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S1A1L LNVIkCNMLN1 A1LAS

kAIAS1nAN
CenLral ÞolluLlon ConLrol 8oard
8a[asLhan SLaLe ÞolluLlon ConLrol 8oard
uevelopmenL AlLernaLlves
1he Project 1eom
ka[asthan StateÞo||ut|onContro| 8oard
Mr. Anand Lal MaLhur (CLL), Þro[ecL ln Charge
Mr. vl[aykumar Slnghal (SLL), Þro[ecL ln Charge(Þrevlously)
Mr. 8huvnesh MaLhur, AsslsLanL LnvlronmenLal Lnglneer
Ms. ulpLl Caonkar, LnvlronmenLal Þlanner l
Mr. vlshal ÞaLhak, LnvlronmenLal Þlanner l (Þrevlously)
Ms. AnurlLa8haLnagar, Senlor 8esearch lellow (Þrevlously)
Centra| Þo||ut|onContro| 8oard
Mr. Anand kumar, LnvlronmenLal Lnglneer, Þro[ecL ln Charge
Ms. Þlyall 8andyopadhyay, LnvlronmenLal Þlanner l
Ms. nandlnl Chaudhury, LnvlronmenLal Þlanner ll (Þrevlously)
Deve|opment A|ternat|ves
Mr. Anand kumar, Senlor ÞrogrammeManager
Mr. Avanlndrakumar, Þro[ecL CoordlnaLor
Mr. A[lnkya!adhav, ClSAnalysL
Ms. valerle,
CCN1LN1S
CPAÞ1L8 1 : ln18CuuC1lCn 1
CPAÞ1L8 2 : Þ8CllLL Cl 1PL S1A1L 2
2.1 CLCC8AÞPlCAL LCCA1lCn 2
2.2 PlS1C8lCAL 8ACkC8Cunu 3
2.3 AuMlnlS18A1lvL ulvlSlCnS 3
2.4 u88An SL11LLMLn1S & uLMCC8AÞP? 10
2.3 18AnSÞC81A1lCn nL1WC8k 14
2.6 CLlMA1L 16
2.7 nA1u8AL PAZA8uS 17
CPAÞ1L8 3 : ÞP?SlCAL CPA8AC1L8lS1lCS Cl 1PL LAnu 18
3.1 LAnu uSL 18
3.2 ÞP?SlCC8AÞP? 19
3.3 CLCLCC? 20
3.4 SClL 21
3.3 WAS1LLAnu 22
CPAÞ1L8 4 : Su8lACL & C8Cunu WA1L8 lLA1u8LS 23
4.1 u8AlnACL nL1WC8k 23
4.2 LAkLS Cl 8A!AS1PAn 27
4.3 l88lCA1lCn nL1WC8k 30
4.4 Su8lACL WA1L8 uSL 32
4.3 C8Cunu WA1L8 uSL 33
4.6 C8Cunu WA1L8 1A8LL 34
4.7 P?u8CCLCMC8ÞPCLCC? 34
CPAÞ1L83 : Lnvl8CnMLn1ALL? SLnSl1lvL ZCnLS 36
3.1 8lCLCClCAL ulvL8Sl1? 40
3.2 nA1lCnAL ÞA8kS 42
3.3 WlLu-LllL SAnC1uA8lLS 43
3.4 ZCCLCClCAL CA8uLnS 46
3.3 1Cu8lSMA8LAS 47
CPAÞ1L86 : MA!C8 SCu8CLS Cl ÞCLLu1lCn 32
6.1. lnuuS18lAL uLvLLCÞMLn1 32
6.2 MlnL8AL 8LSCu8CLS 32
6.3 SCLlu/PAZA8uCuS WAS1L CLnL8A1lCn 34
6.4 vLPlCuLA8 ulS18l8u1lCn 37
6.3 uCMLS1lC SLWACL LCAu 37
6.6 CCnSuMÞ1lCn Cl lL81lLlZL8S & ÞLS1lCluLS 37
CPAÞ1L87 : Lnvl8CnMLn1 CuALl1? 39
7.1 Al8 CuALl1? 39
7.2 WA1L8 CuALl1? 66
7.3 CCn1AMlnA1Lu Sl1L 73
AbbrevlaLlons 77
LlsL of llgures 79
LlsL of 1ables 81
8eferences 82
LlsL of Maps 83
Annexure


1
CnAÞ1Lk 2
CnAÞ1Lk 1
IN1kCDUC1ICN
1
he SpaLlal LnvlronmenLal regardlng Lhe envlronmenL of Lhe
Þlannlng Þrogramme was SLaLe. lL lncludes maps on general/
concepLuallzed for ensurlng physlcal feaLures, surface/ground
proLecLlon of Lhe envlronmenL and waLer, envlronmenLally senslLlve
lLs resources Lhrough planned zones, ma[or sources of polluLlon and
and susLalnable developmenL. 1he envlronmenLal quallLy.
Þrogrammecommenced ln 1993ln 14
lL provldes a general plcLure of
volunLeerlng SLaLes. 1he Þrogramme
Lhe SLaLe of Lhe blo-physlcal and
l nl Ll al l y caLered Lo Lhe sl Ll ng
soclo-economlc condlLlons and an
of lndusLrles, buL was expanded
undersLandl ng of how human
subsequenLly Lo caLer Lo Lhe slLlng of
acLlvlLles affecL Lhe envlronmenLal
lndusLrlal eSLaLes, compllaLlon of
condlLlons and Lhelr lmpllcaLlons on
envlronmenLal lnformaLlon and
human healLh and economlc well
envlronmenLal lmprovemenL of urban
bel ng. 1he reporL l nLends Lo
areas/mlnlng areas/Lourlsm areas
consolldaLe all Lhe relevanL daLa
eLc.
avallable so LhaL lL can be accessed
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas ls one of and analyzed and serve as Lhe
Lhe acLlvlLles underLaken ln Lhe daLabase for pollcy maklng and
above-menLloned Þrogramme. lL ls a preparaLl on of envl ronmenLal
collecLlon of maps, LexL and Lables managemenL plans.
LhaL provldes baslc lnformaLlon
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan


2

2.1Geograph|ca| Locat|on
8
muslc, dance, arL, crafL and advenLure - a land LhaL never
ceases Lo lnLrlgue and enchanL. Spread across Lhe SLaLe,
a[asLhan, a kaleldoscoplc SLaLe, ls Lhe SLaLe where
monumenLs resound wlLh folklore of herolsm and
LradlLlon and modernlLy blends LogeLher Lo form a
romance.
rlch amalgamaLlon of colors, culLure and LradlLlon.
ulverslLy cuLs across Lhe realms of physlography, culLure,
8a[asLhan ls locaLed ln Lhe norLh-wesLern parL of Lhe
cusLoms, LradlLlon and language. WlLh Lhe Aravallls ln Lhe
counLry, beLween 69¨30'LLo 78¨13'LlonglLudeand 23¨30'n
easL and Lhe 1har ueserL ln Lhe wesL, Lhe SLaLe leaves much
Lo 30¨12'n laLlLude, coverlng an area of abouL 3,42,239 sq.
Lo Lhe lmaglnaLlon. 1he land ls endowed wlLh lnvlnclble
km, whlch accounLs for 11 percenL of Lhe LoLal area of Lhe
forLs, magnlflcenL palaces, havells, rlch culLure and
counLry . ÞresenLlng a rhombold shape, Lhe SLaLe has a
herlLage, beauLy and naLural resources. lL ls a land rlch ln
CnAÞ1Lk 2
ÞkCIILL CI 1nL S1A1L
llgure 2.1: LocaLlon of 8a[asLhan
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan


3
maxlmum lengLh of 869 km from wesL Lo easL and 826 km sLruggle for supremacy beLween Chalukyas, Þarmars and
from norLh Lo souLh. 1he SLaLe ls bound on Lhe wesL by Chauhans.
ÞaklsLan, ln Lhe norLh by Paryana and Þun[ab, ln Lhe easL by
- 1he medleval perlod
uLLar Þradesh and Madhya Þradesh, and ln Lhe souLh by
saw Lhe rlse of Lhe Mewar clan. Around 1200 Au, a parL of
Cu[araL. 1heSLaLehas 33admlnlsLraLlvedlsLrlcLs.
8a[asLhan came under Musllm rulers. 1he prlnclpal cenLres
1he largesL among Lhe resL of Lhe SLaLes and unlon
of Lhelr powers were nagaur and A[mer. 8anLhambhor was
LerrlLorles ln lndla, 8a[asLhan, was formed ln 1949, wlLh
also under Lhelr soverelgnLy. uurlng Lhe perlod of Lhe
!alpur as Lhe SLaLe caplLal. Cnce known as Lhe 'Land of Lhe
Mughals, Lhe klngdom of Mewar saw a phenomenal
klngs', Lhe SLaLe comprlses of one of Lhe oldesL mounLaln
expanslon under Lhe leadershlp of 8ana Sangram Slngh of
ranges ln Lhe world. LlLerally meanlng a 'llne of peaks', Lhe
LheSysodsladynasLy.
Aravalll range ls a range of mounLalns ln wesLern lndla,
- ÞollLlcal unlLy Lhrough runnlng for approxlmaLely 800 kllomeLres from Lhe norLh
easL Lo souLh wesL, cuLLlng across Lhe SLaLes of 8a[asLhan, Lhereglon was noL observed unLll Lhearrlval of LheMughals
Paryana, and Cu[araL. lL ls Lhe eroded sLub of a range of under Lhe leadershlp of Akbar. Akbar creaLed a unlfled
anclenL folded mounLalns. WlLh an area of over 200,000 sq. provlnce of 8a[asLhan. 1he beglnnlng of Lhe 18Lh cenLury
km, Lhe 1har ueserL ls a largearld reglon ln Lhe wesLern parL saw Lhebeglnnlng of Lhedecllneof LheMughal dynasLy. 1he
of 8a[asLhan. 1hlnly populaLed, vasL expanses of sand and pollLlcal dlslnLegraLlon of 8a[asLhan was caused by Lhe
sllL cover Lhe wesLern half, wlLh 8lkaner belng Lhe only large dlsmembermenL of Lhe Mughal Lmplre. 1he MaraLhas
clLy ln Lhe deserL reglon. WlLh Lhe Aravalll rangeservlng as a peneLraLed 8a[asLhan upon Lhe decllne of Lhe Mughal
waLer dlvlde, Chambal and Lunl are Lhe Lwo ma[or rlvers ln Lmplre. ln 1733, Lhey occupled A[mer. 1he beglnnlng of Lhe
Lhe SLaLe. Chambal, Lhe only perennlal rlver, orlglnaLes ln 19Lh CenLury was marked by Lhe onslaughL of Lhe Þlndarls.
Lhe vlndhyan ranges and flows along Lhe easLern border ln 1817-18, Lhe 8rlLlsh CovernmenL concluded LreaLles of
beLween 8a[asLhan and Madhya Þradesh. CrlglnaLlng ln Lhe alllance wlLh almosL all Lhe SLaLes of 8a[puLana. 1hus began
Aravalll range, Lunl, a seasonal rlver, ls Lhe only rlver LhaL Lhe8rlLlsh ruleover 8a[asLhan, LheLhen called 8a[puLana.
flows across wesLern 8a[asLhan. vegeLaLlon of Lhe SLaLe
- 1he ersLwhlle 8a[puLana
varles wlLh Lhe soll Lype and avallablllLy of waLer. loresL
comprlsed 19prlncely SLaLes and Lwo chlefshlps of Lava and
vegeLaLlon ls of Lhe declduous Lype and ls characLerlzed by
kushalgarh and a 8rlLlsh admlnlsLered LerrlLory of
Lhorny Lrees, grasses and shrubs.
A[mer-Mewar. 8a[asLhan SLaLe was a heLerogeneous
conglomeraLlon of separaLe pollLlcal enLlLles wlLh dlfferenL
admlnlsLraLlve sysLems prevalllng ln dlfferenL places. 1he
AnclenL Þerlod (up Lo 1200 Au) - WlLh lLs hlsLory Lraclng
presenL SLaLe of 8a[asLhan was formed afLer a long process
back Lo Lhe lndus valley clvlllzaLlon, dlscovery of
of lnLegraLlon whlch began on March 17, 1948 and ended
seLLlemenLs aL kallbangan (norLhern 8a[asLhan) reveal a
on november 1, 1936. 8efore lnLegraLlon, lL was called
hlsLorlcal pasL LhaL can be Lraced back Lo 2300 8.C. 1he !aLs,
8a[puLana, afLer lnLegraLlon lL came Lo be known as
8hlls and Lhe Mlnas were among Lhe flrsL lnhablLanLs, Lhe
8a[asLhan. AL presenL, Lhere are 33 dlsLrlcLs (lncludlng Lhe
Aryan seLLlemenLs emerglng around 1400 8.C. 1he
new dlsLrlcL of ÞraLapgarh), 103 sub-dlvlslons, 241 Lehslls,
Maurayans, ruled over Lhe reglon beLween 321 and 184 8C.
37,889lnhablLed vlllages and 222Lowns ln LheSLaLe.
CLher ma[or republlcs LhaL domlnaLed Lhls reglon lnclude
Lhe Malavas, Ar[unyas, ?audhyas, kushans, Saka SaLraps,
CupLas and Punas. uerlved from '8a[-puLras' or 'Sons of
1he SLaLe has seven admlnlsLraLlve dlvlslons, namely -
Þrlnces', Lhe Cur[ara ÞraLlharas were one of Lhe earllesL
A[mer, 8haraLpur, 8lkaner, !alpur, !odhpur, koLa, and
8a[puL clans Lo rule Lhe reglon. 1he 8a[puL clan's
udalpur. 1hese dlvlslons are furLher classlfled lnLo 33
ascendancy ln lndlan hlsLory was durlng Lheperlod from Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve dlsLrlcLs (lncludlng Lhe new dlsLrlcL of
elghLh Lo Lhe LwelfLh cenLury Au. 1he ÞraLlhars ruled
ÞraLapgarh).
8a[asLhan and mosL of norLhern lndla durlng 730-1000 Au.
8eLween 1000 and 1200 Au, 8a[asLhan wlLnessed Lhe
MLDILVAL ÞLkICD(1201 - 1707)
MCDLkNÞLkICD(1707-1947)
ÞCS1 INDLÞLNDLNCL
2.2nIS1CkICAL 8ACkGkCUND
2.3ADMINIS1kA1IVLDIVISICNS
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
llgure 2.2: Seven AdmlnlsLraLlve ulvlslons of 8a[asLhan
Adm|n|strat|ve
D|v|s|on
!alpur ulvlslon
!odhpur ulvlslon
udalpur ulvlslon
D|str|ct
Alwar
uausa
!alpur
!hun[hunu
Slkar
8armer
!alsalmer
!alore
!odhpur
Þall
Slrohl
8answara
ChlLLorgarh
uungarpur
ÞraLapgarh
8a[samand
udalpur

4

Adm|n|strat|ve
D|v|s|on
A[mer ulvlslon
8haraLpur ulvlslon
8lkaner ulvlslon
koLa ulvlslon
D|str|ct
A[mer
8hllwara
nagaur
1onk
8haraLpur
uholpur
karaull
Sawal Madhopur
8lkaner
Churu
Panumanagarh
Srl Canganagar
8aran
8undl
!halawar
koLa
1able 2.1 AdmlnlsLraLlve ulvlslons ln 8a[asLhan
Source: SLaLlsLlcal AbsLracL 8a[asLhan - 2009
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
8rlef lnformaLlon abouL LhedlsLrlcLs ls as follows:
8answara sub-dlvlslon conslsLs of ChaLol, Þlpal khunL,
Carhl and 1alwara ÞanchayaL SamlLls, whereas Lhe
1. - lounded ln Lhe 7Lh cenLury A.u., lL ls an oasls
kushalgarh sub-dlvlslon conslsLs of 8agldora,
wrapped ln Lhe hllls. 1hls dlsLrlcL ls slLuaLed ln Lhe
Anandpurl, Sa[[angarh and kushalgarh ÞanchayaL
cenLre of 8a[asLhan and ls surrounded by !alpur and
SamlLls.
1onk dlsLrlcLs ln Lhe easL and Þall ln Lhe wesL. nagaur
4. - 1he dlsLrlcL ls bounded ln Lhe norLh and dlsLrlcL Louches lLs norLhern boundary whlle 8hllwara
norLh-wesL by koLa, !halawar and 8undl dlsLrlcLs and dlsLrlcL ls ln Lhe souLh. lL covers an area of 8,481 sq.
ln Lhe wesL by ChlLLorgarh. lL covers an area of 6,933 km. (2.48° of Lhe SLaLe). A[mer ls a popular
sq. km. (2.03° of Lhe SLaLe). lor admlnlsLraLlve pllgrlmage cenLre for Lhe Plndus as well as Musllms
purposes, Lhe dlsLrlcL has been dlvlded lnLoLhree sub- and a base for vlslLlng Þushkar (11 km.), Lhe abode of
dlvlslons vlz., 8aran, Shahbad and Chhabra, Lord 8rahma. 1he dlsLrlcL ls dlvlded lnLo four sub-
comprlslng seven Lehslls ln all. dlvlslons vlz., A[mer, 8eawar, kekrl and klshangarh.
1he sub-dlvlslons are furLher dlvlded lnLo slx Lehslls,
3. -1hls dlsLrlcL ls slLuaLed ln Lhe wesLern parL
namely - A[mer, 8eawar, naslrabad, kekrl, klshangarh
of 8a[asLhan and forms parL of Lhe 1har ueserL. lL ls
and Sarwar and elghL ÞanchayaL SamlLls.
surrounded by !alsalmer ln Lhe norLh, !alore ln Lhe
souLh, Þall and !odhpur ln Lhe easL and ÞaklsLan ln Lhe 2. - 1hls dlsLrlcL ls slLuaLed ln Lhe norLh-easLern
wesL. lL covers an area of 28,387 sq. km. (8.29° of Lhe parL of 8a[asLhan. lL ls bounded ln Lhe norLh by
SLaLe). 8armer ls Lhe dlsLrlcL headquarLer and Lhe Curgaon of Paryana, 8haraLpur dlsLrlcL on norLh-easL
prlnclpal Lown as well. 1he dlsLrlcL ls dlvlded lnLo Lwo and Mahendragarh of Paryana. !alpur lles ln Lhe
sub-dlvlslons vlz., 8armer and 8alarL. 1he dlsLrlcL has souLh-wesL and uausa ln Lhe souLh. lL covers an area
Lhree munlclpallLles, elghL ÞanchayaL SamlLls, 223 of 8,380 sq. km. (2.43° of Lhe SLaLe). Alwar, 8ehror,
gram panchayaLs, 1,640 revenue vlllages and 833 8a[garh and klshangarhbas are Lhe four sub-dlvlslons
lnhablLed vlllages. of Lhe dlsLrlcL. 1he dlsLrlcL conslsLs of Len Lehslls,
seven sub-Lehslls and slx nagar Þallkas.
6. - 1hls dlsLrlcL lles ln Lhe souLh-easLern
parL of 8a[asLhan. lL ls bounded by A[mer ln Lhe norLh,
ChlLLorgarh ln souLh, udalpur ln wesL and 8undl ln Lhe
easL. lL covers an area of 10,433 sq.km. (3.03° of Lhe
SLaLe). lrom Lhe admlnlsLraLlve polnL of vlew,
8hllwara dlsLrlcL ls parL of Lhe A[mer dlvlslon. lL ls
dlvlded lnLo flve sub-dlvlslons and eleven Lehslls. lL
has slx Lowns and eleven ÞanchayaL SamlLls.
7. - lL ls one of Lhe deserL dlsLrlcLs slLuaLed ln
Lhe norLh-wesL of 8a[asLhan. lL ls bounded ln Lhe
norLh by Lhe dlsLrlcL of Srl Canganagar, on Lhe wesL by
!alsalmer and ÞaklsLan, Churu ln Lhe easL and nagaur
and !odhpur ln Lhe souLh-easL. 1he dlsLrlcL covers an
area of 27,244 sq.km (7.96 ° of Lhe SLaLe). 8lkaner
norLh, 8lkaner SouLh and kolayaL are Lhe Lhree sub-
3. - 1hls dlsLrlcL lles ln Lhe souLhern mosL
dlvlslons of Lhe dlsLrlcL. 1he 8lkaner norLh sub-
parL of 8a[asLhan. lL ls surrounded by udalpur and
dlvlslon has only one Lehsll, whlle 8lkaner SouLh sub-
ChlLLorgarh ln Lhe norLh, uungarpur ln Lhe wesL, wlLh
dlvlslon has Lwo Lehslls, namely - Loonkaransar and
8aLlam and !habua dlsLrlcLs of Madhya Þradesh ln Lhe
nokha.
easL and souLh respecLlvely. lL covers an area of 3,037
8. - 1hls dlsLrlcL lles ln Lhe easLern-mosL
sq. km. (1.47° of Lhe SLaLe). 1he dlsLrlcL ls dlvlded lnLo
parL of Lhe SLaLe. lL shares lLs boundary wlLh Curgaon
Lwo sub-dlvlslons, vlz., 8answara and kushalgarh. 1he
AIMLk
8AkAN
8AkMLk
ALWAk
8nILWAkA
8IkANLk
8ANSWAkA
8nAkA1ÞUk
llgure 2.3 : WaLer places of Slllserh

3
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
dlsLrlcL of Paryana ln Lhe norLh and norLh-easL.
MaLhura and Agra lle ln Lhe easL, uhaulpur dlsLrlcL lles
ln Lhe souLh and Sawal Madhopur, uausa and Alwar
dlsLrlcLs ln Lhe wesL. lL covers an area of 3,066 sq. km.
(1.48 ° of Lhe SLaLe). 1he dlsLrlcL ls composed of Lhree
sub-dlvlslons, vlz., 8haraLpur, ueeg and 8ayana. 1hese
sub-dlvlslons have been furLher dlvlded lnLo Len
Lehslls, namely - 8haraLpur, nadbal, kumher, 8ayana,
8oopbas, Welr, ueeg, kaman, nagar and Þaharl and
nlneÞanchayaL SamlLls.
11. - 1he dlsLrlcL ls locaLed ln norLh-easLern
8a[asLhan. lL ls bounded by Srl Canganagar dlsLrlcL ln
Lhe norLh, by Slkar, !hun[hunu and Plssar dlsLrlcL of
Paryana ln Lhe easL, by nagaur ln Lhe souLh and ln Lhe
wesL by 8lkaner. lL covers an area of 16,830 sq. km.
(4.92° of LheSLaLe).
9. - 1he dlsLrlcL ls slLuaLed ln Lhe souLh-easLern
12. - 1he dlsLrlcL has been carved ouL of
parL of 8a[asLhan. lL ls bounded ln LhenorLh by1onk, ln
8haraLpur dlsLrlcL. lL ls bounded on Lhe norLh-easL by
Lhe wesL by 8hllwara and on Lhe souLh-wesL by
Agra dlsLrlcL of uLLar Þradesh, on LhesouLh by Morena
ChlLLorgarh dlsLrlcLs. 1he rlver Chambal forms Lhe
dlsLrlcL of Madhya Þradesh, on Lhe wesL by Sawal
souLhern and easLern boundarles, separaLlng 8undl
and koLa LerrlLorles. 1he souLhern Lehslls of 8undl
forms a wedge beLween 8hllwara and koLa and also
Louches ChlLLorgarh dlsLrlcL. lL covers an area of 3,330
sq. km. (1.62 ° of Lhe SLaLe). 1here are Lwo sub-
dlvlslons of Lhe dlsLrlcL vlz., 8undl and nalnwa. 1hese
Lwo sub-dlvlslons arefurLher dlvlded lnLofour Lehslls.
10. - 1he dlsLrlcL lles ln Lhe souLh-easLern
parL of Lhe SLaLe. lL ls surrounded by koLa ln Lhe easL
and Mandsaur dlsLrlcL of Madhya Þradesh and
8answara ln Lhe souLh-wesL, udalpur and 8a[samand
ln Lhe wesL and 8hllwara and 8undl ln Lhe norLh. lL
covers an area of 10,836 sq.km. (3.17° of Lhe SLaLe).
lor Lhe purpose of admlnlsLraLlon, Lhe dlsLrlcL ls
dlvlded lnLo flve admlnlsLraLlve sub-dlvlslons and
LwelveLehslls.
CnUkU
8UNDI
DnCLÞUk
CnI11CkGAkn
llgure 2.4: Lohargarh forL
llgure 2.3 : ChlLLaugrah lorL


6

llgure 2.6 : Machkund
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
Madhopur dlsLrlcL and on Lhe norLh by 8haraLpur formaLlon of new uausa dlsLrlcL, Lhere are LhlrLeen
dlsLrlcL. lL covers an area of 3,034sq.km. (0.89° of Lhe Lehslls and an equal number of ÞanchayaL SamlLls.
SLaLe). 1heLoLal number of Lowns ls fourLeen. 1hedlsLrlcL has
lLs headquarLers aL !alpur, whlch ls also Lhe SLaLe
13. 1he dlsLrlcL ls slLuaLed ln Lhe easLern parL of
caplLal.
8a[asLhan. lL ls bounded ln Lhe norLh by Alwar dlsLrlcL,
ln souLh by Sawal Madhopur dlsLrlcL, ln Lhe wesL by
!alpur dlsLrlcL and ln Lhe easL by 8haraLpur dlsLrlcL. lL
covers an area of 2,930 sq. km. (0.86° of Lhe SLaLe).
1he dlsLrlcL has flve Lehslls and flve blocks vlz.,
8andlkul, uausa, LalsoL, Mahwaand Slkral.
17. - lL ls Lhe wesLern-mosL dlsLrlcL of
8a[asLhan as well as LhaL of lndla. 1he dlsLrlcL ls
bounded by ÞaklsLan ln lLs norLh and wesL, 8armer ln
Lhe souLh, !odhpur ln Lhe easL and 8lkaner ln Lhe
norLh-easL. lL covers an areaof 38,401sq. km. (11.22°
of LheSLaLe).
14. - 1he dlsLrlcL ls locaLed ln Lhe souLhern
parL of 8a[asLhan. lL ls bounded by udalpur ln Lhe
norLh, 8answara ln Lhe easL and Cu[araL ln souLh and
wesL. lL covers an area of 3,770 sq. km. (1.01° of Lhe
SLaLe)
13. - SlLuaLed ln Lhe norLhern Llp of
8a[asLhan, on Lhe banks of Lhe rlver Chaggar,
Panumangarh ls a flourlshlng Lown and ls Lhe dlsLrlcL
headquarLer, bearlng Lhe same name. Carved ouL
from Srlganganagar dlsLrlcL, lL was formally creaLedon
12Lh !uly, 1994 as Lhe 31sL dlsLrlcL of 8a[asLhan SLaLe.
1he dlsLrlcL shares lLs boundarles wlLh Paryana SLaLe
ln Lhe easL, Srlganganagar dlsLrlcL ln Lhe wesL, Þun[ab
SLaLe ln Lhe norLh and Churu dlsLrlcL ln Lhe SouLh. 1he
18. - 1he dlsLrlcL ls surrounded by 8armer ln Lhe
geographlcal area of LhedlsLrlcL ls 9,636sq. km.
norLh-wesL, Slrohl ln Lhe souLh-easL, Þall ln Lhe norLh-
easL and 8anaskanLha dlsLrlcL of Cu[araL ln Lhe souLh. 16. - 1he dlsLrlcL ls slLuaLed ln Lhe easLern parL of
lL covers an area of 10,640 sq. km. (3.11° of Lhe 8a[asLhan. lL ls bound ln Lhe norLh by Slkar and Alwar,
SLaLe). 1he dlsLrlcL ls composed of Lwo sub-dlvlslons ln souLh by 1onk, A[mer and Sawal Madhopur, ln Lhe
vlz., !alore and 8hlnmal coverlng flve Lehslls vlz., wesL by nagaur, Slkar and A[mer and ln easL by
Ahore, !alore, 8hlnmal, 8anlwara and Sanchore whlch 8haraLpur and uausa dlsLrlcLs. lL covers an area of
cover seven blocks/ÞanchayaL SamlLls. 14,068 sq. km. (4.11° of Lhe SLaLe). AfLer Lhe
DAUSA-
IAISALMLk
DUNGAkÞUk
nANUMANGAkn
IALCkL
IAIÞUk
llgure 2.9: !alsalmer


