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Common Communicabl e Diseases

(Preventions, Symptoms & Cure)

Kenneth Karl V. Pilapil III – y!ro"en

and using the bathroom. 0ymptoms mostly affect the nose.et enough sleep: -ot getting enough sleep makes you more likely to get sick. A-')5)2')C0 Antibiotics should not be used to treat a common cold.+ or beneficial bacteria that helps prevent colds. door knobs. Here are 4 ways to support the immune system: • • • • Avoid second-hand smoke: (eep as far away from second-hand smoke as possible. then your doctor may prescribe antibiotics. • &se paper towels instead of sharing cloth towels. Cold symptoms usually start about . C23 4# )C)-#0 Symptoms 2ver-the-counter cold and cough medicines may help ease symptoms in adults and older children. 'hick yellow or green nasal discharge normally occurs with a cold after a few days. )t is responsible for many health problems. . and before eating and preparing food. 'he most common cold symptoms are: -asal congestion. or / days after you came in contact with the virus. and sleeping mats" with an #$A-approved Choose smaller day-care classes: Attending a day care where there are si% or fewer children dramatically reduces the spread of germs. diapering. scratchy throat.et plenty of rest and drink plenty of fluids. Kenneth Karl V. runny nose. 'he immune system helps your body fight off infection. 'hey will not help and may make the situation worse. although it could take up to a week.Common Col!s Prevention Here are 4 proven ways to help lower your chances of getting sick: • Always wash your hands: Children and adults should wash hands after nose-wiping. Pilapil – Communicable Diseases . rink water: *luids help your immune system work properly. )f it does not get better within 67 to 64 days. #at yogurt: Certain yogurts contains +active cultures. including colds. • isinfect: Clean commonly touched surfaces !such as sink handles. snee1ing #reatment • • .

everyone should wash their hands freAuently to reduce the risk of transmitting germs to Kenneth Karl V. and can come on suddenly . 9ou can also get the flu if you:ve touched a contaminated surface like a telephone or a doorknob and then touch your nose or mouth. aches. headache. Cover your mouth 8hen you snee1e or cough.ood hygiene Antibiotics Prevention %ash those han!s 'he flu virus can spread by direct contact. 'he influen1a virus can live for . it could be the flu. muscle aches. the risk of infection is greater in highly populated areas like schools. and crowded urban settings. such as sharing drinks. such as when an infected co-worker snee1es on her hands and touches an ob?ect like the lunchroom microwave door. more scientifically known as influen1a. chills. cough. buses. uring flu season. others. or eyes. Pilapil – Communicable Diseases . to @ hours on surfaces. Symptoms 0ymptoms of the flu include chills. fever. is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by influen1a viruses. 'he common symptoms of the flu include: *ever !677<* or greater". and tiredness. or through indirect contact. the virus then becomes airborne and can be inhaled by anyone nearby. tiredness. runny nose !more common in children than adults"= f you have one or more of these symptoms. 'he influen1a virus usually enters the body through mucus membranes in the mouth. 8hen a person with the flu coughs or snee1es. cover your nose and mouth with a tissue !not your hands". and be sure to throw the tissue away immediately. 2f course. be sure you know your flu treatment options so you can be prepared. nose. 0ymptoms generally appear 6 to 4 days after e%posure to the virus. *lu symptoms can be mild or severe.$lu 'he flu. #reatment • • • • Antivirals *lu >accines .

