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Electronic transport of n-type CdSe quantum dot films: Effect of film treatment
Dong Yu, Brian L. Wehrenberg, Praket Jha, Jiasen Ma, and Philippe Guyot-Sionnesta͒
James Frank Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637

͑Received 28 September 2005; accepted 8 March 2006; published online 31 May 2006͒ Solid films of CdSe colloidal quantum dots are conductive when reduced by electrochemistry. The dark conductivity and the photoconductivity of these n-type CdSe nanocrystalline solids have been investigated as a function of film treatment. When the films are treated with NaOH, a carrier mobility of ϳ10−2 cm2 / V s and a charging/discharging time of ϳ10 ms are obtained. Under an excitation intensity of ϳ0.75 mW/ cm2, a significant photoconductivity of ϳ10−3 S cm−1 has been observed. The high mobility allowed demonstrating the operation of a field effect transistor. © 2006 American Institute of Physics. ͓DOI: 10.1063/1.2192288͔

Semiconductor nanocrystals,1,2 with tunable electronic and optical properties, have shown promises for applications in biological imaging,3,4 light emitting devices,5,6 quantum dots lasers,7–9 photodetectors,10 and solar cells.11,12 Some of the envisioned optoelectronic device applications using the nanocrystals are based on solid state materials where the nanocrystals are assembled into close-packed nanocrystalline solids. Although the optical properties of nanocrystals have been extensively studied, the electronic properties of these nanocrystalline solids are not as much studied. One major reason has been their very poor conductivity. The individual nanocrystals in the solid are indeed separated by a layer of organic ligands which significantly inhibit charge transport. For example, for CdSe dots capped by trioctylphosphine oxide/trioctylphosphine, the separation between the dots is reportedly 11 Å.13 The conductivity of the nanocrystal thin films is then14 as low as 10−14 S cm−1. This extremely low conductivity would seem to preclude the use of such solids in any device requiring some measure of electronic transport. While intrinsic nanocrystal films are extremely resistive, it is now known15 that reduction using potassium or electrochemistry leads to many orders of magnitude increase in conductivity. The quantized level structure of the quantum dots also shows up in the conductance with a modulated conductance and mobility as a function of filling of the quantum states. Furthermore, by treating the films with various molecular cross linkers of different lengths and conjugation, it was possible to significantly improve the conductivity up to ϳ10−2 S cm−1. Annealing of the nanocrystalline solids can also reduce the distance between the nanocrystals and improve the conductivity although the quantized level structure might be lost in the process.16 Recently it was reported that treating intrinsic films of quantum dots with bases such as NaOH and 1-butylamine led to orders of magnitude improvement of the low voltage photoconductivity.17 We present here a study of how various treatments affect the dark conductivity and photoconductivity of the reduced

films. Also, we report on the demonstration of a field effect transistor based upon an optimized film preparation giving a high mobility.
