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Communism (from Latin communis – common, universal) is a socialist movement to create aclassless, moneyless, and stateless social order

structured upon common ownership of themeans of production, as well as a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of this social order. This movement, in its Marxist– Leninist interpretations, significantly influenced the history of the 20th century, which saw intense rivalry between the "socialist world" (socialist states ruled by communist parties) and the "Western world" (countries with capitalist economies). On November7, 1917, Vladimir I. Lenin led the Bolshevik Party takeover of power in Russia, setting in motion the creation of the first socialis state. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (URSS), or the Soviet Union. The Party’s expressed goal was to achieve the communist utopia That Karl Marx and Frederich Engels envisioned in their “Communist Manifesto” more than half a century earlier. Lenin’s triumphant return from exile following the fall of the Tsarist regime and the ascendance of the Bolsheviks heralded a new era that promised the liberation of oppressed workers and peasant as well as equality, advancement , peace, and social justice for all. The actual political system that emerged, of course, divergent radically from that utopian dream. What materialized instead was one of the most closed, repressive, and unequal-not to mention violent- regimes the world has ever known. Politically and economically, Russia’s communist system dominated, often violentely, both is own people and those of the empire that it controlled. It ultimately served as a model for all commnunist regimes that arosearound the world during the twentieth centuries. For a half of century after World War Two, the Soviet Union and the United States occupied opposing positions in a bipolar international system: two super-powers balancing power in a cold war, which if it had turned hot, would likely have had terrifying global consequences. And the, suddenly and shockingly, both the Soviet Empire and the Soviet Union itsef disintegrated and communism dissolved as a meaningful ideal for other revolutionary leaders. Romania’s history is fraught with in constancy and turmoil, as the country was plagued by oppression both from within and from external powers for decades. Becoming a Communist country in 1947, Romania was led by tyrannical dictators Ion Antonescu and Nicolae Ceausescu until the fall of Communism in 1989. Romania’s transition to Communism had a serious impact on the people, limiting their freedom and indoctrinating them with Communist ideas. Using the schools as a platform, leaders sought to infiltrate the curriculum and influence the children, training them to be future, faithful Communists, the effects of which are still present in the educational realm today. This event brought about significant political, economic, and social change in the nation as people attempted to adjust to a radically new way of life. The revolution also affected education as teachers and students alike transitioned into a post-Communist world. In prior years, education was highly regimented and the curriculum was strictly controlled, as all-important decisions were centralized. After the shift, reforms took place that altered curriculum, demanded new and updated textbooks, and increased teacher autonomy. However, the process of reform was slow and current educational practices are still dealing with the effects of Communism. Romania and the Road to Communism under Antonescu The road to Communism was

War. The Communist Party was quickly gaining numbers. Troops of the Red Army were sent in to ensure control and fill local official positions with Communist sympathizers. seeking to challenge the long-standing traditions. Communism gained support among the administrators. but it was during that time that he rose to the status of leader of the faction of communist prisoners. As they emerged as the law-making authority. the communists had little influence on Romanian politics. Originating in Lenin’s writing. Antonescu echoed Hitler’s sentiments and claimed that there has never been a more suitable time in history to get rid of the Jews. Romania and the Road to Communism After World War II. new programs were instituted that conformed to the Communist ideal of education. Dej was named the general secretary of the Communist Party and he kept on obtaining high offices. In February of 1945. It was a period in which through deportation. the Communists and their leftist party allies claimed 90 percent of the vote and 379 of the 424 seats in the National Assembly. key positions were filled by Communists: the Ministries of the Interior. The new Minister of Education. clearly seeing which way the political wind was blowing. pro-Communist demonstration and the organizing of youth. expediting the indoctrination process. the Communists took great measures to control education and the information that reached the classrooms. Desiring a pure Romanian race. became active in Communist reform in 1945. and mentored him. Stefan Voitec. and recruit workers for their cause. but Communist leaders maligned Radescu. King Mihai appointed Nicolae Radescu as premier. During his time in jail. Before World War II. Romania faced pressure from beyond its borders as the Paris Peace Treaties declared that the Soviet government now controlled 90% of the land. Supposedly free elections were held in 1946 but balloting was widely seen as fraudulent. calling him a fascist and turning the public against him. “The Tasks of the Youth Leagues”. Dej was imprisoned. Mihai gave in to Communist and Soviet pressure and appointed Petru Groza as premier. His professional background did not qualify him to take part in the decision-making process (he was an electrician). The Communists used their power to dominate aspects of everyday life. Romanization. The first communist leader of the newly-proclaimed People’s Republic of Romania was Gheorghe Gheorghiu Dej.000 members by 1948 as many Romanians. Their agenda was to destroy Romania. yet he became influent after being imprisoned along with other members of the Communist Party for organizing a violent laborer’s strike. Justice. Until his death in . Lenin charged school officials with the idea that the purpose of educating the youth is to instill in them Communist principles. shutting down newspapers and eliminating challengers using aithful soldiers. In 1944. His methods included purges of teachers. Antonescu remained in power until he was overthrown on August 23. Nicolae Ceaușescu.multifaceted and had long-lasting effects. the party swelled to more than 800. and National Economy. as from a mere 1000 at war’s end. privileges for Communist students. new pro-Communist text books. mainly due to his pro-Stalinistic political ideas. and ultimately murder. After World War II. root and branch and build a new nation upon the remains. It was not until the crucial years near the end of the war that Communism took hold and led the country down a dark and tumultuous path for the next 35 years. For the most part of World War II. 1944 by King Mihai and his followers. Gheorghe Gheorghiu Dej met the person who would later turn out to be his successor. Under Groza.

