. By default.e. but the curve and point attachments will remain.htm 25.3.1 Modify. You must also choose the type of geometry from which you wish to detach.. Group Nodes/Elements not Associated will create a group with all of the selected nodes and elements which were NOT attached to any geometry during the command and turning on Detailed Associativity Summary will create a summary of the attached entities to the Messages window. Attach Midside Nodes Even if not in Tolerance option will attach any midside nodes on elements that have been attached. allows you to attach or remove nodes and elements from geometry. Parameters. they will then also be associated to the surfaces of solids. There are a few options in the Automatic Geometry Associativity dialog box. The Remove All Previous Associativity is on by default and should be on if you are taking an entire finite element model and trying to attach it to selected geometric entities. you will see the Geometry Associativity dialog box. Associativity. you must also input (or graphically select) the ID of the geometric entity. while the second section allows you to choose either nodes or elements to Detach From or Attach To a specific geometric entity.. they must not have any other attachments to geometry. Automatic . If you select the Interior Nodes Only option. even if these midside nodes are not within the distance specified in Search Tolerance. An element is considered on a surface for geometric loads if all nodes from an element’s face are attached to the surface.. if you try to attach nodes and elements to geometry which is completely different.

. use this command to change between various line element types or between the plane element types..ugs. or any other available method.8.htm 25. you cannot change a beam to a plate." of the FEMAP Commands manual or Section 6.3 Advanced Updates > 4.3.. simply click the “Property” Icon Button in the Select Property for New Element Type dialog box. Orientation command. you may use Model.3.. Formulation.8. to make a property of the type you want to use for the elements.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. see: Section 4.3 Modify..2. "Element Reference" in the FEMAP User Guide FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Element. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.ugs. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. When this command is used. Then you will be presented with a list of available properties..2013 .8. FEMAP will automatically call the Modify.8.Introduction Page 280 of 707 meshing.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. or vice versa. FEMAP will then reassign the chosen element formulation to the selected elements.8. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Property. Update Elements. For example. If you have only chosen a portion of elements on a geometric entity. Property ID..3 Advanced Updates > 4. Choose a property of the type that you want for the selected elements.2. if you have chosen to update the “type” of ALL the elements on a geometric entity which has “meshing attributes” currently assigned. . You should always specify the orientation that you want.8. You can never change elements to an incompatible type. Update Elements.com Customer Support: http://support.2 Modify. Review any of these automatic assignments very carefully. the “meshing attributes” will not be updated.. For more details. You can. Update Elements.femap..3 Advanced Updates > 4. If you want to create a new property while using this command. All elements must be of the same type.3. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4. When you press OK.4 Modify. If you do not however. FEMAP will automatically assign an orientation to each of the updated elements.. You must select the elements to change.com Customer Support: http://support...8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4. You will receive messages if any of the elements are incompatible with the property you selected.3. you will be asked to select the elements to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.. "Model.09.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.8. Update Elements. and then the Element Formulation dialog box will appear to set the formulation.8.. however. 4. This allows you to properly orient the elements that you just modified. Formulation. . Type. Before you choose this command.. all of the element types will be changed along with the properties that the elements reference.3 Modify. Update Elements. If you are changing from a line element type that does not require an orientation to a type that does.femap.enables you to specify the element formulation for a selected set of elements.femap.ugs.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.. Type.com Customer Support: http://support. Update Elements.3. updates the type of one or more selected elements. 4. When using this command.2 Modify. the Note: property portion of the “meshing attributes” will be automatically updated.

