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John Yoo Chapter #20: Girding for War: The North and the South – Big Picture Theme

1. After Ft. Sumter started the war, keeping the border states were Abe’s top concern. These were slave states that hadn’t left the nation. Throughout the war, Abe would make concessions to “keep them happ .! The border states never left. ". All along the South felt that #ngland would help them. The idea was that $ing %otton’s dominance would force the #nglish into helping the Southerners. This never happened, largel because &ncle Tom’s %abin had convinced the #nglish people of slaver ’s horrors. '. The (orth had the advantage in almost ever categor ) population, industr , mone , nav . *. +oth sides turned to a draft, the nation’s first. The draft was ver unpopular and man riots broke out. !"#NT!$!C%T!&NS: #lection of 1,-. The election of 1,-. resulted in the election of Abraham /incoln. This led to the secession of * more southern states. 0illiam Seward 1uring the %ivil 0ar, (apoleon planted 2a3imillian as emperor of 2e3ico. After the %ivil 0ar ordeal was over, Secretar of State Seward prepared to march to 2e3ico. (apoleon ditched 2a3imillian. #dwin 2. Stanton Secretar of 0ar, Stanton was kicked b 4ohnson from his office. This allowed the 5adicals a reason to impeach 4ohnson from the presidential office. The Alabama The Alabama was a +ritish ship that claimed to be under the %onfederate flag. 6t would attack (orthern shippers. #mancipation 7roclamation After the battle of Antietam, /incoln declared the #mancipation 7roclamation. This freed slaves in the %8(F#1#5AT# states. This allowed man blacks to fight in the &nion armies. Trent Affair A &nion warship cruising on the high seas north of %uba stopped a +ritish mail steamer, the Trent, and forcibl removed two %onfederate diplomats bound for #urope. 2errimack and 2onitor The 2errimack was a confederate ship with railroad rails surrounding its bod so as to be impenetrable against cannons. The &nion followed up with the same t pe of ship called the 2onitor. The 2onitor and 2errimack reach a stalemate in their four hour long battle. Anaconda 7lan +lockade the coast of the South to prevent supplies from going in. 1ivide the South b controlling the 2ississippi river. 1ivide the South b capturing the Tennessee 5iver. %apture 5ichmond and severel handicap the South. +order States +order states are Southern Slave states. This group consisted of 2issouri, $entuck , 2ar land, 1elaware, and later 0est 9irginia.

Appomatto3 5obert #. /ee surrendered to the &nion at the Appomatto3 %ourthouse. &l sses S. :rant generousl offered peace on terms of surrender. #lection of 1,-* The most important factor in the war was the #lection of 1,-*. 6f /incoln was not reelected, the South would have an advantage. /incoln was reelected, albeit barel , and the South lost all hope of winning. G'!"#" (#%"!NG )'#ST!&NS: The *enace of Sece ion 1. 0hat practical problems would occur if the &nited States became two nations; The South can no longer receive products from the (orth and vice versa. Splitting the nation would weaken the two nations, benefitting the #uropean powers. South Caro+ina % ai+ $ort Sumter $now) Fort Sumter, %ol. 5obert Anderson ". 0hat action did /incoln take that provoked a %onfederate attack on Fort Sumter; 0hat effects did the South<s attack have; =e sent >supplies> to Fort Sumter. The %arolinians responded b attacking Fort Sumter. This act of aggression made ever one think that the South started it and ?ustified the (orth<s claim for war. Brother , B+ood and Border B+ood $now) +order States, +ill @ank, 4ohnn 5eb '. =ow did the border states affect northern conduct of the war; The border group actuall contained a white population more than half that of the entire %onfederac . 1i3ie contained much of the %onfederac <s grain, gunpowder, and iron.

