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PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE PV-100 0 (Mar-2010)

PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE
Revision 0 (Mar-2010)

Table of Contents
1.  2.  Purpose.................................................................................................................................... 2  Vessels Supports ..................................................................................................................... 2  Horizontal Vessels – Saddle Supports ........................................................................................ 3  Vertical Vessels .......................................................................................................................... 4  3.  Data Sheet Preparation ............................................................................................................ 7  4.  ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1 Vs. Division 2 ......................................................... 12  5.  Materials ............................................................................................................................... 13  Carbon Steel .............................................................................................................................. 13  Carbon-Moly Steel (Low Alloy Steel For High Temperature)................................................. 14  Chrome-Moly Steel (Low Alloy Steel For High Temperature)................................................ 15  Low Alloy Steel For Low Temperature .................................................................................... 16  Stainless Steel (High Alloy Steel)............................................................................................. 16  Nonferrous Alloys..................................................................................................................... 19  Material Selection ..................................................................................................................... 21  6.  MDMT .................................................................................................................................. 25  Definition of Brittle Fracture .................................................................................................... 25  Impact Test Exemption per UCS-66 ......................................................................................... 26  Impact Test Exemption per UCS-66.1 ...................................................................................... 29  7.  Radiography .......................................................................................................................... 34  Spot Radiography...................................................................................................................... 34  Full Radiography ...................................................................................................................... 34  8.  PWHT By Service Conditions .............................................................................................. 35  9.  Nozzle Connections .............................................................................................................. 36  10.  Type of Hydrotest .............................................................................................................. 39 

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PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE
Revision 0 (Mar-2010)

1. Purpose
To prepare Mechanical Pressure Vessel Data Sheet, the originator shall have pressure vessel design experience and shall ensure the work is both accurate and complete. The purpose of this Standard is to provide knowledge to originators for preparation of the Mechanical Pressure Vessel Data Sheet. This Practice covers an overview of the ASME Division 1 and 2, two aspects of materials selection for pressure vessels which are selection for the service conditions and selection for MDMT & design temperature. This practice also covers information about radiography & PWHT requirements and nozzle type selection.

2. Vessels Supports
Pressure vessels are normally supported by one of the following methods (See Figure 1): • Skirts • Support legs • Support lugs • Ring girders • Saddles

Fig. 1 Typical Vessel Supports

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PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE
Revision 0 (Mar-2010)

Horizontal Vessels – Saddle Supports
Horizontal vessels are typically supported on two saddles. The design methods of supports for horizontal vessels are based on L. P. Zick’s analysis presented in 1951. Material of vessel saddle shall be A283 Gr. C and reinforcing plates directly welded to shell shall be of the same material as the vessel shell. The distance between the head tangent line and the center line of the saddle should in no case be more than 20% of the tangent-to-tangent length, L. One end of the horizontal vessel typically contains a sliding support to facilitate thermal expansion. The minimum contact angle suggested by the ASME Code is 120°, except for very small vessels.

Fig. 2 Horizontal Vessels on Saddle Supports 3

Material of support legs shall be structural steel A36 or fabricated from either A283 Gr. C or A285 Gr. Do not use legs where high vibration. The lug itself may have two gussets and a top plate. legs or lugs. Two or four lugs are commonly used. Vertical Vessel Support Legs Leg-supported vessels are normally lightweight. 4 . Reinforcing plate may be used to stiffening the shell. Legs may be made of angle. C. Hbeam or pipe and the number of legs may be 3. In general. shock or cyclic service is anticipated in the vessels. Legs length will be decided by piping designer. use ring-girder type. and the legs provide easy access to the bottom of the vessel. 3 Vertical Vessel on Leg Support Vertical Vessel Lug Supports Vessels supported on lugs commonly located in structure. C. Fig. Lug support elevation will be decided by piping designer.1m) should be cross braced. 4 or more depending on the vessel diameter. If local stress on shell at lug location exceed allowable one. vertical vessels are skirt-supported when the vessel diameter exceeds about 4'-0 or when the shell height to diameter ratio exceeds about 3. Legs longer than about 7 feet (2. Material of support lugs shall be structural steel A283 Gr. U-channel.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) Vertical Vessels Vertical vessels may be supported by skirts. C or A285 Gr.

Minimum thickness for carbon steel skirt shall be 1/4" (6mm). unless otherwise required by client specifications. rounded off to the nearest 1/16" (1. the corroded centerline of skirt plate shall coincide with the corroded centerline of bottom shell plate.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) Fig. For head thicknesses 1" (25mm) and greater.5mm). Skirt shall be straight type when height to inside diameter ratio is less than 18 and shall be flare when height to inside diameter ratio is greater than or equal to 18. 4 Vertical Vessel on Lug Support Vertical Vessel Ring-Girder Sometime ring girder which consist of upper and lower ring are added on the lugs which have the advantage of supporting torsional and bending moments resulting from the transfer of loads from the vessel wall to the supports. except that the skirt thickness need not exceed 1-1/2" (38mm) in satisfying this requirement. Skirt height will be decided by piping designer. the skirt thickness shall be no less than 1/4 of the thickness of the part to which it is attached. Fig. etc. No corrosion allowance is required for skirt and base rings. 5 Vertical Vessel Ring-Girder Support Vertical Vessel Skirts When supported on skirts. 5 .