. you will receive a warning message. such as masses. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.8. . do not require material definitions. Type.femap.femap.09.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.8. simply click the “Material” Icon Button in the Select Material for Update dialog box. Similarly.3. Property instead.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. 4. This option allows you to convert elements which are oriented using “third nodes” to vector orientations. Update Elements. Finite Element Modeling > 4..5 Modify. You first select the properties to be updated. You cannot change the element type using this command When using this command. If you choose Node ID..ugs. curved beam) elements. the standard vector definition dialog box will be displayed after you press OK. .8.3 Advanced Updates > 4. If you choose Vector.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.use Modify. if you have chosen to update the property of ALL the elements on a geometric entity which has “meshing attributes” currently assigned.4 Modify.Introduction Page 281 of 707 4. the “meshing attributes” will not be updated. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Update Elements. works just like Modify.8.ugs.3. and then choose a new material from a list of the available materials. Update Elements. If you have only chosen a portion of elements on a geometric entity... Line Element Orientation.. updates the element orientation for various line (bar. updates the material that is referenced by one or more selected properties.3.8. Material ID. An orientation vector. No additional input is required.3 Advanced Updates > 4.6 Modify.com Customer Support: http://support. Also. Update Elements.com Customer Support: http://support. Update Element. and it must not be colinear with any of the elements.8. 4... Some property types. Edit. except that you must choose a property of the same type as the elements. Your orientation will be applied to all elements you selected. Then you can select whether to update the elements using an orientation Node ID or a Vector..htm 25. A third option. Line Element Orientation. beam..3. Property ID.3. If you attempt to update one of these.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.6 Modify. since the orientation direction is based on the location of the first node on the element..... . the Note: property portion of the “meshing attributes” will be automatically updated.2013 . This option has no effect if the element was already oriented by a vector. can also be selected. Equivalent Vector Orientations. you must also specify the node to use. remember that you may be specifying different orientation directions for each element when you choose Node ID. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. is simply computed for each element. in the direction of the third node..5 Modify. Material ID. You must first select the elements to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box.8.. the many materials referenced by laminate plate properties cannot be updated using this command . If you want to create a new material while using this command. Update Elements.. Finite Element Modeling > 4.

beam. Finite Element Modeling > 4. . If you enable the Set EndB=EndA option. which is used to determine a vector direction from End A to End B. Line Element Offsets.. choose the Radial Offset around option.1.3 Advanced Updates > 4.ugs. Radial Offset around Vector essentially works the same. you can also use the Reference Points that can be defined in the Section Property Generator (Section 4. the offset at the first end (A) of the elements is automatically applied to the second end (B) of all selected elements. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Offset from Reference Point Much like “Move to Reference Point”. 4.. Point FEMAP Product Info: http://www. You must first select the elements to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box. 4. After you press OK. Move to Reference Point Instead of specifying offsets for the element.4.. the offsets are defined using the standard vector definition dialog boxes. and the appropriate offsets will be generated for each element to move the reference point to the associated node.3. All selected elements will then either have their ends reversed or remain the same based on the specified vector. Update Elements.com Customer Support: http://support.8. You can choose to Update End A offsets and/or Update End B offsets..8 Modify. Update Elements.3.femap. from the center of a sphere. Line Element Reverse Direction.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4. You must then enter a distance to offset the element endpoints from the node. but instead of choosing a single point as the center of a sphere. and set the reference point to the location in that shape that you want to be located at the nodes. you will be asked for the coordinates of the center of a sphere. Align to Element allows you to choose 1 line element in the model. The offset directions lie along the lines connecting this center location and the individual nodes.. First. Finite Element Modeling > 4. define your element properties using a shape. updates the offsets for various line (bar.femap.09. The default vectors will be the current offsets from the selected element with the minimum ID.8.com Customer Support: http://support. Line Element Offsets.2013 . All offsets.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.. Then the Update Element Offsets dialog box is displayed. simply press “Move to Reference Point” (the other settings are not used).3. at both ends of the elements are set to the same size..htm 25.. Line Element Reverse Direction. but instead of moving the model to the actual Reference Points. since the resulting element orientations may also need to be updated. Reverse Direction simply swaps the first and second ends of line elements to reverse each element’s direction. allows three different options for reversing the direction of line elements.8.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.3.8. Align to Vector allows you to specify a vector.ugs. when you use this command. Update Elements.7 Modify. Radial Offset around Point/around Vector If you want to offset beams in a radial pattern. Updating the offsets at one end will require only one vector definition. curved beam) elements.8.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.7 Modify. .. only the directions change. the beams are offset from a defined vector which represents the center of a cylinder.. All selected elements will then either have their ends reversed or remain the same based on the determined vector. Then. Update Elements.8 Modify. you will be able to enter a Y and/or a Z value which will position the nodes of the beam the specified offset distances away from the Reference Points. Use this carefully. "Line Element Properties") to automatically define the offsets..2.. Updating both offsets requires two vectors.8.Introduction Page 282 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. When you press OK.3 Advanced Updates > 4.