7
llgure 2.7: uausa
llgure 2.8: Pawa Mahal
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
llgure 2.12: Carh Þalace
19. - 1he dlsLrlcL ls slLuaLed ln Lhe souLh-easL
corner of 8a[asLhan aL Lhe edge of Malwa ÞlaLeau. Cn
Lhe souLh-wesL and easL, lL Louches Lhe border of
Madhya Þradesh, ln Lhe norLh, Lhe Mukandra range,
runnlng from norLh-wesL Lo easL, forms a rough
boundary beLween Lhe Lwo dlsLrlcLs of !halawar and
koLa. lL covers an area of 6,219 sq. km. (1.82° of Lhe
SLaLe). 1hereareLhreesub-dlvlslons - !halawar, Aklera
and 8hawanl Mandl. 1here are slx ÞanchayaL SamlLls -
!halrapaLan, khanpur, Þlrwa, Manohar 1hana, uag
and 8akanl, slx Lowns and 1,389vlllages ln LhedlsLrlcL.
dlvlslons, l.e. !odhpur and Þhalodl and slx Lehslls, l.e.
!odhpur, Csslan, Þhalodl, 8lare, 8hopalgarh and
8alesar and nlneÞanchayaL SamlLls.
22. - 1he dlsLrlcL has been carved ouL of Sawal
Madhopur and has lLs headquarLers aL karaull Lown
slLuaLed aL a dlsLance of 121 km. from 8haraLpur and
182 km from !alpur. A ma[or rellglous evenL of kalla
uevl falr Lakes placehere.
23. - 1he dlsLrlcL ls bounded on Lhe norLh and
norLh-wesL by Sawal Madhopur, 1onk and 8undl
dlsLrlcLs. 1he Chambal 8lver separaLes Lhese dlsLrlcLs
20. - 1he dlsLrlcL ls slLuaLed ln Lhe norLh-
from koLa dlsLrlcL, formlng a naLural boundary. lL
easLern parL of Lhe SLaLe. lL ls surrounded by Churu on
Lhe norLh-wesLern slde, Plssar and Mahendragarh of
Paryana ln Lhe norLh-easLern parL and by Slkar ln Lhe
wesL, souLh and souLh-easLern parL. lL covers an area
of 3,928 sq. km. (1.73° of Lhe SLaLe). 1he dlsLrlcL has
flve Lehslls - !hun[hunu, Chlrawa, kheLrl, nawalgarh,
and udalpurwaLl. 1here are elghL ÞanchayaL SamlLls -
!hun[hunu, Alslsar, Chlrawa, SuraLgarh, kheLrl,
8uhana, nawalgarh, and udalpurwaLl.
21. - 1he dlsLrlcL ls cenLrally locaLed ln Lhe
wesLern parL of Lhe SLaLe. lL ls Lhe headquarLer of
wesLern dlsLrlcLs l.e., Þall, !odhpur nagaur, Slrohl,
8armer, !alore and !alsalmer. lL ls bound by 8lkaner
and !alsalmer dlsLrlcLs ln Lhe norLh, 8armer and Þall
dlsLrlcLs ln souLh, nagaur dlsLrlcL ln Lhe easL and
!alsalmer dlsLrlcL ln LhewesL. lL covers an areaof 3,928
sq. km. (1.73° of Lhe SLaLe). 1he dlsLrlcL ls dlvlded lnLo
Lhree admlnlsLraLlve sub-dlvlslons - !hun[hunu, kheLrl
and nawalgarh. 1he dlsLrlcL ls dlvlded lnLo Lwo sub-
InALAWAk
kAkAULI
kC1A
InUNInUNU
ICDnÞUk
llgure 2.11: umald 8hawan
llgure 2.10 : !halawar

8

SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
9
covers an area of 12,436sq. km. (3.63° of Lhe SLaLe). and ln Lhe souLh-easL by !alpur dlsLrlcL. lL also Louches
lor admlnlsLraLlve purposes, Lhe area has been Mahendragarh dlsLrlcL of Paryana aL lLs norLh-easL
dlvlded lnLo Lwo sub-dlvlslons vlz., koLa and 8amgan[ corner. lL covers an area of 7,732 sq. km. (2.26° of Lhe
Mandl, whlch ln Lurn aredlvlded lnLo flveLensll. SLaLe).
24. - 8ecause of lLs cenLral locaLlon ln 29. - 1he dlsLrlcL ls bounded by Þall dlsLrlcL ln Lhe
8a[asLhan, lL shares lLs border wlLh several oLher norLh-easL, udalpur ln Lhe easL, !alore ln Lhe wesL and
dlsLrlcLs of Lhe SLaLe. ln Lhe norLh, lL ls bound by 8anaskanLha dlsLrlcL of Cu[araL ln souLh. 1he area of
8lkaner and Churu dlsLrlcLs, ln Lhe easL by Slkar and LhedlsLrlcL ls 3136sq. km. (1.32° of LheSLaLearea).
!alpur dlsLrlcLs, ln Lhe souLh by A[mer and Þall dlsLrlcLs
30. - 1he dlsLrlcL ls one of Lhe
and ln LhewesL by !odhpur dlsLrlcL. lL covers an area of
norLhern- mosL dlsLrlcLs of Lhe SLaLe and slLuaLed
17,718sq. km. (3.18° of LheSLaLe). lor Lhepurposeof
ad[acenL Lo Panumangarh dlsLrlcL. lL shares lLs
admlnlsLraLlon, Lhe dlsLrlcL ls dlvlded lnLo four
wesLern boundary wlLh ÞaklsLan, norLhern boundary
admlnlsLraLlve sub-dlvlslons vlz., nagaur, MerLa,
wlLh Þun[ab and souLhern boundary wlLh 8lkaner
ueedwana and ÞarbaLsar. Lach sub-dlvlslon ls dlvlded
dlsLrlcL.
lnLo Lwo Lehslls vlz., nagaur, !ayal, MerLa, uegana,
ueedwana, Ladnu, ÞarbaLsar and nava.
23. - 1he dlsLrlcL shares common border wlLh seven
dlsLrlcLs of 8a[asLhan. ln Lhe norLh, lL shares lLs border
wlLh nagaur and !odhpur dlsLrlcLs, ln souLh-easL wlLh
udalpur and 8a[samand dlsLrlcLs, and ln Lhe norLh-
easL wlLh A[mer dlsLrlcL. Slrohl and !alore are on Lhe
souLh-wesL and wesL, respecLlvely. lL covers an area of
12,387 sq. km. (3.62° of Lhe SLaLe). 1here are four
sub-dlvlslons ln Lhe dlsLrlcL, namely - Þall, 8all, So[aL
and !alLaran. 1heyaredlvlded lnLo seven Lehslls.
26. - 1hedlsLrlcL ls slLuaLed aL LhesouLhern
Llp of 8a[asLhan, ad[olnlng udalpur, 8hllwara, Þall,
A[mer, and ChlLLor dlsLrlcLs, and ls oval ln shape wlLh a
very narrow sLrlp sLreLchlng Lowards Lhe norLh. lL ls
bounded by A[mer and Þall ln Lhe norLh, udalpur ln
Lhe souLh, 8hllwara and ChlLLorgarh ln Lhe easL and by
Þall and Slrohl dlsLrlcLs ln Lhe wesL. lL covers an area of
4,768 sq. km. (1.39 ° of Lhe SLaLe). AdmlnlsLraLlvely,
31. - lL ls bound ln Lhe norLh by !alpur, ln Lhe easL by
Lhe dlsLrlcL ls dlvlded lnLo Lhree sub-dlvlslons, seven
Sawal Madhopur, ln Lhe souLh by 8undl and 8hllwara
Lehslls and an equal number of blocks.
dlsLrlcLs and ln Lhe wesL by A[mer dlsLrlcL. lL covers an
27. - 1he dlsLrlcL ls locaLed ln Lhe
area of 7,194 sq.km. (2.1° of Lhe SLaLe). 1he dlsLrlcL,
souLh-easLern reglon of 8a[asLhan and ls bound by aL presenL, has Lwo sub-dlvlslons vlz., 1onk and
uausa dlsLrlcL ln Lhe norLh, koLa and 8undl dlsLrlcLs ln Malpura, comprlslng slx Lehslls and slx ÞanchayaL
Lhe souLh, 8haraLpur and uhaulpur dlsLrlcL ln Lhe SamlLls.
norLh-easL and 1onk and !alpur ln wesL and norLh-
32. - 1he dlsLrlcL ls slLuaLed ln Lhe souLhern Llp
wesL, respecLlvely. lL covers an area of 10,327 sq. km.
of 8a[asLhan ad[olnlng Cu[araL and ls oval ln shape
(3.08° of LheSLaLe). 28. Slkar - 1hedlsLrlcL ls locaLed ln
wlLh a very narrow sLrlp sLreLchlng Lowards Lhe norLh.
Lhe norLh-easLern parL of Lhe SLaLe. lL ls bound ln Lhe
lL ls bound ln Lhe norLh by 8a[samand and Þall
norLh by !hun[hunu dlsLrlcL, ln Lhe norLh-wesL by
dlsLrlcLs, ln Lhe souLh by uungarpur and 8answara, ln
Churu dlsLrlcL, ln Lhe souLh-wesL by nagaur dlsLrlcL
NAGAUk SIkCnI
SkIGANGANAGAk
ÞALI
kAISAMAND
1CNk
SAWAI MADnCÞUk
UDAIÞUk
llgure 2.13 : Canganagar Canal
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
Lhe easL by ChlLLorgarh and on Lhe wesL by Slrohl and populaLlon of 36,307,188 and a denslLy of 163 persons per
SabarkanLha dlsLrlcLs of Cu[araL. lL covers an area of sq. km. as per LheCensus of lndla8eporL 2001
17,279 sq. km. (3.03° of Lhe SLaLe). 1he dlsLrlcL ls
dlvlded lnLo four sub-dlvlslons, Len Lehslls and eleven
1he Lype of economlc acLlvlLy deLermlnes Lhe dlsLlncLlon
blocks. (llg 1.14: ÞlcholaLake)
beLween Lhe rural and Lhe urban populaLlon. lor
developlng economles, a rural populaLlon ls ofLen
characLerlzed by a large prlmary secLor engaged ln
agrlculLure, whlle an urban populaLlon ls characLerlzed by a
large lnformal secLor engaged ln LerLlary acLlvlLles.
normally, an urban area ls Lhe one ln whlch 73° of Lhe
populaLlon llves on non-agrlculLural occupaLlons. An
lmporLanL process assoclaLed wlLh populaLlon and
demographlc change ls LhaL of urbanlzaLlon and urban
growLh.
33. - 1he new dlsLrlcL has been carved ouL
from Lhe areas of flve Lehslls and four sub Lehslls of
ChlLLorgarh, udalpur and 8answara dlsLrlcLs.
ÞraLapgarh, Arnod and ChhoLl Sadrl Lehslls have been
Laken from ChlLLorgarh dlsLrlcL, uharlwad Lehsll of
udalpur dlsLrlcL and newly upgraded Lehsll of
ÞlpalkhunL of 8answara dlsLrlcL. ChhoLl Sadrl and
Arnod would serveas Lhesub-dlvlslonal headquarLers
of Lhenew dlsLrlcL.
1he SLaLe has a LoLal area of 3, 42,239 sq. km., supporLlng a
kUkAL ANDUk8AN ÞCÞULA1ICNkA1IC
ÞkA1AÞGAkn
2.4. Uk8AN SL11LLMLN1S AND DLMCGkAÞn¥
llgure 2.14: Þlchola Lake

10
RuraI-Urban Dichotomy in
Rajasthan (2001)
77%
23%
Rural
Urban

2.13: 8ural urban ulchoLomy llgure
llgure 2.16 : ulsLrlcL wlse 8ural-urban ÞopulaLlon

D|str|ct w|se rura|-urban popu|at|on |n ka[asthan
0
50
100
150
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31
D|str|cts
°
Þ
o
p
u
l
a
L
l
o
n
(
8
u
r
a
l
&
u
r
b
a
n

°urban Lo
LoLal dlsLrlcL
ÞopulaLlon
° 8ural Lo
LoLal dlsLrlcL
ÞopulaLlon
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
11
urban populaLlon, Lhe number of urban areas and Lhe level
of urbanlzaLlon has lncreased over Lhe years. urbanlzaLlon 'Slum areas' have been deflned as all areas LhaL have been
ofLen refers Lo Lhe growLh of urban areas or Lhe movemenL noLlfled by SLaLe/local or cenLral governmenLs Lhrough any
of peoplefrom rural Lo urban areas. lL ls closely llnked Lo Lhe acL as slums, all Lhose areas recognlzed as slums buL noL
processes of modernlzaLlon and lndusLrlallzaLlon. (ulsLrlcLs noLlfled by an acL, all such congesLed areas LhaL have a
ln Annexure) mlnlmum populaLlon of 300 or 60-70 households wlLh
unplanned resldenLlal clusLers, lacklng baslc clvlc amenlLles
ln 8a[asLhan, urbanlzaLlon ls less pronounced. 1hls largesL
llke llghLlng, drlnklng waLer and sanlLaLlon. Cf Lhe LoLal
SLaLe of Lhe counLry accounLs for only 3° of Lhe naLlon's
percenLage of populaLlon of people resldlng ln slums ln Lhe
LoLal urban populaLlon. 1he number of Lowns wlLhln Lhe
SLaLe, !alpur has Lhe hlghesL percenLage (29.03°). A[mer,
SLaLe remalns low and unchanged beLween Lhe perlod of
!odhpur, and koLa have 9.99°, 13°, and 12.60°
1991 and 2001 (222 Lowns). ln 2001, Lhe level of
respecLlvely of Lhe LoLal slum populaLlon of Lhe SLaLe,
urbanlzaLlon wlLhln Lhe SLaLe was 23.38°. 1he SLaLe ls also
resldlng ln Lhese areas. ln order Lo lmprove Lhe llvlng
characLerlzed by a relaLlvely slow decadal urban populaLlon
condlLlons of Lhe people resldlng ln slums, Lhe governmenL
growLh (31.17° - for Lhe perlod 1999-2001). LsLlmaLes for
has shown Lhe allocaLlon of funds Lhrough varlous
2006 also reflecL a relaLlvely lower percenLage of urban
schemes. 1he urban pollcy of Lhe SLaLe governmenL ls Lo
populaLlon ln comparlson Lo Lhe rural populaLlon (rural-
prepare masLer plans for all local urban local bodles. A new
24.47°, urban- 73.32°). ulsLrlcLs whlch have a medlum-
houslng pollcy would be announced ln due course,
slzed urban populaLlon lnclude Canganagar, Churu,
resldenLlal colonles ln urban areas for lower and mlddle
!hun[hunu, Slkar, nagaur, 8haraLpur, udalpur, Þall, 1onk,
class famllles would bedeveloped and abouL 23,000houses
8hllwara, Slrohl, 8undl, uhaulpur, !halawar, ChlLLorgarh,
would be consLrucLed every year for poor famllles. 8aslc
!alsalmer, Sawal Madhopur and Alwar. 1he remalnlng
publlc amenlLles llke LolleLs, publlc waLer supply, prlmary
dlsLrlcLs have a low percenLage of urban populaLlon.
schools, healLh cenLres and roads would be ensured ln all
Conslderably low urban populaLlon ls observed ln
slum areas of LheSLaLe.
uungarpur, 8answara, 8armer and !alore dlsLrlcLs.
Þro[ecLed populaLlon (2021) also reflecLs a hlgher A number of urban poverLy allevlaLlon schemes and urban
percenLage of rural populaLlon raLher Lhan urban devel opmenL schemes/programmes are bel ng
populaLlon (rural- 73.83°, urban-23.32°) lmplemenLed ln Lhe SLaLe. under Iawahar La| Nehru
Nat|ona| Urbankenewa| M|ss|on(ILNNUkM), launched by
Lhe CenLral CovernmenL, Lhe ob[ecLlve ls Lo provlde baslc
As per Lhe Census of lndla, Lowns are classlfled on Lhe basls
servlces Lo Lhe urban poor by creaLlon of lnfrasLrucLure
of Lhelr populaLlon lnLoLhefollowlng caLegorles.
faclllLles. lor reseLLlemenL of slums ln !alpur and A[mer,
169.43 and 103.27 crores have been allocaLed wlLhln Lhe
pro[ecL. 1he baslc ob[ecLlve of Lhe Integrated nous|ng &
S|um Deve|opment Þrogramme (InSDÞ) ls Lo provlde
adequaLe shelLer and baslc lnfrasLrucLure faclllLles Lo Lhe
slum dwellers of Lhe ldenLlfled urban areas. 1he scheme ls
appllcable Lo all clLles/Lowns excepL clLles/Lowns covered
under nu8M. 8s 6000.00 lakhs ls proposed for Lhls scheme
ln Lhe Annual Þlan 2009-10. As parL of Lhe 8a[asLhan urban
lnfrasLrucLure uevelopmenL Þro[ecL (8uluÞ) Þhase-l,
lnfrasLrucLure uevelopmenL ln 132 Slums has been
proposed.
ln Lhe presenL cenLury, Lhe SLaLe's populaLlon denslLy has
conslsLenLly lncreased from 30 Lo 163 persons per sq. km.
SLUMS
CLASSIIICA1ICNCI 1CWNS
ÞCÞULA1ICN DLNSI1¥
1able no 2.2: number of urban
AgglomeraLlons/ ClLles/ 1owns by slze
ClLy wlLh mllllon plus - !alpur (2,324,319)
C|ass of Urban sett|ement
Class l (100,000&above)
Class ll (30,000-99,999)
Class lll (20,000-49,999
Class lv (10,000-19,999)
Class v (3,000-9,999)
Class vl (Less Lhan 3,000)
No. of UAs]C|t|es]
1owns by s|ze c|ass
20
26
90
39
17
4
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
Powever, lL ls much lower Lhan Lhe counLry's averageof 324
persons per sq. km. 8y 2021, populaLlon denslLy ls
pro[ecLed Lo lncrease Lo 234 person's pr sq. km. 1he
reglonal dlsparlLles are markedly dlscernlble amongsL
varlous dlsLrlcLs of 8a[asLhan. !alpur (lncludlng uausa) ls
mosL Lhlckly populaLed, wlLh a denslLy of 471 persons per
sq. km., followed by 8haraLpur and Alwar. 1he lowesL
denslLy ls of 13 persons per sq. km. has been recorded for
!alsalmer dlsLrlcL.
Sex 8aLlo refers Lo Lhe number of females per 1000 males.
Sex raLlo (2001) ls 921 females/1000 males, pro[ecLed sex
raLlo (2021) ls 901 females/1000 males, a decllne from Lhe
prevlous decade. Þreference for a male chlld and resulLanL
sex deLermlnaLlon Lechnlques has conLrlbuLed Lo Lhe
PealLh careln aSLaLels governed byLheprovlslon of varlous
blased sex raLlo. uungarpur dlsLrlcL leads LheSLaLe, wlLh Lhe
faclllLles. 1hese lnclude hosplLals, dlspensarles and prlmary
sex raLlo of 1027, followed by 8a[samand (1002). 1he
heaLh carecenLres. 1heseservlces could beSLaLerun (ln Lhe
lowesL sex raLlo of 821ls observed ln !alsalmer dlsLrlcL.
form of governmenL hosplLals) or prlvaLe heaLh care
faclllLles. PosplLals have Lhe provlslon of ln-paLlenL beds,
whlle dlspensarles do noL. Ceneral hosplLals refer Lo Lhose
A llLeraLe person ls deflned as one who can read and wrlLe,
hosplLals whlch have adequaLe faclllLles Lo provlde
an educaLed person on Lhe oLher hand ls one who can read
LreaLmenL Lo all Lypes of dlseases. Þrlmary healLh cenLres
and wrlLe and has passed a wrlLLen examlnaLlon as a proof
are composlLe lnsLlLuLlons LhaL provlde faclllLles for ln-door
of aLLalnlng a cerLaln educaLlonal sLandard. 8a[asLhan has
and ouL-door LreaLmenL, maLernlLy and prevenLlve heaLh
an overall llLeracy raLe of 60.41. A dlchoLomy beLween
carework. CovernmenL medlcal lnsLlLuLlons have lncreased
male/ female and rural/urban ls also evldenL ln Lhe SLaLe.
from 12,248 ln 2002-03 Lo 12,933 ln 2006-07. ln order Lo
Cverall, males have a much hlgher llLeracy raLe ln
caLer Lo Lhe needs of Lhe rural populaLlon, prlmary healLh
comparlson Lo Lhelr female counLerparLs (73.70° and
care cenLres were creaLed and have lncreased from 1674 ln
43.83° respecLlvely). WlLh respecL Lo Lhe rural-urban
2002-03 Lo 1713 ln 2003-06. Among Lhe dlsLrlcLs, !alpur
dlchoLomy, urban areas fare far beLLer, wlLh an urban
emerges as a cenLre for modern heaLh care wlLh Lhe
llLeracy raLe of 76.20 ° and a rural llLeracy raLe of 33.34°.
presence of 19 governmenL hosplLals, Lhe largesL number
urban male llLeracy ls hlgh (86.43°), whlle rural male
among oLher dlsLrlcLs. AL presenL, 8a[asLhan offers Lhe
llLeracy ls comparaLlvely low (72.16°). 8ural femalellLeracy
faclllLles of LradlLlonal lndlan Lheraples Lhrough an
ls a low 37.34°, wlLh Lhelr urban counLerparLs farlng beLLer,
exLenslve neLwork of 3731 hosplLals/dlspensarles
wlLh a llLeracy of 64.67° . Among Lhe dlsLrlcLs, llLeracy raLes
comprlslng 3330 Ayurveda cenLres, 113 PomeopaLhlc
of over 70° can be observed ln !hun[hunu, koLa and Slkar.
cenLres, 81Creek and flve naLuropaLhlc hosplLals under Lhe
LlLeracy raLes beLween 40 and 30° can be observed ln
aegls of ueparLmenL of Ayurveda. 1he deparLmenL noL only
8answara and !alore. LlLeracy among females ln Lhe dlsLrlcL
provldes medlcal faclllLles Lo Lhe paLlenLs buL also
does noL fare well wlLh mosL dlsLrlcLs, wlLh llLeracy raLes
dlsLrlbuLes medlclnes LhaL are free of cosL. 1he docLors,
varylng beLween 27° and 60°. WlLh respecL Lo
nurses, compounders and oLher sLaff of Lhe deparLmenL
educaLlonal lnsLlLuLlons, Lhe number of pre-prlmary and
have also been conLrlbuLlng Lowards successful
prlmary lnsLlLuLlons ls 36,793, whlle upper prlmary and
lmplemenLaLlon of varlous healLhcare programmes of
secondary (and senlor secondary) lnsLlLuLlons are 30,392
naLlonal slgnlflcance such as ÞulseÞollo Þrogramme, lamlly
and 12,691respecLlvely. (llgure2.17Levels of LducaLlon)
Welfare Þrogramme and Medlcal LxamlnaLlon of SLudenLs,
eLc.
SLk kA1IC
nLAL1n CAkL
LDUCA1ICN
llgure 2.17. Levels of LducaLlon

12
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
13
AGkICUL1UkL
ÞANCnA¥A1I SAMI1I
Structura| reforms |nc|ude the fo||ow|ng:
LLLC1kICI1¥ANDÞCWLk
works and Þubllc llghLlng accounL for 3.72and 0.70°. Whlle
domesLlc consumpLlon accounLs for 20.30°, commerclal AgrlculLure ln 8a[asLhan ls prlmarlly raln fed. 1he perlod of
(non-domesLlc) consumpLlon accounLs for 6.61°. monsoon ls shorL, around Lhree monLhs. lLs onseL ls laLe
and wlLhdrawal early ln comparlson Lo oLher SLaLes. Around
90 per cenL of Lhe ralnfall ls recelved durlng Lhe monsoon
1he 73rd ConsLlLuLlonal AmendmenL AcL, 1992 marked a
season. ln addlLlon Lo spaLlal varlaLlon ln ralnfall, Lhere ls
new era ln LhedemocraLlc seL up of LhecounLry as lL creaLed
greaL varlaLlon ln Lhe yearly paLLern. AbouL 63 per cenL of
ÞanchayaLl 8a[ lnsLlLuLlons (Þ8ls) as Llers of self governance
LheLoLal culLlvaLlon ls durlng Lhekharlf season and ls mosLly
below Lhe level of SLaLes ln Lhe federal seL up. lL ls also a
dependenL on Lhe ralnfall, whlch ls aberranL and uncerLaln.
landmark ln Lhe decenLrallzed developmenL as lL envlslons
naLural endowmenL consLralnLs lnclude vagarles of
people's parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe process of plannlng, declslon-
cllmaLe, problemaLlc soll, sallne waLer, arld lands, low
maklng, lmplemenLaLlon and dellvery. 1hese consLlLuLlonal
ralnfall (laLe arrlval and early wlLhdrawal). And, soclal
provlslons provlde for devoluLlon of powers and
consLralnLs llke rapld growLh ln populaLlon, wlde spread
responslblllLles Lo dlfferenL Llers of Þ8ls wlLh respecL Lo
llllLeracy, large number of small and marglnal farmers and
preparaLlon of plans and programmes for economlc
Lechnologlcal gaps affecL Lhe growLh of agrlculLure ln Lhe
developmenL and soclal [usLlceand Lhelr lmplemenLaLlon ln
SLaLe.
relaLlon Lo Lhe29Sub[ecLs llsLed ln LheLlevenLh Schedule.
Largely an agrarlan economy, Lhe slze of land holdlngs
ln 2003, all 32 dlsLrlcLs were under Lhe purvlew of Lhe
varles across Lhe SLaLe. Land holdlngs below 0.30 hecLares,
ÞanchayaLl 8a[ sysLem. WlLh 237 blocks, 9188 gram
cover 231,020 hecLares, whlle land holdlngs beLween 0.30
panchayaLs wereesLabllshed wlLhln LheSLaLe.
and one hecLare cover 643,443 hecLares. 1he average slze
of Lhe holdlngs for Lhe Lwo caLegorles ls 0.26 and 0.73
ln order Lo promoLe ÞanchayaLl 8a[ lnsLlLuLlons ln Lhe SLaLe,
hecLares respecLlvely and Lhey are caLegorlzed as marglnal
anumber of reforms werelnLroduced.
holdlngs. Coverlng 1743,390 hecLares, small land holdlngs
havlng a slze of 1-2 hecLares, have an average slze of 1.44
hecLares. Whlle small-medlum land holdlngs (2-4 hecLares)
Ward Sabhas have been consLlLuLed ln order Lo lncrease
cover 3413,986 hecLares, lL has an average slze of 2.83
publlc parLlclpaLlon ln developmenL plannlng and
hecLares ln LheSLaLe. Medlum land holdlngs (4-10hecLares)
lmplemenLaLlon. Ward / Cram Sabhas have been glven
cover an area of 6810,747 hecLares, wlLh an averageof 6.19
wlde ranglng powers llke ldenLlfylng, prlorlLlzlng and
hecLares. Large land holdlngs (10- 20 and above hecLares)
lmplemenLlng works under varlous developmenL schemes,
cover 8386,143 hecLares wlLh an average slze of 18.21
ldenLlfylng beneflclarles under varlous developmenL
hecLares. Large land holdlngs accounL for 39.48° of Lhe
schemes, underLaklng soclal audlL ln respecL of works, eLc.
LoLal, whlle marglnal land holdlngs accounL for only 4.20°
8esLorlng organlc llnkage beLween Lhe Lhree Llers of Þ8ls,
of Lhe LoLal . 1he area and producLlon of cereals (malze,
by maklng Sarpanchs as members of ÞanchayaL SamlLles
wheaL, barley, rlce and small mllleLs) has lncreased from
and Þradhans as members of Zlla Þarlshads, flnanclal
6824,992 ln 2002-03 Lo 9326,123 hecLares ln 2006-07,
auLonomy of Þ8ls have been encouraged byglvlng Lhem Lhe
whlle Lhe producLlon lncreased from 7030,764 Lonnes ln
ownershlp Lo uLlllze Lhe funds allocaLed by Lhe SLaLe and
2002-03 Lo 13448,332 Lonnes ln 2006-07. 1he area of land
cenLral governmenLs. 1o provlde for self-governance ln
producLlon under pulses has lncreased beLween 2002-03
Lrlbal areas, Lhe 8a[asLhan ÞanchayaLl 8a[ (LxLenslon of
and 2006-07 from 1802,829 Lo 3207,214 hecLares and
provlslons Lo Scheduled Areas) AcL, 1999has been enacLed.
484,449Lo 1479,763Lonnes respecLlvely.
ln order Lo ensure LhaL Lhe rural masses geL [usLlce cheaper,
Lhe powers of 8evlslon under SecLlon 97 of Lhe 8a[asLhan
ÞanchayaLl 8a[ AcL, 1994, whlch werewlLhdrawn ln Lheyear
CuL of 16,468.319 kW elecLrlclLy consumed, 31.44° ls
2002, have been re-delegaLed Lo Lhe CollecLors ln
consumed by agrlculLure. lndusLrlal consumpLlon of
uecember 2004.
elecLrlclLy amounLs Lo 31.16° of Lhe LoLal. Þubllc waLer
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan

