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Signal-to-noise ratio


Signal-to-noise ratio
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Signal-to-noise ratio (often abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise. It is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power, often expressed in decibels. A ratio higher than 1:1 (greater than 0 dB) indicates more signal than noise. While SNR is commonly quoted for electrical signals, it can be applied to any form of signal (such as isotope levels in an ice core or biochemical signaling between cells). The signal-to-noise ratio, the bandwidth, and the channel capacity of a communication channel are connected by the Shannon€Hartley theorem. Signal-to-noise ratio is sometimes used informally to refer to the ratio of useful information to false or irrelevant data in a conversation or exchange. For example, in online discussion forums and other online communities, off-topic posts and spam are regarded as "noise" that interferes with the "signal" of appropriate discussion.

Signal-to-noise ratio is defined as the power ratio between a signal (meaningful information) and the background noise (unwanted signal):

where P is average power. Both signal and noise power must be measured at the same or equivalent points in a system, and within the same system bandwidth. If the signal and the noise are measured across the same impedance, then the SNR can be obtained by calculating the square of the amplitude ratio:

where A is root mean square (RMS) amplitude (for example, RMS voltage). Because many signals have a very wide dynamic range, SNRs are often expressed using the logarithmic decibel scale. In decibels, the SNR is defined as

the ratio of mean to standard deviation of a signal or measurement:[3] where is the signal mean or expected value and is the standard deviation of the noise. An SNR less than 5 means less than 100% certainty in identifying image details. Dynamic range measures the ratio between the strongest un-distorted signal on a channel and the minimum discernable signal. the reference signal is usually a sine wave at a standardized nominal or alignment level. SNR is usually taken to indicate an average signal-to-noise ratio. or for computing power ratios. such as 1•kHz at +4 dBu (1. Thus it is commonly used in image processing. For most cases. which for most purposes is the noise level.e. .[4] Notice that such an alternative definition is only useful for variables that are always non-negative (such as photon counts and luminance). In audio engineering. The Rose criterion (named after Albert Rose) states that an SNR of at least 5 is needed to be able to distinguish image features at 100% certainty. SNR measures the ratio between an arbitrary signal level (not necessarily the most powerful signal possible) and noise. or an estimate thereof. [2] </ref> Difference from conventional power In Physics. i. as it is possible that (near) instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios will be considerably different. but the resistance factor is not significant for typical operations performed in signal processing. Measuring signal-to-noise ratios requires the selection of a representative or reference signal. the average power of an AC signal is defined as the average value of voltage times current. one usually assumes that so that factor is usually not included while measuring power or energy of a signal. for resistive (non-reactive) circuits.. where voltage and current are in phase. This may cause some confusion among readers. the power of a signal would be considered to be simply where 'A' is the amplitude of the AC signal. Sometimes SNR is defined as the square of the alternative definition above. Alternative definition An alternative definition of SNR is as the reciprocal of the coefficient of variation. where the SNR of an image is usually calculated as the ratio of the mean pixel value to the standard deviation of the pixel values over a given neighborhood. The concept can be understood as normalizing the noise level to 1 (0 dB) and measuring how far the signal 'stands out'.Signal-to-noise ratio 2 which may equivalently be written using amplitude ratios as The concepts of signal-to-noise ratio and dynamic range are closely related. this is equivalent to the product of the rms voltage and current: But in signal processing and communication.228 VRMS).

It is often possible to reduce the noise by controlling the environment. . when the characteristics of the noise are known and are different from the signals. etc. but can also include external events that affect the measured phenomenon • wind. very specific and distinct definition of SNR is employed to characterize sensitivity of imaging systems. thereby eliminating most of the broadband noise. vibrations. the middle of the curve shows a lower noise. see Signal-to-noise ratio (imaging). gravitational attraction of the moon. it is possible to filter it or to process the signal. Recording of the noise of a thermogravimetric analysis device that is poorly isolated from a mechanical point of view.. For example. it is possible to enhance the SNR by averaging the measurement. Otherwise. it is sometimes possible to use a lock-in amplifier to modulate and confine the signal within a very narrow bandwidth and then filter the detected signal to the narrow band where it resides. 3 SNR for various modulation systems Amplitude modulation Channel signal-to-noise ratio is given by where W is the bandwidth and is modulation index Output signal-to-noise ratio (of AM receiver) is given by Frequency modulation Channel signal-to-noise ratio is given by Output signal-to-noise ratio is given by Improving SNR in practice All real measurements are disturbed by noise. variations of temperature. variations of humidity. When the signal is constant or periodic and the noise is random. In this case the noise goes down as the square root of the number of averaged samples. depending on what is measured and of the sensitivity of the device. This includes electronic noise. due to a lesser surrounding human activity at night.Signal-to-noise ratio Yet another alternative. Related measures are the "contrast ratio" and the "contrast-to-noise ratio".