Discontinuous Edit : Choose a single element to update to enable the editing of the warping points at the ends of that beam. however.. the Define Element Releases dialog box allows you to choose any combination of the six degrees of freedom at each end of the element to release.3. .8.3 Advanced Updates > 4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. One use for this command is to convert any PBEAML or (PBARL) cards that were read from a Nastran Deck into standard PBEAM (or file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.11 Modify. You must first select the elements to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box.ugs.htm 25.femap. Then..3.3. : Creates Nodes/SPOINTS at the ends of the selected beams so that the warping is discontinuous across each of the selected elements.. Remove Cross Section. then that element will not be updated.8..09. updates the releases for various line (bar. the Define Beam Element Warping dialog box allows you to choose how the points will be created. Beam Warping. beam.8.8.3.. . 4.2013 . Update Elements.. You must first select the elements to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box. that your element is still capable of supporting any load you may want to apply.8. Beam Warping... Finite Element Modeling > 4.3 Advanced Updates > 4. Continuous All Continuous : Creates Nodes/SPOINTS at the ends of the selected beams so that warping is continuous throughout the elements selected as well as any other beam elements connected to the originally selected beams... All the property values and stress location values are retained but the section shape is set to None.11 Modify.8. Update Elements. adds or updates the Nodes/SPOINTS that are defined for Warping on Nastran beam elements.com Customer Support: http://support. Update Elements.femap. The default degrees of freedom will be the current releases from the selected element with the minimum ID.3.updates the selected beam or bar properties to have no section shape defined.femap.8. .. Update Elements.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Then.3 Advanced Updates > 4.. curved beam) elements.8.. None : Removes warping points from the ends of the selected beams. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.ugs..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. Beam/Bar Releases..8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4. 4.ugs.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. 4.10 Modify. : Creates Nodes/SPOINTS at ends of the beam so that the warping is continuous throughout the elements selected.10 Modify.Introduction Page 283 of 707 Note: If the determined or specified vector is exactly perpendicular to an element. Update Elements. Remove Cross Section. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.9 Modify. FEMAP Product Info: http://www..8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4..9 Modify. You should make certain.com Customer Support: http://support..3.com Customer Support: http://support. Update Elements. Beam/Bar Releases.8.

com Customer Support: http://support.3 Advanced Updates > 4.femap. Update Elements.com Customer Support: http://support. align normals either outward or inward.8.12 Modify. After selecting the elements to reverse/orient. Material Orientation.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.12 Modify. Reverse/Orient First Edge.e. but the concept of inward/outward may not be maintained.ugs.. only the order in which the nodes are connected is changed. When on. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. For plane elements. turning the element “inside-out”.femap. FEMAP can still usually align the normals. . You will also receive a warning if the elements you select do not form a complete shell (i. all normals can be automatically adjusted to the direction you chose. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. 4. If you choose to align the edges of planar elements to a vector or an axis of a coordinate system. you will given be the option to reverse the normals. Use the Negative option to align to the opposite direction of the selected coordinate system axis. the “Material Angle” will possibly be updated/reversed along with the element normal. When off. the top and bottom faces are swapped.8. Reverse/Orient First Edge. but provide a very easy way to make all normals consistent.3 Advanced Updates > 4. Update Elements. The element normal is actually unchanged in this operation.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.3... Choosing this option a second time for the same elements will effectively undo the reversal.8. If there are interior features/panels (like internal bulkheads).. This can be used to rotate a group of elements so that their first edge lies along a model boundary. Finite Element Modeling > 4. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. For solid elements.Introduction Page 284 of 707 PBAR) data.2013 .. Update Elements.13 Modify.htm 25.e.. switches the normal direction of selected planar and solid elements.3. the connections are swapped to reverse the direction of the element normal. The All Normals Outward and Inward options apply only to planar elements. the Preserve Material Direction option will cause the “Material Orientation” (i. In either of these last two cases. they have free edges). the direction of any applied pressure loads will change. Material Angle) to not be updated when the normal is reversed.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. all planar elements are reconnected so that their first edge is closest to the direction that you specify.8. Finite Element Modeling > 4...com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.. If the elements that you selected form one or more complete shell (like the outside of a solid model). or if you want to align planar elements to a vector.ugs. Line and solid elements are unchanged by this operation.3. FEMAP will make the directions consistent.8.09.