The Ba+ance of $orce $now) 5obert #. /ee, Thomas >Stonewall> 4ackson *. 0hat advantages did the South have; The (orth; The South was defending in their own familiar territories. 6n addition, the don<t even need to win in order to remain independent. "ethroning -ing Cotton $now) $ing %otton, $ing 0heat, $ing %orn A. 0h did $ing %otton fail the South; 1ue to oversuppl ing the +ritish prewar, the +ritish no longer needed %otton from the South. 6n the same period as %orn and 0heat were abundant in the (orth, the +ritish were e3periencing bad harvest. The "eci i.ene of "ip+omac/ $now) Trent, Alabama -. 0hat tensions arose with :reat +ritain during the %ivil 0ar; The +ritish had a ship called Alabama which claimed to be under the %onfederate flag. 6t went around destro ing (orthern shippers. $oreign $+are0'p $now) /aird 5ams, (apoleon 666, 2a3imilian A. 0hat other circumstances led to serious conflict with :reat +ritain during the %ivil 0ar; /aird 5ams and Sons of +ritain were building antiBblockade ships that would prove to be e3tremel dangerous to the (orthern cause. The were going to sell it to the South. The /ondon government decided to bu it at the last second.

Pre ident "a.i 1er u Pre ident 2inco+n $now) 4efferson 1avis, States 5ights, Abraham /incoln ,. 1escribe the weaknesses of the %onfederate government and the strengths of the &nion government; The %onfederate<s constitution, borrowing literall from that of the &nion, contained one deadl defect. %reated b secession, it could not logicall den future secession to its constituent states. The (orth en?o ed the prestige of a longBestablished government, financiall stable and full recogniCed both at home and abroad. 2imitation on Wartime 2i3ertie $now) =abeas %orpus D. :ive e3amples of constitutionall Euestionable actions taken b /incoln. 0h did he act with arbitrar power; =e proceeded to era a few holes in that hallowed document. =e understandabl concluded that if he did not so, and patch the parchment later, there might not be a %onstitution of a united &nited states to mend.

1o+unteer and "raftee : North and South $now) ThreeBhundredBdollarBmen, bount ?umpers 1.. 0as the %ivil 0ar >a rich man<s war but a poor man<s fight;> #3plain. 1uring conscriptions, a law was placed where ou either served or pa '.. to get out of it. The rich bo s would pa '.. for a substitute whereas the poor are forced to fight. The #conomic Stre e of War $now) 6ncome Ta3, 2orrill Tariff Act, :reenbacks, (ational +anking Act, inflation 11. 0hat was the effect of paper mone on both (orth and South; 6n the south, the blueBbacked papers caused inflation. 6n the (orth the (ational +anking S stem was created. The North, #conomic Boom $now) >Shodd > 0ool, #liCabeth +lackwell, %lara +arton, 1orthea 1i3 1". #3plain wh the %ivil 0ar led to economic boom times in the (orth; 2anufacturers profited greatl from the war because of the mass production of goods through machines. Their machines allowed them to create shoes due to high demands. % Cru hed Cotton -ingdom 1'. :ive evidence to prove that the war was economicall devastating to the South. The South<s econom was so bad that carpetbaggers would travel to the south with random ?unk and sell it for FB1.G more than its actual price. Chapter #24: The $urnace of the Ci.i+ War – Big Picture Theme 1. The (orth thought the could win in a Euick war. After the lost at +ull 5un, the EuickB victor approach seemed to have been a mistake. A northern loss on “the 7eninsula! at 5ichmond reinforced that this would be a long war. ". The South started the war winning. Turning point battles, which the (orth won, took place at HaI Antietam ?ust before /incoln’s “#mancipation 7roclamation!, HbI :ett sburg which effectivel broke the South’s back, and HcI 9icksburg which helped the (orth control the 2ississippi 5iver. '. /incoln won a hardBfought reelection in 1,-*. =e did so b starting the “&nion 7art ! made of 5epublicans and proBwar 1emocrats and on the simplicit of the slogan, “@ou don’t change horses midstream.! *. :eneral Sherman marched across :eorgia and the South and reaped destruction. And the South began to lose battle after battle. These events drove the South to surrender at

Appomatto3 %ourthouse. !"#NT!$!C%T!&NS 1raft riots of 1,-' %onscription laws were passed where people were forced to serve the arm unless the pa '... This harshl favored the rich over the poor so man states rioted. 2ost notable riot was in (ew @ork.