*or chronic bronchitis suffer. 0moking is said to main cause @7C of all cases of bronchitis. Causes 5ronchitis may be caused by a virus. a heavy secretion of mucus develops. 8hen a person contacts bronchitis. such as smoke. 'his is a long term conditions and suffers who smoke find it much harder to recover from bronchitis and other respiratory infections. )f you are a smoker. )n some cases bronchitis can be life threatening. Pilapil – Communicable Diseases . the tiny hair !cilia" within them. pollutions or smoke can make you susceptible to bronchitis whether it is acute or chronic. Antibiotic maybe prescribed in some cases. bacteria. drink plenty of fluids and to stay in a warm and moist environment. which normally traps and eliminate pollutants. 5ut there are not guarantee that bronchitis wonBt occur again. Are you working or living in an environment that continually irritates your airways and you have repeated bouts of bronchitis and your doctor has not been able to help you. 5ronchitis occurs when the cells of the bronchial lining tissues are irritated. dust and etc. Symptoms 'he main sign of bronchitis is a cough that brings up yellowish-grey or green mucus !sputum". damp locations. #reatment )f you get acute bronchitis as a result from a viral infection antibiotics will not be effective. Prevention )f you have freAuent or repeated attacks of bronchitis. the culprit may be the environment of where you live or work in. 9our airways produce at least an ounce of normal secretions every day. the best advice is to stop smoking. 'his is the airways that connect the windpipe !trachea" to the lungs. Combination of cold. 8hen the air passages become clogged by debris and irritation increased. Kenneth Karl V. it is often painful and hard for air to pass through in and out of the lungs when breathing. )n most cases you are advised to get plenty of rest. 'his would be your best cure. smoking or the inhalation of chemical pollutants or dust. your goal is to reduce you e%posure to whatever it is irritating your bronchial tubes.. which causes the characteristic cough of bronchitis. stop functioning.&ronchitis 5ronchitis is an inflammation of the lining in the bronchial tubes. 4ucus itself is normal. 'he respiratory system is covered and protected by a mucus-producing lining.

there may be diahorrea and e%treme prostration. 'he death comes because of e%tensive haemorrhage. 'he first sign of the disease is bloodflecked phlegm accompanied by fever in the evenings and below normal temperatures in the early morning and also night sweats. 'he voice of the patient may become husky at this stage. etection and isolation of the victims of the disease is the second most important thing that can be done. particularly in the morning. the second stage is supposed to have been reached. and Curative or remedial. Pilapil – Communicable Diseases . there is an irritating cough.#uberculosis 'uberculosis is a chronic infection caused by the bacteria 4ycobacterium tuberculosis !and occasionally other variants of 4ycobacterium". Symptoms )n the early stages of the disease. $rovision of clean. )f e%treme care is not taken and treatment is not done it may spread to the throat and the intestines 'he terminal stage is characteri1ed with illness reaching deep into the lungs and they become full of cavities. healthy surroundings with properly ventilated and clean houses is the first imperative. 'he preventive aspect is more social than medical. either without an e%pectoration or with a clear mucus or phlegm. with the patient being unable to leave the bed and finally. #reatment 'n! Preventive (easures 'reatment of tuberculosis has two faces: • • $reventive. but other organs of the body can also be involved. )t usually involves the lungs. Kenneth Karl V. 8hen the symptoms are aggravated and emaciation has set in.

fluid replacement may be used.(umps 4umps is an acute viral illness characteri1ed by swelling of the parotid glands. iscomfort may range from vague tenderness to obvious pain when opening the mouth or swallowing • • • • • *ever. Prevention *or prevention. Pilapil – Communicable Diseases . the salivary glands under the ?aw. and at times. 8hen someone coughs or snee1es those small drops of moisture inter the air and can land on another person spreading the illness.>. ?ust below and in front of the ear. Acetaminophen or ibuprofen is commonly used to reduce fever and relieve discomfort. and adeAuate fluid intake to prevent dehydration from fever and anore%ia. 'here is no effective post-e%posure treatment. 5ed rest is advised for the duration of the fever. the 44D !measles. antipyretics for fever. Causes 4umps is a virus that is spread through saliva. mumps. usually lasting about two to three days 0ore muscles 3oss of appetite Headache #arache that is aggravated by chewing 'reatment includes analgesics for pain. )f the patient cannot swallow. *or males with orchitis. )ce packs or heating pads may ease the pain of swollen glands. #reatment Kenneth Karl V. and rubella" vaccine should be given to children. doctors may prescribe stronger pain medication as well as corticosteroids to reduce inflammation. )t can also be spread through kissing or through the sharing of eating utensils or cups. Symptoms 'he symptoms and signs of mumps are: • 0oreness or swelling of the parotid glands on one or both sides. ).