Choose the elements to update using the standard entity selection dialog box.13 Modify. Material Coordinate System. which can be accessed from any of the element or property creation commands. Check the documentation of the analysis program to determine whether the analysis program can output results in the material angle coordinate system. all of the vectors should be parallel . and what commands are required to do this. use this update command. the “X Normal Stress” for one element may not be in the same direction as the “X Normal Stress” for the next element. That coordinate system is aligned by the material angle. along the vector between the first two nodes of the element is used. Not all programs will report analysis results automatically in the material angle coordinate system. The default material orientation angle can be set in the Element/Property Type dialog. If recovering and post-processing elemental normal stresses (i.. it is desired to change the material angle for existing elements. There are five basic choices for setting the orientation.. XY Shear.). Before choosing any of these methods.8. FEMAP will write out a “Material Coordinate System ID” (MCID) for each element instead of a material angle (THETA). Typically. Y Stress. Material Angle. This will typically produce a different alignment for each element and can give meaningless analysis results.3. be sure to refer to analysis program documentation to see how material orientation angles are used and to find any limitations. X Stress. Update Elements. This will typically result in material axes that are oriented along the default elemental axes. Choose None to turn off the material orientation. FEMAP will automatically calculate the material angle values for each element which will align the primary (X) material direction with the specified vector. defining a material angle for all of planar elements should probably be done. This method is especially useful for aligning the material axes to the radial or tangential direction of a cylindrical or spherical coordinate system. Angles may not need to be set if stress output is reported relative to some other coordinate reference. The first is to align the principal directions of a non-isotropic material. Set the material angle using Modify. When used. if all elemental axes are not aligned. If this is not done. Material angle may be defined after a model has been analyzed to transform the normal stresses to a different coordinate system. The second use for material angles can be equally important. Then the Material Orientation Direction dialog box will appear. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. updates the element material orientation angle for planar and axisymmetric elements. Note: Hint: Viewing Material Angles The defined material angles for planar elements may be viewed using the View Options command.09. This is the same dialog box used to define the default orientations. Transform command or the “Transform” buttons in the Select PostProcessing Data dialog box to convert the stresses. When Coordinate Axis is selected. Simply assign a vector direction. This default is applied to all new elements as they are created.. they are usually reported relative to the elemental coordinate system.e. then use the Model. Whenever using orthotropic or anisotropic materials. etc. the default orientation.Orientation/Shape option. Output. The X-direction of the selected coordinate system is always used and this moves calculation of the material angle from FEMAP to the solver. In most other cases. Again.Introduction Page 285 of 707 4. allows direct input of the orientation angle value.then elements are known to be properly aligned. . Material Orientation. Choose the Element . If Vector Direction is selected and OK is pressed. Updating orientations using this command does not however change the default values that you have currently defined. the vector and resulting angle are simply defined along a coordinate direction at the first node of each element. FEMAP will display the standard vector definition dialog box. Angle Value. is only for use with Nastran solvers. and turn on Show Orientation. The final option. The orientation of the vector shows the specified angle. Vector Direction is preferred. Update Elements. When to Set a Material Angle Most analysis programs have two basic uses for this type of orientation angle..htm 25. FEMAP does no further calculations with this angle value. This will display a small vector at the center of each element where an angle has been defined. The fourth option. If however. Refer to analysis program documentation to see how stresses are reported..2013 .

only quadrilateral elements (with or without midside nodes) will be changed. enables you to adjust the thickness or the offsets of the selected plate elements. Finite Element Modeling > 4.. New properties are not required when you vary offsets.. 4. Adjust Plate Thickness/Offset.14 Modify.. You cannot control the direction of the split..com Customer Support: http://support..htm 25.8.2013 . changes quadrilateral elements into triangles.3.whichever is appropriate. .com Customer Support: http://support.8. New nodes will be added at the element center if you are splitting elements with midside nodes. 4.3 Advanced Updates > 4. FEMAP will automatically split the quad elements to form the best triangles that it can.8. When you select this command.femap. new plate properties will be written for each thickness value calculated.09..14 Modify. You may choose any element types or shapes .ugs. Method file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.8. The elements can have loads applied. Adjust Plate Thickness/Offset.3 Advanced Updates > 4. This command asks for the elements to be split.15 Modify.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4. Those loads will automatically be applied to one or both of the new triangular elements . and you will then see the following dialog box. Split Quads..3. Update Elements. Update Elements..ugs.femap..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.. other than by the initial shape of the quad elements. Update Elements.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. If you are updating thickness..8. Split Quads. Update Elements. you will be asked to select the elements to update. Currently defined offsets and thicknesses have no bearing on this command.3.15 Modify.8.Introduction Page 286 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Finite Element Modeling > 4. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. .. Update These options control whether FEMAP will update the thickness or the offsets for the selected plates.3.