%harles Frances Adam 7rodded b the American 2inister, %harles Frances Adam, the +ritish graduall perceived that allowing such ships to be built was a dangerous precedent that might someda be used against them.

Sherman<s 2arch 6n order to in?ure the South<s spirit, Sherman shredded through :eorgia, burning the path he walks over. =e succeeds.

%lement /. 9allandigham (otorious amongst the %opperheads was 9allandigham. =e publicl demanded an end to the >wicked and cruel> war. The civil courts in 8hio were open, and he should have been tried in them for sedition.

Andrew 4ohnson 9ice 7resident under Abraham /incoln, after /incoln<s inopportune death, he became president under the 0ar 1emocrats.

4ohn 0ilkes +ooth An actor, +ooth killed /incoln after shooting him in the head at Ford<s theater.

%.S.S. Alabama +ritish people had a ship the called Alabama which the claimed under the %onfederate Flag. (ational +anking Act A financial landmark of the war was the (ational banking S stem, authoriCed b %ongress. /aunched partl as a stimulant to the sale of government bonds, it was also designed to establish a standard bankBnote currenc . &nion 7art A political part dedicated to unif ing the nation. G'!"#" (#%"!NG Bu++ (un #nd the 5Ninet/ "a/ War6 $now) +ull 5un, Stonewall 4ackson 1. 0hat effect did the +attle of +ull 5un have on (orth and South; 7arado3ical effects. Though defeated, the (orth benefitted because it made them realiCe that this is not a war to mess around with. 6n the South, people became too confident and as such desertion rates increased significantl . 5Tard/ George5 *cC+e++an and the Penin u+a Campaign

$now)

:eorge 2c%lellan, 7eninsula %ampaign, 5obert #. /ee, >4eb> Stuart, Seven 1a s< +attles, Anaconda 7lan ". 1escribe the grand strateg of the (orth for winning the war. The Anaconda plan. This blockaded the South<s coasts so as to starve them into surrendering. The War at Sea $now) +lockade, %ontinuous 9o age, 2errimac, 2onitor '. 0hat was Euestionable about the blockade practices of the (orth; 0h did +ritain honor the blockade an wa ; 1espite the blockades, people were still making it in and out of it. +ritain did not want to tie its hand in a future war. The Pi.ota+ Point: %ntietam *. 0h was the battle of Antietam >...probabl the most decisive of the %ivil 0ar;> 6f the South succeeded, the would receive foreign allies and the border states. 6f the failed, their chances of winning are ver slight. After this battle, /incoln also published the #mancipation 7roclamation. % Proc+amation Without #mancipation $now) #mancipation 7roclamation, +utternut 5egion F. The #mancipation 7roclamation had important conseEuences. #3plain. 6t freed all the slaves in the %onfederate States, not including the +order States. 1oing this crippled the South and also gave the &nion an e3tra fighting force. B+ac7 Batt+e Bondage $now) Frederick 1ouglass, A*th 2assachusetts, Fort 7illow ,. AfricanBAmericans were critical in helping the (orth win the %ivil 0ar. Assess. The blacks helped fight in the war, specificall 2assachusetts regime. 2ee, 2a t 2unge at Gett/ 3urg $now) Ambrose +urnside, 4oe =ooker, :eorge 2eade, :ett sburg, 7ickett<s %harge, :ett sburg Address D. 0h was :ett sburg a significant battle; 6t defined both the northernmost point reached b an significant Southern force and the last real chance for the %onfederates to win the war.

The War in the We t $now) &l sses S. :rant, Fort =enr , Fort 1onnelson, Shiloh, 1avid Farragut, 9icksburg 1.. 1escribe :eneral :rant as a man and a general. A drunkard. &nlike other generals, he was willing to make sacrifices. Sherman Scorche Georgia $now) 0illiam T. Sherman, 2arch to the Sea 11. =ow did Sherman attempt to demoraliCe the South; =e went on a march through :eorgia and created a path of destruction. Salting land, ruining wells, burning ever thing he went through. The Po+itic of War $now) 0ar 1emocrats, 7eace 1emocrats, %opperheads, %lement /. 9allandingham 1". 1escribe /incoln’s political difficulties during the war. =e went through a lot of heat because man people didn<t like him. 7eace 1emocrats did not support /incoln. At the e3treme were the soBcalled %opperheads, which strikes without a warning rattle as the openl obstructed the war through attacks against the draft, against /incoln, and especiall against emancipation.