14
SCCIAL ANDLLLC1CkAL kLICkMS
2.S1kANSÞCk1A1ICN NL1WCkk
2.S.1kCAD NL1WCkkS
lnsplLe of Lhe above problems, many sLeps have been Laken
An lncrease ln reservaLlon of seaLs for oLher backward
byLhegovernmenL of 8a[asLhan for LhelmprovemenL of Lhe
classes (C8Cs) from 13° Lo 21° was lnlLlaLed. Þersons
road neLwork. 1he !alpur-uelhl road has been converLed
agalnsL whom courLs have Laken cognlzance of offences
lnLo a 4-lane hlghway. 1he 1enLh llve ?ear Þlan for Lhe SLaLe
punlshable wlLh lmprlsonmenL of flve years or more, have
proposed over 2000crorerupees for Lheroad secLor. LfforLs
been prohlblLed from conLesLlng elecLlons. Þersons
are belng made for expanslon and up gradaLlon of all Lypes
employed ln any body flnanced even parLly by Lhe SLaLe
of roads wlLhln Lhe SLaLe. AbouL 3000 km of vlllage roads
CovL. arelnellglbleLo conLesL elecLlons.
have been consLrucLed wlLhln Lhe SLaLe, whlle abouL 1000
km of 'oLher dlsLrlcL roads' have been upgraded Lo 'ulsLrlcL
roads'. 1he expanslon of vlllage roads ls an appreclable
1ransporLaLlon neLworks are ofLen referred Lo as lndlcaLors progress as an lnlLlaLlve Lo lncrease connecLlvlLy beLween
of economlc healLh and developmenL of a reglon. All vlllages ln Lhe SLaLe. 8oad lnfrasLrucLure uevelopmenL
developmenL, wheLher agrlculLural, commerce drlven, Company of 8a[asLhan LLd (8luCC8) ls an amblLlous
healLh or educaLlon-cenLred, ls governed by Lhe quallLy of lnlLlaLlve of CovernmenL of 8a[asLhan for lmprovlng Lhe
LransporLaLlon ln a reglon. 1ransporLaLlon neLwork ln SLaLe's road lnfrasLrucLure.
8a[asLhan ls governed by Lhree modes: 8oad, 8all and
ClLles and ma[or seLLlemenLs are connecLed Lhrough a
Alrways.
neLwork of naLlonal hlghways. nP-13 runnlng from Lhe
norLh of Lhe SLaLe connecLs Canganagar, 8lkaner, Þhalodl,
8a[asLhan ls one such SLaLe ln lndla whlch ls far below Lhe !alsalmer, and 8armer and runs furLher souLh ln Cu[araL.
naLlonal average ln respecL of road lengLh. As agalnsL Lhe nP-11, sLarLlng from 8lkaner, connecLs uungargadh and
naLlonal average of 74.9 km. per hundred sq. km. of area, 8aLangadh ln Churu dlsLrlcL, laLehpur and Slkar ln Slkar
8a[asLhan has only 43.7 km. of road lengLh per hundred sq. dlsLrlcL, Chomu and !alpur ln !alpur ulsLrlcL, kaman ln uausa
km. of area. A LoLal of 167, 128 km of land falls under roads and 8ayan ln 8haraLpur and runs easL Lo reach Agra. nP-63
(2003-2006) wlLhln Lhe SLaLe. naLlonal hlghways accounL enLers Lhe SLaLe near 8a[gadh, Louchlng Churu ln Churu
for 3.38° of Lhe LoLal roads wlLhln Lhe SLaLe. As per 8aslc dlsLrlcL and laLehpur ln Slkar dlsLrlcL, Ladnu, nagaur and
SLaLlsLlcs, 8a[asLhan, 20078eporL, Lhevlllageroads accounL !odhpur. nP-8 enLers Lhe SLaLe ln !alpur dlsLrlcL and passes
for 72.48°. 1he LoLal lengLh of roads ls palnLed (81418 km), Lhrough koLpuLll, !alpur, klshangarh, A[mer, 8a[samand,
meLalled (1813 km), graveled (3670 km) and falr weaLhered naLhdwara, and udalpur, golng furLher souLh Lo
(416km) as per LhereporL. Ahmedabad and Mumbal. nP-11(A) connecLs nP-8 Lo nP-
11 aL kaman ln uausa dlsLrlcL, and furLher Lo nP-11 (8)
1here are flve naLlonal hlghways passlng Lhrough Lhe SLaLe.
whlch meeLs nP-3 Lhrough Cangapur, karaull, 8arl and
1he naLlonal Plghways pass Lhrough mosL of Lhe dlsLrlcLs
uhaulpur. nP-89 sLarLs from 8lkaner and Louches nokha,
excepL 8answara, 8hllwara, ChlLLorgarh, !hun[hunu, 8aran
and nagaur. SLaLe hlghways accounL for 6.93° of Lhe LoLal.
naLlonallzed LransporL rouLes lnclude 304,110 km of roads,
exLendlng across 2337 rouLes. Also, naLlonallzed rouLes
have lncreased from an average rouLe dlsLance of 173 km ln
2003-04, Lo 199km ln 2007-08.
Lxcesslve floods and ralns ln Lhe wesL and sandy Lerraln ln
Lhe easLern parL of Lhe SLaLe, adversely affecL Lhe condlLlon
of roads wlLhln Lhe reglon. 1he non-coheslve naLure of Lhe
soll or absences of sLablllzed sLraLa, emerge as hlndrances
Lo Lhe consLrucLlon of roads sulLable for hlgh speed and
heavy vehlcles. 8egular flow of Lrafflc also geLs affecLed due
Lo deposlLlon of sand from Lhead[olnlng sandy areas. llgure 2.18 : ueserL 8oad, 8halnsala
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
nagaur, MerLa and A[mer. nh-79 sLarLs from A[mer and wlLh lmporLanL Lrade and buslness cenLres llke uelhl,
Louches naslrabad, 8hllwara, and nlmbahera. nP-113 Ahmedabad and Agra, Lhe WesLern 8allway Zone ln Lhe
lnlLlaLes from nlmbahera and connecLs ÞraLapgarh ln SLaLe ls Lhe buslesL, boLh ln Lerms of Lhe passenger Lrafflc
ChlLLorgarh and 8answara. nP-14 runs from 8eawar and and haulageof frelghL.
Louches Þall, Slrohl, and Abu road. nP-76 runs ln Lhe souLh
1he CenLral 8allways, mosLly ln Lhe form of broad gauge
of Lhe SLaLe, connecLlng nP-14, udalpur, koLa, and 8aran.
llne, covers a very lnslgnlflcanL parL ln Lhe SLaLe (293 km)
nP-12 connecLs !alpur, ueeg, 8haraLpur, 8undl, koLa,
mosLly ln uhaulpur dlsLrlcL, [olnlng Agra Lo lmporLanL clLles
8amgan[ Mandl, and !halawar. nP-112 connecLs 8armer,
llkeCwallor and 8hopal ln Madhya Þradesh. 1he maln nodal
8aloLra, !odhpur and nP-14. nh-114 connecLs !odhpur Lo
cenLres of rall Lrafflc ln Lhe SLaLe are !alpur, koLa, !odhpur,
nP-13. And, nP-116 connecLs 8haraLpur ln 1onk dlsLrlcL Lo
Sawal Madhopur, A[mer, udalpur, 8haraLpur and 8lkaner.
Sawal Madhopur.
lrom 3899.80 km ln 2002-03, Lhe LoLal rallway rouLe has
lncreased Lo 3911.09 km ln 2006-07. 8road gauge accounLs
for Lhe hlghesL proporLlon of rallways, followed by meLer
gauge and narrow gauge (3840.47 km, 1983.46 km, and
86.76 km respecLlvely) . lrrespecLlve of Lhe gauge, Lhe
norLh-wesLern rallway and Lhe wesLern rallway caLer Lo a
larger shareof Lherall Lrafflc ln LheSLaLe.
8all LransporL consLlLuLes Lhe mosL lmporLanL elemenL of
lnland LransporLaLlon neLwork ln 8a[asLhan. 1he LoLal
lengLh of rall roads ln Lhe SLaLe Loday ls over 6,227 km,
exLendlng lnLo all dlsLrlcLs excepL 8answara. 1he rallways of
LheSLaLearemanaged by Lhreerallway zones of LhecounLry
vlz., Lhe norLhern, WesLern and Lhe CenLral rallways. 1he
norLhern 8allway has lLs [urlsdlcLlon ln norLhern and
wesLern parLs of 8a[asLhan, mosLly ln Canganagar, 8lkaner,
Churu, !odhpur, !alsalmer and 8armer dlsLrlcLs. Pavlng a
Alr LransporL has emerged as Lhe fasLesL means of LransporL
LoLal mlleage of abouL 2,300 km, Lhls ls Lhe second largesL
for passengers, cargo and mall. 1he SLaLe has flve alrporLs,
rall Lrack ln Lhe SLaLe, buL Lhe rall road denslLy ln Lhls parL of
locaLed aL !alpur, koLa, udalpur, !odhpur and !alsalmer.
Lhe SLaLe ls far less Lhan Lhe easLern neLwork and Lhe lesser
uesplLe Lhe specLacular progress shown by Lhe
denslLy of Lhe populaLlon does noL lnvlgoraLe fasLer
developmenL of alrways, Lhe SLaLe sLlll lacks ln Lhls mode of
economlc developmenL. A greaLer parL of easLern, cenLral,
LransporL. CerLaln lmporLanL LourlsL cenLres llke A[mer,
souLhern and souLh-easLern 8a[asLhan ls served by Lhe
ChlLLorgarh, MounL Abu, Sawal Madhopur and 8haraLpur,
WesLern 8allway Zone coverlng Lhe enLlre dlsLrlcLs of Alwar,
whlch are favored LourlsL spoLs for Lhelr rellglous
8haraLpur, !alpur, A[mer, Sawal Madhopur, 1onk, udalpur,
lmporLance and scenlc beauLy, are sLlll unconnecLed by alr
ChlLLorgarh, uungarpur, koLa, !halawar and Slrohl. WlLh a
servlces and forelgn LourlsLs flnd lL dlfflculL Lo cover long
LoLal mlleage of abouL 2,324 km, and havlng connecLlons
dlsLances Lo reach Lhem by surface LransporL means from
2.S.2kAILWA¥S
2.S.3AIkWA¥S
llgure 2.19 : 8oad consLrucLlon under process
13
llgure 2.20 : 8allway over -8rldge, koLa
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan

16
Lhe nearesL alrporLs. 1here ls also a greaL need Lo lncrease 8answara, 8aran and ChlLLorgarh. MounL Abu (Slrohl
Lhe passenger seaLlng capaclLy ln Lhe exlsLlng alr servlces ln dlsLrlcL) ln Lhe souLh-wesL, however, recelves Lhe hlghesL
vlew of Lhe mounLlng pressure of alr Lrafflc aL !alpur, ralnfall ln Lhe SLaLe (163.8 cm). Plghly erraLlc, ralnfall has
!odhpur and udalpur. varled from an annual deflclL of 2.9° (ln 2007-08) Lo 24°
above normal ln Lhe precedlng year. AparL from Lhe
monsoons commenclng ln Lhe lasL week of !une and Lhe
CllmaLlcally, Lhe year ln 8a[asLhan can be dlvlded lnLo Lhree pre-monsoons showers lnlLlaLlng ln Lhe flrsL week,
ma[or convenLlonal seasons: 8a[asLhan also recelves some amounL of raln ln Lhe wlnLer
season from LhewesLern dlsLurbances.
PoL-weaLher season (March Lo end of !une)
Monsoon season (Lnd of !uneLo SepLember)
CharacLerlzed by arld and seml-arld cllmaLlc condlLlons,
Cold-weaLher season (CcLober Lo lebruary)
8a[asLhan ls marked by promlnenL dlurnal and seasonal
range of LemperaLure. 1hls ls a reflecLlon of Lhe warm-dry
1he co|d season cou|d be further sub-d|v|ded |nto two
conLlnenLal cllmaLe LhaL characLerlzes Lhe SLaLe. 1he monLh
categor|es:
of March marks Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe hoL weaLher season.
1he season of Lhe reLreaLlng monsoon (CcLober Lo
1emperaLure progresslvely lncreases wlLh mean maxlmum
uecember)
o
LemperaLures reachlng as hlgh as 48 Cln LhemonLh of !une.
1hecold season (!anuary Lo lebruary)
!anuary ls Lhe coldesL monLh, wlLh mlnlmum LemperaLure
o o
ranglng beLween 2 C ln Lhe norLh and 7.8 C ln Lhe souLh-
1he seasonal varlaLlons are broadly based on LemperaLure
wesL. 1emperaLures as low as Lhefreezlng polnL arereached
and ralnfall condlLlons ln Lhe dlfferenL monLhs. 1he cllmaLe
ln ML Abu. ulurnal varlaLlons ln LemperaLure are greaLer ln
of 8a[asLhan varles from arld Lo seml-humld. 1o Lhe wesL of
summers, wlLh Lhe mlnlmum LemperaLure dropplng
Lhe Aravalll range, Lhe cllmaLe ls characLerlzed by low
conslderably aL nlghL. Sharp decreases ln nlghL LemperaLure
ralnfall wlLh erraLlc dlsLrlbuLlon, exLremes of dlurnal and
are experlenced aL places llke Slkar, Churu, Þllanl, and
annual LemperaLures, low humldlLy and hlgh wlnd veloclLy.
8lkaner. 1he sharp decrease ln LemperaLure can be
1he cllmaLe ls seml-arld Lo sub-humld ln Lhe easL of Lhe
aLLrlbuLed Lo Lhe qulck release of Lhermal radlaLlon from
Aravalll range, characLerlzed more or less by exLremes ln
Lhesandy soll.
LemperaLures buL relaLlvely lower wlnd veloclLy and hlgh
o
humldlLywlLh beLLer ralnfall.
1he lsoLherms of summer (!une) show varlaLlons from 42 C
o
(Slrohl dlsLrlcL) Lo above 47 C(Canganagar dlsLrlcL). A ma[or
parL of Lhe SLaLe, comprlslng Lhe arld zone of Lhe wesL and
1he annual ralnfall ln Lhe SLaLe varles slgnlflcanLly. lL
Lhe seml-arld zone of Lhe mld-wesL, has an average
recelves 90° ralnfall from souLhwesL monsoon from !une
o
maxlmum of 43 C ln Lhls monLh. Powever, ln Lhe souLh-
Lo SepLember. 1he general Lrend of lsohyeLs ls from norLh-
easLern parLs, Lhe lsoLherms show a decllnlng Lrend from
wesL Lo souLh-easL. A rapld and marked decrease ln ralnfall
o o
43 C Lo 37 C. 1he lsoLherms of wlnLer (!anuary), ranglng
can be observed wesL of Lhe Aravalll range, maklng wesLern
o o
from less Lhan 6 C ln Lhe norLh Lo above 10 C ln Lhe souLh-
8a[asLhan Lhe mosL arld parL. !alsalmer, ln Lhe norLh- wesL,
easL, show few varlaLlons ln LemperaLure. 1he greaLer parL
recelves less Lhan 10 cm of average annual ralnfall, whlle
of 8a[asLhan, excepL Lhe souLh-easLern parL of koLa, 8undl
Lhe reglons of Canganagar, 8lkaner and 8armer recelve 20
and 8aran and Lhe wesLern dlsLrlcL of 8armer exhlblLs mean
Lo 30 cm of ralnfall. nagaur, !odhpur, Churu, and !alore
o
LemperaLures of more Lhan 10 C. 1he secondary
reglons recelve30Lo 40cm, whllean averageannual ralnfall
depresslons (wesLern dlsLurbances), accompanled by Lhe
of moreLhan 40cm ls generally observed ln Slkar, !hun[hunu
lce-cold wlnds emanaLlng from Lhe hlgher laLlLudes, may
and Þall reglons and along Lhe wesLern reglons of Lhe
brlng Lhe enLlre 8a[asLhan under Lhe spell of a cold wave for
Aravalll range. WlLh an annual average ralnfall of 37.31cm,
perlods of 2-3days durlng LhewlnLer monLhs.
dlsLrlcLs wlLh some of Lhe hlghesL ralnfall (normal) lnclude
2.6CLIMA1L
-
-
2.6.21LMÞLkA1UkLkLGIMLS
-
-
-
2.6.1kAINIALL ÞA11LkN
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
17
2.7NA1UkAL nA2AkDS
(MSk). 1he remalnlng areas of 8armer and Slrohl dlsLrlcLs,
as well as Lhe dlsLrlcLs of 8lkaner, !alselmer and Slrohl, lle ln
naLurally occurrlng evenLs LhaL have Lhe poLenLlal Lo
Zone lll. 1he norLh-easLern dlsLrlcLs of !hun[hunu, Slkar,
adversely affecL people and Lhe envlronmenL are ofLen
8haraLpur and Lhe resL of Alwar also lle ln Zone lll. 1he
referred Lo as naLural hazards. 1he poLenLlal Lo cause
maxlmum lnLenslLy expecLed ln Lhese areas would be
damage, however, depends on Lhe capaclLy of populaLlon
around MSk vll. 1he resL of Lhe SLaLe, lncludlng Lhe caplLal,
backed by lnfrasLrucLure Lo reslsL Lhe damage.
!alpur, lleln Zonell, whereLhemaxlmum lnLenslLy expecLed
CharacLerlzed as hoL deserLs, Lhe dlsLrlcLs of !alsalmer,
would bearound MSkvl.
8lkaner, norLhern !odhpur, SouLhern and SouLh-wesLern
8armer, parLs of Canganagar and Panumangarh, and small
known as a deserL counLry, erraLlc and heavy ralnfall can
parLs of nagaur, Slkar and Churu, are prone Lo Lhe
cause floodlng ln Lhe SLaLe. 8armer ulsLrlcL, 1har ueserL,
occurrence of droughLs due Lo low ralnfall and Lhe scanLy
8a[asLhan has an average ralnfall of 280 mm annually, buL
vegeLaLlon. 1he souLhern dlsLrlcLs of A[mer, 1onk, Sawal
durlng Lhe monsoon of 2006 lL wlLnessed a ralnfall of 600
Madhopur, karaull, koLa, 8aran, !halawar, uungarpur,
mm ln 2-3 days. Some of Lhe worsL affecLed areas were
8answara, udalpur and 8a[samand, are also known Lo be
kawas, Malva and 8hadaka ln 8armer dlsLrlcL. 1he dlsLrlcL
affecLed by droughLs. Small parLs of several dlsLrlcLs are
suffered ln Lerms of submergence of vlllages for a perlod of
prone Lo floods. 1hese lnclude Canganagar and
4-3 monLhs, along wlLh a large-scale damage Lo houses,
Panumangarh, 8haraLpur dlsLrlcL, Alwar, !alpur, A[mer,
properLy and caLLle. 1hlck layers of clay, characLerlsLlc of Lhe
1onk, 8undl, koLa, 8aran, udalpur, ChlLLorgarh and a
reglon, only worsened Lhe condlLlons. Low lylng dlsLrlcLs of
conLlnuous sLreLch exLendlng across !alore, 8armer and
8hllwara and koLa have also experlenced heavy floods ln
!odhpur. llash floods areanoLher naLural hazard, capableof
Lhe pasL. lncessanL ralns ln Lhe PadoLl reglon, coverlng
causlng wldespread devasLaLlon.
koLa-8undl-!halawar, A[mer, udalpur, !alpur, 8hllwara, and
Lhe Lrlbal belL of 8answara and uungarpur, are also known
1hough Lhe SLaLe of 8a[asLhan, has noL had a ma[or
Lo have caused floodlng ln Lhereglon ln LhepasL.
earLhquake ln recenL years, small Lo moderaLe earLhquakes
have been felL ln Lhe SLaLe. Several faulLs have been
CharacLerlzed by arld and seml-arld condlLlons, 8a[asLhan ls
ldenLlfled ln Lhls reglon, ouL of whlch many show evldence
prone Lo droughLs. CuL of Lhe 33 LoLal dlsLrlcLs ln Lhe SLaLe,
of movemenL. 1heCambay Craben LermlnaLes ln LhesouLh-
droughL ls prevalenL ln 31 dlsLrlcLs and 23 dlsLrlcLs among
wesLern parL of Lhe SLaLe, 1he konol laulL near !alselmer
Lhese are severely affecLed. 1he reglons conslsLlng of Lhe
Lrends ln a norLh-souLh dlrecLlon and was assoclaLed wlLh
dlsLrlcLs of !halawar, koLa, 8undl, Sawal Madhopur,
Lhe 1991 !alselmer earLhquake. Several acLlve faulLs crlss-
8haraLpur, Alwar, cenLral parLs of ChlLLorgarh, LasL
cross Lhe Aravalll range and lle parallel Lo each oLher. 1he
8hllwara, and easLern-mosL parLs of 1onk and !alpur have
mosL promlnenL of Lhem ls Lhe norLh-souLh Lrendlng Sardar
low senslLlvlLy Lowards droughLs. WesLern dlsLrlcLs vlz.,
Shahr laulL and Lhe CreaL 8oundary laulL whlch runs along
8armer, !alsalmer, !odhpur, 8lkaner and wesLern parLs of
Lhe Chambal 8lver. WesLern parLs of Lhe dlsLrlcLs of 8armer
!aloreand Churu arehlghlysenslLlveLo droughLs.
and Slrohl, as well as norLhern secLlons of Alwar dlsLrlcL, lle
ln Zone lv, where Lhe maxlmum lnLenslLy could reach vlll
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
LANDU1ILI2A1ICN(2007)
L
3.1LANDUSL
ICkLS1S
AkLA NC1 AVAILA8LL ICk CUL1IVA1ICN
C1nLk UNCUL1IVA1LD LAND
LAND LkCLUDING IALLCW
IALLCWLAND
and use ln an area ls ofLen governed by Lhe cllmaLe,
neL sown area accounLs for 48.92° of Lhe LoLal
Lopography and hydrology of LhaL area. Long perlods
geographlcal area, foresLs (7.87°), area under non
of eroslon and denudaLlon have led Lo Lhe
agrlculLural uses (3.36°), barren and unculLlvable wasLe
developmenL of falrly maLure Lopography across Lhe SLaLe.
land (7.08°), permanenL pasLures and grazlng land
Ceologlcal formaLlons and sLrucLures across Lhe SLaLe are
(4.98°), land under mlscellaneous Lree crops (0.06°),
Lhe resulLs of Lhe producL of pasL fluvlal and arld cycles of
culLlvable wasLe land (13.46°), fallow land oLher Lhan
eroslon.
currenL fallow (6.61°) and currenL fallow (3.66°), as of
2006-07(8oslc 5totlstlcs of kojostboo, 2009).
Land uLlllzaLlon ls used for broadly lndlcaLlng Lhe ways ln
whlch Lheland ln LheSLaLels belng uLlllzed.
classlfled by 'AgrlculLural sLaLlsLlcs' lnclude
ºforesLs" malnLalned by Lhe foresL deparLmenL, and
cerLaln foresL areas admlnlsLered by dlsLrlcL offlcers.
8uL, cerLaln vlllage areas are noL lncluded as Lhey are
classlfled as foresLs byLheforesL deparLmenL,
sLands for all
Lhe land LhaL ls unculLlvable and covered by bulldlngs,
waLer, roads eLc. 1here are Lwo sub-heads wlLhln Lhls
caLegory. Land under bulldlngs, roads, rall, and waLer
bodles ls caLegorlzed as 'Area under non-agr|cu|tura|
use', whlle mounLalns, deserLs eLc. are caLegorlzed as
'8arrenanduncu|t|vab|e |and'.
1he LoLal cropped area ln Lhe SLaLe has lncreased by 38.61°
lncludes Lhe land
beLween 2002-03 and 2006-07. uesplLe Lhe foresL
avallable for culLlvaLlon buL for oLher uses. lL lncludes
programmes lnlLlaLed by Lhe SLaLe, foresL cover has shown
'permanenL pasLures and oLher grazlng land' and 'land
only a marglnal lncrease of 0.13° ln Lhe SLaLe. 8arren and
under mlscellaneous Lree crops and grooves'.
unculLlvable wasLeland has shown a decrease of 3.39° ln
land lncludes 'culLlvable
Lhe SLaLe. udalpur and 8aran have Lhe largesL area
wasLeland'.
caLegorlzed as foresLs ln comparlson Lo oLher SLaLes,
lncludes 'fallow land oLher Lhan currenL
amounLlng Lo 4,19,082 and 2,16,037 hecLares respecLlvely.
fallow' and 'currenL fallow'. 'CurrenL fallow' refers Lo
Þrovlslon of lrrlgaLlon faclllLles have resulLed ln 47,70,044
Lhe land lefL fallow for a perlod of a year or less. 'CLher
hecLares belng ldenLlfled as 'area sown more Lhan once'.
currenL fallow' lncludes Lhe land lefL fallow for a perlod
WlLh 46,11,212 hecLares ldenLlfled as culLlvable wasLeland,
of noL less Lhan ayear and moreLhan flveyears.
Þn¥SICAL
CnAkAC1LkIS1ICS CI 1nL LAND
CnAÞ1Lk 3
liqure l.1: Lond uti/itotion in kojosthon {2007)
5ource: 8osic 5totistics of kojosthon 2009
7.87
7.08
4.98
0.06
13.46
6.61
5.66
48.92
Forest
Area under non-agricultura uses
Barren and unculturable land
Perman other grazingent Pasture
and land
Land under miscellaneous tree
crops & groves
Culturable Waste Land
Fallow Land other than Current
Fallow
Current Fallow
Net area sown


