4.1 4.2

Introduction Sheet Metal Materials Sheet Metal Tools


SEAMS Sheet Metal Operations Development Procedure Experiment No. 1 Experiment No. 2




Sheet metal work is generally regarded as the working of metal from 16 gauges down to 30 gauges, with hand tools and simple machines into various forms by cutting, forming into shape and joining.
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Black Iron

It is also known as uncoated sheet since it carries no artificial coating on its surfaces. However, it is probably the cheapest of all types of sheets used in sheet metal work. Being uncoated, it is prone to corrosion. Consequently, its use is confined mostly to the manufacture of such items which are to be painted before shipment, e.g. block iron is used in tanks, pans, trunks, stove pipes, etc.

Galvanized Iron
Zinc coated iron is called 'Galvanized iron'. This soft steel sheet is popularly known as GI sheet. The zinc coating resist rust, improves the appearance of the metal and permits it to be soldered with greater ease; but welding is not so easy as zinc gives toxic fumes and residues. Because of zinc it can with stand contact with water and exposure to weather, e.g. articles like cabinets, trunks, buckers, pans, etc. are made of galvanized iron sheets

Copper Sheets
These sheets are relatively costlier but having specific advantages in being good corrosion resistant and good in appearance. They are reddish in colour and their cold rolled variety, which is vastly used in sheet metal work, is highly ductile and malleable and therefore can be easily worked. Some representative examples of automobiles, various applications in chemical plants, domestic heating appliance, etc.

.4luminum Sheets
On account of it's inherit weakness it is not used in its pure form. The useful variety of aluminium alloy. Which is rolled into sheet form, carries additions of suitable amount of silicon, manganese copper and iron. It is whitish in colour and light in weight. It offers very high resistance to corrosion and abrasion. Its coinmon applications are aeroplane bodies, kitchen ware, etc.

58 . Steel CircumferenceRule This is used to find out directly the circumference of a cylinder.5 mm. these sheets which are coated with pure tin. these sheets provide a bright silvery appearance. in many other forms. it has its applications in coating. Due to low mechanical strength it is normally used in foil form to provide lining for containers and other articles made from some stronger material. Micrometer Caliper This is used to measure the thickness of metal sheets accurately up to 0. stamping. I I I Lead It is a very soft.5 mm. etc. Venzier Calliper This is used for measuring dimensions up to 0. But. low melting point. As a result. Stainless Steel It is highly corrosion resistant alloy steel. etc. It can be measure with accuracy of 0. In sheet form it is widely used for roofing work. But. which exhibits a bright surface without any coating. Folding Rule This is very useful in measuring and laying out larger work. It finds its application in sheet form in radiation shielding and an inner lining for acid tanks. such as deep drawing. now it is largely replaced by stainless steel and aluminum. in sheet form it can be shaped and span. Swing Blade Protractor This is used for marking and measuring angles. It is widely used for making kitchen ware. die casting. In sheet and strip forms it is used in many cold working processes. Earlier it used to be the principal metal for making kitchen ware and utensils.02 mm. SHEET METAL TOOLS Measuring Tools Steel Rule It is useful in measuring and laying out small work. pressing. cans. Brass It is basically an alloy of copper and zinc and is available in many shades and colours. food handling equipment. As a result. spinning. the accuracy being 0. weak. Though it is a little tougher than galvanized iron. They offer good resistance to corrosion and rusting and are mainly used for making packed food containers.Workshop Technology Laboratory Tin Plates The nomenclature tin plates are used for those iron sheets which are coated with pure tin.01 mm. etc. malleable and heavy metal and possesses high resistance to acid corrosion. etc. Zinc It is bluish white metal and is quite ductile.

Sheet Metal Gauge This is used to measure the thickness of sheets. It is a long wire of steel with its one end sharply pointed and hardened to scratch lines on sheet metal in laying out patterns. The narrow arm of the square is called tongue and the wider part is known as the body. Sheet Metal Work Figure 4.Thickness Gauge This is also called slip gauge and is used to measure the clearance between the parts during assembly.2 :Vernier Caliper Scriber. It is used for marking in the perpendicular direction to any base line. It is useful for scribing long straight lines. Divider and Trammel Points Scriber This is sometimes called the metal workers pencil. Figure 4. This bar comes in variety of lengths ranging from 1 to 3 meters. They are also used to mark a desired distance between points and to divide lines into equal I I i .1 : Different Parts of External Micrometer Straight Edge and Steel Square I i Straight Edge This is a flat graduated bar of steel with one longitudinal edge beveled. Dividers Dividers are used for drawing circles or arcs on sheet metal. Steel Square It is a T-shaped piece of hardened steel with marks graduated on the edges for measuring.