6 Vertical Vessel on Skirt Support 6 .PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) Fig.

if no specified in the project specification Impact Test: Per Code. etc) Seismic Zone: see project specification Soil Profile: see project specification Corrosive Service: see process data sheet Cyclic Service: see process data sheet Other Special Service: see process data sheet Code Stamp: see process data sheet MIGAS Certificate: Yes only for Oil & Gas project MAWP Basis: calculated. Construction Code Pressure Vessel Specification Design Pressure Design Temperature Min. Below is a sample of pressure vessel data sheet that can be modified according to project requirements. Design Metal Temperature (MDMT): see the value in the process data sheet Operating Pressure: see the value in the process data sheet Operating Temperature: see the value in the process data sheet Radiography: see sec. etc) Basic Wind Speed: see project specification Exposure: see project specification Importance Factor: see project specification Seismic Design Code: see project specification (example: UBC 97.10 of this document) 7 . Per Code Per Code Full Yes. if no specified in process data sheet (also see sec. 7 of this document Corrosion Allowance: see the value in the process data sheet Liquid Specific Gravity: see the value in the process data sheet Liquid Level: see the HIGHEST liquid level in the process data sheet Wind Design Code: see project specification (for example: ASCE 02. 4 of this document) Pressure Vessel Specification: document number of pressure vessel specification Design Pressure: see the value in the process data sheet Design Temperature: see the value in the process data sheet Min. if no specified in process data sheet (also see sec. This section provides guidance for completion of each numbered line on the Data Sheet as below. 8 of this document) Hydrotest: see project specification (also see sec.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) 3. etc (see sec. UBC 97. Data Sheet Preparation The Vessel Drawing/Data Sheet is prepared in conjunction with project specification suitable for obtaining comprehensive bids and subsequent purchase of pressure vessels. PD5500. The engineer shall have pressure vessel design experience and shall ensure the work is both accurate and complete and shall avoid supplying information that is not needed. 6 of this document) PWHT: Per Code. No thk: thk: ACCESSORIES in in SG: SG: Platform / Ladder Clips Insulation Clips Fireproofing Clips Pipe Support Clips Earthing Lugs / Boss Lifting Lugs Tailing Lugs Internal Ladder Top davit Cathodic Potection Name Plate DESIGN DATA Construction Code: ASME VIII Div 1 or 2. No Yes. Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) Operating Pressure Operating Temperature Radiography Corrosion Allowance Liquid Specific Gravity Liquid Level Wind Design Code Basic Wind Speed Exposure Importance Factor Seismic Design Code Seismic Zone Soil Profile DESIGN DATA Corrosive Service Cyclic Service psig Other Special Service o Code Stamp F o MIGAS Certificate F psig MAWP Basis o Impact Test F Spot PWHT in Hydrotest Painting Specification Insulation in (By Others) Fireproofing mile/hr (By Others) Yes Yes Yes Yes Calculated No Yes No Yes No No No No Dsg Press.

5 of this document) Head and Shell: see process data sheet (for example: SA516-70. etc) Forgings: same generic material as head/shell (for example: SA105. SA182-F316L. if insulation is required Fireproofing Clips: yes. if fireproofing is required Pipe Support Clips: generally is required Earthing Lugs / Boss: generally is required Lifting Lugs: generally is required Tailing Lugs : Yes. SA403-WP316L. (in) thk: in Gaskets Boltings Internals Internal External Internal External Removable Non-Removable SHEAR & MOMENT AT BASE (OPERATING) lb lb lb Shear (lbf) Wind Earthquake NOZZLE Description Moment (lbf-ft) Remark NOTES MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS (see sec. Pads : same material as shell and head (for example: SA516-70. SA240-316. SA312TP316L. for skirt vertical vessel Internal Ladder: generally is required Top davit: generally is required for skirt vertical vessel which has internal trays Cathodic Potection: see process data sheet Name Plate: generally is required MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS Head And Shell Cladding Reinf.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) Painting Specification: : document number of painting specification Insulation: see process data sheet or PID Fireproofing: see process data sheet ACCESSORIES Platform / Ladder Clips: generally is required Insulation Clips: yes. SA240-316. Pads Nozzle/Manhole Pipe Plate Necks Forgings Fittings Supports External Welded Parts ESTIMATED WEIGHT Empty Operating Full of Water Mark Qty Size (in) Rating Flange Type Proj. SA240-316. etc) Supports: generally use SA283-C External Welded Parts: same material as shell and head (for example: SA516-70. etc) Nozzle/Manhole Necks: same generic material as head/shell (for example: SA106-B. etc) Cladding: see process data sheet (for example: SS316L.5t non-asbestos filled CS OR / 316 SS IR. thk 3mm) Reinf. etc) Fittings: same generic material as head/shell (for example: SA234-WPB. etc) 8 . etc) Gasket Internal: fill up if the vessel has internal removable parts (example PTFE) External: see piping material specification (for example: 316 SS spiral wound 4.

generally made from Stainless Steel (SS316. Operating: weight of empty plus operating liquid Full of water: weight of vessel complete with internal. The material same as shell/head (SA516-70. SA240-316. SS304.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) Bolting Internal: fill up if the vessel has internal removable parts (example SA193-B8M/SA194-B8M) External: see piping material specification (for example: SA193-B7/SA194-2H) Internal Removable: such as trays. UBC. insulation. add information. SA516-60. or to give direction not otherwise provided. etc. etc) Non removable: it’s mean the internal parts that welded to inside of vessel. demister. insulation. etc as required by project specification. ESTIMATED WEIGHT Empty: it’s mean fabrication weight without removable internals. (see also sec. etc). 9 of this document) NOTES General notes should be added as necessary to support. 9 . clarify. and let vendor to fill up. It can be leave it. SHEAR & MOMENT AT BASE: Fill up calculated shear & moment due to wind & seismic base on standard ASCE. fireproofing & platform/ladder. NOZZLE Nozzle data shall be filled up base on information in the process data sheet. etc plus water test.

Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) Operating Pressure Operating Temperature Radiography See section 5 Corrosion Allowance Liquid Specific Gravity Not less than 1 Liquid Level Use the highest liquid level Wind Design Code Basic Wind Speed Exposure Importance Factor Seismic Design Code Seismic Zone Soil Profile Blast Pressure Transportation Load Horiz.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) PRESSURE VESSEL DATA SHEET Page of 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 1 Company Logo Client Project Location Project No. Calculated o See process data sht Per Code Impact Test No See Section 4 Yes F Full Spot PWHT No Per Code See Section64 Yes See project spec. Required : Doc. Size Mark Qty Rating Remark Description Type (in) (in) See sec. : Rev : DESIGN DATA No See sec. thk: Insulation: see proc. spec. Accelerations Vert. See process data sht Code Stamp Yes F No See process data sht oF See proj. Painting Specification See process data sht See process data sht in Insulation in SG: Yes. : : : : Construction Code Pressure Vessel Specification Design Pressure Design Temperature Min. 1 Corrosive Service See proc. dt sht Yes Refer to project specification No Cyclic Service See proc. 7 10 Revision . spec. Dsg Press. See process data sht in Hydrotest See project spec. Accelerations Title : Tag Number : No. spec. No. Pads Internal See piping material Boltings Nozzle/Manhole Pipe External See piping material Plate Removable Necks Internals to be the same as cladding if any. dt sht or PID (By Others) No Fireproofing thk: in SG: See project specification Yes. 7 NOZZLE Flange Proj. MIGAS Certificate Yes See process data sht psig MAWP Basis See proj. See project specification mile/hr check to process safety (By Others) No See project specification ACCESSORIES See project specification Internal Ladder Platform / Ladder Clips See project specification Insulation Clips Top davit Fireproofing Clips Cathodic Potection See project specification Pipe Support Clips Name Plate See project specification See project specification psi Earthing Lugs / Boss See project specification g Lifting Lugs See project specification g Tailing Lugs (See process data sht & section 3) MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS Head And Shell Internal See piping material Gaskets Cladding thk: in External See piping material Reinf. dt sht Yes See process dt sht See process data sht psig Other Special Service o No See proj. Forgings Non-Removable otherwise same as head / shell Fittings Supports External Welded Parts to be the same as head & shell ESTIMATED WEIGHT SHEAR & MOMENT AT BASE (OPERATING) Empty Roughly estimated lb Shear (lbf) Moment (lbf-ft) Operating lb Wind by vendor by vendor Roughly estimated by vendor by vendor Full of Water lb Earthquake Roughly estimated (See process dt sht & sec.