A. Film treatment and mobility

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In the following experiments, CdSe nanocrystals with diameter ϳ5.3 nm were used. They are synthesized with dimethylcadmium as an organometallic precursor, following the literature.18 The nanocrystal thin films are made on a glass substrate previously patterned with interdigitated Pt electrode. The electrodes consist of 50 pairs of 5 ␮m wide, 5 mm long, and 110 nm thick Pt pads with 5 ␮m gap. These substrates are made by Abtech Scientific. To bind the nanocrystal film to the substrate, the clean substrate is first dipped into 1% ͑volume ratio͒ 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane ͑APS͒ acetone solution and then 1% ͑volume ratio͒ 1,6hexanedithiol ͑HDT͒ acetone solution. The silane end of APS should bind to the glass with the amino end providing a binding site for the nanocrystals. Similarly, the dithiol is used to provide a good affinity between the Pt electrodes and the nanocrystals. Without these surface treatments, the nanocrystal films occasionally falloff the substrate when dipped into subsequent solutions. The film itself is made by simply drop casting a hexane:octane ͑10:1͒ solution of the nanocrystals on the substrate. Immediately after drying, the film is then dipped into a cross-linking solution for treatment. The effect of this treatment is to render the films insoluble in their original solvent and to vastly improve the electrochemical19 and conducting properties. It also leads to shrinkage of the films, consistent with the expected shorter distance between dots. For example, a heptanediamine linker should reduce the interdot distance to ϳ8 Å. While molecules were initially chosen to have two binding sites so that they would a priori chemically bond the nanocrystals,19 it has, since then, been realized that this is not necessary17 as any treatment that can replace the original capping molecules with much shorter groups will increase the particle-particle interaction and lead to insoluble films. The solutions used for “cross linking” are all in methanol which is a solvent for the original caps ͓trioctyl phosphine/trioctylphosphine oxide ͑TOP/TOPO͔͒. We stud© 2006 American Institute of Physics


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2͑d͔͒ for these films. and triangles 1 P bleach. Phys. As observed so far with the more conductive films. the films are moved into a N2 glovebox and rinsed with methanol to remove the extra ligands. the response is slow. 2. The last one is similar in thickness judged by the optical density before doping. The complete electrochemical doping of the whole film requires easy flow of the counterions throughout the film network.7-heptanediamine in methanol solution: scan rate of ϳ20 mV/ S and bias of ϳ5 mV. The thickness of the films is usually in the range of tens of monolayers. possibly because they are too compact. In contrast to the amine treated films. for which the amine is a strong ligand to the Cd sites. 15. the films are assembled in the electrochemical cells. and the 1 P bleach is not seen. The lower plot is the cross section in the middle of the top picture. it leads to further improvements in the system response. The size of the picture is 3 ␮m.3 nm diameter with different treatments at ϳ−60 C. For all solutions the dipping time was kept at ϳ10 min and the treated films were then baked at ϳ100 ° C under vacuum for 1 h. The 1S optical bleach is smaller than 0. the film treated with NaOH are as conductive but cannot be charged completely. The first three films estimated by their maximum 1S bleaches are about 12. ͑c͒ Treated with 1-butylamine in methanol solution: scan rate of ϳ10 mV/ S and bias ϳ10 mV. and 28 layers.7-heptanediamine. in concert with electron transfer to the nanocrystal films. The visible absorption spectra of the nanocrystal thin film after NaOH treatment still show the excitonic features. indicating less than 10% of the possible charge in the 1Se state. No obvious change in optical density further indicates that the nanocrystals are not .17 and the films exhibit fast and reversible electrochemistry while they are about 100-fold more conductive than with heptanediamine. dashed lines electrochemical currents. The OH− base can also passivate the Cd surface sites. dots 1S bleaches. With atomic force microscopy ͑AFM͒. ied pure methanol. Cyclic voltammetry of TOP/TOPO capped CdSe nanocrystal films of ϳ5. Figure 2 shows the typical cyclic voltammetry of TOPO/TOP capped CdSe nanocrystal films with different treatments. 