The flat chisel and round nose chisel are most widely used in sheet metal work. bowl.ling. ' Mallet These are soft hammers and made of saw hide.4 :Hammers for Sheet Metal Work . A good number of cold chisels are used. rivets. Hammers They are used for forming shapes by hallo\. Center Punch It is used on1y to make the prick punch marks larger at the centers of holes that are to be drilled.These are used for making small holes from 2. These are many types of hammers but the most commonly used hammers are : Riveting Hammer Uscd for riveting. hard rubber. used to strike a soft and light blow on the metal. Setting Hammer Useful for setting down the edge. in a more permanent manner.5 mm to 10 mm. raising. stretching or throwing off. Punches A Punch is used in sheet metal work for marking out work. lead or mostly of wood. Solid and hollow punches are very similar the other two puncher the inner and outer faces of the punch meeting at an angle of 400. Raising Hammer Used for forming of a flat sheet of metal into a curved or hallow shape such as a square. when making a double seam. tray. Two types of punches are generally used : Prink Punch It is used to make small marks on layout lines in order to mark the prick punch marks longer. etc.Workshop Technology Laboratory Trammel Points The trammel points consist pf a bar with two movable heads. bolts and chipping operations. - Rivet~ng Hammers Figure 4. It is used to draw large circles or arcs that are beyond the limits of the divider. copper brass. A hand level punch is sometimes used for making holes with a punch and die incorporated in the tool when a large number of holes are to be punched. etc. Chisel and Hammers Chisels They are generally used in sheet metal work for cutting sheets. locating centers.

Sheet Metal Work Figure 4. These are also double cutting shear. bending straight edges and making corners. Cut Only 20 Gauge of Thinner Metal A Hand Shears w Bent Shears Straight Shears Figure 4. They are made in different shape and sizes to suit the requirements of the work. There are several types of snips available for making straight or circular cuts. Needle Case Stake I Small tubes and pipes are performed on it. Bevel Edge Square Stake I 1 Used to form comer and edges. sharp bends and for folding and bending edges.5 :Mallet Snips of Shears A snip. squaring shear. They actually work as supporting tools as well as forming tools.6 :Snips and Shears I Stakes Stakes are the sheet metal workers evils used for bending. They also help in bending operation. using a hammer or mallet. 1 i I i Double Seaming Stake Use to make double seam Beak-hum Stake Used for riveting. The heavier classes are known as bench shears and block shears where one handle may be held in vice bench plate while the other handle is moved up and down to do the cutting. It should be used only to cut 20 gauge or thinner metal. . the most common being straight snip have straight blade for straight line cutting while curved or bent snips have curved blades for making circular cuts. also called a hand shear is used like a pair of scissors to cut thin. Both these snips are very light and can be easily handled by one hand. soft metal. fonning around and square surfaces. Hatchet Stake Used to make straight. seaming or forming. ring shear and circular shear used for particular requirements as the name indicates.

seaming and forming. It is available in many shapes. Groover's and Rivet Sets Hand Groover This is used for groove and flattern a seam. . cutting and bending work Flat Nose Pliers IJsed for forming and holding work.Workshop Technology Laboratorv Elow Horn Stake Cone shaped articles are formed on it.8 Pliers Pliers are used for holding.7 :Common Forms of Stakes Groovlng with a hand groover Common forms of soldering iron A Rivet set Figure 4. smooth head. Rivet Set This is hardened steel tool with hollow in one end. Hallow mandrel Stake Used for riveting. Round Nose Pliers Used for holding and forming various shape and patterns. Blowhorn stake Needle case stake Hatchet stake Wlow mandrel stake Figure 4. It is used to shape the end of a rivet into round.

HalfMoon Stake For working the edges on discs. They are made in various shapes and sizes. Wired Edge .4 HEMS A Hem is an edge or border made by folding. Creasing Stake Used for forming beads. Three common types of hems are : Single Hem It is made by folding the edges of the sheet metal over the make it smooth and stiff. It stiffens the sheet of metal and does away with the sharp edge. Pipe Stake Used for forming tubes. Sheet Metal Work Half moan Blck lron Funnel stake Convex Horse head Figure 4. Funnel Stake Used for conical works. These are also called soldering coppers. Convex Stake For spherical work. Horse Bead Used for bending and general work for supporting and holding other stakes. Double Hem It is mad.Soldering Iron They are used for soldering work and consis1 of a forged piece of copper joined to an iron with a wooden handle.9 :Soldering Iron Other General Tools Brick Iron Used in forming long tapered cylindrical items. . Bumping Hammer Curved shapers are raised in sheet metal with the help of this tool.by folding the edges over twice to make it stiff and smooth. Side Stake Similar to brick iron but smaller in size.- 4.

