Experimental Physics

Science is all about experiments, all the hypothesis become a law only if they are justified experimentally. Experimentation involves lots of terms like accuracy, precision etc. and all the observations and corresponding values obtained are merely approximate, however the level of approximation depends upon the appartus. In this unit we will explore all about errors and then and then move on to another powerful tool called dimensional analysis. while closing the hapter we look at few experiment that are used to determine few physical quantities. Conversion Table Length: in ! ".#$ cm m ! %&.%' ft ! %&.%' in. ! %."( ft " in ! ft % ft ! yd yd ! ).& $$ m km ! ).*" mi mi ! .*)& km mi ! #"() ft ! )+ )m m ! )+* ml ! )$ light+year ! &.$* x )
#

Area m" ! )$ cm" ! ).'* ft" ft" ! ).)&"& m" ! $$ in." in." ! *.$#" cm" Volume m% ! )* cm% ! *. )" x )$ in.% ft% ! '"( in.% ! ".(% x )+" m% liter ! ))) cm% ! .)#'* qt ! ).)%#% ft% ft% ! '.$( gal ! "(.%" liters ! ".(%" x )+" m% gal ! %.'(* liters ! "( in.% Mass ))) kg ! t,metric tonslug ! $.#& kg u ! .** x )+"' kg Force . ! )# dyne ! ).""$( Ib Ib ! $.$$( . dyne ! )+#. ! "."$( x )+* Ib

Velocity mi/h ! .$' ft/s ! ).$$' m/s ! .* km/h m/s ! )) cm/s ! %."( ft/s mi/min ! *) mi/h ! (( ft/s Acceleration m/s" ! %."( ft/s" ! )) cm/s" ft/s" ! ).%)$( m/s" ! %).$( cm/s" Pressure bar ! )# ./m" ! $.#) Ib/in." atm ! '*) mm 0g ! '*.) cm 0g atm ! $.' Ib/in." ! .) % x )# ./m" 1a ! ./m" ! .$# x )+$ Ib/in." Time year ! %*# days ! %. * x )'s dy ! "$ h ! .$$ x )% min ! (.*$ x )$ s Energy 2 ! ).'%( ft.Ib ! )' ergs cal ! $. (* 2 3tu ! "#" cal ! .)#$ x )% 2 e4 ! .* x )+ & 2 &% .# 5e4 is equivalent to u k6h ! %.*) x )* 2 Power hp ! ##) ft. Ib/s ! ).'$* k6 6 ! 2/s ! ).'%( ft.Ib/s 3tu/h )."&% 6 Physical uantities:!

7ll the quantities by means of which we describe the laws of .ature and which can be measured are called physical quantities. 8hey are classified in to two parts9+ "a# Fun$amental physical uantity:! It is an elementary physical :uantity, which doesnot require any other physical quantity to express it. It is also known as basic physical quantity. 8hey are length, mass , time, temperature, Electric current, ;uminous intensity and amount of substance. "b# %erive$ physical &uantity: 7ll those physical quantities, which can be derived from the combination of two or more fundamental quantities or derived quantities. example velocity, density, force , energy etc.

'()T*: 8o measure a physical :uantity we require a standard of that physical quantity. 8his standard is called unit of that physical :uantity. %umb uestion: 7re units absolute things<

Ans:! =nits are comperative when we mention any measurement, we actually give the comparitivity value of the quantity with respect to same internayionally fixed standard. Fun$amental 'nits:! 8he units of fundamental physical quantities are called fundamental units9 S. .o. . ". %. $. #. *. '. >undamental 1hysical :ty. ;ength 5ass 8ime Electric ?urrent ;uminous Intensity 8emperature 7mount of Substance =nits metre kilogram second ampere canadela kelvin mole Symbol m @g s 7 ?d @ mol

%erive$ units: 8he units of all other physical quantities which can be obtained from fundamental units are called derived units. eg9 m/s, @g/m% etc. Conversion o+ units:! 6hile doing all the calculations in physics, homogenity of units should be >ollowed. 5any times this requires conversion of units. >or this we use conversion factor which can be generated as follows9+ Suppose we wish to convert # mi/h into m/s then mile ! .* x )% m factor becomes ! also ln ! %*)) s , factor is ! f"

?omplete multiplying factor is

ABemember while finding individual factors, the given unit should be in denominator.C Multiplication Factor: 8o mention 1hysical :uantities >ollowing standard prefixes for certain power of ) are used9 1ower of ) D " D& D* D% +" +% +* +& + " 1refix 8era Eiga 5ega @ilo ?enti milli micro nano pico Symbol 8 E 5 @ ? m n 1

%imensional Analysis: 8he dimensions of aphysical quantities are the powers to which the base quantities are raised to represent that quantity F Gimensions of fundamental :uantities are represented as9 ;ength AlC, mass A5C, 8imeA8C, Electric current A7C, temperatureA@C, ;uminious intensityA?dC, amount of substance AmdC eg9 dimensions of volume ! AlC% )r Am);%8)C as its unit is m% force is mass x acceleration units are @g m/s" dimension are A5;8+"C Application o+ %imensional Analysis: ",# )n conversion o+ units +rom one system to another8his is based on the fact that product of the numerical value and its corresponding unit is constant. .umerical value x unit ! constant if unit is changed then numerical value changes ;et dimensions of a quantity be A5a ;b 8cC and numerical value in first units be n Abase unit being 5 ; 8 and in seconds unit be n" Abase unit being 5";"8"C then n A5 a ; c 8 "C ! n"A5"a;"b8"c

n" ! n 8hus unit conversion can be done.

"ii# Examining $imensional correctness o+ agiven relation H >or a givenformula to be correct, the dimesion on left hand side and right hand side must be equal. H 2ust cdimensional equality doesnot guarentees that formula is correct , but unequal dimensions do state that formula is wrong. "iii# To establish the relation among various physical &uantities If we know that on what all quantities a particular parameter depends than we can dimensionally work out the correct formula. H Stokis law has been developed using this principle. H It is known experimentally that when a ball is in a viscous liquid , then viscous force depends on radius ,r- of of the sphere, velocity of the sphere ,v- and viscosity of the liquid > ,
x

ry vIr y vI

or > ! @

x

examining dimensionally A5;8+"C ! A5;+ 8+ Cx A;CyA;8+ C" ! Amx ;+ x D y D I 8 +x + IC equating powers we get x!y!I! > ! @ rv @ can further be calculated experimentally ,@ ! * -.

In this way, we can easily convert a propwertionality equation in to a formula.

)llustration: 8he period J1J of a simple pendlum is the time for one complete swing. 0ow does 1 depend on the mass m of the bob, the length l of the string and the acceleration due to gravity < *olution:! 1 ! @mx gI ly where k is aconstant

converting the equation into dimensional equation A8+ C ! A5Cx A;8+"C" A;C$ ! Amx;KDy8+"IC on equating the powers of each dimensions on either side of the equation 8hus I ! + /", y ! /", x ! )