104315 ͑2006͒ FIG. ͑d͒ Treated with NaOH in methanol solution: scan rate of ϳ50 mV/ S and bias ϳ5 mV. monitored by AFM or simply by the optical density. As reported previously. The cyclic voltammetry is taken at ϳ−60 ° C and the occupation number is monitored by measuring the spectral bleaches of the S and P excitonic transition.7heptanediamine. It is the shortest ligand such that the nanocrystals can get to their closest approach. it suggests that the counterions do not diffuse easily in these films.7heptanediamine.005 optical density ͑OD͒. 2͑a͔͒. 2͑c͔͒. Although 1-butylamine is monodendate. Atomic force microscopy ͑AFM͒ of a typical CdSe nanocrystal thin film treated with 1. The sample treated with pure methanol shows a large hysteresis in the optical bleach indicating a slow charging/ discharging rate and the film remains insulating ͓Fig. After a second drying step at ϳ70 ° C under N2 for ϳ10 min. Therefore. 1. Solid lines represent conduction currents. therefore the dots are still distinct ͓Fig.08M NaOH methanol solution. 1% ͑volume ratio͒ 1-butylamine. This would lead to a large number of trapping sites which also lower the conductivity below the detectable range. J. FIG. or methanol with 1% ͑volume ratio͒ 1. ͑a͒ Treated with pure methanol: scan rate of ϳ10 mV/ S and bias of ϳ40 mV.15 the film treated with 1. Since the electrochemical current is small ͓Fig. although cross linking with pure methanol is sufficiently effective to lead to films that present an electrochromic response. Appl. 3͑a͔͒. 99. and ϳ0.104315-2 Yu et al. This is presumably because methanol removes capping molecules without replacing them by a ligand that passivates the exposed Cd surface sites. Subsequently. facilitating the removal of the original ligands and presumably forming cadmium hydroxide complexes. shows a much faster and reversible optical response while the conductance improves drastically with a shoulder appearing at about the half filling of the 1Se shell and the first wave on the reduction or oxidation curve ͓Fig. the 1Se conductance shoulder is present but less pronounced ͓Fig. This step removes the water and accelerates the recapping. ͑b͒ Treated with 1. the close packed films look smooth and the roughness is about the diameter the nanocrystals ͑Fig. 2͑b͔͒. 1͒.

2 V above where the film starts to conduct. In the VRH model. A dielectric constant of ϳ4 was used to describe the VRH behavior in a heptanediamine treated film. However the T1/2 conductance gives a temperature scaling of T* ϳ 2000 K ͑Fig. 3. ͑c͒ AFM of a thin film on glass before and after treatment. the conductance and the electrochemical current are fitted by exponentials ͑Fig. 4͒ which is about 2. Focusing on the first 100 ms after the potential jump. 3͑b͔͒.3 nm diameter.5 times smaller than for heptane diamine treated film. This value is not inconsistent with the estimation based upon the cyclic voltammetry ͓Fig. 99. ͑b͒ Infrared absorption spectrum indicates a 60% reduction of the optical density at hydrocarbon stretching bands. closer to bulk value of ϳ10. Temperature dependent conductivity provides further evidence of the increased coupling between nanocrystals in these NaOH treated films. This redshift is a possible indication of increased interaction between the nanocrystals. 5͒. ͑a͒ UV-visible absorption spectrum shows that the first exciton peak redshifts of ϳ11 nm while the optical density remains the same. given by ␮ = l2G / Q.20 The films treated with NaOH are denser and should have a higher dielectric constant. 4. ͑A͒ Conductance measured at 0. The mobility is estimated from the conductance and the integrated charge. The charging current should also follow I = Q / ␶ exp͑−t / ␶͒ with an opposite sign for discharging. For the NaOH treated film. It should follow that G = ␮Q ͑1 − exp͑−t / ␶͒͒ during charging and G = ␮Q exp͑−t / ␶͒ during discharging.08M NaOH methanol solution. The n-type CdSe nanocrystal thin film treated with NaOH follows variable range hopping ͑VRH͒ theory20 as well as all the samples prepared here. The effect of NaOH treatment on the CdSe nanocrystal films of ϳ5. 3͑c͔͒. The conductance is proportional to the mobility ␮ and the charge Q. significantly washed off by NaOH treatment. The time constants are all around 10 ms. 2͑d͔͒ given .1 V bias as a function of temperature. 