Grooved Seam It is made by hooking two single hems together and then locking them by a groover. Most common types of seams are : Lap Seam It is the simplest type of seam and can be prepared as lap joint by means of soldering. Double Seam It is similar to single seam with the difference that its formed edge is bent upward against the body.Workshop Technology Laboratory 4. Dovetail Seam It is similar to dovetail joint in carpentry and is used to join flat plate to a cylindrical piece. Burred Bottom Seam It is also called Flanged Seam. The flange on cylindrical jobs is often referred to as a burr and the process of making a narrow edge is known as burring.5 SEAMS A Seam is a joint made by fastening two edges together. Single Seam It is used to join a bottom to vertical bodies of various shapes. It is used to join the bottom of a container to its body. Step 1 Open Fold Step 2 Making a Wired Edge Step 3 Wired Edge Step 1 Step 1 Setting Down Step 2 Making a Double Seam Step 3 Double Seam A o r n e r Fold Step 1 Step 2 Figure 4.10 :Pattern Making a Corner Fold .

6 SHEET METAL OPERATIONS 4. however. If circular pieces are needed a divider or trammel may have to be used to mark the circles. 4. It involves immersing the blank in a pickle both. This bath is heated and the blanks immersed in the hot bath. so that the scribed lines are clearly visible. &So4 and twenty parts water. like those of copper. This requirement is more prominent in case of non-ferrous metal sheets. such as cellulose lacquer. which when cut out of the blank and folded and joined will give the required component. a straight edge. but in such cases either the pickling personal is to be increased or a smaller acid to water ratio of the pickle has to be used so as to ensure an effective cleaning of the surface. the job to be made are small and in large number it is better to use a template for repetitive marking of the development and then cutting it along the marked contours. Shearing Down Cutting Off Parting Blanking Punching or Piercing Notching Slitting Drawn Pan Lancing Nibbing / / . brass and silver. Sheet Metal Work 4. each piece being sufficient for making one such component. Overall dimensions. Their sharp points (tips of legs) work as scriber. These smaller sizes are first decided and then these sizes are marketed on the larger sheet to cut the latter into small pieces along the masked lines.6. hammering. The template size will. bending.3 Laying Out It means the operation of scribing the development of the surface of the component on the sheetlsheet blank.1 Measuring and Marking The standard market sizes of metal sheets are quite large.2 Cleaning Many a times the blank surfaces need proper cleaning before being processed.11 . Cold pickling is also sometimes used in such cases where cleaning operation is not required very frequently. So. length and breadth of the required smaller pieces are marked on the large sheet with the help of marking tools. A little allowance for cutting is always added to the required overall sizes so that the cut pieces are not undersize.6. For cleaning the surfaces of these blanks pickling process is used. together with the added allowances for overlapping. If. Such a layout when made on the sheet is called a pattern and the process as pattern layout. / / I f / / / // / Llne of Cut Figure 4.4. in mass production of identical small items the blank can be marked using a template and a scriber. etc. After allowing sufficient time for pickling the blanks are thoroughly washed in a stream of water and then allowed to dry. But the required sheet size for making component may be much smaller. include the required allowances. a steel square etc and a scriber. consisting of one part of dil. a standard size sheet may have to he cut into several smaller pieces.6. including a steel rule. The sheet surface may have to be coated with a colouring medium. Similarly. obviously.

