Groundwater Assessment Studies

Electromagnetic Airborne Survey

Some 74% of the earth consists of water. But 99.4% of this water cannot be used because it’s either saline or locked up in glaciers or ice sheets. Less than 0.01% is present in rivers and lakes. The remaining water is present in soils and rocks as groundwater. In many parts of the world rivers and lakes are either absent or polluted. Groundwater is then the only source of fresh water and is therefore a source that needs to be protected.

Getting supply of groundwater Getting supply of fresh groundwater is world wide major question number 1. You can bring groundwater to the surface by drilling into aquifers and pump the water out. But then you have to know where to drill. Traditionally people went to water diviners to find out if there was groundwater available. Nowadays, if there are no geological surveys available to obtain the necessary information, a water resources assessment study starts with advanced tools from the air. Airborne survey tools are excellent techniques for geological mapping from the surface through the shallow sections and into deeper structures. Airborne survey techniques are an extremely cost effective and efficient way of obtaining regional data and mapping of lithological vertical and lateral boundaries that border aquifers. Integrated with a pilot borehole or an exploratory well, the findings of the airborne survey can be extrapolated. Groundwater modelling and well design When a water bearing aquifer is found, the exploitation of the aquifer largely depends on the natural water resources. Water availability is governed by rainfall distribution in time and space, run-off generation, and topographic and geological features that influence water movement and storage. To assess the current availability and to predict the future availability of groundwater, a ‘state of the art’ numerical groundwater flow model has to be built.

Irrigation design

and thus acquired a broad experience in the following fields: • Water availability and resources studies. borehole logs. • Contamination transport. Fugro’s hydrogeologists and chemical and water quality experts offer a comprehensive approach to the activities as listed above. P.and storm-water www. • analyse the groundwater flow regime through detailed monitoring and studying of existing or new piezometric records.fugro. Hydrology Department Veurse Achterweg 10. it is necessary to control groundwater quality. dispersion and in situ groundwater remedial treatment. These activities require a team of technical.V. is part of the Fugro Group with offices all over the world March 2006 0159 . • Hydrological field studies and investigations (piezometers. dungheaps) can pollute groundwater while in and around urban areas refuse dumps would be just one source of contamination. runoff. Well drilling is supervised by an experienced hydrologist.For a model design we: • develop a (GIS based) data set comprising reliable hydrological information on the rain fall. To continuously improve the model we recommend to examine post-calibration model performance (validation). As a result of groundwater contamination it might be necessary to abandon wells. Once the well is drilled and the yield and the quality of the water tested. water system analysis. The type of well(s) and well screen design will depend on the depth to the water table and the aquifer characteristics. Depending on the information available. the well is sealed against pollution and disinfected. In rural areas septic tanks (effluent in soakage system) and farmyard activities (silage. • Construction dewatering for major infrastructural and civil works.V. Monitoring and modelling of groundwater quantity and quality will therefore be needed and will enable the authorities responsible to predict. groundwater level. The Netherlands Phone: 31-70-311 14 14 Fax: 31-70-311 14 02 E-mail: geohydrologie@fugro.O. pump-tests). Box 63 2260 AB Leidschendam. aquifer hydraulic properties and characteristics of the watershed.and groundwater quantity and quality modelling. pumping tests) and theoretical reviews to support the development of the model and the integration within a GIS framework. • 2D and 3D Ground. • Rural and Urban water. Although it is usually more difficult to pollute groundwater than rivers and lakes. calibration of model parameters will improve model results. soil moisture balance. • carry out field studies (slug tests using Hvorslevs method. Fugro’s hydrological expertise Because of the world-wide Fugro activities the hydrology departments benefit not only from their national knowledge but have also been able to extend this to an international level. Groundwater Protection After a well field is established. many of our activities have an impact on groundwater quality. Fugro Ingenieursbureau Fugro Ingenieursbureau B. to intervene or to prevent with the necessary sufficient remedial measures. legal and institutional experts. • develop general (GIS based) procedures for rainfall simulation and for relating rainfall run-off processes to the infiltration recharge processes. Hydrological field testing Well (field) design To determine the capacity of the well (field) the requirements have to be calculated.