6͒. The straight line corresponds to E* = 6. Temperature and electrical field dependent conductances of a CdSe nanocrystal thin film with diameter of 5. The surface of the film remains smooth while the thickness shrinks by ϳ30% – 40%. ͑B͒ Conductance as a function of electrical field at different temperatures.3 nm treated with NaOH. FIG. T* is inversely related to the static dielectric constant and the localization length. Whichever of these two effects dominate. This behavior is rather well captured by a simple RC circuit model of the electrochemical gating switching. both the conductance and electrochemical current change abruptly ͑Fig. the mobility is then measured to be ␮ ϳ 10−2 cm2 / V s. where the channel length l is 5 ␮m. slightly slower for discharging than charging and slightly slower for the conductance change than the electrochemical current change. Infrared spectra of the hydrocarbon stretching bands show that their optical density in the infrared spectrum is reduced by ϳ60% after treatment ͓Fig.4 ϫ 107 V / m. where ␶ is the RC switching time of the gate and film. The linear fitting gives T* = 2.2. As the electrochemical potential is stepped from a potential where the film is insulating to about −0. The cut is made by a razor blade on the right of the graph. These evidences all concur to show that a significant part of capping molecules is removed and support the notion of a very compact film. T* may also be reduced by a larger localization length of the electron wave function. Appl. In addition. The first excitonic peak redshifts by about 11 nm. J. ͑d͒ A cartoon of how the NaOH treatment may remove the capping molecules and shorten the interdot distance.104315-3 Yu et al. the strongly reduced T* is indicative of a stronger coupling between the nanocrystals. Solid lines are before treatment and dashed lines are after treatment with ϳ0. 104315 ͑2006͒ FIG. Phys. The charging and discharging of the NaOH treated films are very fast. The AFM shows a 30%–40% shrinking of the film thickness while the surface of the film remains smooth ͓Fig.0 ϫ 103 K.

5 around the potential jump.2 V. the electrochemical current is fitted by I = I0Ј exp ͑−t / ␶2Ј͒ + IbЈ with I0Ј = −10 ␮A.7-heptane diamine treated sample shows a time constant close to the calculation based upon the FET relation. ͑a͒ The charging of the film: the conductance is fitted by G = G0 ͓1 − exp͑−t / ␶1͔͒ with fitting parameters G0 = 4. 6. ͑a͒ The charging time vs mobility for the CdSe nanocrystal thin films treated with 1. 7. ͑b͒ The discharging of the film: the conductance is fitted by G = G0Ј exp͑−t / ␶1Ј͒ + GbЈ with G0Ј = 5. Phys. one would expect similar improvements in the photoconductivity.3 ms. The charging time for films with higher mobility is slower than the limit.2 V. To achieve faster response. The mobility and the switching time vary by orders of magnitude with different treatments.01 e/dot. ␶2 = 9.1 mS and ␶1 = 16. Measurement of the response of CdSe nanocrystal thin film treated with NaOH during charging and discharging at ϳ−60 ° C.4 ␮A. 99. all solid state devices such as FET are necessary. 104315 ͑2006͒ FIG. The solid line corresponds to ⌬␴ = e␮⌬n with ⌬n ϳ 0. and GbЈ = 0. ␶2Ј = 8. ͑a͒ The electrochemical potential is stepped from −0. B.8 ms. FIG. and IbЈ = 0. given by f = ␮ ͑VG − VT͒ / 2␲l2. For a field effect transistor ͑FET͒.17 mS. Photoconductivity has been observed previously in intrinsic semiconductor nanocrystalline solids22. and the absence of independent confirmation of the charge occupation by the optical bleach data. the mobility and the charging/discharging time constants of CdSe nanocrystal thin films treated with 1. 5. This discrepancy is attributed to the charging time which is more likely limited by the slower counterion diffusion time through the film. 7͑a͒. ͑b͒ The photoconductivity vs mobility. As for the NaOH treated films.3 kHz corresponding to a switching time constant ͑2␲ f ͒−1 of ϳ0. the electrochemical current is fitted by I = I0 exp͑−t / ␶2͒ + Ib with I0 = 9. J. ͑c͒ The electrochemical current pulses. Appl.21 there is a relation between the mobility and the cutoff of the frequency response ͑3 dB point͒ f .23 but it has not been studied in an n-type system.1 ␮A. we attribute this deviation to the slower diffusion rate of the counterions. Focus of Fig. Photoconductivity the poor definition of the electrochemical current. and NaOH ͑squares͒. The solid line is ␶ = l2 / ␮͑VG − VT͒ with the channel length l = 5 ␮m and VG − VT = 0. The dashed lines are data and the solid lines are fitting. and Ib = 1.4 ms. With ␮ ϳ 10−2 cm2 / V s the cutoff frequency is then f ϳ 1.12 ms.6 ms. We note that this is much faster than the measured ϳ10 ms. In our electrochemical experiment. we used the same film preparation on the interdigitated elec- FIG. Since reduced nanocrystals exhibit vastly increased mobilities. The result is summarized in Fig.4 to − 1 V. ␶1Ј = 12. 1-butylamine ͑triangles͒. Only the 1. VG − VT is estimated to be about 0.7-heptanediamine and 1-butylamine were also determined. With the same pulsed response method.7-heptanedamine ͑circles͒. .4 mS.104315-4 Yu et al. To investigate the photoconductivity of the films.8 ␮A. This is an intrinsic problem for an electrochemical cell. where VG is the gate voltage and VT is threshold voltage. ͑b͒ The conductance of the film is measured with a 5 mV bias between two working electrodes.

