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The Motion Estimation

INTRODUCTION Video has been a major part of public consciousness for over 50 years. The emergence of the VCR and the increasing shift to use of cable television signals have created an open environment where video producers can rapidly distribute information to a large number of consumers. The domains of video , computer systems, and communications services used to be uite distinct. These domains are coming together where information, communications and entertainment can use a common set of services and e uipment for distribution. The development of digital video technology has made it possible to use digital video compression for a variety of telecommunications applications , such as video teleconferencing and digital telephony. !igital video compression plays an important role in the multimedia applications."n order to manage large multimedia data objects efficiently, these data objects need to be compressed to reduce the si#e for storage . Video Compression tries to eliminate the temporal redundancy between adjacent frames. $nce the redundancies are removed the object re uires less memory space. %o being smaller in si#e, it ta&es less time for transmission over the networ&. This in turn significantly reduces storage and transmission costs. PROBLEM STATEMENT !igital video technology has been characteri#ed by a steady growth due to new applications li&e video e'mail, mobile phone video communications, video conferencing on the web.This continuously push for further evolution of research in digital video coding. "n order to be sent over the internet or even wireless networ&s, video information clearly needs compression to meet bandwidth re uirements. Compression is mainly reali#ed by e(ploiting the redundancy present in the data. ) video se uence consists of series of frames. "n that two successive images are very similar. This simple concept is called temporal redundancy. To achieve high compression ratio, the temporal redundancy should be identified and eliminated. The principle is *' The displacement of the objects between successive frame is first estimated. The resulting motion information is then e(ploited for an efficient interframe coding. Conse uently the motion information along with the prediction error is transmitted instead of the frame itself. +loc& matching techni ues are generally used for motion estimation in video coding. MOTION ESTIMATION

Introduction ,otion estimation has proven to be effective in e(ploiting the temporal redundancy of video se uences and therefore forms a central part of all hybrid video compression standards. "ntuition suggests that moving pictures have a pi(el conservation property 'that pi(els on one frame may be translated to form the pi(el patterns on a subse uent frame. "n other words, images corresponding to objects on one frame move within the frame to form corresponding objects on the subse uent frame. This temporal redundancy that e(ists between successive frames may be e(ploited in a number of ways. The simplest method of e(ploiting temporal redundancy in video se uence is frame differencing. This strategy assumes that the average motion is small and simply compresses the pi(el differences between two frames. This is useful for fast, low resolution video compression. Principles o motion estimation ,otion estimation and motion compensated prediction is by far the most efficient and widely used techni ue for achieving the high levels of compression that are typified in modern video compression standards. "n this techni ues, a scene or frame is divided arbitrarily into macrobloc& -,+. regions. The assumption is that each ,+ is composed of closely associated pi(els. "t is highly li&ely, therefore that motion in the frame will cause most pi(els within a macrobloc& to move a consistent distance in consistent direction. +y using motion estimation, motion vectors are determined for the macrobloc& in the current frame by searching for their best matching macrobloc&s in a previous frame. ,otion vectors are therefore a measure of temporal redundancy between successive frames. /rom the pi(el information of the previous frames and the motion vector, motion compensation is used to predict the current frame. Motion compensation Learn more in IIT Kharagpur's First Online Course on Image and Video processing, Visit !"a !uring reconstruction, the reference frame is used to predict the current frame using the motion vectors. This techni ue is &nown as motion compensation. !uring motion compensation, the macrobloc& in the reference frame that is referenced to by the motion vector is copied into the reconstructed frame. ) lot of research wor& has been carried out in the area -and is still going on.. The abstract and some of the research results are given below 0stimating motion in image se uences is the estimation of 1! motion from time varying images and paying particular attention to estimation criteria and

optimi#ation strategies. /or a given region of support, it determines the dimensionality of the estimation problem as well as the amount of data that has to be successfully interpreted or transmitted. The data term of an estimation criterion is usually supplemented with a smoothness term which may be e(pressed e(plicitly or implicitly via a constraining motion model. %ince the optimi#ation of an estimation criterion typically involves a large number of un&nowns, it presents several fast search strategies. ,any techni ues are involved in the estimation of motion in video processing i.e. motion representation and motion estimation techni ues. The bloc& based motion estimation techni ue involves fi(ed partitioning into bloc&s and characteri#es it with simple motion -translational motion.. "t assumes all pi(els within a bloc& go through the same motion. ,otion parameters for each bloc& are searched independently. "t guarantees optimal solution within a search range. "t compromises between accuracy and comple(ity in a good way. The bloc& matching error criteria identifies mean s uared error and sum of absolute differences specifications. The &ey idea of motion estimation process for video coding is determining the motion vector. This provides the general concept of 0(haustive bloc& matching algorithm. The basic idea of the algorithm is comparing the two frames in the image se uence by dividing them into macro bloc&s using sum of absolute difference. The displacement of the bloc& in the current frame with respect to the reference frame is calculated. This gives the motion vector which is utili#ed in motion compensation. )lso discusses the 2ros and Cons involved in the algorithm. ,odel parameter estimation from bloc& motion vectors can be used for e(tracting accurate motion information. This e(tracts the motion vector from a se uence of images by using si#e variable bloc& matching algorithm. This algorithm dynamically determines the search area and the si#e of a bloc&. Then uses an adaptive robust estimation to filter out the e(tracted motion vectors and estimate the model parameters accurately. 3eural fu##y motion estimation provides new schemes for motion estimation and compensation based on neural fu##y systems. ,otion estimation schemes often neglect the strong temporal correlations between the frames. %ince the search window remains same through the image se uences, it needs heavy computation. This algorithm reduced the search area and assumes that each bloc& of pi(els moves with uniform translational motion. /u##y system uses a set of if'then rules to map inputs to outputs. "t uses the motion vectors of neighboring bloc& to map the prior frame4s pi(el value to the current pi(el value. /or this the system uses 567 rules. The fu##y system learns and updates its rules as it decodes the image. This approach improved the compensation accuracy.

The four step search algorithm presents a center'biased search pattern with nine chec&ing points on a 585 window .The center of the search window is then shifted to the point with minimum bloc& distortion measure. "f the minimum point is found at the center of the search window, the search window is reduced to 989 and the search stops at this small search window. This algorithm reduces the worst'case computational re uirements from 99 to 1: search points when compared with the previous algorithms. Learn more in IIT Kharagpur's First Online Course on Image and Video processing, Visit !"a %ource* u&essays