These machines can be either electrically operated or pneumatically operated.8 Circle Cutting It is the operation of cutting circular blanks or curved contours with the help of a circle cutting machine.6 Machine Shearing * It is done by means of shearing machines. The former will involve sinking and hallowing work while latter will need raising of edges. These machines can be hand operated (bench type) or Guillotine shears. which are portable type shearing machines.6.10 Edge Forming and Wiring The edges of sheet metal products are formed (or folded) to ensure safety of hands.6. formed (needing an elastic blow by a mallet or a soft hammer) or sunk (requiring a floating blow). metal is either required to be stretched or shrunk in all directions or may need a combination of both. number of blanks to be cut.6. When still stronger edges are needed they are reinforced by inserting a metal wire or rod and then forming the edge by curling the edge of the sheet metal around it. It is also a continuous cutting operation.4 Cutting and Shearing The word cutting is used when the sheet metals is cut by means of a chisel a hammer manual. 4. Both hammers and mallets of different shapes are used in this operation according to whether the metal has to be stretched needing a solid blow. and to provide stiffness to the products in order that L!ey will retain their shapes during handling. In both the cases blanks will be produced. type of production-jobbing. . 4. 4. 4. Other types of shearing machines are the rotary shears for continuous cutting along a straight line.7 Nibbling It is a process of continuous cutting along a contour. It is the hole of the desired size which is the objective and the blank produced may or may not be used further. The selection of a particular method and means of cutting will depend on several factors. 4. amount of cutting required to be alone. i. In the latter operation the production of a blank of the desired size is the main objective. The operation is then known as machine shearing or mechanical shearing.6. For this. For producing hallow shapes through hand forming the centre of the metal has to be thinned or the edges have to be thickened. The term shearing stands for cutting of sheet metal by two parallel cutting edges moving in opposite directions. will not get buckled or compressed by simple hand or fingure pressure during handling.5 Hand Forming The term metal forming stands for shaping andor bending of sheet metal in three dimensions in order to give it the desired shape and size of the final product.6.Workshoe Technology Laboratory 4. while handling these products. which may be a straight line or an irregular profile. 4. This can be done either manually by using hand shears or snips or by means of machines called shears. sizes of blanks to be cut. Best example of this operation can be seen if one observes the traditional metal workers manufacturing cooking utensils of brass out of blanks by hand hammering and shaping them into different shapes and sizes with out any joint. The former is used for smaller and thinner sheets while the latter for larger and thicker ones. The machines used in this operation are known as Nibblers. like thickness of sheet metal. but in the fornler case obtaining a blank is not the objective.6. available means of cutting etc. This not only increases stiffness of the joint but also improves its appearance. which is a useful part for further processing.9 Piercing and Blanking Piercing is basically's hole punching operation while blanking is an operation of cutting out a blank. lot (batch) or mass production.6.e.

I ' Angle of bend 1 Figure 4.12 :Bending in Sheet Metal Single Bend Double Bend %rai@ fib Edge Hem Embossing Enlarged Section Beading Curling or wring M e&nor Lockseam Figure 4. If the drawn length of the component is less than its width or diameter it is called box drawing or shallow drawing. 4. When the drawn length is more than the width the operation is known as deep drawing. Sheet metal can be bent by hammering over a base by hand or by means of bending or rolling machines. 4. welding.6.12 Bending Sheet metal is required to be bent at several angles and curvatures to shape it into the required form. .6. specially when they are to be fastened to other metallic or large non-metallic bodies. i. Original Stock Thickness '4 .13 Drawing Thin walled hallow shapes are produced in sheet metal through the drawing operation.6. solder in molten condition between the surfaces or edges to be joined and allowing it to solidify these detailed study of soldering process and also of welding and brozing processes is important in sheet metal work.1 1 Joint Making Several means are used for joining sheet metal parts together or securing them to other metallic or non-metallic bodies. screwed fastening can be used.4. length. followed by soldering and adhesive joining.13 : Common Kinds of Sheet Metal Bend 4.6. which remains unchanged in . The bending operation involves stretching of metal on the outer surface and compressing it on the inner surface along a neutral line. The operation is carried out with the help of a die and a punch on a suitable press.e. brazing and adhesives. Sheet metal parts can also be joined by riveting. ' 2 Sheet Metal Work F / / \ Compression side . It involves spreading of a low melting point alloy.14 Soldering It is a very common method of joining sheet metal parts. However. still the most commonly used methods are joining the sheet metal parts by means of folded joints or self securing joints. In case of very large size parts. self tapping screws are more popular screwed fastners in sheet metal work.