: : : : Title Tag Number No. . . Provide only enough detail to describe the item . clips. No.Show location of legs. Identify which saddle will have slotted mounting holes and whether a slide plate is required.Show supports.Establish a reference line for tail dimensions. if available.Locate support saddles including dimension from head tangents to center line of the saddles. Use a head tangent line or face of flange if vessel has a flanged end.Identify and locate needed internal details. lugs.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) SKETCH Sketch shall be consistent with the following items: . : : : : Rev : 0 SKECTH 11 Revision . Required Doc. . elevation from the vessel centerline to the bottom of the base plate. PRESSURE VESSEL DATA SHEET 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Company Logo Client Project Location Project No. etc.Provide the skirt height dimension from the bottom of the base plate to the head tangent. and elevation from grade. .

• When vessels operating in cyclic service. Div. This information should constitute the basis for selecting materials and designing. The process engineer will note on the Process Data Sheets which vessels may be considered potentially to be in "cyclic" service and attach sufficient data on the planned operating conditions to permit the mechanical engineer to evaluate the need for fatigue analysis. Division 2: • When the required thickness according to ASME Section VIII Division 1 basis of a vessel exceeds 2 inches (50 mm) irrespective of the design pressure & materials. materials. fabricating and inspecting the vessel as required including the method of supporting the vessel. (See U-1 (d) of ASME Section VIII. consult an experienced pressure vessel engineer. to provide enough information so that an analysis can be carried out.” provides the method of design for cyclic loading. Division 1 is based on the maximum-stress theory of failure. However.2) and if it is required. and provides the most economic design and construction for the majority of vessels used in the petroleum industry. “Design based on fatigue analysis. Division 2 can be more economical. Division 2 vessels will consequently have thinner walls than Division 1 vessels for the same design conditions but more expensive in design and inspection cost. Division 2 Pressure vessels may be designed to meet the requirements of either Division 1 or Division 2 of Section VIII of the ASME Code. the ASME Section VIII Division 2 shall be applied. lower foundation costs. Appendix 5 (Mandatory) of Division 2. • When the fabricated weight of the vessel excluding the internal & external weight exceeds 100 tons according to ASME Section VIII Division 1 basis. 12 . one of the most conservative methods available. Section VIII. A feature of Division 2 is that the purchaser must provide the vessel vendor with USER'S DESIGN SPECIFICATION that states all intended operating conditions and loadings for the service life of the vessel. Division 2 was developed to take advantage of the technological advancements made in design methods. when the reduction in material and fabrication costs exceeds the increase in design and inspection costs. It is the most frequently used Code in the world. For application of Division 2 rules. and nondestructive examination. The selection of Division 1 or Division 2 shall be based on both design and economic considerations. and lower shipping and erection costs. The following are the Rules of Thumb for application of ASME Section VIII. And for some cases.68 Mpa). Division 1 for Scope of Division 1). Division 1 Vs. this thickness reduction results in lower materials costs. • When the design pressure exceeds 3000 psig (20. The purchaser must evaluate the intended operating conditions to determine whether or not a fatigue analysis is required (per AD-160.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) 4. ASME Code. ASME VIII.

SA516-70). The vessel vendor is required to prepare a MANUFACTURER'S DESIGN REPORT establishing the conformance with the rules of Division 2 for the design conditions specified in the User’s Design Specification. Some low strength carbon steels may be susceptible to hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) in wet services containing H2S. ASME specifications have the same numerical designation as the ASTM specifications. carbonate.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) The USER'S DESIGN SPECIFICATION must be certified by a registered professional engineer experienced in pressure vessel design. − Hydrogen-Induced Cracking. Sample of USER'S DESIGN SPECIFICATION is in the attachment 2. Welded carbon steel is limited to 800°F maximum to prevent graphitization. Postweld heat treatment may also be beneficial to prevent cracking. In the mechanical data sheets. but are preceded by SA instead of A (e. There are 3 types of carbon steel: 13 . these generic materials shall be designated in the ASME/ASTM materials. − Hydrogen Attack. nitrate. − Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC). ASME specifications shall be in accordance with ASME Section II. Vessel materials usually are specified in the process data sheets in generic name. Carbon steels may be susceptible to brittle fracture at normal ambient temperatures. by nominal composition or by trade name. PWHT. 5. Stress relief is required to prevent failures. Materials In general. amine solutions and in anhydrous ammonia. Graphitization is the formation of graphite.g. This conformance should also be certified by a registered professional engineer. Part A. − Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). primarily in weld heat-affected zones. Carbon Steel Carbon steels for pressure vessels have a nominal composition of iron with about 1% manganese and up to 0. − Graphitization.. Wet H2S is defined as service conditions of at least 50 ppm of H2S dissolved in a liquid water phase. selection of vessel materials shall be base on service conditions and MDMT/design temperature.35% carbon. Some limitations of carbon steels are as follows: − Brittle Fracture. This will cause the failure of even a small load or strains. High strength steel and hard welds in steel in aqueous solutions containing H2S are susceptible to sudden non-ductile failures. As-welded or cold-worked carbon steel is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in caustic. controlling maximum strength and hardness is generally sufficient to prevent cracking. Carbon steel will suffer hydrogen attack at elevated temperature in high pressure hydrogen. from the decomposition of iron carbides.