18

SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
SLaLe pollcy and local lnlLlaLlves could lead Lo a more 1heeasLern plalns could bedlvlded lnLo Lwo zones:
approprlaLe useof such land.
a) 1he 8anas Þ|a|ns
b) 1he ChappanÞ|a|ns
Þhyslographlcally, LheSLaLecould bedlvlded lnLo four unlLs:
a) Arava||| n||| kanges
1he reglon ls a broad plaln havlng an alLlLude of 130 Lo 300
m above mean sea level, wlLh a slope Lowards Lhe norLhern
b) LasternÞ|a|ns
parL of ChlLLaurgarh and udalpur dlsLrlcL and by several of
c) Western Sandy Þ|a|nandSanddunes
lLs LrlbuLarles. 1he areas of 8hllwara, 1onk, A[mer, !alpur,
d) V|ndhyanScrapLandandDeccanLavaÞ|ateau.
uausa and Sawal Madhopur and karaull are wlLhln Lhe
caLchmenLs of rlver 8anas. 1he 8anas ls Lhe ma[or LrlbuLary
- LlLerally meanlng a 'llne of of rlver Chambal, whlch ulLlmaLely [olns rlver ?amuna. 1he
peaks', Aravallls are Lhe oldesL mounLaln ranges ln lndla, alluvlum deposlLs become Lhln Lowards Lhe wesL where Lhe
exLendlng over 800 km. 1hls eroded sLub of a range of plaln ls hlgher and more lrregular, whlle Lhe Lhlckness of
anclenL folded mounLalns sLreLches across Lhe SLaLes of alluvlum lncreases ln LheeasL.
8a[asLhan, Paryana, and Cu[araL. WeaLherlng of mllllons of
years has worn down Lhls range of anclenL folded
1hls plaln lles ln Lhe souLh-easLern parL of udalpur,
mounLalns belonglng Lo Lhe Þrecambrlan perlod. 1he
8answara, uungarpur and souLhern parL of ChlLLaurgarh
elevaLlon of Lhese hlll ranges varles from abouL 600 meLres
dlsLrlcL. 1he area ls dralned by Lhe LrlbuLarles of rlver Mahl
Lo over 900 meLres above Lhe Mean Sea Level (MSL). 1hey
whlch ulLlmaLely reaches Lhe Arablan Sea Lhrough Lhe Culf
are composed of 8hllwara, Aravalll and uelhl super group of
of Cambay. 1he land ln Lhe souLh ls deeply dlssecLed
rocks, ranglng ln age from Archean (2300 mllllon years) Lo
resulLlng ln LheformaLlon of separaLehlllocks.
ÞroLerozolc (740 mllllon years). 1he Aravallls are Lhe mosL
promlnenL land feaLures ln Lhe dlsLrlcLs of Slrohl, udalpur
1he
and uungarpur ln Lhe souLh-wesL and !alpur and Alwar
sandy plalns of wesLern 8a[asLhan are a parL of Lhe 1har
dlsLrlcLs ln Lhe norLh-easL. 1hey rlse Lo Lhelr hlghesL summlL
ueserL. 1hey are malnly occupled by alluvlum and blown
aL MounL Abu (1722 m above MSL) ln Slrohl dlsLrlcL. 8anges
sands.
of low hllls can be found ln Lhe dlsLrlcLs of udalpur,
1heseplalns arefurLher sub-dlvlded lnLoLhreeunlLs:
uungarpur and 8answara, sLreLchlng norLh-easLwards ln
|) 1he Sandy Ar|dÞ|a|n( Marustha||) Lhe form of undulaLlng low hllls Lhrough parLs of A[mer,
1onk, Sawal Madhopur, !alpur and Alwar dlsLrlcLs. lsolaLed
||) 1he Sem|-Ar|d1rans|t|ona| Þ|a|n
ouLcrops of Aravallls occur ln !hun[hunu, Slkar and nagaur
|||) 1he Ghaggar Þ|a|n
dlsLrlcLs.
|) ls a Lyplcal deserL Lerraln. lL
- ln Lhe plalns easL of Lhe Aravalll ranges,
lncludes Lhe wesLern-mosL dlsLrlcLs of !alsalmer, 8lkaner
LhealLlLudevarles from 130m Lo 430m aboveLhemean sea
and parLs of 8armer, !odhpur, nagaur, Churu and
level. 1he general Lrend of Lhe slope varles from place Lo
Canganagar. 1he llne dlvldlng Lhe Sandy Arld Þlaln and Lhe
place. ln uungarpur and 8answaradlsLrlcLs, lL ls malnly from
Seml-Arld 1ranslLlonal Þlaln, as well as Lhe Chaggar Þlaln, ls
Lhe norLh Lo souLh, ln Alwar dlsLrlcL lL ls from Lhe souLh Lo
based on cllmaLlc parameLers and waLer resource
norLh and ln Lhe remalnlng dlsLrlcLs (formlng Lhe cenLral
avallablllLy.
and norLh-easLern 8a[asLhan), lL ls from Lhe wesL Lo easL.
1he souLh-easLern llmlL ls marked by Lhe vlndhyan plaLeau,
||) of Lhe easLern
coverlng mosL parLs of Alwar, 8haraLpur, !alpur, uhaulpur,
boundarles forms Lhe fooLhllls and Lhelr exLenslon on Lhe
1onk, Sawal Madhopur, karaull, 8undl and koLa dlsLrlcLs.
wesLern slde of Aravalll ranges. Sand dunes are promlnenL
1he easLern plalns have rlch alluvlal solls dralned by
and Lhe Lerraln ls puncLuaLed wlLh lsolaLed hllls of granlLe
seasonal rlvers.
3.2Þn¥SICGkAÞn¥
A) 1nL8ANASÞLAINS
AkAVALLI nILL kANGLS
8) 1nLCnAÞÞAN ÞLAINS
1nL WLS1LkN SAND¥ ÞLAINS ANDSANDDUNLS -
1nL SAND¥ AkID ÞLAIN
LAS1LkN ÞLAINS
1he Sem|-Ar|d 1rans|t|ona| Þ|a|n


19
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
and rhyollLes. 1he alLlLude varles from 30 m Lo 300 m above 1he Larly ÞroLerozolc 8hllwara, Aravalll, !harol, and
Lhemean sealevel. 1hegeneral slopels from LhenorLh-easL norLh uelhl belLs
Lo souLh-wesL.
1he Mlddle Lo LaLe ÞroLerozolc SouLh uelhl belL and
Lhevlndhyanbasln
|||) malnly conslsLs of former flood
plalns and Aeollan deposlLs. A neLwork of canals covers Lhe
8lfLlng of Lhe Archaean basemenL resulLed ln Lhe rock
enLlre area. 1he souLhern and souLh-easLern parL ls
assoclaLlon of Lhe 8bllwoto belt. 1he shelf sedlmenLs of Lhe
occupled by medlum Lo hlgh dunes. nlneLeen of Lhese
Atovolll belt, characLerlzedby dolomlLes weredeposlLed on
lnLerdunal depresslons are belng uLlllzed for sLorlng Lhe
a passlve conLlnenLal margln aL Lhe rlfLed wesLern edge of
dlverLed Chaggar flood waLers. 1he cenLral parL of Lhe
Lhe Archaean basemenL complex. 1he Ibotol belt
Chaggar Þlaln ls dralned by Lhe regulaLed flood waLers of
represenLs deep-pelaglc conLlnenLal-rlse sedlmenLs. 1he
Chaggar 8lver.
Nottb uelbl belt comprlses Lhree sedlmenLaLlon domalns:
Lhe kheLrl sub-basln, Lhe Alwar sub-basln and Lhe LalsoL-

8ayana sub-basln. SedlmenLaLlon ln Lhls belL commenced
- 1he souLh-easLern plalns are locally characLerlzed by
wlLh shelf carbonaLes, followed by coarse clasLlc sedlmenLs
plaLeau, scarpland and ravlnes. 1he vlndhyan Scarplands
and volcanlLes. 1he 5ootb uelbl belt, wlLh exLenslve maflc
could be seen all along Lhe CreaL 8oundary laulL from
volcanlsm, locallzed felslc volcanlsm, arglllaceous-
ChlLLaurgarh Lo Lhe Lrl-[uncLlon of 8haraLpur, uholpur and
arenaceous-carbonaLe accumulaLlons ln successlve,
Sawal Madhopur dlsLrlcLs. 1hey have an average elevaLlon
elongaLed baslns and consplcuous felslc pluLonlsm, ls
of 300m Lo 380m aboveLhemean sealevel.
lnLerpreLed as an lsland arc.
1heueccan Lava ÞlaLeau ls malnly conflned Lo parLs of koLa,
1he Þrecambrlan crusL of Lhe Aravalll MounLaln 8ange
!halawar, 8answara and ChlLLaurgarh dlsLrlcLs. 1he
comprlses a number of ÞroLerozolc fold belLs underlaln and
elevaLlon ranges from 300m Lo over 300m above Lhe mean
dellmlLed by schlsL-gnelss-granlLlc rocks of Archaean age.
sealevel.
1he Lhree ma[or ÞroLerozolc cover unlLs are Lhe Atovolll
5opet qtoop, Lhe uelbl 5opet qtoop, and Lhe cbompooet
1he ravlnes are locally lmpassable and are conflned Lo Lhe
Ctoop. 1he easLern and souLheasLern parLs of Lhe SLaLe are
alluvlum overlylng Lhe vlndhyans ln uholpur, Sawal
occupled by rocks of vloJbyoo 5opet qtoop, malnly formlng
Madhopur, !halawar and koLa dlsLrlcL along Lhe Chambal
a plaLeau of sandsLone, shale's and llmesLone. LlgnlLe
8lver and lLs LrlbuLarles.
deposlLs of Lhe 8armer 8asln, are one of Lhe lmporLanL
1erLlary llgnlLe deposlLs underlylng Lhe CreaL lndlan 1har
deserL ln Lhe norLh-wesLern parL of 8a[asLhan. Malanl SulL
Ceologlcally, 8a[asLhan comprlses rocks ranglng from Lhe
of lgneous rocks, conslsLlng of rhyollLes and pyroclasLlc
oldesL Archean rocks Lo recenL alluvlum formaLlons. Also
maLerlal, are exposed around !odhpur. ln Lhe wesLern parL
presenL are Lhe wlnd blown sands of 1har ueserL. 8anded
of Lhe SLaLe, Marwar Super Croup of Lower Þaleozolc age
Cnelsslc Complex exposed ln Lhe cenLral and souLhern
conslsLs of Lhree groups, namely - !odhpur group (malnly
8a[asLhan are Lhe oldesL formaLlons ln Lhe SLaLe. 1he
sandsLone and shale), 8hllara group (malnly llmesLone and
Aravalll hlll range, dlvldlng Lhe SLaLe dlagonally, ls made up
dolomlLe) and nagaur group (sandsLone, sllLsLone and
of Þrecambrlan rocks, comprlslng Lhe meLamorphosed
gypsum). Mesozolcs are exposed malnly ln !alsalmer and
gnelsses, schlsL, marble, quarLzlLe, calc, slllcaLe and ulLra
8armer dlsLrlcLs. 1hese comprlse of sandsLone and
baslc and acldlc lnLruslve rocks, Lrendlng nL-SW and
llmesLone. ln Lhe souLhern parL, ueccan Lrap formaLlon of
dlpplng 30¨ Lo 70¨ easLerly.
LhecreLaceous agels exposed. ueccan Lraps occupyparLs of
8aran, !halawar and ChlLLorgarh dlsLrlcL. Much recenL ln
8ased on LecLono-llLhologlcal feaLures, Lhe followlng
orlgln are Lhe groups conslsLlng of alluvlum, blown sands,
domalns aredlsLlngulshed:-
kankar and evaporaLes and Lheyarewldelyspread.
1he Archaean basemenL conslsLlng of Lhe 8anded
Cnelsslc Complex and granlLes

1nL GnAGGAk ÞLAIN
VINDn¥ANSCAkÞLANDANDDLCCAN LAVA ÞLA1LAU
3.3GLCLCG¥

20

SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
o. SCIL CI AkAVALLI LANDSCAÞL
3.4SCIL
I WLS1LkN ÞLAIN
b. SCILS CI LAS1LkN kAIAS1nAN UÞLAND
SAND¥ AkID ÞLAIN
SLMI-AkID 1kANSI1ICNAL ÞLAINS
c. ÞA1nAk &8UNDLLknANDkLGICN
II CLN1kAL nIGnLANDS
III SCIL CI ÞA1nAk AND 8UNDLLknAND UÞLAND
- 1he solls are malnly
derlved from Lhe arglllaceous deposlLs composed of
An undersLandlng of solls wlLh referenceLo Lhelr naLureand
slaLes, phylllLes and mlca schlsL along wlLh granlLes and
dlsLrlbuLlon ls essenLlal Lo formulaLe any land based
0
quarLzlLe. 1he mean annual LemperaLure ls 24 C whlle
producLlon sysLem. A good undersLandlng of solls wlLh
0
Lhe maxlmum and mlnlmum varles beLween 10 C Lo
reference Lo Lhelr naLure and dlsLrlbuLlon ls essenLlal Lo
0
40 C. 1he annual ralnfall ranges beLween 400 Lo 900
formulaLe any land based producLlon sysLem. lL ls oneof Lhe
mm. 1he landscape ls malnly comprlsed of Lhe
mosL valuable naLural resources for socleLy. lL caLers Lo Lhe
followlng physlographlc unlLs, vlz. pedlmenLs, hllls,
baslc needs of manklnd byproduclng food, flbre and Llmber.
lnLervenlng baslns and plalns. A slgnlflcanL porLlon of
1he domlnanL and sub-domlnanL solls ln Lhe SLaLe are llsLed
Lhe physlography ls occupled by rock ouLcrops whlle
below:
Lhe pedlmenL and plalns have very deep Lo deep, wlLh
- 1he plaln consLlLuLes Lhe wesLern parL
lnLermlLLenL moderaLely shallow Lo moderaLely deep,
of Lhe SLaLe encompasslng Lhe dlsLrlcLs of !alsalmer,
elLher calcareous or non-calcareous, flne loamy/coarse
8lkaner, Canganagar, 8armer, !odhpur, Churu, !hun[hunu,
loamy solls occurrlng ln assoclaLlon as domlnanL and
Slkar, nagaur, Þall and !alore. lL covers an area of 20.63 m ha
sub-domlnanL soll famllles.
of land comprlslng 60.3° of Lheareaof LheSLaLe.
- 1he solls are
a. - 1he solls are malnly derlved
malnly derlved from Lhe alluvlum of 8anas and
Lhrough Lhe Aeollan sands. 1he mean annual
Chambal rlvers and Lhelr LrlbuLarles. 1he pedlmenL
0
LemperaLure ls 29 C whlle Lhe mean annual summer
plalns, dlssecLed plalns and effluvlal plalns are Lhe
0
LemperaLure approaches Lo 33.4 C. 1he annual ralnfall
ma[or landforms of Lhls physlographlc unlL, along wlLh
ranges beLween 200-300 mm. 1he solls elLher
doLLed rock ouLcrops.
assoclaLed wlLh dunes or lnLerdunal plalns are deep,
excesslvely dralned, calcareous or non-calcareous and
1he ma[or solls of physlography are very deep Lo deep,
sandy ln naLure.
well dralned, elLher calcareous or non-calcareous, flne
loamy or coarse loamy solls occurrlng as domlnanL or
b. - Lhe solls are
sub-domlnanL famllles.
malnly derlved from Lhe alluvlum broughL down by
Chaggar and Lunl rlvers neLwork from Lhe Shlvallk and
- 1he physlography
Lhe Aravalll hllls respecLlvely. 1he mean maxlmum
comprlses of Lwo dlfferenL geologlcal manlfesLaLlons. lL
0
LemperaLure ranges form 24 C ln Lhe easLern parLs Lo
conslsLs malnly of sandsLone, quarLzlLe, slllcaceous
0
26.3 C ln Lhe wesL. 1he domlnanL solls are deep Lo very
llmesLone and dolomlLe on one hand, whlle a vasL area
deep, elLher calcareous or non-calcareous and sandy ln
ls formed from Lhe alluvlum broughL down by Chambal
naLure, occupylng genLly sloplng plalns wlLh doLLed
and lLs LrlbuLarles passlng Lhrough Lheueccan 1rap. 1he
hummocks. 1he sub-domlnanL solls are deep Lo very
cllmaLe of Lhe area ls characLerlzed by hoL and weL
deep, well-dralned, elLher calcareous or non-
summers and dry wlnLers. Annual ralnfall varles
calcareous, on nearly level plalns and coarse loamy/
beLween 300-1000mm. 1he mean annual LemperaLure
flneloamyln naLure.
0
ls 24 C.
- 1he physlography ls exLended
- A
ln Lhe enLlre easLern zone of 8a[asLhan, coverlng malnly
slgnlflcanL area of Lhls physlography ls characLerlzed by
udalpur, 8a[samand, 8hllwara, A[mer, 1onk, Sawal
sLeeply sloplng escarpmenLs, resldual hlllocks and genLly
Madhopur, !alpur, Alwar, 8haraLpur, uholpur, ChlLLaurgarh,
sloplng rocky plaLeau whlch are barren wlLh lnLerspersed
!halawar, koLa, 8undl, 8answarar and uungarpur dlsLrlcLs of
veneer of solls. ModeraLely deep or deep, well dralned, flne
Lhe SLaLe. lL covers around 13.4 mha consLlLuLlng 39.34° of
loamy, elLher calcareous or non-calcareous solls are Lhe
Lhegeographlcal areaof LheSLaLe.
domlnanL feaLures of Lhesoll-scape.


21
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
IV SCIL CI 8UNDLLknAND ALLUVIAL ÞLAIN
ÞkLSSUkL CN WAS1LLANDS
V MALWA ÞLA1LAU
S1A1L CI WAS1LLANDS IN kAIAS1nAN
3.SWAS1LLANDS
managemenL or on accounL of naLural causes". WasLelands - very
can resulL from lnherenL/lmposed dlsablllLles such as by
deep Lo deep, dark graylsh brown, well-dralned, calcareous,
locaLlon, envlronmenL, chemlcal and physlcal properLles of
flne solls wlLh weakly expressed sllckenslde on nearly level
Lhesoll or flnanclal or managemenL consLralnLs.
plalns consLlLuLe Lhe domlnanL soll-scape. 1hese solls occur
ln assoclaLlon wlLh deep Lo very deep, very dark graylsh
- An lncreaslng demand of
brown, moderaLely well dralned, calcareous flne solls. A
land for boLh agrlculLural and non-agrlculLural purposes has
slgnlflcanL porLlon of Lhe physlography ls severely affecLed
resulLed ln Lhe creaLlon of vasL sLreLches of wasLeland from
byravlne formaLlon.
l and degradaLl on, sol l sal l nl Ly, waLer l oggl ng,
- 1he soll-scape malnly comprlses of deserLlflcaLlon, soll eroslon eLc. and Lhe decrease ln per
moderaLely deep Lo deep, dark graylsh brown, moderaLely caplLa culLlvable land besldes causlng ecologlcal
well dralned, calcareous, flne solls wlLh promlnenL plaLeau, lmbalances.
usually rocky wlLh lnLerspersed veneer of loamy skeleLal
- Cf Lhe LoLal
solls whlch are shallow Lo very shallow, wlLh well-dralned
geographlcal area, wasLelands accounL for Lhe hlghesL
expresslon of sllcken sldes. A slgnlflcanL area ls occupled by
percenLage ln !alsalmer. 1hls can be aLLrlbuLed Lo Lhe
hllls wlLh escarpmenLs and plaLeau.
presence of Lhe 1har ueserL (comprlslng of large LracLs of
sandy areas).A relaLlvely hlgher percenLage of wasLelands
can also be observed ln 8a[samand, Slkar and Alwar (42.3°,
WasLeland ls descrlbed as ºdegraded land whlch can be
40.70°, and 40.06° respecLlvely) ,( woste looJ Atlos of
broughL under vegeLaLlve cover wlLh reasonable efforL, and
kojostboo, 200J).
whlch ls currenLly under-uLlllzed, and land whlch ls
deLerloraLlng due Lo lack of approprlaLe waLer and soll
liqure l.2: woste/onds in kojosthon

36°





29°



Cullled and/or 8avlnous land Land wlLh or wlLhouL scrub
WaLerlogged and Marshy land Land affecLed by sallnlLy/alkallnlLy
under uLlllzed/degraded noLlfled foresL land uegraded pasLures/grazlng land
uegraded land under planLaLlon crop Sandy
Mlnlng/lndusLrlal wasLelands 8arren rocky/sLony wasLe/sheeL rock area
SLeep sloplng area

5ource: woste/ond 4t/os of lndio -2005


22
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
1he vorious types of woste/onds ore. as degraded foresL. Alwar, 8answara, 8undl, !alpur,
koLa and Sawal Madhopur have land under Lhls
- Cullles are
caLegory.
landforms creaLed by runnlng waLer erodlng sharply
lnLo soll, Lyplcally on a hlllslde. ÞercepLlble channels are - 8armer has
creaLed, causlng an undulaLlng Lerraln. Cullles are Lhe Lhe hlghesL percenLage of land under degraded
flrsL sLage of excesslve land dlssecLlon followed by Lhelr pasLures ln comparlson Lo oLher dlsLrlcLs.
neLworklng whlch lead Lo Lhe developmenL of ravlnous
- A very
land. 8avlnes are a neLwork of gullles formed generally
small proporLlon of Lhe land ln Lhe SLaLe falls under Lhls
due Lo deep cuLLlng by sLreams. 1he hlghesL percenLage
caLegory. Cf Lhe LoLal, uausa has Lhe hlghesL
ls observed ln !halawar (22.87°). 8elaLlvely hlgh
percenLage.
percenLages can be observed ln Lhe dlsLrlcLs of Sawal
- Sandy areas are Lhose areas whlch have
Madhopur, karaull and !alpur. ulsLrlcLs of udalpur,
sLablllzed accumulaLlon of sand. A deserL SLaLe,
Srlganganagar, !alsalmer, 8armer, Churu, uungarpur
!alsalmer has Lhe maxlmum area caLegorlzed as sandy
and Panumangarh have no land caLegorlzed as elLher
(43.97°). 1hls could be aLLrlbuLed Lo Lhe facL LhaL large
gullled or ravlnous.
LracLs areparL of Lhe1har ueserL.
- 1he presence of
- Mlnlng land
mlnlmal vegeLaLlve cover or Lheabsenceof lL makes Lhls
refers Lo land where mlnlng operaLlons brlng abouL
Lype of land prone Lo deLerloraLlon due Lo consLanL
deLerloraLlon. lndusLrlal land refers Lo land
eroslon. !alsalmer has Lhe hlghesL percenLage of land
deLerloraLed on accounL of large scale lndusLrlal
wlLh or wlLhouL scrub (40.20°). Alwar, 8hllwara,
effluenL dlscharge. Cf Lhe LoLal, 8a[smand has Lhe
8lkaner, and !odhpur also have hlgher percenLages ln
maxlmum area under Lhls caLegory (19.76°). karaull
wlLh respecL Lo oLher dlsLrlcLs. Srlganganagar ls Lhe only
has Lhe maxlmum caLegorlzed as lndusLrlal wasLelands
dlsLrlcL wlLhouL anyland under Lhls caLegory.
among LhedlfferenL SLaLes.
- WaLer logged
-
land ls LhaL land where Lhe waLer ls aL/or near Lhe
!alsalmer has Lhe maxlmum land caLegorlzed among
surface and Lhls waLer sLands for mosL of Lhe year.
LhedlfferenL dlsLrlcLs.
Marsh ls LhaL land whlch geLs permanenLly or
perlodlcally lnundaLed by waLer and ls characLerlzed by
- Sawal Madhopur has Lhe
vegeLaLlon, whlch lncludes grasses and weeds. 1he
maxlmum land of Lhls klnd ln comparlson Lo Lhe oLher
lnherenL physlographlc characLerlsLlcs and cllmaLlc
dlsLrlcLs.
reglme of Lhe reglon resulL ln a very small percenLageof
Lheland belng caLegorlzedas waLerlogged or marshy.
- uevelopmenL of wasLelands/degraded
- SalL
lands requlres up-Lo-daLelnformaLlon on Lhelr geographlcal
affecLed land ls generally characLerlzed as land LhaL has
locaLlon and exLenL, besldes Lechnologlcal supporL. Þroper
adverse effecLs on growLh of mosL planLs due Lo Lhe
area speclflc sLraLegy has Lo be developed keeplng ln vlew
acLlon or presence of excess soluble salLs (sallne) or
Lheagro-cllmaLlc condlLlons and capablllLyof Lheland.
hlgh exchangeable sodlum. Alkall land has an
Lxchangeable Sodlum ÞercenLage (LSÞ) of abouL 13,
Land ldenLlfled as 'CulLlvablewasLeland' could bereclalmed
whlch ls generally consldered as Lhe llmlL beLween
and puL Lo producLlve use. Lnvlslonlng Lhe sLrong prospecL
normal and alkall solls. 1he predomlnanL salLs are
of producLlon of 8lo luel on culLlvable wasLeland of
carbonaLes and blcarbonaLes of sodlum. !halawara has
8a[asLhan Lhrough !aLropha and oLher such Lree-borne oll
Lhe hlghesL percenLage of land affecLed by
seeds, Lhe 8lo luel Mlsslon has been consLlLuLed ln 2003-
sallnlLy/alkallnlLy.
06. 1he 8lo luel Þollcy was declared and 8lo luel AuLhorlLy

consLlLuLed Lo asslsL ln Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe
- 8aran has Lhe hlghesL percenLage of land caLegorlzed
ob[ecLlves of Lhe8lo luel Mlsslon.
GULLILD AND]Ck kAVINCUS LAND
DLGkADLD ÞAS1UkLS]GkA2ING LAND
DLGkADLD LAND UNDLk ÞLAN1A1ICN CkCÞ
SAND¥
LAND WI1n Ck WI1nCU1 SCkU8
MINING]INDUS1kIAL WAS1LLANDS
WA1LkLCGGLD AND MAkSn¥ LAND
8AkkLN kCCk¥]S1CN¥ WAS1L]SnLL1 kCCk AkLA
S1LLÞ SLCÞING AkLA
kLSÞCNSL I NI 1I A1I VLS WI 1n kLSÞLC1 1C
WAS1LLANDS
LAND AIILC1LD 8¥ SALINI1¥]ALkALINI1¥
UNDLk-U1ILI2LD]DLGkADLD NC1IIILDICkLS1 LAND
23
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
ln Lhe SLaLe, 4611212 hecLares of land have been ldenLlfled percenLage of wasLelands ln Lhe SLaLe (wlLh Lhe hlghesL ln
as culLlvable wasLeland. AlloLmenL of culLlvable wasLeland !alsalmer). Compresslve developmenL of Lhe deserL
ln 11 dlsLrlcLs (8aran, 8answara, 8hllwara, koLa, 8undl, Lhrough programmes such as sLablllzlng of sand dunes, fuel
8a[asmand, Slrohl, ChlLLorgarh, uungarpur, !halawar, and and fodder planLaLlon, sLrlp planLaLlon, fodder
udalpur) for Lhe producLlon of !aLropha and oLher such developmenL, sLrlp planLaLlon and fodder developmenL
Lree-borne oll seeds for Lhe producLlon of 8lo luel has been lnlLlaLlves, have been Laken up ln Lhe pasL for managemenL
ldenLlfled. of wasLelands ln Lhe deserL. SLudles have ldenLlfled 93
lsraell 8abul, 8er, 8ohlra, and khe[arl Lree specles for
1he deserLs of 8a[asLhan accounL for Lhe hlghesL
planLaLlon ln LhedeserL areas.