with n-m bits in the mantissa and m bits in the exponent: Note that the dynamic range is much larger than fixed-point. For n bit floating-point numbers.02m. including the intentional addition of dither. This is because the minimum possible noise level is the error caused by the quantization of the signal.Signal-to-noise ratio 4 Digital signals When a measurement is digitized. This theoretical maximum SNR assumes a perfect input signal. Fixed-point's simpler implementations can be used with no signal quality disadvantage in systems where dynamic range is less than 6. the quantization noise approximates a sawtooth wave with peak-to-peak amplitude of one quantization level[5] and uniform distribution. different calculations exist for different signal models. Quantization noise is modeled as an analog error signal summed with the signal before quantization ("additive noise"). The formula is then: This relationship is the origin of statements like "16-bit audio has a dynamic range of 96 dB". If the input signal is already noisy (as is usually the case). Fixed point For n-bit integers with equal distance between quantization levels (uniform quantization) the dynamic range (DR) is also determined. it is more common to use Eb/No. Although noise levels in a digital system can be expressed using SNR. the signal's noise may be larger than the quantization noise. This makes floating-point preferable in situations where the dynamic range is large or unpredictable. since it requires more forethought in designing algorithms. the energy per bit per noise power spectral density. the number of bits used to represent the measurement determines the maximum possible signal-to-noise ratio. The modulation error ratio (MER) is a measure of the SNR in a digitally modulated signal. making the amplitude ratio 2n/1. Assuming a uniform distribution of input signal values. The very large dynamic range of floating-point can be a disadvantage. the SNR is approximately Floating point Floating-point numbers provide a way to trade off signal-to-noise ratio for an increase in dynamic range. Assuming a full-scale sine wave signal (that is. the quantizer is designed such that it has the same minimum and maximum values as the input signal). the quantization noise is a uniformly distributed random signal with a peak-to-peak amplitude of one quantization level. In this case. sometimes called Quantization noise. but at a cost of a worse signal-to-noise ratio. Real analog-to-digital converters also have other sources of noise that further decrease the SNR compared to the theoretical maximum from the idealized quantization noise.[6] [7] [8] . This noise level is non-linear and signal-dependent. Each extra quantization bit increases the dynamic range by roughly 6 dB.

Signal-to-noise ratio 5 Optical SNR Optical signals have a carrier frequency that is much higher than the modulation frequency (about 200 THz and more). Izatt. et al.techonline. the optical SNR (OSNR) is used. however. where interest lies in the signal from one arm only. Marinko V. then can be calculated using the standard deviation of the signal.cfm/appnote_number/641) € Maxim Integrated Products € Understand SINAD. This bandwidth is independent of the modulation format.<ref>Michael A. [3] Bushberg.analog. ENOB. the field of the electromagnetic wave is proportional to the voltage (assuming that the intensity in the second. php?title=Template:Antennas& action=edit [2] The connection between optical power and voltage in an imaging system is linear.76dB. (http:/ / books. OSNR is measured with an optical spectrum Video P-P. Sept 2003. Changhuei Yang. The resulting signal influence relies mainly on the filtering of the noise. Sarunic. wikipedia. Choma. special filters such as comb filters may be used. Floating-Point DSP for Superior Audio (http:/ / web. the frequency and the receiver. DIN-D. Joseph A. which gave +9 dB more SNR for video. J. [8] Maximum possible full scale signal can be charged as peak-to-peak or as RMS. SNR. and SFDR so you don't get lost in the noise floor (http:// www. DIN-B. This way the noise covers a bandwidth that is much wider than the signal itself. noise voltage. archive. p. if the signal data are known to be constant. org/ web/ 20060515074349/ http:/ / www. Audio uses RMS. The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging. Notes [1] http:/ / en. [5] Defining and Testing Dynamic Parameters in High-Speed ADCs (http:/ / www. com/ note153. For instance an OSNR of 20dB/ html) • Rane Corporation technical library [7] Often special filters are used to weight the noise: DIN-A. 280. Therefore the optical power of the measurement arm is directly proportional to the electrical power and electrical signals from optical interferometry are following the 20 log rule.pdf) € Analog Devices € The Relationship of dynamic range to data word size in digital audio processing (http://www. With an interferometric system. rane. Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence Most commonly a reference bandwidth of 0. (http:// www. References External links € Taking the Mystery out of the Infamous Formula. THD + N. maxim-ic.html) .1•nm could be given. THD."SNR = 6. 11(18). Optics Express.02N + 1. org/ w/ index. the reference arm is constant). CCIR-601.analog. To describe the signal quality without taking the receiver into account.1•nm is community/related_content/20771) € Calculation of signal-to-noise ratio. vias.htm) € Learning by simulations € a simulation showing the improvement of the SNR by time averaging (http://www." and Why You Should Care. 2006. [4] The exact methods may vary between fields.pdf) Analog Devices € ADC and DAC Glossary (http://www. and noise level (http://www. T. for calculator-noise. com/ appnotes. cfm/ appnote_number/ 728) • Maxim Integrated Products Application note 728 [6] Fixed-Point vs. For example. The OSNR is the ratio between the signal power and the noise power in a given bandwidth. This usually means that the SNR of the electrical signal is calculated by the 10 log rule.maxim-ic. even the signal of 40 GBit DPSK would not fit in this bandwidth. If the signal data are not constant. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins... com/ books?id=VZvqqaQ5DvoC& lpg=PA280) (2e). then can be calculated from data where the signal is zero or relatively constant. DIN-C.

ti. pdf) € Fundamental theorem of analog circuits: a minimum level of power must be dissipated to maintain a level of SNR ( 6 .Signal-to-noise ratio € Dynamic Performance Testing of Digital Audio D/A Converters (

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