as his administration has brought a short period of prosperity. and rallies. choosing to move away from what was familiar and embracing freedom and independence (King. simply glossing over or burying their past was not an option. despite his completely different political orientation: if Dej was a conservative Stalinist. they had to make a complete break with it and turn towards the future. Nicolae Ceaușescu rose to power in 1967. He described the Communist era as one of mindless obedience to Soviet power and mass subjugation of the citizens of Romania. a political science professor at the University of Maryland. or Israel. He has also established good relations with states like China. The Commission’s report made it clear that the country needed to draw a concrete line between the Communist past and the Democratic present. he or she was guaranteed national success and support.1965. The preceding months were characterized by chaos and injustice as fighting and street demonstrations occurred. However. On the contrary. Chivu Stoica. he became General Secretary of the Party. Positions were re-filled and new policies introduced to counteract the Communist policies in place. was chair of the Commission for the Analysis of the Communist Dictatorship in Romania. . who was a neo-Stalinist. It is no secret that at the time Moscow was the center of political influence in the east side of the Iron Curtain. and when a politician agreed with the practices and reforms of the USSR leader (at the time. and the leading expert on Romanian history and politics. This was in a complete contrast with the Soviet leader of the time. Ceaușescu is usually regarded as the direct successor of Dej. It is an on-going process and one that continues to affect current policies today as the people seek to renounce the old political system that governed every aspect of life and accept a radically new way of thinking. and President of the State Council. the first public denunciation of Communism. in order to legitimize his totalitarian regime. known as the National Salvation Front. West Germany. were former members of the secret police and had an agenda of their own. he never hesitated to use his secret police machinery for terror purposes. utopia was not achieved overnight. for Romania did not instantly go through a period of de-Stalinization. However. This was the first cooperative effort by the Romanians to regain the rights and freedoms they knew they deserved. Also. Joseph Stalin). Ceaușescu came out as a reformist. were held. the officials who took over the government after Ceausescu’s fall. stripping Ceausescu of his power and declaring Romania a free country. Leonid Brezhnev. For the Romanian people. Ceaușescu was far from being the father of the nation and the righteous intellectual he posed as: professionally speaking. after a short and not so notable ruling of another important member of the Communist Party. Several national reforms had to take place to bring about a true change in power. Ceaușescu became popular in the first few years of his ruling of the newly-renamed Socialist Republic of Romania (it was previously called the People’s Republic of Romania). December of 1989 brought about radical transformation for the country when an anticommunist revolution took place. Vladimir Tisamanueanu. Prime Minister. which were in tense relations with the USSR. 2006). demanding a change of regime. he was a mere cobbler who went to school for only 4 years.

Bibliografie: The Romania communist party and the world socialist system a redefinition of unit.Archie Brown Comunisme si totalitarim – Stephane Courtois .Kenneth Jowist Modern Romania –Tom Gallagher Analiza dictaturi comuniste din Romania The rise and the fall of communism.