'he appearance of this membrane is important in making a diagnosis. 'he victim has difficulty breathing and cannot talk. 0kin diphtheria causes a nasal discharge and e%coriated skin around the nose. and headache. 'he lymph glands in the neck become enlarged and swollen. the membrane will spread to cover the entire throat and laryn%. the to%in forms a thick. Antibiotics are given to treat the infection. 'he antito%in helps to prevent damage caused by the bacterial to%in to vital organs. Pilapil – Communicable Diseases . causing the throat to swell. 'his stimulates the immune system to make antibodies against the to%in to protect against the disease. As the tissue dies. )mmuni1ation of all infants and booster doses throughout life will prevent any resurgence of diphtheria. Prevention )mmuni1ation for diphtheria has been part of routine well-child care for decades. 'he to%in destroys the normal throat tissue. 8ithout treatment. weakness. red sore throat. #reatment )f a diagnosis of diphtheria is suspected upon physical e%amination. 'his is the + + in the + $'+ shots.Diphtheria iphtheria is a life-threatening disorder caused by a highly contagious bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. which is a weakened form of the diphtheria to%in. grayish white membrane that completely covers the throat. 'he breath has an unpleasant. Symptoms iphtheria to%in usually attacks the tonsils first and causes fever. distinct odor. Kenneth Karl V. diphtheria antito%in is administered !either intravenously or by intramuscular in?ection" before laboratory results of the culture confirm the diagnosis. 'he immunity wanes so that a booster is needed every ten years. iphtheria vaccine is made of a to%oid.

Dubella may also cause a mild fever not e%ceeding 67. 'he most well-known symptom of rubella is a rash. $eople who are allergic to gelatin. stuffy or runny nose. 8hen they are noticed they only last . 'hese vaccinations are combinations vaccines called 44D. and 6E months and then a second vaccination is given between 4 and F years old. )f a person did not receive the vaccination as a child they can receive it at any time. red and inflamed eyes. to the antibiotic neomycin or have had an allergic reaction to the 44D vaccine in the past should not get the 44D vaccine. 'he rash disappears in the same order it appeared. headache. )t then spreads to the trunk and then to the arms and legs. tender lymph nodes located at the base of the skull. Pilapil – Communicable Diseases . mumps and rubella. this does not decrease the risk of the baby contracting the virus. $regnant women should not get the 44D vaccine as it could cause the fetus to contract the measles. A pregnant woman who contracts rubella is given antibodies that help fight the infection. aching ?oints and enlarged. the back of the neck and behind the ears. 'he prevent measles. 'he rash is fine and pink and begins on the face. mumps or rubella viruses. )t is recommended that the person with the virus be isolated as to prevent them from spreading it to others. However. Prevention Dubella is easily prevented through vaccination. A vaccination is given to babies between the ages of 6. to / days. Kenneth Karl V. )n almost all cases the infection is simply allowed to run its course. degrees *ahrenheit.)ubella or (easles Symptoms 'he symptoms of rubella are often very mild and rarely noticed. #reatment 'here is no treatment available to shorten the length of a rubella infection.

$olio vaccine. 'his is caused by the virus entering the blood stream and invading the central nervous system. Pilapil – Communicable Diseases . 'here is no cure. $olio can be prevented through immuni1ation. Symptoms 4ost infected people !G7C" have no symptoms or very mild symptoms and usually go unrecogni1ed. given multiple times. only treatment to alleviate the symptoms. reducing breathing capacity and causing difficulty in swallowing and speaking. fatigue. 'he affected muscles are no longer functional and the limb becomes floppy and lifeless H a condition known as acute flaccid paralysis !A*$". 'he strategy to eradicate polio is therefore based on preventing infection by immuni1ing every child until transmission stops and the world is polio-free. almost always protects a child for life. )n the most severe cases !bulbar polio".77 infections leads to irreversible paralysis. Heat and physical therapy is used to stimulate the muscles and antispasmodic drugs are given to rela% the muscles. &ulbar polio 4ore e%tensive paralysis. but there are safe and effective vaccines. All cases of acute flaccid paralysis !A*$" among children under fifteen years of age are reported and tested for poliovirus within 4@ hours of onset. Among those paralysed. usually in the legs. vomiting. Kenneth Karl V.Polio $olio is a crippling and potentially fatal infectious disease. involving the trunk and muscles of the thora% and abdomen. stiffness in the neck and pain in the limbs. initial symptoms include fever. can result in Auadriplegia. #reatment an! prevention 'here is no cure for polio. the virus destroys the nerve cells that activate muscles. it cannot reverse permanent polio paralysis. EC to 67C die when their breathing muscles become immobili1ed. poliovirus attacks the nerve cells of the brain stem. 'cute *lacci! paralysis ('$P) 2ne in . 8hile this can improve mobility. headache. )n others. As it multiplies.