Only parabolic elements are considered and only the nodes which are referenced as midside nodes are moved.8.Introduction Page 287 of 707 These options control the calculation of the thickness/offset values. Average for each Element.16 Modify. Limits This section enables you to define the Tolerance. This option provides an easy way to gradually vary the thickness/offsets of plates which are in a patterned series.3 Advanced Updates > 4. Node to remove them.8. Pressing Yes will update linear elements to parabolic ones. You can limit the number of significant digits to be retained as a unique thickness or offset by specifying a tolerance value.16 Modify. will average the nodal thickness for each plate. If an equation is chosen.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. definition and output coordinate systems.8. etc. and assign this constant thickness to all corner nodes on the plate. Finite Element Modeling > 4.8. they will simply be ignored. Update Elements. After making your selection. Pressing No will update parabolic elements to linear ones.femap.8. In addition. or constant value. but this command only recognizes plane and volume types. midside nodes are no longer needed for the converted elements. changes linear elements to parabolic elements and vice versa. Converting from linear to parabolic elements creates new nodes automatically at all element midside locations. an equation. .. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. This command always creates new nodes.. the “i” variable will represent elements for offsets.ugs. and values at each of these nodes. The other option.3.. only elements which are currently of the selected order are updated.001. you must input the first node.. 4. It makes no attempt to find current nodes in your model at the correct locations. but are not deleted. moves nodes to the midpoint of element edges. each corner of the plate will most likely have a different value. which is especially useful when defining equations. Current nodal parameters (next ID...8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4. 4.. For the Vary Between Nodes option. This option has no effect when modifying plate offsets because these offsets are already calculated on an elemental basis. Linear/Parabolic Order. This is especially convenient if you want to limit thicknesses or offsets to an increment of a specific value (like 0.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Linear/Parabolic Order. not on a nodal basis.3..htm 25.ugs.09. Update Elements.3. Update Elements.3 Advanced Updates > 4. When you convert parabolic to linear elements. Equation or Constant. permanent constraints. FEMAP will then compute values for all other nodes attached to the selected elements based upon their relative distance between the From and To nodes. If you select non-parabolic elements.17 Modify.. Midside Nodes. You will be asked to choose the direction.3. Maximum. only the linear ones will be updated.8.17 Modify. You can choose to calculate variable values based upon nodal position (Vary Between Nodes option). You can use the Check Coincident Nodes command to remove any duplicates. if you are converting linear to parabolic elements and choose a mixture of linear and parabolics. choose the elements to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box. For example.) are used for these nodes.. Otherwise. for example) You may also limit the minimum and maximum allowable values. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. and nodes for thickness values.com Customer Support: http://support.. Midside Nodes. Update Elements. lets you input an equation or constant value for the thickness/offsets. .com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4..femap.2013 .com Customer Support: http://support. You can choose any elements in your model. and Minimum values to be used in the update. The final option in this area. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. last node. You can use Delete.

3 Advanced Updates > 4. simply click the “Coordinate System” Icon Button in the Select Coordinate System. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. First select the nodes. CSys Definition CSys.20 Modify.... You will receive an error message.2013 .3.. Update Other. Update Elements. The four Node Types are 0.Introduction Page 288 of 707 Input for this command is minimal.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Finite Element Modeling > 4.com Customer Support: http://support.8.ugs.20 Modify.18 Modify..8.18 Modify. Node Type. 4. 4. they will be skipped. Update Other.8. This command does not move the coordinate system location..8.3. however. allows you to change the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) for existing rigid elements in your model. Then.3.. Finite Element Modeling > 4.3.8.. Rather.com Customer Support: http://support. if you choose one of the systems that is being updated. Update Other. CSys Definition CSys.8.ugs.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4...com Customer Support: http://support. Note: Only REB2 rigid elements (non-interpolation) can have CTEs in Nastran. Rigid Thermal Expansion. another dialog box will be displayed which will contain a list of all available coordinate systems. 1. the position of all midside nodes will be checked and moved to the midside of their respective element edges. You can choose any coordinate system from the list.19 Modify. If you want to create a new coordinate system while using this command.femap.8. so if any chosen elements are not RBE2s. You must select the coordinate systems to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box. . Update Elements.3. it redefines the system so that it is in the same location and orientation relative to the new definition coordinate system.. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. 2.09.8.3 Advanced Updates > 4..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.3. This will take the CTE defined for that material and assign the same value to the selected rigid elements.. then choose a “type” from the drop-down list. Rigid Thermal Expansion.Node. and 3. Node Type.ugs.femap.. . since a coordinate system cannot reference itself.femap. dialog box.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4....8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.19 Modify.htm 25. You may also specify the CTE by clicking the Material.. .....3 Advanced Updates > 4. When you press OK. Finite Element Modeling > 4.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4. 4. First select the Rigid elements to update and then enter the CTE in the dialog box.Fluid Point.Scalar Point. button and choosing a material from the list.8... chooses a new definition coordinate system for one or more coordinate systems.. updates the “node type” for a set of nodes. Update Other.Extra Point. You just select the elements to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box.