A283-B / C. − Graphitization. Note: Killed Steel per ASME SEC. such as A285 all grade. A334-1 / 3 Forging for ANSI flange: A105.II SA-6/SA-6M para. Semi-Killed Carbon Steel. These materials are not acceptable for pressure parts.3.Steel deoxidized. such as A515 all grade. A765-I / II / III Welded fittings: A234-WPB.11oC).Incompletely deoxidized steel containing oxygen to form enough carbon monoxide during solidification to offset solidification shrinkage. These materials are acceptable for pressure parts with nominal thickness not greater than 1 inches (25 mm) and minimum design temperature not less than 30oF (-1. Carbon-moly is resistant to a maximum service temperature of 850°F. div.1). 2. Common ASTM/ASME carbon steel materials: Plate for pressure parts: A285-C. Carbon-moly steel cannot be relied upon to resist hydrogen attack. A515-60 / 70. to reduce oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification. − Sulfide Stress Cracking. − Hydrogen Attack. carbonmoly steels may have poor toughness (increased susceptibility to brittle fracture). A350-LF2 / LF3 Forging for body/cover flange & tubesheet: A266-2 / 4.II SA-6/SA-6M para. either by addition of strong deoxidizing agents or by vacuum treatment. A106 all grade and A105. A333-1 / 3 / 6 Tube: A179. Same as for carbon steel.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) 1. A420-WPL3 Carbon-Moly Steel (Low Alloy Steel For High Temperature) Carbon-moly steel is similar to carbon steel but with 0. such as A283 all grade & A36. A516 all grade.9 . Non-Killed Carbon Steel. Killed Carbon Steel. Common ASTM/ASME Carbon-Moly (C-1/2Mo) Steel materials: Plate: A204-B Pipe: A335-P1 14 . These materials are acceptable for pressure parts for all nominal thickness with minimum design temperature not less than -50oF (-46oC) but may be to be normalized or impact tested depending on the thickness (see UCS-66 of ASME VIII.3. A214.7 . 3.5% molybdenum (C1/2Mo) added which improves the steel’s high temperature strength and graphitization resistance. A516-60 / 70 Plate for non pressure parts: A36. Some limitations of C-1/2Mo are as follows: − Brittle Fracture. Same as for carbon steel. A285-B / C Pipe: A106-B. − Stress Corrosion Cracking. Unless made to fine-grain practice and normalized. Note: Semi-killed Carbon Steel per ASME SEC.

Require postweld heat treatment for all welded construction. Pipe 1 Cr-½ Mo: A335-P12 Pipe 1¼ Cr-½ Mo: A335-P11 Pipe 2¼ Cr-1 Mo: A335-P22 Tube 1 Cr-½ Mo: A213-T12 Tube 1¼ Cr-½ Mo: A213-T11 Tube 2¼ Cr-1 Mo: A213-T22 Forging 1 Cr-½ Mo: A182-F12 Forging 1¼ Cr-½ Mo: A182-F11 Forging 2¼ Cr-1 Mo: A182-F22 Welded fittings 1 Cr-½ Mo: A234-WP12 Welded fittings 1¼ Cr-½ Mo: A234-WP11 Welded fittings 2¼ Cr-1 Mo: A234-WP22 15 . The 2¼ Cr-1 Mo steels are particularly susceptible. and 2¼ Cr-1 Mo. 1¼ Cr-½ Mo. Require control of preheat for welding. but 1 Cr-½ Mo and 1¼ Cr-½ Mo may also be susceptible. Common ASTM/ASME Chrome-Moly Steel materials: Plate 1 Cr-½ Mo: A387-12 Class 1 or 2 Plate 1¼ Cr-½ Mo: A387-11 Class 1 or 2 Plate 2¼ Cr-1 Mo: A387-22 Class 1 or 2 Note: Class 2 is Normalized and Tempered. The characteristics are: Better resistance to hydrogen attack. Resistance improves with increased alloy content. Some limitations of Chrome-Moly steels are as follows: − Brittle Fracture. − Stress Corrosion Cracking. Chrome-moly steels become susceptible to brittle fracture at low temperatures and above about 650°F embrittle in service. − Sulfide Stress Cracking. More difficult to fabricate. Chrome-moly steels do not graphitize. Typical grades are 1 Cr-½ Mo. Same as for carbon steel. Resistance to hydrogen attack is dependent on the chromium and molybdenum contents in the steel.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) Tube: A209-T1 Forging: A182-F1 Welded fittings: A234-WP1 Chrome-Moly Steel (Low Alloy Steel For High Temperature) Chrome-moly low alloy steels are similar to carbon steel but with chromium and molybdenum added. − Hydrogen Attack. Better high temperature strength. allowable stress is higher than class1. Same as for carbon steel.

martensitic.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) Low Alloy Steel For Low Temperature To improve toughness of carbon steel at low temperature. Nickel is added to improve embrittle fracture due to its strong contact force (anti-tearing poperty). Some limitations of Austenitic stainless steels are as follows: − Chloride stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels can occur in aqueous solutions containing chloride ions. this material is difficult for welding. However. Excellent low-temperature toughness.5.1 Austenitic Stainless Steels (3xx series) have an austenite structure similar to the high temperature structure of carbon steel. and especially where evaporation builds up deposits on the stainless steel. or duplex depending on their microstructure.5% chromium. If available suppliers do not have successful experience with this material. Recommendations to prevent chloride stress corrosion cracking include: 16 . the solution is hot. ferritic. Chromium is unique in that it forms a passive layer on the steel surface that provides protection from corrosion. Common ASTM/ASME Nickel steel materials: Plate 2-½ Ni: A203-A / B Plate 3-½ Ni: A203-D / E Plate 9 Ni: A353 Pipe 2-½ Ni: A333-7 Pipe 3-½ Ni: A333-2 Plate 9 Ni: A333-8 Forging 2-½ Ni: Forging 3-½ Ni: A350-LF3 Forging 9 Ni: A522-I Welded fittings: - Stainless Steel (High Alloy Steel) Stainless steels are corrosion-resistant steels that contain at least 10. Can be used for both cladding and solid wall construction. Weldable. In general. The characteristics of austenitic stainless steels are: Nonhardenable by heat treatment.the 3xx series are iron–chromium–nickel alloys that contain 16–26% chromium and 6–22% nickel. Nonmagnetic. the pH is neutral or low. Cracking is most severe where the chloride ion concentration is high. austenitic stainless steel is a better choice. 3. Stainless steels are classified as either austenitic.