we made an electrochemical cell that remained transparent after freezing. 104315 ͑2006͒ FIG. Jarosz et al. the carrier must have a lifetime ␶ = ⌬n / G ϳ 10−3 s. The higher mobility films treated with 1-butylamine and NaOH show much more pronounced photoconductivity.01 e/dot. The interdigitated Pt electrode is covered by a thin glass slide with a ϳ10 ␮m spacer. and the excitation intensity is measured to be ϳ0. the reducing environment should result in efficient hole traps. ͓͑c͒ and ͑d͔͒ The plots of ͑a͒ and ͑b͒ in half log scale. and triangles at 30 K. 7-heptanediamine. such that the ratio of the photoconductivity to the dark conductivity should increase. The improved photoconductivity of films with different treatments is summarized in Fig. To measure the photoconductivity at low temperature. To illuminate the sample cell inside the dewar. The light intensity at the sample is ϳ0. At low temperature the frozen electrolyte solution in the small gap makes a transparent glass. reported that the intrinsic film treated with NaOH shows17 a photoconductivity of ϳ10−8 S cm−1 with an excitation power of 14 mW/ cm2 and an electrical field of 4 ϫ 107 V / m. which rises into the gap between the electrode and the glass slide because of the capillary force.75 mW/ cm2. respectively.75 mW/ cm2͒ and with a much lower electrical field of 103 V / m. which significantly lower the mobility.25 Although here the nanocrystals are not capped with thiols. With an applied electrical field of ϳ103 V / m. Similarly long lived delocalized electron states after photoexcitation have been observed in the CdSe nanocrystals capped with p-thiocresol and were attributed to efficient hole traps. the spacing is still large enough to allow the diffusion of the electrolyte such that one is still able to perform electrochemistry and charge the nanocrystals before freezing. Assuming the electrons are the majority carriers and using a mobility of ϳ10−6 cm2 / V s as deduced earlier. The photoconductivity of the n-type film also treated with NaOH is five orders of magnitude larger with ⌬␴ ϳ 10−3 S cm−1 under a much weaker excitation intensity ͑only 0. Recombination rates are slowed at low temperature. the electron density is increased by ⌬n = ⌬␴ / e␮ ϳ 1017 cm−3 or ϳ0. The light is filtered by a bandpass filter covering 560– 630 nm.75 W / cm−2 with wavelengths of 560– 630 nm. The light bulb is placed 10 cm away from sample. The difference is because the electron traps. Thus. 7͑b͒. corresponding to a 5 mV bias across the 5 ␮m electrode.104315-5 Yu et al. We first discuss films treated with 1. ͓͑e͒ and ͑f͔͒ Time trace of the normalized conductance of the film with a low electronic density. On the other hand. The light source is a 25 W filament with a filter of 10 cm away from the sample. Photoconductivity of NaOH treated CdSe nanocrystal thin film of diameter of ϳ5. The light source is an incandescent light bulb controlled by a dc power supply. squares at 10 K. The curves with circles are taken at 4. FIG. Photoconductivity of the n-doped CdSe nanocrystal thin film at low temperatures. 8. a small light bulb ͑Magnite 3 V ϫ 0. Figure 8 demonstrates the dark conductivity and photoconductivity at different potentials for a film treated by NaOH. 99. trodes as presented above. This is indeed what an initial set of experiments has revealed. 