24
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
SUkIACL AND GkCUND
WA1Lk ILA1UkLS
CnAÞ1Lk 4
4.1. Dra|nage Network
C
kIVLk CnAM8AL
ne of Lhe mosL vlLal naLural resources for human
exlsLence ls waLer. 1he SLaLe, however, ls noL very
well endowed wlLh Lhls resource. lL depends
enLlrely on Lhe ralnfall Lo feed lLs rlvers, wheLher seasonal
or perennlal ln naLure. none of Lhese rlvers orlglnaLe from
snow-fed glaclers.
1he rlvers of 8a[asLhan, excepL for Lhe Chambal, are
ephemeral and flow only durlng Lhe ralny season. Local
Lopography and preclplLaLlon lnfluence Lhe formaLlon of
rlver caLchmenLs ln Lhe SLaLe. ln Lhe absence of any
formldable mounLaln barrler ln Lhe SLaLe and Lhe low
quanLum of annual ralnfall, Lhe rlver caLchmenLs areas are
mosLly small. 1he flaL, rugged and undulaLlng rolllng lands
of Lhe low hllls and plaLeaus, whlch are Lhe orlgln of rlvers
1he Chambal ends a confluence of flve rlvers, lncludlng Lhe
and sLreams, are hlghly dlssecLed and devold of deep
Chambal, kwarl, ?amuna, Slnd, Þahu[, aL Þachnada near
channels Lo add sLream denslLy and hence, Lhe caLchmenLs
8hareh ln uLLar Þradesh SLaLe, aL Lhe border of 8hlnd and
areof low sLream denslLy.
LLawah dlsLrlcLs. 1he rlver collecLs Lhe ma[or parL of
dralnage dlscharge from !alpur, uausa, Sawal Madhopur,
LxLendlng from Lhe souLh-wesL Lo Lhe norLh-easL dlrecLlon,
A[mer, 1onk, 8hllwara, 8undl, koLa, 8aran, !halawar,
Lhe Aravalll ranges largely lnfluence Lhe dralnage sysLemof
ChlLLorgarh, udalpur and 8a[samand dlsLrlcLs. lLs maln
Lhe SLaLe. 1he dralnage ln Lhe SLaLe elLher culmlnaLes ln Lhe
LrlbuLarles are8anas, kall Slndh, and ÞarvaLl.
Arablan Sea or ln Lhe 8ay of 8engal, some sLreams
culmlnaLlng ln Lhesands of Lhe1har ueserL.
Chambal ls uLlllzed for hydropower generaLlon aL Lhe koLa
8arrageon LhelefL bank.
- CrlglnaLlng ln Lhe vlndhyan ranges
near Mhow ln lndore ulsLrlcL of Madhya Þradesh, lL ls Lhe 8lver 8anas 1he 8lver 8anas ls a LrlbuLary of Lhe Chambal
only perennlal rlver ln Lhe SLaLe. lL flows for some 320 km ln 8lver whlch, ln Lurn, flows lnLo Lhe ?amuna. CrlglnaLlng ln
a generally norLherly dlrecLlon before enLerlng a deep Lhe khamnor Pllls of Lhe Aravalll 8ange (3 km from
gorge ln 8a[asLhan aL Chouraslgarh, abouL 96 km upsLream kumbhalgarh ln 8a[samand ulsLrlcL), lL flows norLheasL
of koLa. lL flows for abouL 226 km ln 8a[asLhan ln a norLh- Lhrough Lhe Mewar reglon of 8a[asLhan, Lo meeL Lhe
easLerly dlrecLlon. 1he Chambal and lLs LrlbuLary 8anas, Chambal near Lhe vlllage of 8ameshwar ln Sawal
whlch rlses ln Lhe Aravalll 8ange, dralns souLheasLern Madhopur. 1he clLles of naLhdwara, !ahanpur, and 1onk lle
8a[asLhan. on Lhe banks of Lhe rlver. Ma[or LrlbuLarles lnclude Lhe
liqure 4.1 : chombo/ river
23

SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
8erach and Menall on Lhe rlghL, and Lhe koLharl, kharl, ual, of Lhe Aravalll range and draln Lhe run-off of some parLs of
uheel 8lver, Sohadara, Morel and kallsll on Lhe lefL. 1he Þall, !alore, Slrohl and 8armer dlsLrlcL areas.
8anas dralns a basln of 43,833 km², whlch lles enLlrely
- 1he 8lver Mahl orlglnaLes from Lhe Mhow
wlLhln 8a[asLhan. lL dralns Lhe easL slope of Lhe cenLral
ranges of Madhya Þradesh and afLer flowlng for some
porLlon of Lhe Aravalll 8ange, and Lhe basln lncludes all or
dlsLance Lowards norLh, enLers 8a[asLhan SLaLe near
parL of A[mer, 8hllwara, 8undl, ChlLLorgarh, uausa, !alpur,
khandu vlllage of 8answara dlsLrlcL. lLs caLchmenL area ln
Þall, 8a[samand, Sawal Madhopur, 1onk, and udalpur
8a[asLhan spreads over Lhe dlsLrlcLs of udalpur, 8answara,
dlsLrlcLs. 1hls rlver usually drles up durlng Lhe summer
ChlLLorgarh and uungarpur, coverlng a LoLal geographlcal
season. 1heLoLal lengLh of Lhls rlver ls abouL 480km.
area of abouL 16,030 sq. km. 1he lmporLanL LrlbuLarles of
- 1he 8lver 8anganga orlglnaLes from Lhls rlver areSom, !akham, Anas, Chap and Moren.
Lhe low hllls of 8alraLh (!alpur ulsLrlcL), flows Lowards Lhe
- 1he SabarmaLl, orlglnaLlng from Lhe
easL, enLerlng Sawal Madhopur dlsLrlcL and flnally lnLo
low hllls of Cogunda (udalpur dlsLrlcL) and called Wakal ln
8haraLpur dlsLrlcL wherelLs waLer spreads over a largearea.
lLs lnlLlal course, covers a caLchmenL area of 4,300sq. km. ln
1he LoLal lengLh of Lhls rlver ls 380 km. 1he rlver [olns Lhe
Lhe SLaLe and dralns parL of lLs waLer from udalpur and
rlver ?amunanear laLehabad of AgradlsLrlcL.
Slrohl dlsLrlcLs before flnally Lraverslng across Cu[araL Lo
8lver Lunl orlglnaLes ln Lhe wesLern slopes of Lhe meeL Lhe Culf of Cambay. lL ls approxlmaLely 371 km ln
Aravalll range aL an elevaLlon of 330 m, near A[mer, lL flows lengLh.
for abouL 493km ln a souLh-wesLerly dlrecLlon ln 8a[asLhan,
5ome of the other droinoqe in the 5tote is os fo//ows:-
only Lo dlsappear ln Lhe marshy land of 8unn of kuLch. 1he
LoLal caLchmenL area of LheLunl 8lver 8asln ln
orlglnaLes ln Lhe hllls near Lhe vlllage Som ln
kherwara 1ehsll of udalpur ulsLrlcL. lL flows souLh-easL
Lhrough a hllly reglon and [olns rlver Mahl near Lhe vlllage
8aneswar. 1he enLlre caLchmenL lles ln udalpur and
uungarpur ulsLrlcLs. lLs LrlbuLarles lnclude 1ldl, ComLl and
!akham.
orlglnaLes souLh-wesL of Lhe hllls near
ChoLLl Sadarl ln ChlLLorgarh ulsLrlcL. lL flows Lhrough Lhe
hllly reglon of udalpur ulsLrlcL ln a souLh-wesLern dlrecLlon
and [olns rlver Som near 8llara vlllage. 1he Sub-8asln ls
slLuaLed ln ChlLLor and udalpur ulsLrlcLs. lLs LrlbuLarles
lncludekarmal and Sukll.
orlglnaLes ln Lhe souLhern hllls of
8a[asLhan ls 37,363 km2, coverlng parLs of Lhe ulsLrlcLs of
uungarpur Lown. lL flows Lhrough uungarpur ulsLrlcL and
A[mer, Þall, !odhpur, nagaur, 8armer, !alore and Slrohl.
[olns Mahl 8lver near CallakoL vlllage. 1he LoLal caLchmenL
Lunl, a seasonal rlver, flows only durlng Lhe ralny season,
of Lherlver lles ln uungarpur ulsLrlcL.
choked wlLh advanclng sands aL many places. Lven ln Lhe
monsoon monLhs, when Lhe waLer flow raLe ls aL lLs peak,
orlglnaLes ln Lhe norLhern slopes of Lhe
Lhe flowlng waLer ls noL able Lo cuL Lhese sand deposlLs on
vlndhyan ranges, near Amber vlllage ln Madhya Þradesh. lL
Lhe rlver bed, as a resulL of whlch Lhe runoff spreads Lo Lhe
flows ln Lhe norLh-wesLern dlrecLlon, enLers 8a[asLhan near
ad[olnlng flelds on boLh Lhe banks of Lhe rlver, braldlng lL. A
Meledlkhera vlllage and [olns Mahl 8lver abouL 13 km
number of sLreams and LrlbuLarles llke 8andl, Sukrl, MlLhrl,
downsLream of CallakoL vlllage. lLs Sub-8asln ln 8a[asLhan ls
!awal, Sagl, !o[rl, Lllrl, Cuhlya eLc. flow on Lhe wesLern slde
slLuaLed ln 8answaraulsLrlcL.
kIVLk MAnI
kIVLk 8ANGANGA
kIVLk SA8AkMA1I
LUNI
kIVLk SCM
kIVLk IAknAM
kIVLk MCkAN
kIVLk ANAS
liqure 4.2: Luni kiver

26


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
kIVLk 8nADAk,
IA1Ln SAGAk LAkL
kIVLk kC1nAkI
kIVLk knAkI
kIVLk DAI
kIVLk MASnI
4.2. LAkLS CI kAIAS1nAN
UDAI SAGAk LAkL
orlglnaLlng ln Lhe hllls souLh of kanguwa
vlllage ln uungarpur ulsLrlcL, flows from Lhe norLh Lo souLh
and enLers Cu[araL near kokhakra vlllage ln uungarpur
ulsLrlcL, where lL [olns Lhe Mahl near karanLa vlllage ln
Cu[araL. lLs caLchmenL ls slLuaLed ln uungarpur ulsLrlcL.
8lver 8erach orlglnaLes ln Lhehllls norLheasL of udalpur clLy.
lL flows norLheasL for abouL 137 km ln udalpur, ChlLLorgarh
and 8hllwara ulsLrlcLs before [olnlng Lhe 8anas near 8lgod
vlllage ln Mandalgarh 1ehsll of 8hllwara ulsLrlcL. lL flows ln a
hllly reglon up Lo 8adgaon reservolr and Lhen Lhrough
plalns.
- ls locaLed ln Lhe norLh of Lake
orlglnaLes ln Lhe easLern slopes of Lhe
Þlchola.lL was bullL by Maharana !al Slngh ln 1678 as a
Aravalll range near Porera vlllage ln 8hllwara ulsLrlcL. 1he
medlum-slzed perennlal sLorage reservolr. ln lLs presenL
rlver flows Lhrough 8a[samand and 8hllwara ulsLrlcLs for
capaclLy, Lhls lake serves as Lhe second ma[or source of
abouL 31 km ln a hllly reglon, and 100 km Lhrough Lhe
drlnklng waLer of Lhe clLy of udalpur. WlLhln Lhe conflnes of
plalns, before [olnlng Lhe 8anas near nandral vlllage ln
Lhe laLeh Sagar Lake, Lhere are Lhree small lslands. 1he
8hllwaraulsLrlcL.
largesL of Lhese ls Lhe lsland called Lhe nehru Þark (4 sq.km
area), whlch ls apopular garden wlLh aresLauranL and azoo.
orlglnaLes ln Lhe hllls near ueogarh ln
1he second lsland (0.06 sq. km area) houses a publlc park
8a[samand ulsLrlcL. lL flows norLheasL for abouL 192 km
wlLh an lmpresslve waLer-[eL founLaln and Lhe Lhlrd lsland
Lhrough udalpur, 8hllwara and A[mer ulsLrlcLs before
(1.2 sq.km area) ls Lhe address of Lhe udalpur Solar
[olnlng Lhe 8anas 8lver near Chosala vlllage ln A[mer
CbservaLory (uSC). 1he run-off emerglng from Lhe
ulsLrlcL.
surroundlng hllls dralns lnLo Lhls lake. 1he lake ls pear-
shaped and ls enclrcled by Lhe Aravalll hllls on Lhree sldes
orlglnaLes ln Lhe souLh-easLern slopes of Lhe
wlLh a sLralghL gravlLy sLone masonry dam on Lhe easLern
Aravalll range, near naslrabad 1ehsll of A[mer ulsLrlcL. lL
slde, whlch has a splllway Lo dlscharge flood flows durlng
flows souLheasL for abouL 40km and easL for abouL 36km ln
Lhemonsoon season.
A[mer ulsLrlcL and for a shorL sLreLch Lhrough 1onk ulsLrlcL,
before [olnlng 8anas rlver near 8lsalpur vlllage ln 1onk
ulsLrlcL.
orlglnaLes ln Lhe hllls near klshangarh ln
A[mer ulsLrlcL. lL flows easL and Lhen souLh for abouL 96 km
ln parLly hllly and parLly plaln areas of A[mer and 1onk
ulsLrlcLs before [olnlng 8anas 8lver near 1onk. As Sohadara
has been consldered by Lhe lu, a separaLe Sub-8asln of
8anas, lLs descrlpLlon ls glven below.
Þlchola Lake - slLuaLed ln udalpur clLy, Þlchola ls an arLlflclal
- udal Sagar Lake ls anoLher sLrlklng
fresh waLer lake, creaLed ln Lhe year 1362 Au, and named
lake LhaL falls under Lhe caLegory of Lhe flve lakes of
afLer Lhe nearby Þlcholl vlllage. lL exLends Lo Lhree mlles ln
udalpur. udalsagar Lake ls locaLed aL a dlsLance of abouL 13
lengLh, Lwo mlles ln wldLh and has a depLh of 30 feeL.
kms ln Lhe easL of udalpur. 1he consLrucLlon of Lhls lake was
Þlchola Lake ls enveloped by lofLy palaces, Lemples, baLhlng
lnlLlaLed ln 1339 by Maharana udal Slngh and goL
ghaLs and elevaLedhllls on all lLs sldes.
compleLed ln 1363. udal Sagar Lake exLends Lo 4 km ln

I|gure 4.l: Picho/o /oke
liqure 4.4 : loteh 5oqor Loke

SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
27
lengLh, 2.3 km ln wldLh and deep Lo Lhe exLenL of 9 meLres
maln canal ls 20 mlles long, wlLh 210 mlles of dlsLrlbuLarles.
aL Lhe maxlmum. AcLually, udal Sagar Lake was Lhe resulL of
1hecaLchmenL areaof Lhelakels abouL 760sq. km.
a dam LhaL Look lLs sLarL ln 1339. 1he Ahar 8lver LermlnaLes
ln Lhls lake and Lhe surplus waLer falls from Lhe wasLe welr, - Lhe keoladeo [heel ls parL of Lhe
keoladeo naLlonal Þark (8haraLpur SancLury). 8efore belng formlng Lhe source of rlver 8erach. 1he presenL soclal and
developed Lo lLs presenL SLaLe, lL was no dlfferenL from Lhe commerclal seLup Lo use Lhe lake waLer malnly lncludes
arld scrub woodland of Lhe surroundlng area. 1he only lrrlgaLlon, flshlng, and lndusLrlal and drlnklng waLer
dlfference was LhaL lL had a naLural depresslon, whlch fllled purposes. lL serves as Lhe lnLake source of Lhe glganLlc
up wlLh ralnwaLer durlng Lhe monsoon and aLLracLed lndusLrles llke PlndusLan Zlnc llmlLed and udalpur CemenL
wlldfowl for Lhe perlod Lhe waLer was Lhere. lL ls baslcally a Works. ln facL, domesLlc wasLewaLer and lndusLrlal
naLural depresslon (or !heel), whlch recelves waLer ln Lhe effluenLs areLhreaLenlng Lhevery exlsLenceof Lhelake.
monsoon perlod (from !une Lo SepLember) Lhrough a serles
- ls a 300-acre lake, surrounded by Lhe
of arLlflclal dams and bunds, noLably Lhe A[an uam or A[an
nahargarh hllls. 1he arLlflclal lake was formed as a resulL of
8undh), a 3,270 hecLare lmpoundmenL, abouL a kllomeLre
lnsLlLuLlng a dam across rlver uarbhawaLl durlng Lhe 18Lh
from keoladeo. 1he area was flrsL developed Lo lLs currenL
cenLury. 1oday, lL ls Lhe only slgnlflcanL waLer body ln Lhe
SLaLe ln 1889 by Þrlnce Parbhan[l of Morvl SLaLe ln Cu[araL,
clLy of !alpur. 1he lake ls approxlmaLely 130 ha ln lLs full
spread. 1he lake has been a naLural hablLaL for more Lhan
130 specles of local and mlgraLory blrds. lLs waLer provldes
susLalnable llvlng Lo counLless specles of Lhe aquaLlc
ecosysLem llke flsh, blrds, lnsecLs, mlcroorganlsms and
aquaLlc vegeLaLlon.
- ls a huge arLlflclal lake creaLed by
consLrucLlng a hlgh bund amldsL Lree covered hllls.
8amgarh ls locaLed aL a dlsLance of 23 km from Lhe clLy of
!alpur. 8amgarh Lake ls around 4 kms ln lengLh and 2 kms ln
wldLh. And, Lhe beauLlful landscape aLLracLs LourlsLs from
far off places, especlally durlng monsoons. 1helakeconslsLs
of a sand dam 90 feeL hlgh. 1he dam ls slLuaLed 20 mlles
norLh-easL of !alpur, ln Lhe gorge Lhrough whlch Lhe
8anganga rlver passes before emerglng lnLo Lhe plalns. 1he
kLCLADLC InLLL
MAN SAGAk LAkL
kAMGAkn LAkL
liqure 4.5 : udoi 5oqor Loke

28
liqure 4.7: keo/odeo lhee/
liqure 4.õ: komsoqor /oke


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
durlng Lhe Llme LhaL he was appolnLed AdmlnlsLraLor of
8haraLpur. keoladeo [heel was modlfled conslderably ln
Lhe 18Lh cenLury by regulaLlng waLer from Lhe rlvers
8anganga and Cambhlr Lhrough a sysLem of canals and
dykes, bullL for flood conLrol and lrrlgaLlon purposes. 1he
presenL naLlonal Þark had lLs beglnnlng someLlmebeLween
1726 and 1763. 1he developmenL of a flne sysLem of
freshwaLer marshes aLLracLs large populaLlons of mlgraLory
blrds. 1he 16 square mlles of marsh known as Lhe Chana
[heel (Chanameans dense, and !heel Lake) ls hosL Lo several
specles. 1he keoladeo Chana 8lrd SancLuary ls home Lo
more Lhan 370 specles of blrds. CormoranLs, darLers,
odd Lemples, Lhe lake has 32 ghaLs whlch connecL Lhe
spoonbllls, lblses, herons, egreLs, cranes, pellcans,
Lemples Lo Lhe waLer. AparL from lLs rellglous slgnlflcance,
flamlngos, geese, ducks, larks, chaLs, klLes, bunLlngs,
Lhe locaLlon of Lhe Þushkar Lake ln Lhe mlddle of hllls makes
eagles, harrlers, owls, vulLures, klngflshers and many more
lL very plcLuresque. lL ls also one of Lhe ma[or LourlsL
are Lhe parL of Lhls vlbranL weLland, bulldlng nesLs ln
aLLracLlons ln 8a[asLhan. Cf laLe, Lhe lake has become
approxlmaLely 30,000 Lrees. uependenL on Lhe monsoons,
vulnerable Lo polluLlon due Lo Lhe heavy lnflux of
Lhe [heel ls faclng a shorLage of waLer due Lo dlverslons
consLrucLlon around Lhe lake, LourlsL pressure, caLLle falrs,
upsLream. Lhe CovernmenL of 8a[asLhan SLaLe has declded
submergence of ashes, performance of rlLuals and
upon (and found flnance for) a serles of remedlal measures,
undeflned sewer sysLems.
lnvolvlng boLh repalrlng Lhe exlsLlng hydraullc sLrucLures
and deslgnlng new sLrucLures, whlch wlll provlde fresh
- SlLuaLed aL MounL Abu, nakkl Lake ls known
sources of waLer and proLecL LheÞarkfrom fuLurefallures of
ln myLhology for havlng belng dug by Lhe nalls or 'naaks' of
Lhe monsoon. Pydraullc sLrucLures around Lhe A[an uam
LheCods, henceLhename. nakkl Lakels also Lheonly lndlan
have been repalred, and a new waLer conLrol sLrucLure and
arLlflclal lake slLuaLed aL a helghL of 1200 meLres above Lhe
draln, llnklng Lhe dam Lo Lhe Þark's weLland areas (Lhe
mean sea level. 1he plcLure perfecL locaLlon of Lhe lake
Chlksana Canal), have been excavaLed and are fully
surrounded wlLh mounLalns, gardens and rock formaLlons
operaLlonal
also make lL a very good LourlsL aLLracLlon. 1he lake ls abouL
half a mlle long, a quarLer mlle broad and 20 Lo 30 fL. deep
seL amldsL Lhe sLrlklngly scenlc locale
Lowards Lhe dam on Lhe wesL. 1he weeplng wlllows adorn
of uungarpur - ls Lhe famous Calb Sagar Lake, whlch was
Lhe margln of Lhe lake and several oLher specles, lncludlng
bullL by Mahara[ CoplnaLh (Calpa 8awal) ln 1428Au. lL
[asmlne, are plenLlful. MounL Abu belng a hlll sLaLlon, Lhere
provldes Lhe LourlsLs wlLh an opporLunlLy Lo wlLness a
ls no lndusLrlal developmenL. llora and fauna ls varled and
varleLyof blrd specles.
1he woods and Lhe waLers of Lhe lake provlde hablLaL Lo
Lhousands of ducks of a dozen specles, several Lhousand
gray and purple herons, egreLs, purple moorhens, whlLe-
breasLed waLer hens, bee-eaLers and green plgeons.
- locaLed ln Lhe Lown of Þushkar ln A[mer
dlsLrlcL, ls Lhe Þushkar Lake. 1he lake ls lrregular Lo elllpLlcal
ln shape, surrounded by hllls excepL on Lhe easLern slde,
where Lhe sands have drlfLed over Lhe marshland from Lhe
plalns of Marwar. 1he lake has a waLer sLreLch of 3 km. wlLh
a depLh varylng from 18-32 feeL. ALLrlbuLed Lo Lhe lake are
bellefs of sacredness and dlvlnlLy. Lnclrcled by some 300
NAkkI LAkL
GAI8SAGAk LAkL-
ÞUSnkAk LAkL
29
liqure 4.8 : Pushkor Loke
liqure 4.9: Nokki Loke



SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
wlld flowers, shrubs, palms, bamboo grow here ln number of lrrlgaLlon works have been planned and
abundance. Cnly some areas around Lhe nakhl Lake are execuLed ln dlfferenL parLs of Lhe SLaLe. AL presenL, Lhere
served bysewer llnes. are flve ma[or lrrlgaLlon pro[ecLs ln 8a[asLhan, each wlLh a
culLlvablecommand areaof abouL 10,000hecLares.
!alsamand Lake was bullL by Mahara[a
1hesema[or lrrlgaLlon pro[ecLs are:
!al Slngh ln Lhe 17Lh cenLury and creaLed by dammlng Lhe
Chambal Þro[ecL, whlch has lLs ma[or command area
ComLl 8lver, Loday, lL measures 14 km long and 9 km wlde.
ln koLaand 8undl dlsLrlcLs.
1here are beauLlful chhaLrles (cenoLaphs) around Lhls
8hakra Canal SysLem and Cang Canal sysLem, boLh
embankmenL, each wlLh an elephanL ln fronL. 1he summer
havlng Lhelr command areas ln Canganagar dlsLrlcL.
palaces of Lhe udalpur Maharanls are also here. 1he lake
lndlra Candhl nahar Command Þarlyo[na, whose
feaLures a varleLy of blrd llfe and Lhe nearby !alsamand
sLagel and sLagell porLlons are already lrrlgaLlng large
SancLuary ls home Lo panLhers, leopards, deer, wlld boars
LracLs ln wesLern parLs of Canganagar, 8lkaner and
and crocodlles.
!alsalmer dlsLrlcLs.
1he foresLs used Lo be a favourlLe hunLlng ground for Lhe Mahl-8a[a[ Sagar pro[ecL, mosL of whose lrrlgaLed
former rulers of Mewar, and elaboraLe hunLlng expedlLlons area ls ln Lhe 8answara dlsLrlcL. CuL of Lhese, Chambal
would frequenLlyLake placehere. and Mahl-8a[a[ Sagar aremulLlpurposepro[ecLs.
Work ls ln progress on slx more ma[or lrrlgaLlon
pro[ecLs, namely - !hakam, 8lsalpur, narmada Canal,
Sldhmukh, nohar and Curgaon Canal. 1here are 97
medlum lrrlgaLlon pro[ecLs ln all, whlch are
dlsLrlbuLed all across LheSLaLe.
lndlra Candhl
nahar Þarlyo[anan (lCnÞ) sLarLed ln 1938, and lrrlgaLlon
sLarLed ln parL area from 1961. 1hls area spans over four
dlsLrlcLs of 8a[asLhan, namely - Canganagar, 8lkaner,
Panumangadh and !alsalmer. ln addlLlon Lo opLlmlslng Lhe
agrlculLural producLlon, lL also envlsages reglonal
developmenL and ecologlcal lmprovemenL by arresLlng
deserLlflcaLlon. lCnÞ ls a greaL endeavour Lo brlng Lhe
Plmalayan waLer Lo vasL sLreLches of wesLern deserLed
lrrlgaLlon ls a very lmporLanL lnpuL by lLself whlch enhances
Lhe effecLlveness of all oLher agrlculLural lnpuLs llke
ferLlllzers, lmproved seeds eLc. AdequaLe faclllLles as
assured lrrlgaLlon, lmparLs confldence Lo Lhe farmers Lo
adopL lmproved agrlculLural pracLlces, helplng ln achlevlng
hlgher levels of crop producLlon. 1o make use of Lhe surplus
run-off waLer of Lhe ad[olnlng SLaLes for 8a[asLhan, a
number of lnLer SLaLe agreemenLs have been made, as a
resulL of whlch waLer ls already avallable ln 8hakra, Cang,
lndlra Candhl nahar Þarlyo[ana and Chambal lrrlgaLlon
Þro[ecL. 1heSLaLegovernmenL has accorded hlgh prlorlLy Lo
Lhe developmenL of surface waLer resources durlng Lhe lasL
four decades of planned developmenL. As a resulL, a large
IAISAMAND LAkL:

INDIkA GANDnI NAnAk ÞAkI¥CIANA:
4.3. IkkIGA1ICN NL1WCkk

30
liqure 4.10: loisomond Loke
liqure 4.11: lndiro 6ondhi Nohor Poriyojono


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
Lerraln. 1he waLer ls dlverLed from Lhe Parl-ke-8arrage ln lncludes consLrucLlon of waLer courses from Lhe canal Lo
Þun[ab Lhrough Lhe 204 km lndlra Candhl nahar feeder and Lhe flelds, roads, sanlLaLlon dlggls for drlnklng waLer,
lnLo Lhe 443 km long maln canal aL MaslLawall. lrom lndlra proLecLlve foresLry for canal, afforesLaLlon, pasLure
Candhl Canal, many urban cenLres and rural vlllages of developmenL, flsherles, agrlculLure research & exLenslon,
dlsLrlcLs of 8lkaner, Churu, Canganagar, and !odhpur, are supply of lnpuLs and servlces Lo Lhe farmers, developmenL
geLLlng drlnklng waLer Lhrough llfL sysLemon Lhe lefL slde of of abadles and markeLlng faclllLles, dralnage sysLem Lo
Lhecanal. prevenL waLer-logglng and flnally Lo promoLe seLLlemenL ln
LhedlfflculL Lerraln.
1he gang canal sysLem ls one of
Mahl 8a[a[ Sagar pro[ecL ls a [olnL mulLl- Lhe oldesL ln 8a[asLhan, servlng Lhe norLh-wesLern parL of
Canganagar. ConsLrucLlon of gang canal sLarLed ln 1920 and purpose venLure of Lhe SLaLes of 8a[asLhan and Cu[araL for
was compleLed ln 1928. 1oLal lengLh of Lhe canal sysLemln harnesslng Lhe waLers of Mahl 8lver for developmenL of
8a[asLhan ls 1231 km. 1he 8lkaner Canal feeder Lo Cang lrrlgaLlon and power, for whlch an agreemenL was reached
Canal provldes waLer Lo Lhe exLenL of CCA of 3,07,692 ln Lhe year 1966 beLween Lhe Lwo SLaLes. ln accordance
hecLares, wlLh 63percenL lnLenslLy. wlLh Lhls agreemenL, Lhe cosL of Mahl 8a[a[ Sagar uam ls
belng shared beLween Cu[araL and 8a[asLhan ln Lhe raLlo of
Þre-lndependence canals of SuLla[
33:43. 1hls agreemenL furLher provldes LhaL afLer Lhe
valleyÞro[ecL uLlllzed malnly Lheperennlal flow of Lhelndus
developmenL of narmada uam ln Cu[araL, Lhe enLlre waLer
8lver 8asln and beneflLed mosL of Lhe area lylng ln ÞaklsLan,
sLored ln Mahl 8a[a[ Sagar uam and parL sLorage of kadana
whlle 8hakra pro[ecL was under conLemplaLlon. 1he
dam would be released for use ln wesLern arld dlsLrlcLs of
8lkaner SLaLe Lrled Lo geL a share of Lhe sLored waLer of
8a[asLhan, l.e. !alor and 8armer.
SuLla[ 8lver. AfLer conslderable negoLlaLlons, lL was declded
ln 1931, LhaL Lhe 8lkaner SLaLe and subsequenLly Lhe SLaLe
of 8a[asLhan would be permlLLed Lo uLlllze Lhe CCA of
3,72,469 hecLares of land under 8hakra Command. 1he
LoLal lengLh of 8hakraCanal SysLem ls 1219km.
8lsalpur Þro[ecL ls a ma[or
mulLlpurpose pro[ecL LhaL ls belng consLrucLed on 8anas
8lver. 1he pro[ecL envlsages consLrucLlon of a dam across
Lhe 8anas rlver for drlnklng waLer supply Lo Lhe Lowns of
A[mer, 8eawar, naslrabad, !alpur and Lhe vlllages lylng ln
beLween and provldlng lrrlgaLlon faclllLles ln 1onk and
Command Area uevelopmenL AuLhorlLles (CAuA) was
Sawal Madhopur dlsLrlcLs Lo 69,300CCA hecLares.
esLabllshed for Chambal and lndlra Candhl nahar
Þarlyo[ana (lnCÞ) ln 1974. 1he baslcs of lCnÞ, CAuA
GANG CANAL ÞkCILC1:
MAnI ÞkCILC1:
8nAkkA ÞkCILC1:
8ISALÞUk ÞkCILC1:
CCMMAND AkLA DLVLLCÞMLN1 ÞkCILC1:
31
liqure 4.1l: Mohi Project



SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
liqure 4.12: 8hokro Project
GUkGACN CANAL ÞkCILC1:
IAknAM IkkIGA1ICN ÞkCILC1:
NAkMADA CANAL ÞkCILC1:
CnAM8AL VALLL¥ ÞkCILC1:
Curgaon Canal Þro[ecL ls
level of Lhe rlver flow by abouL 30m Lo feed Lwo canals for
belng consLrucLed Lo uLlllze 300 cusecs of ?amuna waLers
commandlng areas of boLh 8a[asLhan and Madhya Þradesh.
Lhrough Agra Canal durlng Lhe ralny season for lrrlgaLlng
1he waLer released afLer power generaLlon ls uLlllzed for
28,200 hecLares of kharlf crops ln 183 vlllages of ueeg and
lrrlgaLlon Lhrough koLa 8arrage. SLage ll - under Lhls sLage ls
kaman Lehslls of 8haraLpur dlsLrlcL. 8ecenLly, an agreemenL
Lhe second dam ln Lhe serles of Chambal valley Þro[ecLs,
has been reached beLween Lhe SLaLes of uLLar Þradesh,
called 8ana ÞraLap Sagar. 1he dam ls 34 m hlgh and 1143 m
Paryana, 8a[asLhan and uelhl regardlng Lhe sharlng of
long aL LheLop. 1heÞower houselocaLed on LhelefL sldehas
?amuna waLers and accordlngly, 8a[asLhan's share shall be
four unlLs of 43 MW each. SLage lll - under Lhls sLage ls Lhe
Lo Lhe order of 0.93 MAl. 1hls waLer shall be Laken Lhrough
Lhlrd dam ln Lhe serles, called !awahar Sagar, wlLh a helghL
LheexlsLlng Curgaon canal sysLem.
of 44.80 m and 393.20 m long aL Lhe Lop. 1he power house
comprlses LhreeunlLs of 33MW each.
1he !akham lrrlgaLlon
Þro[ecL comprlses a sLorage dam on Lhe rlver !akham near
As per narmada WaLer
vlllage Anuppura ln uharlawad Lehsll of dlsLrlcL udalpur. lL
ulspuLes 1rlbunal Award, 8a[asLhan has been allocaLed 0.3
also conslsLs of a plck-up welr locaLed near vlllage naglla,
MAl of Lhe narmada waLers. 1he narmada Canal ln Cu[araL
abouL 11 km from Mahl dam from where Lwo canals, rlghL
SLaLe wlll have a lengLh of 438.6 km, and ln 8a[asLhan Lhe
and lefL, Lake off. 1he LoLal sLorage capaclLy of Lhe dam ls
canal wlll be 74 km long wlLh 63 km ln Lehsll Sanchore of
4671 mcfL. Command area lles ln uharlawad Lehsll havlng a
!alor dlsLrlcL and nlne kllomeLres ln Lehsll Cudamalanl of
CCA of 26,483hecLares.
8armer Lo cover a culLlvable area of 1.22 1akh hecLares ln
76 vlllages of !alor and 0.13 lakh hecLares ln seven vlllages
Chambal valley Þro[ecL ls a
of 8armer dlsLrlcL respecLlvely. 1he 8abl lrrlgaLlon ls
ma[or mulLlpurpose pro[ecL, consLrucLed for lrrlgaLlon as
esLlmaLed on an area of 74,000 hecLares. (llgure 3.14 8lver
well as hydel power generaLlon across Lhe rlver Chambal by
narmada)
Lhe SLaLe of 8a[asLhan and Madhya Þradesh, sharlng equal
cosLs of consLrucLlon and sLorage beneflLs. 1he pro[ecL was
Sldhmukh nohar Þro[ecLs: Sldhmukh nohar Þro[ecLs are
compleLed ln Lhree sLages: SLage l - 1hls flrsL sLage
unc1ear execuLlon? for provldlng lrrlgaLlon faclllLles Lo
comprlses a hlgh masonry gravlLy dam called Candhl Sagar
Sldhmukh nohar areas ln norLhern parL of Lhe SLaLe wlLh
uam, havlng agross sLoragecapaclLyof 6.28MAl across Lhe
Lhe asslsLance of Luropean Lconomlc CommunlLy Lo
8a[asLhan-Madhya Þradesh boundary. 1he hydro power
provldelrrlgaLlon faclllLles ln CCA of 1.12lakh hecLares.
sLaLlon aL Lhe dam slLe conslsLs of four generaLlng unlLs of
LxpendlLure on lrrlgaLlon has lncreased from 8s.21493.30
23 MW each and one of 27 MW. lor Lhe purpose of
lakh ln 2002-03Lo 8s 74023.74lakh ln 2003-06. LxpendlLure
lrrlgaLlon, koLa 8arrage was consLrucLed Lo ralse Lhe waLer
ls made on mulLlpurpose pro[ecLs, ma[or, medlum and

32
liq. 4.15: chombo/ vo//ey Project


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
liq. 4.14: 8iso/pur Project
depend on Lhe lCnÞ for waLer. A number of vlllages ln
Srlganganagar also depend on Lhe Cang canal for Lhelr
supplyof waLer.
An arld/seml-arld reglon, LheSLaLels lncreaslngly relylng on
lrrlgaLlon waLer Lo meeL Lhe needs of a growlng agrarlan
secLor. 1hegross area lrrlgaLed by Lhelndlra Candhl canal ln
2003-06 was 867,376 hecLares, a 33° lncrease ln Lhe gross
lrrlgaLed areabyLhecanal from Lheprevlous year. Chambal,
8hankhara and Canga canal accounL for 314633, 302303,
363398 hecLares respecLlvely. ln splLe of Lhese sources of
lrrlgaLlon, lL accounLs for only 20° of Lhe culLlvable land ln
LheSLaLe.
mlnor pro[ecLs, and flood conLrol pro[ecLs. 8eLween 2006
and 2007, asum of 8s. 6279.39lakh was spenL on raln waLer
harvesLlng ln Lhe SLaLe, hlghllghLlng Lhe growlng
lmporLance of waLer conservaLlon Lechnlques ln Lhe
reglon.
Surface waLer accounLs for a mere 1° of Lhe LoLal surface
waLer ln Lhe counLry. lnLernally, 16.03 bllllon cublc meLres
of surface waLer are economlcally uLlllzable ln Lhe SLaLe.
Powever, ralnfall and LemperaLure condlLlons make Lhe
avallablllLy of surface waLer a serlous problem.ln all, 72° of
economlcally uLlllzable porLlon has been harnessed by Lhe
4port from this, woter for industrio/ use is moin/y drown
SLaLe. ln addlLlon Lo lL, 17.89 8CM ls allocaLed Lhrough
ot:
lnLer-SLaLe agreemenLs. 1he avallable waLer ls noL enough
kota: n1ÞC, AnLah and Chambal lerLlllzers from rlver
Lo caLer Lo Lhe needs of Lhe drlnklng, agrlculLure and non-
kallslndh, S8Cl, Shrl 8am 8ayan, WesLern 8allway
agrlculLure demands. AvallablllLy of waLer ln Lhe SLaLe does
Workshop, k1ÞCfrom rlver Chambal
noL commensuraLe wlLh lLs requlremenL. 1he deflclL
Uda|pur: PlndusLan Zlnc LLd. from udalsagar Lake.
beLween demand and supply ls 8 8CM aL presenL and llkely
S|roh|: 8lnanl CemenL LLd. from Zawal dam. Lo lncreaseLo 98CM by 2013. 1hus, Lhe avallablllLy of waLer
ln 8a[asLhan ls abouL 780 cublc meLres per person per year
Ch|ttorgarh: A few lndusLrles Lake waLer from
as agalnsL Lhe lnLernaLlonally accepLed sLandards of 1000
Cosunda uam on 8erach rlver (ouLleL of udalsagar
cublc meLres per person per year and ls llkely Lo reduce Lo
lake)
430cublc meLers per person per year by2043
Þa||: A few small scale lndusLrles Lake waLer from
LakhoLlyapond.
ln mosL of Lhe dlsLrlcLs of Lhe SLaLe, surface waLer ls noL
used for drlnklng. Powever, parLs of A[mer dlsLrlcL draw
waLer from 8lsalpur dam ln 8hllwara dlsLrlcL and oLher
uue Lo scarclLy of surface waLer, 8a[asLhan has Lo depend
surface sources. ÞarLs of 8lkaner, Panumangarh and
on groundwaLer resources Lo agreaL exLenL. 1heavallablllLy
Srlganganagar draw waLer from lCnÞ, 8hakra Canal and
of groundwaLer depends upon LhenaLureof rocks and Lhelr
Cang Canal. ÞarLs of udalpur, 8a[samand, Þall, koLa, 8aran,
waLer bearlng characLer. ApproxlmaLely, 40 percenL area of
8undl and !halawar Loo draw waLer from Lhe nearby
8a[asLhan ls occupled by hard rocks conslsLlng of Lhe
surface sources. AbouL 1200 vlllages of Srlganganagar
4.4. SUkIACL WA1LkUSL

4.S. GkCUND WA1LkUSL
liq. 4.1õ: Normodo cono/ Project

0
100000
200000
300000
400000
500000
600000
700000
800000
900000
1000000
Ìndira gandhi
Canal
Chambal Gang canal Bhankhara Other
G
r
o
s
s
a
r
e
a
I
r
r
ig
a
t
e
d
(
i
n
H
e
c
t
a
r
e
)
2004-05
2005-06
liqure. 4.17 : 6ross oreo lrriqoted by lrriqotion Project
(5ource. 8oslc 5totlstlcs of kojostboo 2007)
33


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
Archaean crysLalllnes, Aravalll Super-Croup and uelhl groundwaLer and Lhe correspondlng lncrease ln crlLlcal and
Super-Croup, Lhe Lrlnpura CranlLes, Malanl sulLe of over-explolLed caLegorles.
lgneous rocks, Lhelr equlvalenLs, Lhe vlndhyans and Lhe
ueccan 1raps. 1he crysLalllnes (lgneous and meLamorphlc
rocks) ranglng ln age from Archaean Lo upper ÞroLerozolc,
have negllglble prlmary poroslLy. SlgnlflcanL secondary
poroslLy ls lnLroduced lnLo Lhem locally, due Lo weaLherlng
and fracLurlng. 1he ueccan 1raps show low Lo medlum
permeablllLy, dependlng on Lhe prlmary and secondary
poroslLles and Lhelr varlaLlon from place Lo place. ln Lhe
hard rock Lerralns, Lhe valley fllls (conslsLlng of rlver and
sLream lald deposlLs) ofLen conLaln hlghly producLlve
aqulfers, wlLh llmlLed groundwaLer resources. 1he sofL
rocks lnclude Lhe alluvlum and Lhe blown sand whlch
occupy Lhe ma[or parL of Lhe SLaLe and Lhe seml-
consolldaLed formaLlon comprlslng Lhe 1erLlarles and Lhe
Mesozolc rocks. 1he alluvlum conLalns Lhe mosL producLlve
aqulfers ln Lhe reglon buL, locally, Lhe quallLy of
groundwaLer ls sallne. 1heblown sand also forms moderaLe
1ota| no. of 8|ock: 236
poLenLlal aqulfers ln places, parLlcularly ln wesLern
8a[asLhan. Among Lhe Seml-consolldaLed formaLlons, Lhe
5ource: kepott of tbe íxpett commlttee oo loteqtoteJ
LaLhl sandsLones are found Lo conLaln moderaLe Lo hlgh
uevelopmeot of wotet kesootces, Iooe 2005.
producLlve aqulfers. Plgher ylelds are obLalned from wells
Lapplng sandsLones, llmesLones and fracLured crysLalllne.
1he dependence on groundwaLer ls evldenL from fuLure
lrrlgaLlon from Lubewells and wells rely on LheexLracLlon of
pro[ecLlons made for Lhe ?ear 2043. Þro[ecLed lmbalances
groundwaLer. ln all, 243,027 Lube wells lrrlgaLed Lhe land ln
beLween Lhe demand and supply for groundwaLer are
Lhe year 2003-06, whlle 1033,841 wells provlded waLer for
abouL 17.1bllllon cum.
lrrlgaLlon purposes .
lor over 60° of Lhe monlLorlng sLaLlons, groundwaLer was
wlLhln 20m of Lhesurface(2007).
lor Lhe monLhs of May, AugusL, november and !anuary,
average groundwaLer levels for over 40° of Lhe monlLorlng
sLaLlons record arlseln groundwaLer levels (2007).

uepLh of groundwaLer levels of more Lhan 40m was noLlced
ln 18.33° of Lhe sLaLlons monlLored ln Lhe SLaLe, mosLly ln
!hun[hunu, Slkar, 8lkaner, Churu, nagaur, 8armer and
!alsalmer dlsLrlcLs. CroundwaLer level of less Lhan 2m was
observed ln 1.78° nPS falllng ln uungarpur, ChlLLorgarh,
karaull, udalpur, !odhpur, 8answara, Panumangarh,
Canganagar and A[mer dlsLrlcLs aL lsolaLed locaLlons
11.13 bllllon Cublc meLers of groundwaLer are avallable for
consumpLlon wlLhln Lhe SLaLe. 1he heavy dependence of
8lse ln waLer levels of less Lhan 2m was observed ln aL leasL
Lhe SLaLe on groundwaLer ls vlslble from Lhe sLeady decllne
30° of Lhe wells monlLored ln Lhe SLaLe across Lhe dlfferenL
ln Lhe number of blocks wlLh safe levels of explolLaLlon of
monLhs (2007). Such arlsecould beobserved ln LhedlsLrlcLs
4.6. GkCUNDWA1Lk1A8LL

34
No. of 8|ocks
|n Category
Cver LxplolLed
(>100°)
CrlLlcal (90 Lo
100°)
Seml CrlLlcal
(70 Lo 90°)
Safe
(<70°)
1984
12
(13°)
11
(3°)
10
(4°)
203
(86°)
1988
41
(17°)
26
(11°)
34
(14°)
133
(37°)
2001
86
(36°)
80
(34°)
21
(9°)
49
(21°)
2004
(1entat|ve)
140
(39°)
30
(21°)
14
(6°)
32
(14°)
1ob/e 4.l: 8/ock wise 5totus of 6round woter


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
liqure 4.18: 6round woter use
of 1onk, uausa, Þall, !odhpur, Sawal Madhopur eLc. easLern, wesLern and souLh-wesLern parLs of Lhe SLaLe. 1he
8eLween 9-18° of Lhe sLaLlons wlLnessed a rlse ln maxlmum drllled Lhlckness of alluvlum ls 343.31m below
groundwaLer levels (May, AugusL, november, and !anuary) ground level aL Anupgarh ln Canganagar dlsLrlcL.
of more Lhan 4m. 1hls was observed ln Lhe dlsLrlcLs of
1he seml-consolldaLed formaLlons belonglng Lo Þalaeozolc,
Slrohl, 8answara, and !halawar.
Mesozolc and Calnozolc Croups are composed of sllLsLone,
A decllne ln Lhe groundwaLer levels was recorded ln aL leasL claysLone, sandsLone, shale, conglomeraLe and llmesLone.
30° of Lhe monlLorlng sLaLlons (May, AugusL, november, SandsLones and llmesLones form Lhe maln aqulfers ln
and !anuary 2006-2007).1hls decllnewas however less Lhan !alsalmer, !odhpur, 8armer and 8lkaner dlsLrlcLs.
2m. A 2-10° decllne was observed ln groundwaLer levels of SandsLones of LaLhl formaLlon are Lhe mosL poLenLlal
more Lhan 4m (May, AugusL, november, and !anuary 2006- aqulfers ln LhedlsLrlcLs of !alsalmer, !odhpur and 8armer.
2007) ln LhedlsLrlcLs of A[mer, Churu, 8hllwara, !alor eLc.
llssured formaLlons, as a hydrogeologlcal unlL, occupy 32°
area of Lhe SLaLe and can be broadly classlfled lnLo four
1he prlnclpal source of recharglng Lhe groundwaLer ln
unlLs:
8a[asLhan ls ralnfall. ln canal lrrlgaLed areas, a parL of Lhe
canal waLer, Lhrough seepage from conveyance sysLemand
ConsolldaLed sedlmenLary rocks, excludlng carbonaLe
parL of waLer uLlllsed for lrrlgaLlon, also reLurns Lo
rocks, lnclude sandsLones and shales. ln easLern and souLh-
groundwaLer and conLrlbuLes Lo sLorage.
easLern parL of Lhe SLaLe, Lhese form a parL of Lhevlndhyan
Super Croup, whereas ln wesLern 8a[asLhan Lhese belong
lor broadly grouplng geologlcal formaLlons from
Lo LheMarwar Super Croup.
groundwaLer occurrence and movemenL conslderaLlons,
Lhe varlous llLhologlcal unlLs have been classlfled lnLo Lwo
lgneous and meLamorphlc rocks of lower ÞroLerozolc age
groups on Lhe basls of Lhelr degree of consolldaLlon and
comprlseslaLe, quarLzlLe, phylllLe, schlsL, gnelss and varlous
relaLed parameLres.
crysLalllnes of 8hllwara Super Croup. 1hese are mosLly
found ln Lhe dlsLrlcLs of 8answara, uungarpur, udalpur,
1heseare: -
ChlLLorgarh, 8hllwara, 1onk, !alpur, Alwar and !hun[hunu ln
I Þorous format|ons
easLern 8a[asLhan and nagaur, Churn, 8armer, !alsalmer,
(a) unconsolldaLed formaLlons
Þall, !alore, Slrohl and !odhpur dlsLrlcLs ln wesLern
8a[asLhan. (b) Seml-consolldaLed formaLlons
II I|ssuredformat|ons
volcanlc rocks lnclude ueccan 1rap Lava llows and occur ln
(a) ConsolldaLed sedlmenLary rocks
parLs of 8armer, !halawar, ChlLLorgarh and 8answara
dlsLrlcLs. 1hese are basalLlc Lo dolerlLlc ln composlLlon. (b) lgneous and meLamorphlc rocks
Cccurrence and movemenL of groundwaLer ln Lhese
(c) volcanlcrocks
formaLlons ls conLrolled by Lhe presence of veslcles, exLenL
(d) CarbonaLerocks
of weaLherlng, [olnLlng and fracLurepaLLern.
CarbonaLe rocks lnclude llmesLone, marble and dolomlLe of
1he CuarLernary sedlmenLs comprlslng younger as well as
ÞroLerozolc and upper Þalaeozolc Lo Mesozolc age and
older alluvlum are Lhe mosL lmporLanL unconsolldaLed
occupy parLs of koLa, 8undl, !alpur, Sawal Madhopur and
formaLlons due Lo Lhelr wlde-spread occurrence. 1he
Alwar dlsLrlcLs on Lhe easLern slde of Aravallls and parLs of
sedlmenLs are composed of clay, sllL, sand, gravel and
nagaur, 8lkaner, !alsalmer and !odhpur dlsLrlcLs ln wesLern
mlxLureof concreLlons. Sand, gravel and admlxLureof Lhese
8a[asLhan.
form Lhe poLenLlal aqulfers ln norLhern, easLern, norLh-
IISSUkLDICkMA1ICNS
4.7. n¥DkCGLCMCkÞnCLCG¥
ÞCkCUSICkMA1ICNS
33



SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
C
1he Arava||| range, sLreLchlng from Þalanpur ln Cu[araL Lo
erLaln areas requlre a degree of proLecLlon as
uelhl, dlvldes 8a[asLhan lnLo LhreedlsLlncL cllmaLlc reglons. ln
changes ln naLural processes assoclaLed wlLh
Lhls range, Lhe udalpur zone ls esLlmaLed Lo be around 300
Lhem or naLlve communlLles resldlng ln Lhem
mllllon years old. 1he range ls a unlque amphlLheaLre of
could brlng abouL a change ln Lhe sysLem aL large. 1he
blologlcal dlverslLy. MounL Abu areahas slgnlflcanL ecologlcal
CenLral, SLaLe and/or local CovernmenL by vlrLue of
lmporLance comprlslng of Lroplcal dry declduous foresLs aL
varlous exlsLlng laws and acLs has cerLaln land use
lower alLlLude and evergreen foresLs aL hlgher alLlLude and
regulaLlons. Cwlng Lo whlch, lndusLrlal clLlng cannoL be
Lheflora and fauna of Lhereglon comprlseof several endemlc
done ln some speclflc zones such as reserved foresLs,
and rare specles, besldes MounL Abu has naLural herlLage
proLecLed foresLs, sancLuarles, mangrove and coral areas,
such as nakkl Lake and man-made herlLage llke ullwara
breedlng grounds, monumenLs of naLlonal, SLaLe and
Lemples and oLher herlLage bulldlngs and sLrucLures. 1he
local slgnlflcances, flood-prone areas, selsmlc zones, eLc.
1lger, ÞanLher, Leopard and SloLh 8ear were very common
1hese legal resLrlcLlons may be due Lo physlographlc
Loo. Mlddle-slzed carnlvores llke Lhe !ungle CaL, ClveL, Carcal,
consLralnLs, ecologlcal fraglleness, soclal/culLural
Wolf, !ackal and Mongoose were found ln abundance.
conslderaLlons llke areas for organlzed baLhlng, rellglous
Perblvorous large mammals llke Lhe Wlld 8oar, 5ombbot and
places, prlme agrlculLural land eLc. 1hese slLes are called
SpoLLed ueer were plenLlful. 1he cblokoto, 8lack 8uck and
'Sens|t|ve 2ones'. SenslLlve zones could refer Lo Lhe
Lhe 8lue 8ull were found ln Lhe fooLhllls. 1he !ungle lowl was
broader 'LnvlronmenLally senslLlve zones', as well more
Lhe prlde of Abu hlll. Conslderable adverse envlronmenL
speclflc 'Lcologlcally senslLlve areas'. Lcologlcally
lmpacL has been caused due Lo degradaLlon of Lhe
senslLlve areas refer Lo areas, where some change ln Lhe
envlronmenL, wlLh excesslve soll eroslon and waLer and alr
sysLem ls llkely Lo produce a more recognlzable response.
polluLlon on accounL of cerLaln developmenLal acLlvlLles,
1he purpose of Lhe ecologlcally senslLlve zone ls
Lhereby endangerlng noL only Lhe naLural resources, buL also
enhancemenL and proLecLlon of Lhe naLlve communlLy
affecLlng Lhe healLh and very survlval of llvlng belngs. ln Lhe
and naLural process over and above any oLher uses
(lncludlng recreaLlonal) LhaL mlghL be conLemplaLed. 1hls
zone resLrl cLs publ l c use and devel opmenL.
LnvlronmenLally senslLlve would also Lend Lo lnclude a
parL from Lcologlcally senslLlve areas, monumenLs of
naLlonal, SLaLe and local slgnlflcances, flood-prone areas,
selsmlc zones eLc. LhaL need proLecLlon.
Lcologlcally SenslLlve areas ln Lhe counLry are Lhe Aravalll
range (Curgaon ln Paryana SLaLe & Alwar of 8a[asLhan
SLaLe), 1a[-1rapezlum zone (uLLar Þradesh & 8a[asLhan)
and MounL Abu (8a[asLhan), uhanu 1aluka (MaharashLra),
Murad-!an[lra Area (MaharashLra), uoon valley
(uLLarakhand), numallgarh (Assam) and MaLhern
(MaharashLra).
LNVIkCNMLN1ALL¥
SLNSI1IVL 2CNLS
CnAÞ1Lk S