i. for such components in which transition pieces are used to join different cross-sections.7.3 Triangulation Method This method is used for developing the surfaces of transition pieces.7 DEVELOPMENT PROCEDURE In sheet metal work the usual requirement is to lay the full size pattern on metal sheet that when the latter is cut according to the laid pattern and then folded or bent it will give the required object.7.14 :(a) Procedure. All these pieces when joined together will give the required object three common methods of laying out a pattern are : lines ParaHel Line Development Figure 4.2 Radial Line Method This method of development of surfaces is used for such components which carry radial edges or slanting surfaces. and (b) Stretchout 4.e. the surfaces of the simple solids. like those of pyramids and cones. This laying out of complete surface on the metal sheet is known as the development of the surface of the object or pattern layout for doing this job successfully the shape of the object should be carefully examined and then it should be divided into simple geometrical solids or portions of these solids. a circular pipe to a chute which has rectangular cross-section or a circular pipe to an air duct of square cross-section. Then only it would be easy to develop the whole surface of the object for this. can be developed separately and sheet cut accordingly. 4. . This method is generally applicable for pattern layouts of cylindrical and prismatic components 4. e.7.Workshop Laboratory 4.g.1 Parallel Line Method It is that method of development of surfaces in which parallel lines are used in preparing the layouts. obtained as a result of the above division.

1 Aim To make a cubical box of given dimensions from given metal sheet using various sheet metal operations. etc. Bent the bottom sides at 90' outwards. mallet. Procedure (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Make. prepare the seam to lock the sides Prepare single hem on top sides. Bent the allowances at 90" on proper side using stake and mallet. Bent the sheet at marked places to get four sides of the box. Cut the sheet using shear. The detailed theory is given in pages preceding this job. flattner. 4. S. i. Raghuvanshi and Hajra Choudhury (Workshop Technology). washing machines. development on sheet. We get the required box. shear and scribber. Apparatus Metal sheet. (n) Figure 4. Mark the six notches as shown in development attached on adjacent page using shear. Theory The material of the sheet used in making box is glavanised iron (GI). For manufacturing body parts of various electronic devices likes refrigerator. Used in communication industry Source :B. draw the development of the given job on the sheet with all allowances marked on it. (h) (i) (j) (k) (1) (m) Check for any sharp edges and dents.8 EXPERIMENE NO. Bent the outer allowances at 90" and then further by 60". trace it on metal sheet using scribber with allowances.Application of Sheet Metal Work in Electronics Industry (a) (b) (c) -- Sheet Metal Work For fabricating wires to carry electricity.e. Place the four sided hollow box on the base and prepare double seam using the allowances provided for it. Cut out metal sheet for base of the box using development.16 :General Appearance of Bnx . shear. After the approval of development. scribber.

Roll the handle to required position and rivet the other end of strip. Procedure (a) (b) (c) Cut the metal sheet according to development of the cylindrical portion with appropriate allowances. development on sheet. Lock the seam tightly. Any bleeding caused by cut from metal should be immediately treated. 2 Aim To make a cylindrical beaker of given dimensions from given metal sheet using various sheet metal operations. Cut the base of cylinder from sheet as per its development. rivets. Precautions and Sources of Errors. punch. Bent the 5 mm allowance provided on top and bottom of cylinder outwards using iron bars. scriber. The detailed theory is given in pages preceding first job. iron bar. Now cut at metal strip of dimension 110 x 25 rnrn which includes 5mm allowance on both sides along 25 mm breadth. Bend the allowances inward using stakes. punch and iron hammer.on sheet using scriber. Bent of 5 mm of 10 mm one on reverse and then roll the sheet.Workshop Technology Laboratory Result (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The box of sheet metal has been prepared having given dimensions. Mark the lines (required ones) .9 EXPERIMENT NO. iron hammer. Precaution should be taken while hammering to avoid dent formation on the metal surface. shear. Make the seam (double) using this base. harnmerlfile down any pointed metal sites present on tha oeaker. scale. Punch a hole in cylinder and strip using nut. iron bar. Apparatus Metal sheet. Mallet. Take the proper allowances. Completely bend the other outward allowance. low value of allowances may lead to poor locks of metal while high value of allowances leads to metal wastage. Theory The material of the sheet used in making box is galvanized iron. etc. (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) Cj) (k) (1) ' (m) (n) . flattner. River the two using rivets and riveting set which has a hole for adjusting a flat for pressing. This gives the complete beaker. 4. one outward bend of cylinder. Bent the 5 mm and 10 mm allowance on same sides. stakes. mallet.

71 .Sheet Metal Work Figure 4. Precaution should be taken while hammering to avoid dent formation on the metal surface. Precautions and Source of Errors (a) (b) (c) (d) Take the proper dlowances low value of allowances may lead to poor locks of metal while high value of allowances leads to metal wastage.n:General Appearance of Beaker The beaker of given dimensions has been prepared. Any bleeding caused by cut from metal should be immediately treated. Care should be taken while preparing first seam to make the cylindrical surface as it can open up in latter stages.