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Lecturer Note by Dr. R.S.

Meena
Data Storage
Introduction: The process of the storing data or any kind of relevant information in your computer is known as Data Storage. Data storage is a very important aspect of computer science . One can avail the data storage devices to accumulate facts and figures in one's system. Data storage devices hold information, processes information and are an excellent medium of recording. Data or Computer storage is a part of the computer components, which retains digital data for further computing. Electronic Data Storage: Electronic data storage uses electrical power to retain and retrieve its data. Electronic data storage stores its information either in analog or digital format. They are electronically encoded data stored by electronic means. The electronic data storage is permanent (non-volatile) storage, which means even after the power is switched off, the data remain intact. But electronically stored information is volatile in nature. Data Storage is devoid of barcodes and OCR data, which makes it easier to amend and ultimately making it cost effective in turn. Types of Data Storage: Data Storage can read and write information on the basis of storage devices. Data storage can be done by portable methods (simply replaced), semi-portable methods which requires mechanical disassembly tools or by inseparable methods which stands for loss of memory incase of any kind of disconnection. Different Kinds of Data Storage Primary Storage: It is connected to the central processing unit which retains information via Processor registers, Cache memory and main memory. Secondary Storage: It is long term storage device which uses the help of input and output channels to access information. Tertiary storage: This enterprise storage device is used in computer systems as well as in business computer networks. Electronic Data Processing The process of converting data into information Data Processing Information

Data consists of all sorts of facts in the form of figures. Advantages of EDP High speed Accurate High storage capacity Automatic Reliable 24 hour service remote access and control Disadvantages of electronic data processing? Equipment is expensive Much money required to design special computer system Important data will be lost if computer breaks down Applications of EDP Payroll system A system that calculates wages and produces payroll sheets for employees. numbers. Characteristics of Data Processing able to handle a large amount of data able to produce accurate results able to provide high speed processing able to handle tedious work e. . which is meaningful and useful.g.p. routine work on calculations. and manual d. searching Q. Processing is done by computer and programs.p. letters or words Information is the processed data. mechanical d. Distinguish among EDP.

2. Produce the payroll sheets for all employees. Enter the data (time-in and time. Collect and check the time cards to ensure their correctness at the end of each month. 1. Print the receipt. . 3. 4. Calculate and display the total price. 5. Record the arrival time and the departure time every day. Electronic funds transfer system A system that allows electronic transfer of money from one account to another. 4. Present the products required at the checkout. into the computer.out) Calculate the monthly wages of all employees by the computer. Ticketing system Point-of-sale system A system that transactions are entered at the point where sales take place and also updates sales and inventory data 1. Identify the prices and the names of the products by the central computer. Read the details of the products by a photoelectric bar code scanner 3. Present the products required and bank card to a cashier. 2. Mailing list system A system that stores data and uses them to produce mailing lists and mailing labels.1. update sales and inventory data by the central computer. 5.

3. It is used to update the corresponding master file. 4. length.Field. program. File protection is necessary because files may be damaged in many ways: » Malfunctions of the disk drive » Destroyed by fire/water » Lost by the suspension of the electricity supply » Erased by users » . data files ……anything which can be stored in backing store and with the following attributes: name and extension. midi. The personal information stored in files should be kept confidential and restricted their use to authorised people only. Field. sound. Record –A group of related information stored in separate fields.2. date and time created/modified. Field– A unit of information in a record. Key Field – A field which is used to identify the record for location and processing. Key in the prices of the products and insert the bank card into a slot on the terminal. text. document.Record » A Data File – A collection of related records. File. to the Organisation of Information Files: graphic files. access modes: rwdx. binary. Transaction file: Contains data that are needed for relatively short periods of time. » – – The two most commonly used files in a file processing systems are Master file: Contains data that are needed for relatively long periods of time. Key in personal identification number (PIN) by the customer. – File Protection and Security » » Files should be protected from being damaged.Key. Transfer electronically the money from the customer’s bank account shopkeeper’s bank account. system.

» Common methods for file security are – Access control – Data encryption Access Control » Files can be protected by – Putting guards in computer rooms and checking the identification of everyone admitted.» Destroyed by computer viruses » Common methods to protect files – – File back-up File generation File Back-up » Making a copy of a file. Therefore. people’s information is very confidential. file security is valuable. File Generation » For sequential files. » . File Security In our society. – Setting up a password system. – Using a read-only disk. Data Encryption » The process of converting readable data into unreadable characters. the grandfather-father-son technique is used to recreate the most updated master file by keeping the two previous old master files.