. dialog box. Finite Element Modeling > 4..3.ugs.. Superelement ID.21 Modify. Node Definition CSys. You select the nodes to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box. Finite Element Modeling > 4.3 Advanced Updates > 4. except that you select nodes to update instead of coordinate systems. dialog box. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. Update Other..22 Modify.femap. 4..3. Update Other. updates the permanent constraints on one or more selected nodes.com Customer Support: http://support.2013 .8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.22 Modify.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4...com Customer Support: http://support. . Finite Element Modeling > 4.femap. Update Other. simply click the “Coordinate System” Icon Button in the Select Coordinate System.. In this command. .. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.23 Modify. 4. Node Definition CSys.. If you want to create a new coordinate system while using this command.8. ..com Customer Support: http://support..femap..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. You may then select the appropriate DOFs to constrain permanently through the Update Nodal Permanent Constraints dialog box. Perm Constraint. Node Definition CSys..8.21 Modify.3. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.23 Modify.8.3.8.. If you want to create a new coordinate system while using this command.. Output CSys.8. and then choose a coordinate system from a list of available systems.8. Update Other. You can choose any combination of the six permanent constraints to be applied to all selected nodes. also works just like Modify.3.. simply click the “Coordinate System” Icon Button in the Select Coordinate System.3 Advanced Updates > 4. Update Other.8..09. CSys Definition CSys.3.ugs. Update Other. First.8.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4. Finite Element Modeling > 4.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.24 Modify.3 Advanced Updates > 4..htm 25.ugs.ugs.Introduction Page 289 of 707 FEMAP Product Info: http://www. Update Other.8.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4..8. Output CSys. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.com Customer Support: http://support..3. the nodal output coordinate system is updated instead of the definition coordinate system. Update Other. Update Other... 4. however.8.3 Advanced Updates > 4. works just like Modify.femap. Perm Constraint. you select the nodes to be updated.

Update Other. FEMAP will ask for two factors. updates the Superelement ID of a set of nodes.. or surface loads..3.27 Modify. Load Phase. Then. updates the IGID value for a set of selected Aero Panel/Body entities.3.com Customer Support: http://support.8.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.24 Modify.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. you will be asked whether you wish to update nodal.2013 . Update Other.8. . Aero Interference Group.femap.. point.. When you invoke this command.25 Modify. Finite Element Modeling > 4.8.com Customer Support: http://support.... Scale Load..8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4.8. After you select the type of load. you will see another dialog box that will let you specify the new load phase.25 Modify.3 Advanced Updates > 4.3.. Aero Interference Group. allows you to modify the values of existing loads..femap. This is an easy way to create a number of Superelements in a model that already exists.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. First select the nodes and then enter an integer to specify a Superelement ID.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. you will identify the entities where the loads will be updated.3 Advanced Updates > 4.. When you press OK. 4..ugs..8. they will all be updated.26 Modify. Update Other.. Update Other. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.3.com Customer Support: http://support. Only loads from the active load set will be updated by this command. depending on the load type..Introduction Page 290 of 707 4. 4. Superelement ID. Update Other.. If there are multiple loads at a single entity in the same load set. then following the file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.3 Advanced Updates > 4.3.femap. Finite Element Modeling > 4. . curve. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.09..ugs.. FEMAP will ask you to identify the type of loads that you want to update. When you have identified the entities to update.ugs.8. Finite Element Modeling > 4.3. When you invoke this command. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. The current load values are multiplied by the first factor. .27 Modify..htm 25. Update Other. Scale Load..8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4. updates the phase of loads.26 Modify.8. The standard entity selection dialog box is used. 4. Each new integer entered becomes a Superelement with a new ID for Nastran. elemental.. .8.8..3. you must choose the entities where the loads will be updated. Load Phase.8. Update Other.