36
liqure 5.1: 4rovo//i ronqe


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
Aravalll Pllls, a large number of mlnlng acLlvlLles, (such as SunseL ÞolnL) and man-made herlLage slLes,
operaLlon of sLone crushers and pulverlzes, deforesLaLlon sLeep slopes, dralnage channels, flrsL order sLreams,
and unplanned consLrucLlon acLlvlLles are causlng groundwaLer recharge areas and areas rlch ln
envlronmenLal degradaLlon. 1he mlnlng acLlvlLles ln Lhe groundwaLer, sprlng recharge areas, sprlng llnes and
reglon resulL ln dlsLurbance of land surface, alLerlng oLher envlronmenLally and ecologlcally senslLlve areas
dralnage paLLern and land use, besldes Lhe polluLlon and no change of land use from green uses such as
problems. orchards, horLlculLure areas, agrlculLure parks and
oLhers llke places for non-green uses, shall bepermlLLed
keeplng Lhe senslLlve naLure of Lhe reglon, MounL Abu
ln Lhe Zonal MasLer Þlan, excepL LhaL sLrlcLly llmlLed
and cerLaln surroundlng reglons were declared as Lhe
converslon of agrlculLural lands may be permlLLed Lo
'Mount AbuLco-sens|t|ve 2one'.
meeL Lhe resldenLlal needs of Lhe exlsLlng local
resldenLs, LogeLher wlLh Lhe naLural growLh of Lhe
1he followlng acLlvlLles are Lo be regulaLed ln Lhe Lco-
exlsLlng local populaLlons wlLhouL Lhe prlor approval of
senslLlveZoneaL MounL Abu namely:-
Lhe SLaLe CovernmenL and slmllarly, no change ln Lhe
use of land from Lrlbal uses Lo non-Lrlbal uses shall be
permlLLed wlLhouL Lhe prlor approval of Lhe SLaLe
CovernmenL.
A Zonal MasLer Þlan for Lhe Lco-senslLlve Zone shall
1he Zonal MasLer Þlan shall lndlcaLe measures and lay
be prepared by Lhe SLaLe CovernmenL wlLhln a
down sLlpulaLlons for LheregulaLlon of Lrafflc.
perlod of Lwo years from Lhe daLe of publlcaLlon of
1he area wlLhln and ouLslde MounL Abu Munlclpal
Lhls noLlflcaLlon and submlLLed for approval Lo Lhe
Councll area shall have separaLe Sub-zonal MasLer
CenLral CovernmenL ln Lhe MlnlsLry of LnvlronmenL
Þlans, whlch may be prepared by Lhe SLaLe CovernmenL
and loresLs.
as a componenL of Lhe Zonal MasLer Þlan whlch wlll be
1he Zonal MasLer Þlan shall be prepared wlLh due
submlLLed for approval Lo Lhe MlnlsLry of LnvlronmenL
lnvolvemenL of all concerned SLaLe ueparLmenLs of
and loresLs. 1he Zonal MasLer Þlan shall also ldenLlfy
LnvlronmenL, loresL, urban uevelopmenL, 1ourlsm,
and demarcaLe Lhe maxlmum expanslon area of Lhe
Munlclpal ueparLmenL, 8evenue ueparLmenL and
vlllageseLLlemenLs and of MounL Abu 1own.
8a[asLhan SLaLe ÞolluLlon ConLrol 8oard for
Þendlng Lhe preparaLlon of Lhe Zonal MasLer Þlan for
l nLegraLl ng envl ronmenLal and ecol ogl cal
Lco-senslLlve Zones and approval Lhereof by Lhe CenLral
conslderaLlons lnLo lL.
CovernmenL ln Lhe MlnlsLry of LnvlronmenL and
1he Zonal MasLer plan shall provlde for resLoraLlon
loresLs, Lhere shall be no lncrease ln Lhe exlsLlng
of denuded areas, conservaLlon of exlsLlng waLer
parameLers of permlsslble lloor Area 8aLlo, permlsslble
bodles lncludlng nakkl Lake, managemenL of
ground coverage, maxlmum number of floors and
caLchmenL areas, waLershed managemenL,
maxlmum helghL and all new consLrucLlons shall be
groundwaLer managemenL, soll and molsLure
allowed only afLer Lhe proposals are scruLlnlzed and
conservaLlon, needs of Lhe local communlLy,
approved by Lhe MonlLorlng CommlLLee and all oLher
conservaLlon of herlLage slLes (boLh naLural and
developmenL acLlvlLles lncludlng addlLlons, alLeraLlons,
culLural) and Lhelr surroundlngs and such oLher
demollLlons, repalrs, renovaLlons and resLoraLlons of
aspecLs of Lhe ecology and envlronmenL LhaL need
bulldlngs shall requlre prlor approval of Lhe MonlLorlng
aLLenLlon.
CommlLLee provlded LhaL Lhese do noL lnvolve
1he Zonal MasLer Þlan shall demarcaLe all Lhe
sLrucLural changes and are on Lhe exlsLlng auLhorlzed
exlsLlng vlllage seLLlemenLs, Lrlbal areas lncludlng
pllnLh areas wlLhln Lhe MounL Abu Munlclpal LlmlLs and
Lrlbal hamleLs, Lypes and klnds of foresLs,
Lhere shall be no consequenLlal reducLlon ln Lhe 1rlbal
agrlculLural areas, ferLlle lands, green areas,
area, loresL area, Creen areaand AgrlculLural area.
horLlculLural areas, orchards, lakes and oLher waLer
1he SLaLe CovernmenL or Lhe MlnlsLry of LnvlronmenL
bodles, naLural herlLageslLes lncludlng LourlsL polnLs
(1) 2CNAL MAS1Lk ÞLAN ICk 1nL LCC-SLNSI1IVL
2CNL:-

37



SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
and loresLs shall prescrlbe addlLlonal measures, lf
necessary, ln furLherance of Lhe ob[ecLlves and for
1o resLrlcL Lhe commerclal esLabllshmenLs from uslng
glvlng effecL Lo Lheprovlslons of Lhls noLlflcaLlon.
fuel wood for cooklng and bonflre, only Llquefled
ÞeLroleum Cas (LÞC) shall be used and arrangemenLs
shall be ensured Lo provlde Llquefled ÞeLroleum Cas
Cnly non-polluLlng, non-hazardous coLLage lndusLrles
(LÞC) or naLural gas Lo meeL such fuel requlremenLs of
llke lce cream, hoslery, embroldery on readymade
commerclal esLabllshmenLs, lncludlng hoLels. An
garmenLs, sewlng works, ayurvedlc drugs, eLc.,
acLlon plan shall be prepared for phaslng ouL Lhe use
slLuaLed ln Lhe vlllages ln Lhe noLlfled area and servlce
of fuel wood even ln non-commerclal esLabllshmenLs.
lndusLrles, agrlculLure, florlculLure, horLlculLure or
agro-based lndusLrles produclng producLs from
MounL Abu shall be permlLLed as per Lhe guldellnes
All Lhe exlsLlng encroachmenLs wlLhln Lhe Lco-
drawn byLheCovernmenL of 8a[asLhan.
senslLlve Zone, lncludlng Lhe foresL area, shall be
SLrucLures connecLed wlLh small agro-based
ldenLlfled and necessary acLlon shall be Laken agalnsL
lndusLrles acLlvlLles relaLed Lo Lhe needs of Lhe local
such encroachmenLs ln a Llme bound manner, sub[ecL
vlllage economy and processlng or sLorage of local
Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhe SLaLe CranL AcL, 1961 and
agro-based producLs may be allowed sub[ecL Lo Lhe
oLher exlsLlng SLaLeLaws.
usual ºnon-agrlculLural permlsslon requlremenLs and
amaxlmum of 1/8Lh of LheploL areas belng bullL up".
1he Lourlsm acLlvlLles shall be as per Lhe 1ourlsm
MasLer Þlan Lo be prepared by Lhe ueparLmenL of
1he Cuarrylng and Mlnlng acLlvlLles shall be resLrlcLed
1ourlsm of Lhe8a[asLhan SLaLeCovernmenL.
ln LheLco-senslLlveZone.
1he 1ourlsm MasLer Þlan shall also form a componenL
1he MonlLorlng CommlLLee shall have Lhe auLhorlLy Lo
of Lhe Zonal MasLer Þlan and shall be based on a
granL speclal permlsslon for llmlLed quarrylng of
deLalled Carrylng CapaclLy SLudy of Lhe Lco-SenslLlve
maLerlals requlred for Lhe consLrucLlon of local
Zone, whlch may be carrled ouL by Lhe SLaLe
resldenLlal houslng and LradlLlonal road maklng and
CovernmenL.
malnLenance work ln MounL Abu, based on Lhe slLe
All new Lourlsm acLlvlLles, developmenL for Lourlsm or
evaluaLlon.
expanslon of exlsLlng Lourlsm acLlvlLles shall be
no quarrylng shall be permlLLed on sLeep hlll slopes wlLh a
permlLLed only wlLhln Lhe parameLers of Lhls 1ourlsm
gradlenL of 20 degrees or more or areas wlLh a hlgh degree
MasLer Þlan.
of eroslon, or on foresLland.
1he Carrylng CapaclLy SLudy shall be carrled ouL,
based on Lhe exlsLlng lnfrasLrucLure, and shall noL be
1here shall be no felllng of Lrees wheLher on loresL,
based on fuLure pro[ecLlons of any pro[ecL LhaL
CovernmenL, 8evenue or prlvaLe land wlLhln Lhe Lco-
requlres envlronmenLal or foresL clearance.
senslLlve Zone wlLhouL Lhe prlor permlsslon of Lhe
1lll Lhe Zonal MasLer Þlan ls approved, developmenL
SLaLe CovernmenL ln case of foresL land and Lhe
for Lourlsm and expanslon of exlsLlng Lourlsm
respecLlve ulsLrlcL CollecLor ln case of CovernmenL,
acLlvlLles may be permlLLed by Lhe MonlLorlng
8evenue and prlvaLe land as per Lhe procedure, whlch
CommlLLee only afLer a deLalled analysls ls carrled ouL
shall belald down by LheSLaLeCovernmenL - provlded
by Lhe MonlLorlng CommlLLee and shall be sub[ecL Lo
LhaL Lhe ulsLrlcL CollecLor shall noL delegaLe Lhls
Lheguldellnes lald down by LheSLaLeCovernmenL and
power Lo any subordlnaLe offlcer below Lhe rank of
LheCenLral CovernmenL ln Lhls regard.
Sub-ulvlslonal Cfflcer, provlded furLher LhaL no
bulldlng permlsslon shall be granLed on a ploL where
Lrees have been felled or oLherwlse desLroyed
MounL Abu has naLural LourlsL slLes such as nakkl
wlLhouL obLalnlng LherequlslLeprlor permlsslon.
(S) kLS1kIC1ICN ICkUSLCI IULL WCCD:

(2) INDUS1kIAL UNI1S:

(6) kLS1kIC1ICNCN LNCkCACnMLN1:

(7) 1CUkISM:

(3) ÇUAkk¥INGANDMINING:

(4) 1kLLS:

(8) NA1UkAL nLkI1AGL:

38


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
Lake, 1oad rock, rock formaLlons, waLerfalls, pools, 1he exLracLlon of groundwaLer shall be permlLLed only
sprlngs, gorges, groves, caves, polnLs, walks, eLc., and for Lhe bona-flde agrlculLural and domesLlc
plans for Lhelr conservaLlon ln Lhelr naLural seLLlng consumpLlon of Lhe occupler of Lhe ploL and Lhe
shall be lncorporaLed ln Lhe Zonal MasLer Þlan and exLracLlon of groundwaLer for lndusLrlal or
Sub-Zonal MasLer Þlan and sLrlcL guldellnes shall be commerclal or resldenLlal esLaLes or complexes shall
drawn up by Lhe SLaLe CovernmenL Lo dlscourage requlre prlor wrlLLen permlsslon, lncludlng Lhe
consLrucLlon acLlvlLles aL or near Lhese slLes, lncludlng amounL LhaL can be exLracLed, from Lhe SLaLe
under Lhe garb of provldlng LourlsL faclllLles and all Lhe CroundwaLer ueparLmenL. Powever, Lhe areas rlch ln
general pool reserve areas ln Lhe Zone shall be groundwaLer may noL be dlverLed for consLrucLlon
reserved. acLlvlLles.
no saleof groundwaLer shall bepermlLLed excepL wlLh
Lhe prlor approval of Lhe SLaLe CroundwaLer
MounL Abu ls famous for several Lemples, Lhe mosL
ueparLmenL and all sLeps shall be Laken Lo prevenL
promlnenL belng ullwara 1emples and Lhe maln
conLamlnaLlon or polluLlon of waLer, lncludlng from
herlLage and hlsLorlcal bulldlngs are Achalgarh lorL,
agrlculLure.
ullwara !aln 1emples, 8lshav ueo 1emple, nemlnaLh
1he area has Lhree blg waLer bodles, namely - upper
1emple, AdlnaLh 1emple, ÞarshwanaLh 1emple,
kodra dam, Lower kodra dam and nakkl Lake. And, ln
Mahaveer 1emple, eLc., and laLer herlLage bulldlngs,
addlLlon Lo Lhls, Lhe area has around 23 waLer places,
sLrucLures and preclncLs. 1he plans for Lhelr
where waLer remalns LhroughouL Lhe year, whlch
conservaLlon shall be prepared and lncorporaLed ln
lnclude naLural oollos, dams, anlcuLs, seepage and
Lhe Zonal and Sub-Zonal MasLer Þlan and Lhe
bootls LhaL are spread over Lhe enLlre area and musL
developmenL or consLrucLlon acLlvlLles aL or around
beproLecLed.
Lhe herlLage slLes shall be regulaLed under Lhe
sLaLuLory provlslons of Lhe 8a[asLhan MonumenLs,
Archaeologlcal SlLes and AnLlqulLles AcL and ln
no person shall use plasLlc carry bags wlLhln Lhe
accordance wlLh Lhe urafL Model 8egulaLlons for
noLlfled area.
ConservaLlon of naLural and Manmade PerlLageSlLes,
formulaLed by Lhe CenLral CovernmenL ln Lhe MlnlsLry
of LnvlronmenL and loresLs ln 1993.
1he LnvlronmenL ueparLmenL of 8a[asLhan shall be
Lhe auLhorlLy Lo draw up guldellnes and regulaLlons
for Lhe conLrol of nolse and Lhe MonlLorlng
All fuLure and exlsLlng bulldlngs, whereever posslble,
CommlLLee shall ensure adherence Lo Lhese
ln LheMunlclpal Area shall provlderoof-Lop raln waLer
guldellnes.
harvesLlng sLrucLures LhaL commensuraLe wlLh Lhelr
pllnLh area and Lhe lnsLlLuLlonal and commerclal
bulldlngs shall noL draw waLer from Lhe exlsLlng waLer
supply schemes ln a manner LhaL adversely affecLs
1he Zonal MasLer Þlan shall lndlcaLe areas on hlll
waLer supply, especlally Lo local vlllages or
slopes wheredevelopmenL shall noL bepermlLLed.
seLLlemenLs. ln non-Munlclpal Areas, raln waLer
no developmenL shall be underLaken ln areas havlng a
harvesLlng shall be underLaken Lhrough such
sLeep slope or areas whlch fall ln faulL zones or hazard
sLrucLures as percolaLlon Lanks and sLorage Lanks and
zones or on Lhe sprlng llnes and flrsL order sLreams or
oLher means. CroundwaLer aqulfer recharge
slopes wlLh a hlgh degree of eroslon, as ldenLlfled by
sLrucLures shall be consLrucLed wherever such
Lhe SLaLe CovernmenL on Lhe basls of avallable
sLrucLures do noL lead Lo slopelnsLablllLles.
sclenLlflc evldence.
1he raln waLer collecLed Lhrough sLorm waLer dralns
no developmenL on Lhe exlsLlng sLeep hlll slopes or
shall be used Lo recharge Lhe groundwaLer or Lo clean
slopes wlLh a hlgh degree of eroslon, shall be
LhewasLe dlsposal dralns and sewers.
permlLLed.

(9) MAN-MADLnLkI1AGL:

(11) USLCI ÞLAS1ICS:

(12) NCISLÞCLLU1ICN:

(10) WA1Lk:

(13) DLVLLCÞMLN1 CN AND ÞkC1LC1ICN CI nILL
SLCÞLS:

39



SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
(14) DISCnAkGLCI SLWAGLANDLIILULN1S:

(1S) SCLIDWAS1LS:

(16) NA1UkAL SÞkINGS:
S.1. 8ICLCGICAL DIVLkSI1¥
(17) nILL kCADS:

ÞkLSSUkL CN 8ICDIVLkSI1¥ IN 1nL S1A1L

road-cuLLlng cross dralnage works and culverLs uslng
blo-englneerlng and oLher approprlaLe Lechnlques
no unLreaLed sewage or effluenL shall be permlLLed Lo
and by lncludlng Lhe cosL of such measures ln Lhe cosL
be dlscharged lnLo any waLer body or foresLs wlLhln
esLlmaLeof Lheproposed road,
Lhe Lco-senslLlve Zone and Lhe local auLhorlLy shall
1he debrls shall noL be dumped down Lhe kboJ or
provlde proper dralnage and LreaLmenL sysLem for
slopes buL shall be subsumed ln Lhe consLrucLlon of
collecLlon, LreaLmenL and dlsposal of unLreaLed / and
roads and Lhe provlslon shall also be made for Lhe
LreaLed effluenL, ln accordance wlLh Lhe provlslons of
dlsposal of unused debrls ln an approprlaLe manner aL
Lhe WaLer (ÞrevenLlon and ConLrol of ÞolluLlon) AcL,
sulLable and ldenLlfled locaLlons so as noL Lo affecL Lhe
1974. Moreover, Lhe LreaLed sewage and LreaLed
ecology of Lhe area adversely and Lhe debrls shall be
effluenL shall be dlsposed only aL or lnLo a polnL(s)
LreaLed and landscaped uslng blo-englneerlng and
ldenLlfled and approved by Lhe local auLhorlLles and
oLher approprlaLe Lechnlques and Lhe cosL of such
LheMonlLorlng CommlLLee.
measures shall be lncluded ln Lhe cosL esLlmaLe of Lhe
proposed road,
1he solld wasLe dlsposal shall be carrled ouL as per Lhe
Whenever hoL mlx planLs are used, Lhey shall be se up
provlslons of LheMunlclpal Solld WasLe(ManagemenL
aL leasL 2 kllomeLers away from Lhe seLLlemenLs and a
and Pandllng) 8ules, 2000 and Lhe local auLhorlLles
mlnlmum area of 200 square meLer surroundlng Lhe
shall draw up plans for Lhe segregaLlon of solld wasLes
slLeshall bedevold of vegeLaLlon,
lnLo blo-degradable and non-blodegradable
All roads shall be provlded wlLh adequaLe number of
componenLs.
road slde dralns and Lhese dralns shall be kepL free
1he blodegradable maLerlal may be recycled
form blockage for run-off dlsposals. 1hls run-off from
preferably Lhrough composLlng or vermlculLure and
Lhe road slde dralnage shall be connecLed wlLh Lhe
Lhe lnorganlc maLerlal may be dlsposed ln an
naLural dralnage sysLem ln Lhe area, and, allgnmenL
envlronmenLally accepLable manner aL Lhe slLe
shall be selecLed so as Lo mlnlmlze Lhe loss of vegeLal
ldenLlfled ouLslde Lhe Lco-senslLlve Zone. no burnlng
cover,
or lnclneraLlon of solld wasLes shall bepermlLLed.
ApproprlaLe deslgn sLandards shall be followed whlle
deslgnlng Lhe roads, lncludlng mass balanclng of cuL
and flll and avoldanceof unnecessary cuLLlng. 1he caLchmenLs areas of all sprlngs shall be ldenLlfled
and plans for Lhelr conservaLlon and re[uvenaLlon of
Lhose LhaL have run dry, ln Lhelr naLural seLLlng, shall
belncorporaLed ln LheZonal MasLer Þlan and LhesLrlcL
8loJlvetslty ls Lhe varlablllLy among llvlng organlsms from
guldellnes shall be drawn up by Lhe SLaLe CovernmenL
all sources, lncludlng lotet ollo, LerresLrlal, marlne, and
Lo ban developmenL acLlvlLles aL or near Lheseareas.
oLher aquaLlc ecosysLems, and Lhe ecologlcal complexes of
whlch Lhey are a parL, Lhls lncludes dlverslLy wlLhln specles
(geneLlc dlverslLy), beLween specles and of ecosysLems
Culdellnes shall be framed for Lhe consLrucLlon and
(cooveotlooof 8loloqlcol ulvetslty)
malnLenance of hlll roads and lncorporaLed ln Lhe Zonal
MasLer Þlan:
lndla ls one of Lhe 17 'mega blodlverslLy' counLrles ln Lhe
world by vlrLue of havlng hlgh specles rlchness and more lor consLrucLlon of any road, lncludlng unLarred ln Lhe
number of endemlc specles. 8a[asLhan ls equally rlch ln lLs Lco-senslLlve Zone of more Lhan 3 km lengLh
blologlcal wealLh. (lncludlng Lhe exLenslon or wldenlng of exlsLlng
roads),
- Loss of blo
Þrovlslon shall be made ln Lhe deslgn of Lhe road for
dlverslLy sLems from, hablLaL desLrucLlon, from clearlng of
LreaLmenL of hlll slope lnsLablllLles, resulLlng from
foresLs (encroachmenL for marglnal agrlculLure), weLland

40


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
reclamaLlon, desLroylng lands for developmenL, and - ln splLe of an arld cllmaLe and exLenslve
deserL area, Lhe SLaLe has many ecologlcally slgnlflcanL and converLlng naLural grasslands for agrlculLure, lndusLry
unlque weLlands. 1here are 33 ma[or weLlands. ueserL salL (mlnlng wlLhouL a land use plan ls causlng fragmenLaLlon of
lakes or marshes and several freshwaLer lakes can befound. land) and human seLLlemenLs (consLrucLlon of roads,
1wo of Lhe SLaLe's weLlands, namely, Chana (8haraLpur) expanslon of urban areas oLher seLLlemenLs, and
and Sambhar are recognlzed as weLlands of lnLernaLlonal esLabllshmenL of lndusLrlal cenLres near or lnslde foresLs).
lmporLance under Lhe 8amsar ConvenLlon. ueedwana, PunLlng and Lrade ln wlldllfe, oversLocklng of pasLures
Þachbhadra, and !alsamand Lake are oLher lmporLanL (large areas of lands are belng converLed lnLo deserLs and
weLlands of LheSLaLe. barren expanse), and lnvaslon by exoLlc specles
(monoculLure and lnvaslve allen specles such as ltosopls
jollfloto and of lootooo comoto ls qulLe acuLe ln Lhe SLaLe)
are pressures LhaL affecL blologlcal dlverslLy ln Lhe SLaLe
(SLaLe of LnvlronmenL reporL, 2007). Þressure on Lhe
reglon's blologlcal dlverslLy ls lnLense, sLemmlng from
rapldly lncreaslng populaLlons and demands for economlc
growLh.
- 1he SLaLe has several Lypes of grasslands. ln
Lhe wesLern parL exLenslve sewan (Laslurus lndlcus)
grasslands can be found. ln Lhe souLh and easLern parL of
1he1har ueserL occuples abouL 209000sq
Lhe SLaLe, grasslands comprlsed almosL enLlrely of karad
km of area consLlLuLlng 61 percenL of Lhe LoLal geographlcal
(ulcanLhlum annulaLum) can be found. Cvergrazlng,
area of Lhe SLaLe. 1he prlnclpal geomorphologlc formaLlons
encroachmenL, and lnfesLaLlon wlLh allen specles such as l.
are dunes (hlghly moblle sands), moqtos (local uplands
jollfloto have led Lo adverse changes ln composlLlon,
consLlLuLlng lmporLanL waLersheds) and bbokots (hlllocks
ecology and producLlvlLy of Lhe grasslands. ln Lhe
suddenly rlslng ln Lhe mldsL of plalns), each wlLh unlque
8lodlverslLy ConservaLlon ÞrlorlLlzaLlon Þro[ecL (8CÞÞ) of
blologlcal communlLles and ecologlcal processes. 1he
Lhe WWl conducLed ln 1998-1999, elghL grassland
ecosysLems were ldenLlfled as of speclal lmporLanL ln Lerms
of conservaLlon prlorlLy. 1hese are: 8ap (!odhpur), ueserL
naLlonal Þark (!alsalmer & 8armer), ulyaLra-kheLolal
(Srlganganagar), keoladeo naLlonal Þark (8haraLpur),
8amgarh (!alsalmer), Shergarh (8aran), 1alchhapar (Churu)
and SulLana (!alsalmer). (5tote of íovltoomeot tepott,
2007)
WL1LANDS
8ICDIVLkSI1¥IN 1nLS1A1L
GkASSLANDS
1nAkDLSLk1 -
41
liqure 5.2: 6ross/onds
liqure 5.l: wet/onds
liqure 5.4: 1hor uesert




SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
1he8lologlcal ulverslLy AcL (2002)
ecology of dunes ls dlfferenL from LhaL of Lhe oLher
landforms, wlLh numbers belng low, buL Laxonomy ls of
1henaLlonal LnvlronmenL Þollcy(2006)
slgnlflcance
naLlonal 8lodlverslLy AuLhorlLy (n8A) has been seL up
for lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe8lologlcal ulverslLy AcL
ÞroLecLed Area (ÞA) neLwork comprlslng naLlonal
- 1he lmpacL of deLerloraLlng blodlverslLy can be felL
parks and Wlldllfe sancLuarles has been seL up across
ln dlfferenL secLlons. 8ecedlng waLer Lables and soll eroslon
Lhe SLaLe. ÞroLecLed areas coverlng an area of abouL
are affecLlng Lhe llvellhoods of populaLlons resldlng ln
9161 sq. km, represenLlng 28° of Lhe foresL area and
waLersheds. WlLh spread of weeds and allen specles, loss of
ls 2.7° of LheLoLal geographlcal areaof LheSLaLe.
naLural vegeLaLlon ln fallows, and lmpoverlshmenL of
foresLs caused by Lhelr over-explolLaLlon, Lhe endemlc
CommunlLy lnLervenLlons- communlLy norms
blodlverslLy of Lhe SLaLe ls dwlndllng fasL. Already, many
prevenL cuLLlng of cerLaln specles of Lrees llke llcos
well-known and economlcally and ecologlcally proven
tellqloso, llcos beoqboleosls, AzoJltocbto loJlco,
specles such as pboq, kbeemp, qoqqol, bojtoJootl, eLc are
ltosopls cloetotloand oLhers. CoexlsLenceof 8lsbools
hard Lo flnd ln Lhelr naLural hablLaLs.
wlLh naLure and wlldllfe, especlally ltosopls cloetotlo
(khe[dl), 8lackbuck and Chlnkara ls world renowned.
Þrovlslon of food, shelLer and waLer can be observed
for common resldenLlal blrds. 1housands of
uemolselle cranes ln kheechan vlllage (!odhpur and
Þhalaudl) are proLecLed by Lhe local communlLy.
1radlLlonal sysLems of declaraLlon of land as qocbot or
toooJs (common pasLure) and otoo or qbooo (sacred
woodland) also ensures conservaLlon of blologlcal
dlverslLyln Lhereglon.
lmplemenLaLlon of foresL programmes by Lhe SLaLe.
ÞarLlclpaLory Approach has resulLed ln Lhe over 4000
vlllage level commlLLees worklng and 380,000 sq km
of foresL areas belng managed wlLh Lhe help of Lhese
commlLLees.
A ma[or lmpacL of degradlng ecologlcal condlLlons and of
- lnapproprlaLe lnLervenLlons has been spread of allen
lnvaslve specles ln Lhe SLaLe. ÞroducLlve lands are belng losL Þaradoxlcally, creaLed as a blrd shooLlng reserve,
Lo Lhese specles. 1he wlldllfe sancLuary of MounL Abu ls Mahara[a Sura[ Mull of 8haraLpur Lransformed Lhe
lnfesLed wlLh lanLana, anoLher allen specles. shallow depresslon formed by Lheconfluenceof 8lver
Cambhlr and 8lver 8anganga lnLo a reservolr by
- 1he
dammlng Lhe ralnwaLer ln monsoons. lloodlng of
SLaLe has Lhree naLlonal parks and 23 wlldllfe sancLuarles
waLer creaLed a shallow weLland ecosysLem, causlng
esLabllshed under Lhe provlslons of Lhe Wlldllfe
lL Lo be a perfecL hablLaL for an asLoundlng varleLy of
(ÞroLecLlon) AcL 1972.
blrds. 1he ecosysLem aL Lhe Þark ls fraglle due Lo Lhe
pressures of Lourlsm and need for waLer from
lnlLlaLlves adopLed by Lhe governmenL as response Lo Lhe
surroundlng vlllages. 8ecognlzed by unLSCCln 1983,
conservaLlon of blologlcal dlverslLy:-
lL was declared a World PerlLage SlLe, wlLh lL belng
declared a naLlonal Þark ln 1982. lL ls also one of Lhe
AdopLlon of Lhe lnLernaLlonal ConvenLlon on
slx weLlands ln Lhe counLry llsLed under Lhe 8amsar
8lologlcal ulverslLy(C8u) on 3Lh !une1992
ConvenLlon. MlgraLory blrds llke uemolselle cranes,