9. the photoconductivity of the insulating intrinsic films is not observable in our setup. ͑b͒ IV curves of the same film with a low electronic density.2 A͒ with measured intensity at the sample of ϳ30 mW/ cm2 is wrapped around this electrochemical cell with Teflon tape and the whole cell is inserted into a liquid helium tank. Solid lines are dark current and dashed lines are photocurrent excited with a 3 V ϫ 0. Phys. It is vertically inserted in a reservoir of the tetrabutylamonium perchlorate/propylene carbonate ͑TBAP/PC͒ electrolyte solution. Figure 9 shows the photoconductivity of a film treated . ͑a͒ IV curves of the thin film with a fairly high electronic density. When the films are slightly reduced. The photoinduced conductance response is at least as fast as the 100 ms response time of the light bulb. J. Circles stand for dark conductivity and squares for conductivity increase after excitation.3 K. Appl.3 nm after excitation at different electrochemical potentials. From the light intensity and the nanocrystals cross section24 of 3 ϫ 10−15 cm2.2 A light bulb. the generation rate G should be ϳ7 excitons/ dot s. the illumination introduces an increase in conductivity of the order of ⌬␴ ϳ 10−8 S cm−1. are filled by the electrochemical doping.

͑c͒ With drain electrode open. 11͒. Given such a small charge density. the threshold voltage above which the film conducts is increased ͓Fig. We verified that a negative gate voltage only reduces the conductance indicating that p-type conducting channel is not achieved in this device. n doping allows large increases in mobility and corresponding increase in photoconductivity while lower temperatures improve the ratio of the photoconductance to the dark conductance. Using the estimated ␴q from above.5 nS ͓Fig. ͑a͒ Drain-source current as a function of the drain-source voltage for several values of the gate-source voltage. We also verified that the gate to source ͑drain͒ current is small and it can be in part accounted by the ϳ0. This discrepancy can arise from a number of reasons. source-drain conductance is up to ϳ0. doping nanocrystals by the solid state gate method is quite difficult. 10͑b͔͒. 9͑d͔͒ upon illumination. l is the channel length. but we believe that it is mostly because many of the gate charges fill trap states. 10͑b͔͒ and is more pronounced when a much higher gate voltage up to 60 V is applied ͑Fig. These traps are weakly coupled to source and drain. The scan rate is 0. This effect can be observed from the hysteresis of the sourcedrain current ͓Fig. At 4. 11͑a͒ and 11͑b͔͒. As the gate voltage is set at +10 V. 11͑c͔͒. 10͑c͔͒. that goes into the nanocrystal quantum states is actually much smaller than 1. The scan rate is 0. Phys. the conductance of the film with a low electronic density increases by four orders of magnitude ͓Fig. J. Semiconductor nanocrystalline solid field effect transistor Electrochemical gating allowed studies of charging with well-defined potentials that can be to a good accuracy reported to an absolute scale. This nanocrystal film FET is different from the conventional devices by its memory effect. The ratio of the photoconductivity to the dark conductivity is indeed much improved at the lower temperatures. considerably smaller than ϳ10−2 cm2 / V s obtained for the electrochemically doped film. it is easily compatible with a sealed or vacuum environment. The source-drain conductance is steadily decaying after a gate voltage is applied. the CdSe nanocrystal thin films have a large enough mobility that we have been able to detect conduction in a solid state FET while the films retain the quantum dot integrity. However. Figure 10 shows the current-voltage characteristics of the device.05 e/dot.26 Here. such as defects introduced in the device preparation. After a large gate voltage is applied. and this leads to a large hysteresis and the “memory”effect. The amplifier saturates at 2 nA. Memory effects have been observed for nanocrystal ensemble28 and carbon nanotube FET. The interface charge