347 Forging for body/cover flange & tubesheet: A336-F304. 321. 321. lower C than 302 304L Low-carbon 304 for improved corrosion resistance 304LN Low-carbon 304 with nitrogen added for strength 304H Higher carbon 304 304Cu Copper added for improved cold working 304N Nitrogen added for strength 309 High Cr and Ni for heat resistance 309S Lower carbon 309 309Cb Niobium (columbium) added 310 Higher Cr and Ni than 309 for improved heat resistance 310S Lower carbon 310 310Cb Niobium (columbium) added 316 Mo added for improved corrosion resistance 316L Lower C for improved corrosion resistance and weldability 316LN Lower C and higher nitrogen (for strength) 316H Higher carbon 316 316N Nitrogen added for strength 316Ti Titanium added 316Cb Niobium (columbium) added 317 Higher Cr and Mo for improved corrosion resistance 317L Low-carbon 317 for improved weldability 17 . blind flange. 304L. Where no other economical material is available. These acids commonly develop during shutdowns by the oxidation of iron sulfide scale in the presence of moisture and oxygen. 316L. 304L. 304L. 321. Common ASTM/ASME Austenitic stainless steel materials: Plate: A240-304. 316L. 321.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) 1. Usually polythionic acid cracking is prevented by using the chemically stabilized or extra low carbon grades of stainless steel and avoiding harmful heat treatments. 316L. vessels made of solid austenitic stainless steel should be PWHT (See section 5) − Sulfur-derived acids can cause “polythionic acid” stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels. 316L. The following list summarizes these variations which frequently used for pressure vessels material: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 304 Popular 18–8 stainless steel. 347 Welded fittings: A403-WP304. used as clad construction. 316. There are many compositional variations of austenitic stainless steel steels. 347 Forging: A182-F304. 347 Pipe: A312-TP304. If stainless steel is required. 316. 316. 321. Do not select solid wall austenitic stainless steel construction for hot and aqueous chloride services. 304L. 304L. 321. 347 Tube: A213-TP304. 347 Note: Any type austenitic SS forgings with notes G7 of ASME 1A are not recommended for the flanges. tubesheet or any applications which can cause leakage. 2. 316L. 316. 316. 316L. 304L. 316.

such as the ferritic (Types 405 and 430) and martensitic types (Type 410). The characteristics are: − − − − Can be hardened with heat treatment. The ferritic stainless steels are listed below: • 405 Low Cr with Al added • 430 General-purpose ferritic stainless steel 3. Because they can be heat treated. Poor Weldability Their use in pressure vessel is primarily as cladding.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) • • • • • 321 Titanium added to minimize Cr carbide precipitation 347 Nb and Ta added to minimize Cr carbide precipitation 347H Higher carbon 347 348 Ta and Co added for restricted nuclear applications 348H Higher carbon 348 3. Prevent this problem by not using chromium stainless steels for solid wall construction of pressure vessels. Some limitations of Martensitic stainless steels are as follows: 18 . The ferritic stainless steels are basically iron–chromium alloys with chromium ranging from 10. the martensitic stainless steels generally have higher strength than the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels.3 Martensitic Stainless Steels (13Cr) Martensitic stainless steels contain added carbon. The characteristics are: − − − − − Nonhardenable with heat treatment. Embrittle in 750°F to 900°F Service.2 Ferritic Stainless Steels (4xx series) have a ferrite structure similar to the low temperature structure of carbon steel. Straight chromium stainless steels. Magnetic.5 to 27%. which expands the gamma loop to allow higher chromium contents to be used. containing 13% or more chromium can embrittle during exposure to temperatures in the 750°F to 900°F range. Some limitations of Ferritic stainless steels are as follows: Common ASTM/ASME Ferritic stainless steel materials: Plate: A240-405 and 430 Pipe: N/A Tube: A268-TP405 and 430 Forging: N/A Welded fittings: N/A There are fewer variations of ferritic stainless steels than austenitic stainless steels. Magnetic.5.5. Poor Weldability Their use in pressure vessel is primarily as cladding.

However. containing 13% or more chromium can embrittle during exposure to temperatures in the 750°F to 900°F range. The corrosion characteristics of these duplex stainless steels are similar to austenitic stainless steels. This cracking is prevented by controlling weld strength and hardness. There are many more duplex stainless steels that have priority compositions and trade. 19 . The martensitic stainless steels are especially susceptible to sulfide stress cracking. nickel alloys and titanium alloys. such as the ferritic (Types 405 and 430) and martensitic types (Type 410).PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) − Sulfide Stress Cracking. Nonferrous Alloys Nonferrous alloys are designated in the ASME Code by the prefix SB. • Nickel–Chromium–Iron Alloys Nickel and high-nickel alloys have excellent corrosion resistance and are used in high-temperature applications in corrosive environments. Embrittle in 750°F to 900°F Service. Common ASTM/ASME Duplex stainless steel materials: Plate: A240-S31803 Pipe: A790-S31803 Tube: A789-S31803 Forging: A182-F51 Welded fittings: N/A The two grades most frequently used for pressure vessels are 2205 (UNS S31803) and 2507 (UNS 32750). Weldable. Two classes of alloys occasionally considered are discussed in this section. they have higher strength and better resistance to stress–corrosion cracking than austenitic stainless steels. Prevent this problem by not using chromium stainless steels for solid wall construction of pressure vessels. Straight chromium stainless steels. Note: Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC): Cracking of metal produced by the combined action of corrosion and tensile stress (residual or applied).5. Zenon 100 (UNS S32760). 2507.4 Duplex Stainless Steels have structures of roughly 50% austenite and 50% ferrite (22Cr-5Ni-3Mo-1N). Can be used for both cladding and solid wall construction. and 255 (UNS S32550) have sufficient chloride pitting resistance for seawater service. − Common ASTM/ASME Martensitic stainless steel materials: Plate: A240-410 Pipe: N/A Tube: A268-TP410 Forging: N/A Welded fittings: N/A 3. − − − Nonhardenable with heat treatment.

These are used infrequently for pressure vessels and used usually as cladding. Fabricating and weldability are generally good with proper precautions. Fig. • Titanium Alloys.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) Inconel alloy 600 and 625 is a standard engineering material for use in severely corrosive environments at high temperatures up to 2150oF (1177oC) and also resistant to chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking and corrosion by high-purity water. including seawater. Welding is difficult. 20 . Titanium exposed continuously to seawater for about 18 years has undergone only superficial discoloration. requiring very clean conditions. Unalloyed titanium is highly resistant to the corrosion normally associated with many natural environments. 7 represents some compositional modifications of nickel and its alloys to produce special properties. so field repairs are not practical.