The #+ection of 489: $now) Andrew 4ohnson, :eorge 2c%lellan, 2obile, Atlanta 1*. 0hat factors contributed to /incoln<s electoral victor ; The double victor at 9icksburg and :ett sburg. This significantl increased the moral of the people. Grant &ut+a t 2ee $now) The 0ilderness, %old =arbor, :rant the +utcher, 5ichmond, Appomatto3 %ourthouse 1A. 0hat strateg did :rant use to defeat /ee<s arm ; Assail the enem <s armies simultaneousl , so that the could not assist one another and hence could be destro ed pieceBmeal. The *art/rdom of 2inco+n $now) Ford<s Theater, 4ohn 0ilkes +oothe 1-. 0as /incoln<s death good or bad for the South; #3plain. +ad for the South because /incoln was not a vindictive person. 0hen 4ohnson became presidents, the (orth seeked to punish the South. The %ftermath of the Nightmare $now) /ost %ause 1F. 0hat was the legac of the %ivil 0ar; The South was completel destro ed. 1ar/ing 1ie;point : What Were the Con e<uence of the Ci.i+ War= 1,. 1o ou agree with those historians who sa that the importance of the %ivil 0ar has been e3aggerated; 0h or 0h not; #ver mistake is a success for it paves the wa for the future. Chapter #22: The &rdea+ of (econ truction – Big Picture Theme 1. After the war, the Euestion was, “0hat to do with the southern states;! The more moderate 5epublicans, like /incoln and his successor Andrew 4ohnson, lost out to the 5adical 5epublicans who desired to punish the South. ". The South was divided up into militar districts. The southern states were not allowed to reenter the &.S. until the (orth’s stipulations were met. '. For Southern blacks, these ears were good politicall . Since whites wanted nothing to do with the &.S., blacks voted and were often elected to state legislatures and %ongress. *. #conomicall , freed blacks fared worse. The were no longer slaves, but with little other options, the largel became sharecroppers. The end result was little different and little better than slaver . A. 6n 1,FF, a presidential election was essentiall a tie. A compromise was worked out, and the South got the &.S. Arm to pull out. This left the southern blacks on their ownJsouthern whites reasserted their power.

G'!"#" (#%"!NG The Pro3+em of Peace $now) 5econstruction 1. >1ismal indeed was the picture presented b the warBwracked South when the rattle of musketr faded.> #3plain. +oth the economic and agricultural life of the South was completel destro ed after the wa . Their recover rate would take ears.