Neither of these commands perform any checking to see if any of these entities are non-deletable..28 Modify. simply select the appropriate command (based on the entity type) from this menu. You may also use the Delete.3. view factor.com Customer Support: http://support.8. the second factor is added. you will also have to adjust the reference temperature appropriately to get the desired loads.8. 4. FEMAP does not change the reference temperature when you use this command. Deleting From Your Model If you want to delete any type of entity in your model.femap. This final question will also let you know how many entities have been selected. Update Other.8.Introduction Page 291 of 707 multiplication. only nodes are chosen instead of elements. When you complete your selection. This works very similar to Modify. Output on any of the selected elements will be deleted. You will then be prompted by several questions to determine which function references on the loads to update (for instance. FEMAP will ask you to identify the type of loads that you want to update..9 Deleting FEA Entities The commands on the Delete menu are all used to delete entities. Model All commands to remove the entire model or all FEA model entities and output. All or Delete.2013 . Update Other.ugs. while answering No will cancel the command.. If there are multiple loads on an entity in the active load let. Answering Yes will delete the entities.htm 25. The standard entity selection dialog box will then be displayed to let you select the entities you wish to delete. When using this command.. Answer No to those functions you do not wish to update. the documentation for the entire menu is given in this section. Note: If you use this command to update heat transfer loads with multiple inputs (i. If you use this command to update temperatures. such as nodes of the element not being used by any other elements and loads that are defined on elements or associated nodes. some care must be taken. Answering Yes will delete all appropriate entities. you will be asked to confirm that you really want to delete the entities.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. FEMAP will ask whether you want to update each input. If you select Yes to update.. Only loads from the active load let will be updated by this command. Choosing No will simply cancel the command. Using Delete Mesh allows you to delete any finite element entity by simply selecting an element.3.9 Deleting FEA Entities 4. You simply need to select the function for each update. Say Yes to those you want to update. The default factors do not change the load values. . a force can have both a function for the magnitude and phase). These entities are skipped because file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.09.femap.ugs.28 Modify.com Customer Support: http://support. you will be prompted to confirm your request. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. and temperature). Finite Element Modeling > 4. Since most of the commands on this menu work in a very similar fashion. Update Other. you will receive a message that a number of nondeletable entities have been skipped. They are simply deleted.e. Finite Element Modeling > 4. all elements associated with selected nodes will be deleted. Also. Since structural loads are determined by the difference between the specified and reference temperature. This command can also be used to delete “orphan nodes” which have loads and/or constraints applied. This command will delete the selected element and any other entities that are associated with it. This command will just scale the temperature value. All commands will delete entities from your model. radiation with absorptivity. Delete Mesh on Nodes is the essentially the same command. When you select either of these commands.8 Modifying FEA Entities > 4. Load Function ID. Load Function ID. emissivity. they will all be updated. Scale Load. FEMAP will provide a list of functions from which to pick. This is very convenient when you need to change the function reference for a load condition on a large number of entities. allows you to update the function referenced by loads. and press OK.3 Advanced Updates > 4.com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4.. FEMAP Product Info: http://www. NonDeletable Entities Sometimes when you delete entities.

Deleting Connection Entity Icons Delete... Connection.. Model.. Model. properties. Delete. Delete.Definition and Delete.. Connection. a point is nondeletable if it is connected to one or more curves. Model.. Model. Delete. Delete. loads or constraints will be deleted. and select all nodes. Delete..Definition. Load -Individual and Delete. Mesh. Deleting body loads also works with the active load set. choose Delete. Delete. constraints.09.. you are just asked to confirm the deletion.... Load . You will then also be asked to confirm whether to delete the temperatures. Connection. In this case there is nothing to select.htm 25. Model. Elements. Node Element Property Material Coordinate System Function Connection Property Connection Region Hint: Could be referenced by.Definition commands will also only delete from the active load or constraint set.2013 . Model.Individual. Deleting From a Set The Delete.. The following table lists entities that can cause an entity to be nondeletable.. first delete all entities which reference them... Model.. Constraint . Analysis Set. Model. Property.. Load . a curve is nondeletable if it has a load attached to it. Deleting Aeroelastic Entity Icons file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. Function. Delete. Model. Model. Delete. Constraint ... Constraint .. Delete.. loads. For example.... Material. Connection Property. Element.. but in fact only those nodes which are not referenced by any elements.Set. Model.. Model.. To delete these nondeletable entities. Constraint ... Similarly. if you want to get rid of all of the unused nodes. Load . Connector. Model. Model. When you are trying to delete. they will all be deleted... loads.. Delete...Set..... nodes.. Connection Region.. Constraint . This may seem a little scary. the normal confirmation “Ok to Delete Loads” only applies to the temperature loads. coordinate systems... but you can delete from any set using the context-sensitive Delete commands in the Model Info tree. Delete. Model. Layup. Deleting Finite Element Entity Icons Delete. constraints Loads Elements Properties Points... Model. materials Loads.Definition.. The Delete.. Delete. Node. Delete. Delete.. Delete.. Model. If you have multiple temperature loads defined on the same node or element in the same load set. Node. For example.Introduction Page 292 of 707 FEMAP protects you from deleting entities which are needed by other entities in your model..Individual. Coord Sys. Delete. Model.. When deleting nodal or elemental loads. materials Connector Connector You can use this feature to great advantage in cleaning up a model. Load ..Individual commands delete entities out of the active load or constraint set..