Clad plate is also preferred because it is less likely to develop through-wall stress corrosion cracks than solid alloy. When stainless steel or a more highly alloyed material is required. it is often preferable to use a carbon or low alloy steel clad with a thin layer of the high alloy material. For a given service environment. CLAD PLATE: A composite plate consisting of two or more metals permanently and integrally bonded over their entire intersurface by rolling under heat and pressure. Clad plate is usually less expensive than solid alloy plate unless the thickness of the vessel is less than 1/2 inch. This table is not suitable for final materials selection. such as stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen damage. materials selection should be made with consideration for both corrosion rates and other potential deterioration mechanisms. 21 . but only for initial investigation.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) Material Selection Table 1 illustrates pressure vessel materials typically selected for service environments.

MATERIAL SELECTION FOR SERVICE ENVIRONMENTS 22 .PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) TABLE 1.

SA515 Grade 70 and SA516 Grade 70. Any material listed for a colder temperature range may be used in a warmer temperature range depending the suitable of the material due to the vessel contain as per table 1. Low alloy steels. If forgings are used for shell components or if shell plates are thick. Chevron Manuals NOTES: (1) Carbon steel. Choice will be determined by minimum design metal temperature and thickness. Carbon steel clad with 12% Cr steel is covered by Specification SA263.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) From PVM-500 “Materials”. These plates are covered by SA264 for roll band cladding. 1¼ Cr-½ Mo steel is covered by SA387 Grade 11 (plate) and SA182/336 F11 (forgings). For example. Base metal will be designated per notes 1 and 3 above. (2) (3) (4) Table 2 illustrates suitable materials base on temperature range. Clad carbon steel. Carbon or low alloy steel clad with Type 321 or 347 stainless steel. A240-304 may be used in the temperature range of 33°F to 775°F. 2¼ Cr-1 Mo steel is covered by SA387 Grade 22 (plate) and SA182/336 F22 (forgings). Grades commonly used for pressure vessel plates are SA285 Grade C. We usually designate a base metal plate (carbon steel per note 1 above) and the cladding as Type 405 or Type 410S. Base metal plate is designated per notes 1 or 3 above. 23 . they will be weld overlay clad rather than roll band clad.

304L. 316. 304L. 6 or A106B A106B A335P1 A335P11. 304L. T12 A209T22 A213TP347H or B163 (incoloy 825) B444 (Inconel 625) Forgings ANSI Flange A182F304. 316L. F12 A182F22 A182F347H or B564 (incoloy 825) B564 (Inconel 625) Forgings non ANSI A336F304. 6 or A106B A3331. 316. 316. F12 A336F22 A336F347H or B564 (incoloy 825) B564 (Inconel 625) Fittings A403WP304. 304L. 304L. 60 to meet SA20 -20 to 4 A516 All Grade Design Temperature oF 776 33 5 to to to 875 775 32 A516 All Grade A285C (min 60 oF) or A516 All Grade A106B A204B 876 to 1000 A38711. 316. 316L. II A765I. P12 A335P22 A312TP347H or B423 (incoloy 825) B444 (Inconel 625) Tube A249/ A213TP304. 316L. 347 A3338 or A312TP304. 347 -320 to -151 A353 or A240304. 304L. 316L. 304L. 316L. II A765I. 304L. 347 A420WPL8 or A403WP304. 316L. 316. 347 A522-I or A336F304. 316L. 304L. 347 A350LF2 A105 A105 A105 A182F1 A182F11. 347 -150 to -51 A203D or A240304. 12 1001 to 1100 A38722 1101 to 1500 A240347H or B424 (incoloy 825) > 1500 B443 (Inconel 625) Plate Pipe A312TP304. 316L. 316L. 316. 304L. 316. 347 A765I. WP12 A234WP22 A403WP347H B366 (Inconel 625) 24 . 316L. 304L. 304L. 316L. 316. 304L. 304L. 304L. 316L. 347 -50 to -21 A51655. 347 A3341 or A179 or A214 A179 or A214 A179 or A214 A179 or A214 A209T1 A209T11. 347 A350LF3 or A182F304. 316. 316. 304L. 316. 347 A3343 or A249/ A213TP304. 347 A3331. 347 A3348 or A249/ A213TP304. 316L. 304L. 316. 316L. 347 A765III or A336F304. 316. II A336F1 A336F11. 316. 316. II A765I. 347 A420WPL3 or A403WP304.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) TABLE 2 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR DESIGN TEMPERATURE Component -425 to -321 A240304. 316. 316. 316L. 347 A420WPL6 A243WPB A243WPB A243WPB A234WP1 A234WP11. 347 A522-I or A182F304. 304L. 316L. 347 A3333 or A312TP304. 316L. 316. 316L.

2. and thickness. within the normal atmospheric temperature range. loading rate. Toughness depends on a material’s ductility and strength. such as carbon. To prevent brittle fracture. depending on temperature. Toughness therefore indicates the material’s ability to resist brittle fracture. It is metallurgically more difficult to obtain good toughness properties as thickness increases.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) 6. Toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy by yielding (plastic deformation) prior to failure. carbon-½ moly. and 400 series stainless steels. Most occur during hydrotest rather than in operation. MDMT Definition of Brittle Fracture Brittle fracture can occur in ferritic steels. The material property “Brittleness” indicates that the material is prone to failure without deformation. Sufficiently tough steels are selected by one of the following: 25 . Toughness is a physical property of materials that primarily characterizes their resistance to brittle fracture. chrome-moly. Thicker sections produce greater constraint ahead of the notch due to a triaxial state-of-stress. use tough materials. The fracture toughness of a particular material decreases with increasing section thickness for two reasons: 1.

2. Using materials selection curves. Using steels selected from the ASME Code impact test exemption curves is highly preferred. Impact tests increase materials costs substantially and complicate delivery. Using steels that have been Charpy V-Notch (CVN) impact tested to Code requirements. or impact exemption curves (see Fig.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) 1.1). UCS-66 of ASME VIII div. 26 .1. If a minimum design metal temperature and thickness combination is on or above the curve. Impact Test Exemption per UCS-66 Figure UCS-66 shall be used to establish impact testing exemptions for carbon and low alloy steels listed in Part UCS. impact testing is not required by the rules of ASME VIII Div.

or both. Under 40 mm. For example SA516 plate with thickness over 40 mm shall be normalized. the plates may be ordered normalized or stress relieved. The normalizing process is commonly applied to steel articles of heavy section to refine the grain. 27 .PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) NORMALIZE Heating iron-base alloys to approximately 100oF above the critical temperature range followed by cooling to below that range in still air at ordinary temperature.

PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) 28 .

Due to -5oF is colder than the required MDMT of 20oF. 4) If the MDMT is colder than -55oF but no colder than -155oF and the thickness ratio in Fig.1 may be used to reduce the MDMT of vessels if the defined ratio is less than one but not less than 0. impact tested material shall be used for the following: 1) If the governing thickness at any welded joint exceeds 4 inches and the MDMT is colder than 120oF. 2) If the thickness is less than 0. flat cover etc. the thickness of the flat component divided by 4. 2) If the governing thickness of the non-welded part exceeds 6 inches and the MDMT is colder than 120oF. from this curve in Fig. and then impact test is not required. shell. No impact test is required for: 1) ASME/ANSI B16. shall be evaluated for impact test requirements based on its individual material classification. and flat heads.35.1 need not be impact tested if the MDMT is no more than 5oF colder than the specification impact test temperature.1 is equal to or less than 0. just go to fig. To decide this material is required impact test or not. tubesheet. and lap welded joints.1 is greater than 0. fillet. and the warmest MDMT used as the MDMT for the vessel. UCS-66. 5) For flat nonwelded parts. UCS-66. 3) For flat heads or tubesheets. the MDMT for the nominal thickness of 1” is -5oF. UG-84.5mm) and the MDMT is -55oF or warmer. The thickness is defined as below: 1) For butt joints other than those in flat heads and tubesheets. Each component such as head.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) For example: 1” nominal thickness of not normalized A516-60 is required MDMT at 20oF. According to UCS-66. the thinner of the parts joined.47 flanges if the MDMT is -20oF or warmer. such as bolted flanges. the largest nominal thickness. the greater of the flat flange thickness divided by 4 or the minimum thickness of the dished portion.35. Impact Test Exemption per UCS-66. UCS-68(c) is defined as below: 29 . 4) For castings. the nominal thickness of the thickest welded joint. UCS-66. nozzle. 4) If the MDMT is colder than -55oF and the thickness ratio in Fig.5 or B16. flange. tubesheets. UCS-66. 2) For corner. Not normalized A516-60 is in Curve C. 3) The materials listed in Fig. the larger of the thickness from 2) above or the flat component thickness divided by 4.1 Fig. The resulting MDMT may not be colder than -55oF except as may result from the UCS-68(c) rule. 3) Materials with specified minimum yield strength greater than 65000 psi must be impact tested.35.10 inch (2. 6) For a nonwelded dished head. UCS-66.

PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) 30 .

PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) 31 .

PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) 32 .

check the following to see if it can be avoided: 1.1 & 2 is applicable. then the above material is exemption from impact test. 33 .2. UCS-66. Try to Normalized the material. UCS-66. see if a reduction per Fig. If impact testing is indicated by UCS-66. Due to the adjusted MDMT is colder than the required MDMT (-17oF < -10oF). If normalized does not help. 3. 2. Say. PWHT in accordance with UCS-68 (c) can give a 30oF (17oC) reduction of MDMT. PWHT may also be cheaper than impact tests.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) The following example illustrates the use of the flow chart in Fig. This is cheaper than impact testing. the required MDMT is -10oF.

2. This can result in a shell thickness equivalent to RT-1. For example. The minimum acceptable level of radiography for oil & gas industry is Spot. In full radiography. Vessel carbon steel with thickness less than 1. 2. RT 2 – Mix between full & spot radiography. In shells. 5. 2. 3. Vessel stainless steel with thickness less than 1. 34 . but spot radiography for the top one. and Full. Radiography There are 3 basic levels of radiography . RT 4 – fully radiograph one part of a vessel.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) 7. 3. Full Radiography is required for all pressure vessels in offshore project. If the lower section has a thickness 34 mm and the top thickness is 30 mm. Spot. 100% of the weld is examined and in spot radiography. 4. RT 3. Basically. spot radiography has a joint efficiency of 85% and full radiography has a joint efficiency of 100%. According to UG-116 (e) a vessel is stamped RT 1. or RT 4 to indicate how it was radiographed: 1. Vessel is not containing lethal substances. 6 inches (150 mm) of weld in every 50 feet (15 m) are examined (See UW-52). Unfired steam boilers with design pressure exceeding 50 psig. Spot Radiography Spot radiography is permitted for the following: 1. Unfired steam boiler with internal design pressure less than 50 psig. 3. longitudinal stresses (carried by circumferential welds) are typically half of circumferential stresses (carried by longitudinal welds). 4. It is possible to mix the types of radiography on a single vessel for the some of the economic reasoning. Generally.25 inches (32 mm). All butt welds joined by electrogas welding with any single pass greater than 1½” (38 mm) and all butt welds joined by electroslag welding. typically min. Full Radiography Full radiography is mandatory as per Code for the following: 1. RT 2. RT 2 allows you to fully radiograph only the longitudinal welds and to spot radiograph the circumferential one. the thickness is necessary for mandatory per code to fully radiograph the lower section. Vessels containing lethal substances. Vessel thickness is controlled by external design pressure. See UW-2(a). For the typical double butt weld in a vessel. RT 1 – Full radiography of the entire vessel.5 inches (38 mm). RT 3 – Spot radiography of the entire vessel.None. and spot radiography for the remainder. a carbon steel tower with different thickness.