$reedmen "efine $reedom $now) #3odusters, American 2ethodist #piscopal %hurch, American 2issionar Association ". =ow did AfricanBAmericans respond to emancipation in the decade following the war; The ?umped at the opportunit . =owever, not much waited for them after the war. The $reedmen, Bureau $now) Freedmen<s +ureau, :eneral 8liver 8. =oward '. Assess the effectiveness of the Freedmen<s +ureau. 6t was effective because it allowed for the Freed Slaves education, proper families, and even their own land to start off with. John on: The Tai+or Pre ident $now) Andrew 4ohnson *. #3plain the strengths and weaknesses of Andrew 4ohnson. 4ohnson was a Southerner but from the 5epublican part so he was capable of appeasing both sides. =is weakness is that he much favored the South. Pre identia+ (econ truction $now) /incoln<s >1. percent plan,> 0adeB1avis +ill, 5adical 5epublicans A. =ow did the 7residents< plan for reconstruction differ from the plan of the 5adical 5epublicans; The 7resident wanted onl 1. percent of the state<s people to make an oath. The 5adicals wanted A.G. /incoln’s 1.G plan seemed too easil obtainable for the southerners. The Ba+efu+ B+ac7 Code $now) +lack %odes, /abor %ontracts, Sharecropping, 1ebt 7eonage -. =ow were +lack %odes used to keep the freedmen down; 6t tied blacks to their former slave masters. 6t was slaver all over again. Congre iona+ (econ truction F. 0h did northern congressmen refuse to seat the southerners when the came to take their seats; H=int) there are two reasons BB one moral and one practicalI 2an of them were %onfederate leaders. 0hile the South were out, the (orth en?o ed practicall no opposition in the Senate and %ongress. John on C+a he ;ith Congre $now) %ivil 5ights +ill, >And 9eto,> Fourteenth Amendment ,. =ow did 5epublicans use their dominance of %ongress; 0hat did 7resident 4ohnson do in response; The steamrolled a bunch of acts through congress despite 4ohnson<s veto. For e3ample, the Tenure of 8ffice Act was steamrolled through and in response, 4ohnson kicked his secretar of war, Stanton. This lead to the impeachment of 4ohnson. S;inging >(ound the Circ+e ;ith John on D. =ow did 4ohnson<s campaigning during the 1,-- congressional elections backfire; 0h did it backfire; =e went out to give speeches in states. =owever, man people hurled insults at him in which he responded b hurling insults back. (epu3+ican Princip+e and Program $now) %harles Sumner, Thaddeus Stevens, 4oint %ommittee on 5econstruction, 2oderate 5epublicans 1.. =ow did the views of 2oderate 5epublicans about reconstruction differ from the views of 5adical 5epublicans; The 5epublicans were more soft about it whereas the 5adicals wanted to harshl treat the South for their betra al. (econ truction 3/ the S;ord $now) 5econstruction Act, Fifteenth Amendment, 2ilitar 5econstruction, 5edeemers, =ome 5ule

11. troops.

1escribe militar reconstruction. The South was divided into A militar districts, each with a &nion general and &nion

No Women 1oter $now) #liCabeth %ad Stanton, Susan +. Anthon , 0oman<s /o al /eague, Fourteenth Amendment 1". 0h did some women feel that the did not receive their due after the %ivil 0ar; The voiced their opinion on freeing slaves and rights. 0hile the blacks received their rights and suffrage, the women did not. The (ea+itie of (adica+ (econ truction in the South $now) &nion /eague, Suffrage, =iram 5evels, +lanche $. +ruce, Scalawags, %arpetbaggers 1'. 6n what wa s did AfricanBAmericans become politicall involved in the ears immediatel following the %ivil 0ar; =ow did 0hite southerners view their involvement; The were given the right to vote. The South responded b passing laws that restricted the blacks from voting indirectl . For e3ample the :randfather clause said that a person can onl vote if their grandfather voted. The -u -+u? -+an $now) $u $lu3 $lan, Force Acts, 1isfranchise 1*. 6n what wa s did Southern whites attempt to keep former slaves down; The 6nvisible #mpire of the South, aka $u $lu3 $lan, terroriCed the blacks through their methods. John on Wa+7 the !mpeachment P+an7 $now) 5adical 5epublicans, +en 0ade, Tenure of 8ffice Act, #dwin Stanton 1A. =ow did the 5adical 5epublicans >manufacture> an impeachment of Andrew 4ohnson; The Tenure of 8ffice Act. 6t was a bait that the knew 4ohnson would veto. =owever, the steamrolled through %ongress and it was passed. 4ohnson could onl kick with the Senate<s approval. =owever, 4ohnson kicked his secretar of war Stanton despite this law. This gave the 5adicals a reason for impeachment. % Not0Gui+t/ 1erdict for John on $now) +en?amin F. +utler, Thaddeus Stevens 1-. 0h were the 5adicals unsuccessful in removing 4ohnson from office; +ecause some radicals were more for the countr than political part so the voted him (8T :&6/T@. The Purcha e of %+a 7a $now) 0illiam Seward, 5ussia 1F. #3plain wh Alaska was called >Seward<s Foll ,> but was purchased an wa . America reall didn<t have much mone to spare. =owever, the bought it because of rumors of rich resources and the did not want to upset their all , 5ussia. The @eritage of (econ truction 1,. Assess the success of 5epublican reconstruction. 6t was not successful. 6t onl further separated the (orth from the South.