10 Preparing for Analysis 4. Blocks of empty space are removed. Model.7. Aero Panel/Body. Export or File. you may want to immediately remove empty space from your model and reduce model file size. set boundary conditions. when you delete a lot of data (output. "Defining a Analysis Set" and Section 4. Model.10..com Phone: (714) 952-5444 or : (800) 955-0000 (US and Canada) Home > Commands > 4. for example). while Chart Data Series may also be deleted using the Chart Data Series Manager or with a context-sensitive menu command.Introduction Page 293 of 707 Delete. and select output for an analysis. Analyze commands.com Customer Support: http://support. Model. unlike the parameters that you define when you use the File. You can also save analysis sets in FEMAP analysis libraries.2.. After You Delete When entities are deleted from a FEMAP model.ugs. FEMAP Product Info: http://www.. and your model decreases in size. Model. Delete. Rebuild command. For more information. Aero Control Surface The Charting pane can create any number of Chart entities along with any number of Chart Data Series entities. Finite Element Modeling > 4. Delete. Model. ANSYS. Deleting Chart and Chart Series Delete. Charts may also be deleted in the Charting pane using the Chart Manager.09. The File. "Nastran Interfaces" of FEMAP User Guide) file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630.. Chart Series command to delete any number of Chart Data Series. Rebuild command does just that. In some cases. Chart command to delete any number of Charts or the Delete. "Nastran Interfaces"of FEMAP User Guide) MSC/MD Nastran (See Section 8. Use the Delete. Model.1. Choose the File. however.10. the space that they occupied is marked as empty and available for reuse. The model file does not decrease in size. Analysis sets are saved in the model file. Aero Spline. Once you have defined an analysis set. Supported Solvers NX Nastran (See Section 8. this is not a problem because new entities will reuse this space. or ABAQUS.10 Preparing for Analysis The Analysis Set Manager dialog box lets you create analysis sets that define the analysis parameters.htm 25.femap. and press Yes to perform a full rebuild and compact the model. Aero Property. Normally. you can use it as input to an analysis program such as NX Nastran.2013 . "Running the Analysis with an Analysis Set".7. see Section 4..

Export Export will write the analysis input file without trying to run the analysis. all of the sub-branches of that branch will also be expanded/collapsed. type of solve. For example.2013 . the Analysis Set dialog box opens.5. to copy an analysis set. • Edit Preview: By selecting this option you enable editing in the preview window and subsequently when the Analyze or Export commands are selected. • You can use a combination of list items and buttons to perform actions.Introduction Page 294 of 707 NEi Nastran (See Section 8.09. Preview Input This command allows you to preview the input file that will be sent to the solver for the active Analysis Set. Use the Active button to make a different analysis set active. The Analysis Set Manager dialog box displays the active analysis set in the title bar.6.7.3. Once you enter a file name. • Analyze: This button runs the analysis if FEMAP has been set up to run a analysis automatically. For example. "ABAQUS Interfaces" of FEMAP User Guide) ANSYS (See Section 8. Before this option will work properly. Hold the Ctrl key down and select the analysis sets one at a time with the left mouse button or hold down the Shift key to select a “range” of analysis sets by highlighting the first and last desired entities from the list. If you hold down the Alt key while clicking a “+/-” box to expand/collapse a branch of the tree. Analyze Multiple Allows you to use a multi-select dialog box to choose any number of analysis sets to run one after another. "LS-DYNA Interfaces" of FEMAP User Guide) MSC MARC (See Section 8.htm 25.2. The input will be displayed in the format of the solver specified in the active Analysis Set (does not work for FEMAP Structural). Refer to the User Guide documentation for your solver for more information on preparing to run an analysis. pick the analysis set and then click the Copy button. the analysis will start. "Marc Interfaces" of FEMAP User Guide) FEMAP Structural The Analysis Set Manager dialog box has two areas: the analysis set list and buttons that enable you to control data stored for an analysis set. If there is no active Analysis Set. and cases. options. To work with the list: • Use the plus and minus buttons to collapse and expand the analysis set hierarchy. "ANSYS Interfaces" of FEMAP User Guide) LS-DYNA (See Section 8. master output requests and boundary conditions. Analyze The Analyze button begins the analysis using the active analysis set. Analysis Set List The Analysis Set Manager list area lets you easily view the parameters for your analysis set: solver name. file:///C:/Users/msmadu/AppData/Local/Temp/~hh630. you may need to setup VisQ or one or more environment variables that let FEMAP know how to find your solver. "Nastran Interfaces" of FEMAP User Guide) ABAQUS (See Section 8. FEMAP will write the input exactly as it appears in the previe