density is estimated to be ␴q ϳ 3 ϫ 10−8 C / cm2 using ␴q = ␧␧0V / L with a PMMA dielectric constant ␧ = 4 and a thickness L = 1 ␮m.29 Presumably. Current-voltage characteristics of a CdSe nanocrystal FET device. Considering a monolayer of nanocrystals with ϳ5 nm diameter as an n-type channel. The thickness of PMMA layer is ϳ1 ␮m and it is baked at 170 ° C for 30 min under N2 to prevent the oxidation of nanocrystals. With a 60 V gate voltage. then evaporating a gold layer as a gate electrode. with NaOH treatment.1 nF capacitance caused by the PMMA layer ͓Fig. this surface charge density corresponds to at most ϳ0. the source-drain conductance is up to ϳ20 nS but the hysteresis is also bigger ͓Figs. the large fraction of the charge that does not get into the quantum states is instead taken up by traps. 11͑a͔͒ and the system “remembers” for hours. The capacitive current remains much smaller than the source-drain current ͓Fig. 104315 ͑2006͒ with NaOH at low temperatures. where G is the conductance. Our FET device is made by spin coating a polymethylmethacrylate ͑PMMA͒ layer27 on top of the NaOH treated nanocrystal thin film. C. gate-source capacitive current as a function of the gate-source voltage. All the measurements are performed at room temperature and in a dark N2 chamber. the photoconductivity experiments described above had showed that even ϳ0. Solid state FET has the great advantage of not requiring an electrolyte.104315-6 Yu et al. When and if well controlled these effects could potentially be used for memory . Appl.1 V / s. the mobility is given by ␮ = Gl / w␴q. and it does not suffer from speed limitation associated with the motion of bulky counterions.3 K. The electrical field required to singly charge only one monolayer of nanocrystals is so large ͑E = ␴ / ␧␧0 ϳ 4 ϫ 108 V / m if taking SiO2 as the dielectric͒ that it can easily break down the dielectric material. 99. a high mobility is necessary.5 V / s.01 e/dot can change the conductance by orders of magnitude. and w is the channel width. 10. In this FET device. but it certainly does not present the convenience of solid state gating. Previous work showed that a polycrystalline CdSe thin film FET could be made after sintering the nanocrystals thin film at high temperature. the Fermi level can be adjusted at any temperature. the mobility is measured to be very small ϳ2 ϫ 10−7 cm2 / V s. In summary. Although this is a small degree of charging. such that the fraction of ␴q FIG. ͑b͒ Source-drain voltage is fixed at −4 V and the gate-drain voltage is scanned 0.5 V / s and the measurement is started right after the gate voltage is applied.

2669 ͑2000͒. Rev. Bawendi. J. V. J. Weller. 26 B. edited by V. Shevchenko. Guyot-Sionnest. Phys. Phys. Optoelectronic devices based on quantum dot thin films with optimized postcasting film treatment will be able to provide improved performance such as higher mobility and faster switching time. 13 C. 545 ͑2000͒. based on this treatment. and V. Nivi. 9027 ͑2004͒. Science 286. Kennerly. 905 ͑2005͒.S. B 106. 3 D. Rev. V. optimizing the gate structure. and this may be explained by the rather oxidizing potentials required for hole injection. Science 302. I.Y. Shim. and P. 4 M. ͑a͒ Drain-source current as a function of the drainsource voltage for several values of the gate-source voltage. New York. ͑c͒ With drain electrode open. Another author ͑B. Science 300. Phys. Gaur. Appl. the effective mobility achieved are still quite low ϳ2 ϫ 10−7 cm2 / V s. Bawendi. and M. Annu. H. Yu. Am. F. B. K. and P. G. Science 270. 1361 ͑2000͒. 5 S. J.-J. 11. Fischbein and M. W. 31 B. V. U. B 62. Wang. Chem. 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