PWHT may be required for nominal thickness less than table above if required by service condition. Carbon steel vessels should be PWHT in the following services regardless the shell thickness for resistance to various types of stress corrosion cracking (SCC): − Sour (wet H2S) services. 625 Incoloy 800. 70. Final closure of vessels (Ultrasonic examination when the construction does not permit radiographs). II Austenitic stainless steel: 304. 2. Vessel for material with minimum nominal thickness as below: P No. PWHT By Service Conditions The need for PWHT other than Code requirements are depends on some service conditions as summarized below: 1. 2. For service where cyclic pressures and/or temperatures are encountered and undetected flaws could initiate fatigue cracks. SA285-C.25” (32mm) > 1. 347. 316. 35 . (2) PWHT per UCS-56 (1) >= 1. All pressure welds require 100% RT regardless the Full RT examination is recommended for the following conditions: 1. 5. For ASME VIII Div 2: thickness. Material Descripion Full per R.5” (38mm) > 5/8” (16mm) > 3/4” (19mm) > 5/8” (16mm) All > 3/8” (10 mm) > 3/8” (10 mm) Note: 1. 321. 50. E) Low alloy steel: C-1/2Mo (SA204-B) Low alloy steel: 1Cr-1/2Mo (SA387-12) & 1¼”Cr-1/2Mo (SA387-11) Low alloy steel: 2¼Cr-1Mo (SA387-22) Inconel 600. All butt welds in head where it is made from two or more pieces of plate.T. For service at low temperatures where undetected flaws could cause brittle fracture. 8. SA455-I. 65.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) 4. for resistance to “sulfide SCC” (also called “hydrogen embrittlement cracking”). 310. 2 8 group 1. B) & 3½”Ni (SA203-D. SA515/51655. 2 9A/B group 1 3 group 1 4 group 1 5 group 1 43 45 Carbon Steel: SA36. 3. 825 > 1.5” (38mm) N/A >= 5/8” (16mm) >= 5/8” (16mm) All All N/A N/A UCS-56 1 Group 1. and the head knuckle also should be visually inspected. Low alloy steel: 2½” Ni (SA203-A. 309.

) 2. for resistance to “ammonia SCC” − Hydrofluoric acid at any temperature. Carbon steel vessels for boiler feedwater deaerators which use steam should be PWHT to avoid corrosion fatigue. Vessels made from solid types 304L. MEA. in case: − Insulated vessels which operate continuously or intermittently above 150°F. − Un-insulated vessels which operate continuously or intermittently above 150°F if they are in “high-chloride” environments. and process streams with high chloride contents) Types 304 and 316 can not be used for resistance to “chloride stress corrosion cracking” due to PWHT will cause loss of corrosion resistance due to excessive sensitization at temperatures between 800°F to 1500°F. etc.5 “Pipe Flanges” for nozzle diameter 24” and less or ASME B16. no additional calculations are required. standard ASME B16. for resistance to “nitrate SCC” − Concentrated anhydrous ammonia at any temperature. 321 and 347 should be PWHT for resistance to “chloride stress corrosion cracking”. Non standard flange such as girth flange for shell and tube heat exchanger shall be design as per Appendix 2 of ASME VIII division 1. − Potassium carbonate at any temperature.47 Series B “Large Diameter Steel Flanges” for nozzle diameter over 24”. MDEA. Nozzle Connections Normally. and if above 110°F for concentrations greater than 30 wt%. for resistance to “carbonate SCC” − FCC Fractionator overhead systems. Carbon steel vessels in specific severe sour services where hydrogen blistering and hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) have previously occurred (referred to as “HIC” services) should be PWHT. When a standard flange is selected.) at any temperature. (Examples of some high chloride environments are: coastal locations and off-shore platforms with salt spray. 3. 316L. 36 . for resistance to “carbonate SCC” (Stress relief temperature should be increased to 1150–1250°F for this service. are used for nozzle flange. DIPA. for resistance embrittlement cracking” to “hydrogen − Amines (DEA. 5. Carbon steel and austenitic stainless vessels should be PWHT for resistance to “caustic stress corrosion cracking” (also called “caustic embrittlement”) if above 140°F for concentrations from 1 wt% to 30 wt% caustic. 9. for resistance to “amine SCC”.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) − Ammonium nitrate and calcium nitrate above 110°F. locations with salt water fire spray systems. 4.

8 Flange types Slip-on flange is usually used for flange rating 150 psi and nozzle for atmospheric tank. 8. Weld neck type shall be used for flange rating 300 psi and higher. 37 .PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) Fig. Recessed face is commonly applied for confined joint body flange in shell and tube heat exchanger. Flange types are shown in fig. and o-ring is applied for rating 900 psi and higher. 9 Flange facings Raised face is generally used for flange rating 600 psi and lower. Fig.

Shell components over 2 inches (50 mm) thick. 3. 10 Nozzle types 38 . Fig.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) Self Reinforced (SR) / Forged Nozzles are recommended if meet one of the following: 1. Design temperatures over 650°F. For low temperature service when CV-impact testing is required. Set-in with reinforcing pad is usually applied for connection nozzle to shell / head in pressure vessel for flange rating 150 psi and 300 psi. 2. 4. Flange rating 600 psi and higher. Set-on is usually applied for connection nozzle to header in air fin cooler.

ASME UG-100 Pneumatic Test The test pressure will be 1. 1 The hydrotest pressure will be 1. ASME UG-99 (c) Div. 2 Based on Vessel Design Pressure The hydrotest pressure will be 1. ASME AT-301 Div.3 (1.5 pre 99 addenda) and reducing this value by the hydrostatic head on that part. I The hydrotest pressure will be 1.1 (1. This type of hydrotest is normally used for non-carbon steel vessels where the allowable stress changes with temperature starting even at a somewhat low temperature.25 pre 99 addenda) times the stated design pressure for the entire vessel.25 times the design pressure to be marked on the vessel.3 (1.3 (1.PRESSURE VESSEL TRAINING MODULE Revision 0 (Mar-2010) 10. I The hydrotest pressure will be determined by multiplying the minimum MAP by 1. ASME AT-300 Div. The hydrostatic test pressure at the top of the vessel shall be the minimum of the test pressures calculated by multiplying the basis for calculated test pressure for each element by 1. 2 Based on Calculated Pressure A hydrostatic test based on a calculated pressure may be used by agreement between the user and the Manufacturer. In addition the hydrostatic test position will also be used to determine the head pressure. multiplied by the lowest ratio of the stress value Sa for the test temperature to the stress value S for the design temperature.5 pre 99 addenda) times the maximum allowable working pressure for the vessel multiplied by the lowest ratio of the stress value S for the test temperature to the stress value S for the design temperature.25 and reducing this value by the hydrostatic head on that element.5 pre 99 addenda) times the stated design pressure for the entire vessel. For Division 2. multiplied by the lowest ratio of the stress intensity value Sm for the test temperature to the stress intensity value Sm for the design temperature. The hydrostatic head will determined based on the dimensions of the vessel and by the "projection fields" input farther on down in this section. the program provides two hydrotest options. ASME UG-99 (b) footnote 35 Div. ASME UG-99 (b) Div. This type of hydrotest is normally used for non-carbon steel vessels where the allowable stress changes with temperature starting even at a somewhat low temperature. 39 . multiplied by the lowest ratio of the stress value Sa for the test temperature to the stress value S for the design temperature. Type of Hydrotest For Division 1 the program provides three different ways to determine hydrotest pressure.