IMÞAC1 CI DL1LkICkA1ING 8ICDIVLkSI1¥ IN 1nL

S1A1L

S.2. NA1ICNAL ÞAkk
kLCLADLC GnANA NA1ICNAL ÞAkk
kLSÞCNSL 1C DL1LkICkA1ING 8ICDIVLkSI1¥

liqure 5.5: 8iodiversity in the stote

42


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
(meanlng a lake), Mallk 1alab and 8a[ 8agh areslmllar
Lurquolses sLudded ln Lhe vasL foresL LhaL abounds
wlLh aquaLlc vegeLaLlon lncludlng duckweeds, lllles
and loLus. AparL from Lhe Llger, a varleLy of blrds
lncludlng CwleLs, Lhe ublqulLous Langur (monkey),
Leopard, Caracal, Pyena, and !ackal, !ungle CaL,
Marsh Crocodlles, Wlld 8oar, 8ears and varlous
specles of ueer are Lhe oLher aLLracLlons.
8anLhambhore ls plagued by Lhe Lyplcal problems
encounLered by all game reserves ln lndla. Þeople
llvlng ln and around Lhe parks and grazlng by llvesLock
and poachlng conLlnue Lo be some of Lhe glarlng
problems.
1hls naLlonal Þark ls an
excellenL example of Lhe ecosysLem of Lhe 1har
ÞlnLalls, CooLs, ÞalnLed sLorks and Þellcans roosL and
ueserL and lLs rlch fauna. 1he Sudashrl foresL posL ls
breed ln Lhousands over here. 1he Slberlan crane,
Lhe mosL ldeal place for observlng wlldllfe ln Lhe
whlch ls aspecles nearlng exLlncLlon, vlslLs LhehablLaL
ueserL naLlonal Þark. Sand dunes form less Lhan 20
every year durlng LhewlnLer season.
percenL of Lhe Þark, whlch conslsLs of craggy rocks,
pavemenLs and compacL salL lake boLLoms,
-
lnLermedlal areas and flxed dunes. lLs lnhablLanLs
8anLhambhore 1lger 8eserve lles on Lhe [uncLlon of
lnclude Lhe blackbuck, chlnkara, wolf, lndlan fox,
Aravalll and vlndhyas, [usL 14 km from Sawal
deserL fox, hare and deserL caL, parLrldge. 8lue Lalled
Madhopur ln LasLern 8a[asLhan. lL sprawls over a
and green bee-eaLers, drongos, common and bush
varylng and undulaLlng landscape. 1he scenery
quall and lndlan rollers are blrds, whlch are
changes dramaLlcally from genLle and sLeep slopes of
commonlyfound around waLerholes.
Lhe vlndhyas and sharp and conlcal hllls of Lhe
Aravalll. Þure sands of uhok (Anogelssus pendula)
1he park ls also home Lo Lhe greaL lndlan 8usLard
lnLerspersed wlLh grasslands aL Lhe plaLeaus,
whlch ls perll of exLlncLlon.
meadows ln valleys and luxurlanL follage around Lhe
canals make Lhe [ungle. 1hree blg lakes Þadam 1alab
- ls locaLed on Lhe frlnge
of Lhe CreaL lndlan 1har ueserL. 1he 1al Chapper
sancLuary lles ln Lhe Su[angarh 1ehsll of Churu ulsLrlcL,
slLuaLed ln Lhe norLh-LasL parL of 8a[asLhan. WlLh
almosL a flaL LracL and lnLerspersed shallow low lylng
areas, lL has open grassland wlLh scaLLered Acacla and
Þrosopls Lrees whlch glve lL an appearance of a Lyplcal
Savanna. 1he raln waLer flows Lhrough shallow low
lylng areas and collecL ln Lhe small seasonal waLer
ponds. A herd of over 400 8lackbucks can be seen aL a
Llme ln or around Lhe sancLuary area. 8esldes Lhese,
lox, ueserL CaL, nllgal, Pare and Mongoose could also
beseen.
- SlLuaLed 107km from
!alpur, lL ls less commerclallzed and has less Llgers buL
DLSLk1 NA1ICNAL ÞAkk
kAN1nAM8nCkL NA1ICNAL ÞAkk
S.3. WILDLIIL SANC1UAkILS
1AL CnAÞÞLk SANC1UAk¥
SAkISkA NA1ICNAL ÞAkk
liqure 5.7: 1iqer
liqure 5.õ: keo/odeo 6hono Notiono/ Pork
43
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
Leopard, SloLh 8ear, Pyena, !ackal, !ungle CaL,
wlLh a slmllar Lopography. LocaLed ln Alwar dlsLrlcL, lL
Samabhar, nllgal, Chalslngh (Lhe four horned
covers an area of 800 sq km ln LoLal, wlLh a core area of
anLelope), Chlnkara and hare. 1he blrd llfe aL
approxlmaLely 300 sq km. 1he norLhern Aravalll Pllls
kumbhalgarh comprlse Crey !ungle lowl, Þeacock ,
domlnaLe Lhe skyllne wlLh Lhelr mlxLure of sharp cllffs
uove, ÞarakeeL, Colden Crlole, Crey Þlgeon, 8ulbul,
and long narrow valleys. 1he area was declared a
uove and WhlLe 8reasLed klngflsher can also be seen
sancLuary ln 1933and becameanaLlonal Þark ln 1979.
near LhewaLer holes.
1he landscapeof Sarlska comprlses of hllls and narrow
valleys of Lhe Aravalll hlll range. 1he Lopography of
- LocaLed ln ÞraLapgarh
Sarlska supporLs scrub-Lhorn arld foresLs, dry
dlsLrlcL, Lhls sancLuary ls spread over an area of 423sq.
declduous foresLs, rocks and grasses. 1he broad range
km. lL ls 108 km from udalpur, and comprlses of foresL
of wlldllfe here ls a wonderful example of ecologlcal
of bamboo and dry declduous vegeLaLlon. 1he mosL
adopLlon and Lolerance, for Lhe cllmaLe here ls
celebraLed anlmal of Lhe sancLuary ls Lhe hlghly
varlable as well as erraLlc. 1he park ls home Lo
endangered llylng Squlrrel, a nocLurnal anlmal. CLher
numerous carnlvores, lncludlng Leopard, Wlld uog,
anlmals found here lnclude Leopard, Pyena, !ackal,
!ungle CaL, ClveLs Pyena, !ackal, and 1lger. 1hese feed
lox, !ungle CaL, Þorcuplne, SpoLLed ueer, Chauslngha,
on specles such as Sambar, ChlLal, nllgal, Chauslngha,
nllgal and Wlld 8oar.
Wlld 8oar and Langur. Sarlska ls also well known for lLs
large populaLlon of 8hesus Monkeys, whlch are found
around 1alvrlksh. 1he avlan world ls also well
represenLed wlLh Þeafowl, Crey ÞarLrldge, 8ush Cuall,
Sand Crouse, 1ree Þle, Colden backed Woodpecker,
cresLed SerpenL Lagle and 1he CreaL lndlan Porned
Cwl.
lL ls locaLed ln Lhe
mosL rugged of Lhe Aravalll hllls ln Þall, 8a[samand and
udalpur dlsLrlcLs of 8a[asLhan. lL ls named afLer Lhe
lmpresslvehlsLorlc forL of kumbhalgarh. lL ls 378sq km
ln area and aL an alLlLude of 300 Lo 1,300m. lL ls home
Lo a very large varleLy of wlld llfe, some of whlch are
hlghly endangered specles. 1he wlld llfe lncludes Wolf,
SI1AMA1A SANC1UAk¥
kUM8nALGAkn SANC1UAk¥
liqure 5.8: 5orisko Notiono/ Pork
liqure 5.9: kumbho/qorh 5onctuory
liqure 5.10: 5itomoto 5onctuory

44


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
DAkkAn SANC1UAk¥ MCUN1 A8U WILDLIIL SANC1UAk¥
kAMGAkn VISnDnAkI
IAISAMAND
ÞnULVAkI-kI-NAL
- Ao etstwblle toyol bootloq - 1he
ptesetve of tbe Mobotojo of koto, lt ls o tblckly sancLuary comprlses Lhe oldesL mounLaln ranges - 1he
fotesteJ sooctooty lyloq olooq tbe sootbeosteto Aravallls. lL was declared as a Wlldllfe SancLuary ln
botJet of koto. 1bls bllly sooctooty wltb tblck fotests ls 1960. MounL Abu has a very rlch floral blodlverslLy,
wottb o vlslt. 1be oolmols bete locloJe wolf, 5lotb sLarLlng wlLh xenomorphlc subLroplcal Lhorn foresL aL
8eot, cblokoto ooJ leopotJ. 1bls sooctooty ls Lhe fooL hllls Lo subLroplcal evergreen foresL along Lhe
sttetcbeJ lo tbe oteo of 250 sp km, olmost 50 kmftom waLer courses and valleys aL hlgher alLlLudes. 1hese
koto. foresLs conslsL of 112 planL famllles wlLh 449 genera
and 820 specles. Cf Lhese, 663 specles are dlcoLs whlle
137 specles are monocoLs. MounL Abu ls Lhe only
place ln 8a[asLhan where one can observe a varleLy of
orchlds. 1he place ls also rlch ln bryophyLes and algae.
1hree specles of wlld roses and 16 specles of feras,
some of whlch are qulLe rare, have also been spoLLed
here. 1he SouLh-WesL parL of Lhe SancLuary ls rlch ln
bamboo foresLs and herbal medlclnal planLs as well.
AbouL 81 specles of Lrees, 89 specles of shrubs, 28
specles of cllmbers and 17 specles of Luberous planLs
of medlclnal lmporLance have been ldenLlfled. A
varleLy of fauna, lncludlng hlghly rare, LhreaLened and
endangered specles, ls found ln Lhls sancLuary.
ÞresenLly, Lhe ÞanLher ls Lhe apex predaLor. CLher
anlmals found here are Sambhar, !ungle CaL, Small
- LocaLed near 8undl, lL
lndlan ClveL, Wolf, Pyaena, !ackal, lndlan lox,
sprawls over an area of 307 km. PablLaL comprlses
Common Langoor, Wlld 8oar, Þangolln, 8aLel,
hllly, dry declduous loresLs on vlndhyan formaLlons.
llora comprlses uhok (Angoelssus pendula), khalr
(Acacla caLechu), Salar (8oswellla serraLa) khlrnl
(Manllkara hexandra) and Mango Lrees are ln
abundance. launa comprlses Leopard, Sambhar, Wlld
boar, Chlnkara, SloLh bear, lndlan Wolf, Pyena, !ackal
and lox.
- LocaLed aL abouL 30 km. from udalpur
on Lhebanks of !alsamand Lake, LhesancLuary exLends
over an area of 32 sq. km. of Lhlck foresLs. llora
lncludes rlch uhok and Salar foresLs. lLs fauna conslsLs
of ChlLal, Chlnkara, Sambhar, Langur, Leopard, Pyena,
lox, !ungle CaL and Wolf. 1he !alsamand Lake ls an
abodeof Crocodlles, 1urLles and varleLyof flsh.
- LocaLed aL abouL 82 km. from
udalpur, lL covers 311 sq. km. Among Lhe carnlvores,
Leopard ls Lhe chlef specles. CLher common predaLors
are Pyena, Wolf and !ungle CaL. 1he maln herblvores
lnclude ChlLal, Wlld 8oar, lour-Porned AnLelope and
Chlnkara. 1he Þangolln, Þalm ClveL and 8aLel may also
bespoLLed here.
liqure 5.11: uorroh 5onctuory
liqure 5.12: Mount 4bu wi/d/ife 5onctuory
43



SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
Common Mongoose, lndlan Pare, Þorcuplne and Leopard, !ackal, SloLh 8ear, lox, Sambhar, nllgal, Wlld
Pedgehog. 1he sancLuary provldes an ldeal hablLaL for 8ear, and Langur.
SloLh 8ear, whose populaLlon has gradually been on
- LocaLed aL abouL 10
Lherlse.
km. from Sawal Madhopur, lL covers an area of 103 sq.
km. 1he sancLuary ls an ad[uncL Lo Lhe 8anLhambhore
- 1hls sancLuary
naLlonal Þark and ls a parL of Lhe 8anLhambhore 1lger
ls spread over 280 sq km. all along rlver Chambal ln
8eserve.
koLa, Sawal Madhopur and uholpur dlsLrlcLs. 1he
Charlals resL and bask ln Lhe wlnLer sun on Lhe - LocaLed ln 8haraLpur dlsLrlcL, lL ls
rlver banks and may be observed from boaLs. spread around Lhe famous lake of Lhe same name
Crocodlles and Charlals successfully breed here. llora exLendlng over 193 sq. km. PablLaL comprlses of
comprlses of khalr (Acacla caLechu), Þalash (8uLea parLly hllly and waLershed area of a man-made 8und
monosperma), Churel (PolopLella lnLegrlfolla), 8er called 8und 8areLha, parLly a weLland hablLaL for
and Crassy paLches on boLh sldes, whlle fauna waLer fowls.1he fauna malnly conslsLs of Sambhar,
comprlses of Cavlal Crocodlle, CLLer uolphln, Chlnkara !ackal, Þorcuplne, nllgal, Mongoose and several
on 8lver banks, uucks and 1eals, ÞanLher, !ackal, specles of snakes.
Sambhar, Pyena.
- LocaLed aL abouL 33 km. from ChlLLorgarh, lL
exLends over an area of 193 sq. km. PablLaL exLends
across hllly area of Lhe Aravalll and vlndhyan ranges
1he fauna malnly comprlses of Leopard, !ackal, !ungle
CaL, Sambhar, nllgal and Þorcuplne.
- nahargarh Wlldllfe SancLuary ls
locaLed near Amber hllls, !alpur, wlLh lLs enLrancenear
kunda vlllage. PablLaL comprlses of dry declduous
foresLs and Lhe hllly Lerraln of Lhe Aravallls. llora
lncludes uhok, Salar, Churel, khalr Þalash, and uaLe
Þalm. launalncludes Leopard, Pyena, !ungleCaL, Wlld
boar, lox, !ackal, 8luebull, Crocodlle, and many
mlgraLory and lndlgenous blrds.
- lL exLends over an area of 90 sq. km. on
Lhe banks of 8amsagar ln uholpur dlsLrlcL. lL abounds
ln ueer, !ackal, Chlnkara, Sambhar and nllgal. - 1hls ls locaLed ln 8am nlwas Carden
near AlberL Pall. Mahara[a Sawal 8am Slngh founded
- LocaLed ln !alpur dlsLrlcL, lL
lL ln 1877. 1he zoo happens Lo be Lhe besL and mosL
exLends over 300 sq. km. of area. LxLendlng over Lhe
frequenLed zoo ln LheSLaLe. lL ls spread over an area of
hllly area of Aravalll, flora comprlses malnly of uhok
elghL hecLares and hosLs over 1300 anlmals and blrds.
foresLs .launa comprlses ÞanLher, ChlLal. Wlld 8oar,
lL has Lhe dlsLlncLlon of belng Lhe flrsL zoo ln Lhe world
Pyena, Sambhar, 8lue8ull, !ackal, lox, !ungleCaL.
Lo collecL daLa on Lhe capLlve breedlng of crocodlles
ls locaLed aL Saddle
and successful lnLroducLlon of hormone Lherapy for
uam, 8awaLbhaLa, and ChlLLorgarh. lL covers an area
old male crocodlles. lL ls Lhe flrsL zoo ln Lhe counLry Lo
of 230 sq. km. llora comprlses of uhok, Salar, Churel,
breed ln capLlvlLy Lhe Swlnhoe's ÞheasanL, lndlan
8uLea. 1he fauna lncludes Leopard, Chlnkara,
ÞyLhon and uouroucoull Monkey.
Chauslngha, Sambhar, ChlLal, nllgal, Pyena, Crocodlle
- 1hls ls slLuaLed ln ummed Þubllc Þark,
eLc.
coverlng an area of four hecLares. lL was esLabllshed ln
ln A[mer
1936 Au. 1hls zoo has Lhe hlghesL number of anlmals
dlsLrlcL, lL exLends over 493 sq. km. and harbours
SAWAI MAN SINGn SANC1UAk¥
CnAM8AL GnAkIAL SANC1UAk¥
8UND 8AkL1nA
8ASSI
NAnAk GAkn
VANVInAk
S.4. 2CCLCGICAL GAkDLNS
IAIÞUk 2CC
IAMWAkAMGAkn
8nAINSkCkGAkn SANC1UAk¥
ICDnÞUk2CC
1A1GAkn kACLI SANC1UAk¥ - LCCA1LD
liqure 5.1l: chombo/ 6horio/ 5onctuory

46


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
ln Lhe SLaLe, l.e., over 1,600 anlmals. lL ls famous for
successfully keeplng CreaL lndlan 8usLards ln capLlvlLy
for LheflrsL Llme.
- 1hls zoo ls slLuaLed ln Canga nlwas
Þubllc Þark, coverlng an area of 136 hecLares. lL was
founded by Mahara[a Sardul Slngh ln 1928 Au. 1hls
zoo has abouL 600anlmals.
- lL ls locaLed ln Sa[[an nlwas Carden,
spread over an area of flve hecLares. CreaLed ln 1878,
Lhezoo has abouL 300anlmals.
- lL ls a small zoo locaLed ln ChhaLra vllas
Carden, havlng only abouL 200 anlmals. AparL from
8anl Moosl ChhaLrl, 1he Museums, 1omb of laLeh
Lhe flve gardens each houslng a zoo, Lhere are many
!ung, Þur[an vlhar and vl[ay nandlr. A popular
oLher gardens ln Lhe SLaLe whlch house conslderable
desLlnaLlon wlLhln Lhe dlsLrlcL ls Sarlska. ueclared as a
floral dlverslLy. Among Lhese may be named Slsodla
naLlonal park ln 1979, lL ls 107km from !alpur.1he
8anl Carden (!alpur), vldyadhar ka 8agh (!alpur),
landscape of Sarlska comprlses of hllls and narrow
Chambal Carden (koLa), ChhaLra vllas Carden (koLa),
valleys of Lhe Aravalll hlll range. 1he Lopography of
1rafflc 1ralnlng Þark (koLa), Mandore Cardens
Sarlska supporLs scrub-Lhorn arld foresLs, dry
(!odhpur), ummed Þark (near ChlLLorgarh), Þur[an
declduous foresLs, rocks and grasses.
vlhar or Company Carden (Alwar), Canga nlwas
Þubllc Þark (8lkaner), Sahellyon kl 8arl (udalpur),
30 km. away from Sarlska
Culab 8agh (udalpur), nehru Þark (udalpur), Sa[[an
sancLuary, you can wlLness Lhe splendld mlned Lown
nlwas Carden (udalpur), uhandolal Þark (8hllwara),
of 8hangarh, bullL ln Lhe 17Lh cenLury by 8a[a Madho
Luv kush udyan (A[mer), Mahavlr Þark (8armer) ,
Slngh, broLher of 8a[a Man Slngh of Amber. lL has
neemard (near 8armer) , Sawa(near ChlLLorgarh) and
medleval bazaars and Lheold palace.
ueeg (8haraLpur).
SouLh-wesL of !alpur, A[mer ls an oasls
wrapped ln Lhe green hllls. A[mer ls a popular
pllgrlmage cenLre for Lhe Musllms as well as Plndus.
8a[asLhan's herlLage, culLure, safarls, sand dunes, lush
Lspeclally famous ls Lhe uargah Sharlf - Lomb of Lhe
foresLs and wlldllfe makes lL an un-parallel desLlnaLlon.
Sufl salnL khwa[a Molnuddln ChlsLl, whlch ls equally
WlLh over 160 lakh domesLlc LourlsLs and 9 lakh forelgn
LourlsLs, 8a[asLhan ls apromlnenL LourlsL desLlnaLlon.
- Surrounded by lush green Aravalll hllls, lL
presenLs a breaLhLaklng naLural envlronmenL. loresLs
and lakes form Lhe backdrop Lo Lhls beauLlful place.
1he slLe ls doLLed wlLh archlLecLural splendor,
surrounded byharsh mounLalns.
1he grandeur, beauLy and dellcacy of Lhe deslgn of
lnnumerable palaces and forLs ln Lhe reglon, Lranqull
lakes, ma[esLlc hunLlng lodges, slLes of archaeologlcal
lmporLance, Lhlck foresLs, many blrds and anlmals
mlxed wlLh an equally dlverse soclo- culLural
conflguraLlon have made Lhls reglon a Lraveler's
dellghL. Some LourlsL spoLs are 8ala Clla, ClLy palace,
8IkANLk 2CC
UDAIÞUk 2CC
kC1A 2CC
8nANGAkn AkCUND
AIMLk
S.S. 1CUkISM AkLAS
ALWAk
liqure 5.14: city Po/oce, 4/wor
liqure 5.15: uorqoh khwojo 5ohib
47



SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
reveredboLh by LhePlndus and Musllms. A[mer ls also lnLrlcaLely carved brackeLs and plllars. lnLeresLlng
Lhe base for vlslLlng Þushkar (14 km.) whlch has Lhe places are ulwan-e-aam, PaLhla Þol, and naubaL
dlsLlncLlon of havlng Lhe only 8rahma Lemple ln Lhe khana.
world. 1he ÞlcLuresque Þushkar Lake ls a sacred spoL
- Sura[ Mal lald Lhe foundaLlon for
for Plndus. 1heÞushkar Camel lalr ls oneof LhelargesL
8haraLpur clLy. lL ls also called Lhe LasLern gaLeway of
ln lndla and Lhe only one of lLs klnd ln Lhe enLlre world.
8a[asLhan. 1oday, 8haraLpur ls known Lhe world over
uurlng Lhe falr, Lakhs of people from rural lndla flock
for lLs keoladeo Chana naLlonal Þark. 8lrds from every
Lo Þushkar, along wlLh camel and caLLle for several
parL of Lhe counLry, lncludlng Lhe Slberlan crane,
days of llvesLock Lradlng, horse deallng, pllgrlmage
arrlve ln Lhe park wlLh Lhe advenL of Lhe monsoon and
and rellglous fesLlval.
are a ma[or LourlsL aLLracLlon. 8ar- headed and Crey
- SlLuaLed ln Lhe norLh of Lhe deserL SLaLe,
Leg Ceese, ÞlnLall, Common 1eal, 8uddy Shelduck,
Lhe clLy of 8lkaner ls doLLed wlLh scores of sand dunes.
Mallard, Wldgeon, Shoveler, Common Shelduck, 8ed
8eadlly known as Lhe camel counLry, lL reLalns Lhe
CresLed Þochard, Cadwall, and predaLory blrds llkeLhe
medleval grandeur LhaL permeaLes Lhe clLy's llfesLyle.
lmperlal Lagle, SLeppe and 1awny Lagle, SpoLLed
!unagarh, Lal garh palace, 8andeshwarl and Shlv 8arl
Lagle, Marsh Parrler and Laggar lalcon can all be
Lemple aresomeof Lheplaces worLh vlslLlng.
observed aL Lhe8haraLpur 8lrd SancLuary. Someof Lhe
- 8undl ls a magnlflcenL Lown, 36 kms from
koLa, once ruled by Lhe Pada Chauhans. 1he palaces
oLher places Lo vlslL areLhe8haratpur Þa|ace(whlch ls
and forLs have a falry Lale quallLy abouL Lhem. lsolaLed
a flne fuslon of Mughal and 8a[puL sLyles of
and lndependenL, Lhls plcLuresque locaLlon has much
archlLecLure and was bullL ln varlous phases by
Lo offer. 8a[puL archlLecLure shlnes forLh ln Lhe
dlfferenL mahara[as), Government Museum (wlLh lLs
rlch collecLlon of anLlqulLles, exqulslLe sculpLures and
some anclenL lnscrlpLlon), and Ganga Mand|r
(consLrucLed byMahara[a 8alwanL Slngh).
- 1he caplLal clLy of 8a[asLhan, !alpur forms
Lhe golden Lrlangle of uelhl, Agra and !alpur. lL a
busLllng caplLal clLy and a buslness cenLre wlLh all Lhe
Lrapplngs of a modern meLropolls buL yeL flavored
sLrongly wlLh an age-old charm LhaL never falls Lo
surprlse a Lraveller. 1he old !alpur palnLed ln plnk can
grlp any vlslLor wlLh admlraLlon. SLunnlng backdrop of
anclenL forLs: nahargarh, Amer, !algarh and MoLl
uoongarl are apL LesLlmonlals of Lhe bygone era and a
8nAkA1ÞUk
8IkANLk
8UNDI
IAIÞUk
liqure 5.1õ: Lo/qorh Po/oce
liq. 5.17: 1oroqorh lort
liqure 5.18: keo/odeo 6hono Notiono/ Pork. 8horotpur

48


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
remlnder of Lhelr llngerlng romance and chlvalry.
1har ueserL and lLs rlch fauna. 1heSudashrl foresL posL
!alpur ls named afLer lLs founder, Lhe warrlor and
ls Lhe mosL ldeal place for observlng Lhe wlldllfe ln Lhe
asLronomer soverelgn, Mahara[a Sawal !al Slngh
ueserL naLlonal Þark. Sand dunes form less Lhan 20
(ruled 1688 Lo 1744). Some of Lhe palaces Lo vlslL are
percenL of Lhe park, whlch conslsLs of craggy rocks,
C|ty Þa|ace (LocaLed ln Lhe hearL of Lhe walled clLy, Lhe
pavemenLs and compacL salL lake boLLoms, lnLer-
palace ls a blend of Mughal and 8a[puL archlLecLure),
medlal areas and flxed dunes. Gads|sar Lake of
AlberL Pall (LocaLed [usL ouLslde Lhe walled clLy ls Lhe
Ia|sa|mer ls a raln waLer conservaLlon lake bullL by
sprawllng kam N|was Garden. SlLuaLed ln Lhe mlddle
Maharawal Cadsl ln 14Lh cenLury. lL was once Lhe
of Lhe garden as Lhe cenLre of aLLracLlon, ls Lhe
maln source of drlnklng waLer for Lhe enLlre Lown of
exqulslLely bullL sLrucLure of AlberL Pall. lL dlsplays a
!alsalmer. now a LourlsL spoL, Lhere are many small
rlch collecLlon of arLlfacLs llke palnLlngs, carpeLs, lvory,
Lemples and shrlnes around lL.
sLone, meLal sculpLures, colorful crysLal works eLc).
- 1hls busLllng deserL clLy ls Lhe second
lorLs and monumenLs of lnLeresL are Ia|garh Iort
largesL ln 8a[asLhan afLer !alpur. lL was founded by 8ao
(whlch ls Lhe mosL specLacular of Lhe Lhree-hlllLop
!odha, Lhe leader of Lhe 8aLhore clan, ln 1439 Au. 1he
forLs LhaL overlook !alpur. lL ls one of Lhe few mlllLary
mammoLh, lmposlng, forLress (Meherangarh) has a
sLrucLures of medleval lndla preserved almosL lnLacL,
landscape domlnaLlng a rocky rldge wlLh Lhe elghL
conLalnlng palaces, a granary, a well-planned cannon
gaLes leadlng ouL of forLress. 1he new clLy ls slLuaLed
foundry, several Lemples, a Lall Lower and glanL
ouLslde Lhe sLrucLure. Uma|d 8hawan Þa|ace of
mounLed cannon - Lhe !al 8an (!alvan), whlch ls Lhe
Iodhpur was bullL by Mahara[a umald Slngh (1929
largesL cannon on wheels ln Lhe world) and nahargarh
1942) and named afLer hlm, Lhls exqulslLe Þalace ls
forL (whlch ls locaLed on Lhe rugged rldge of Aravalll
Pllls and forms an lmpresslve norLhern backdrop of
!alpur. lL was bullL ln 1734 and exLended ln 1868, Lo
bolsLer Lhedefenceof Amber).
- Lvoklng maglc and vlbrancy, ls Lhe
colourful dlsLrlcL of !alsalmer.Cne of Lhe maln draws ls
Lhe daunLlng 12Lh cenLury !alsalmer lorL. Safarls ln
Lhe sloplng sand dunes of Lhe deserL clLadel can also
be underLaken. 1he !alsalmer forL, known as Sonar
Culla or Lhe Colden forL rlses from Lhe sand and
merges wlLh Lhe golden hues of Lhe deserL amblence.
AnoLher LourlsL desLlnaLlon ls Lhe ueserL naLlonal
park, an excellenL example of Lhe eco-sysLem of Lhe
ICDnÞUk
IAISALMLk
liqure 5.19: loipur
liqure 5.20: uesert festivo/
49
liqure 5.21: umoid 8howon Po/oce




SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
also known as ChlLLar Þalace because of Lhe local
chlLLar sandsLone used ln lL. Mandore Garden -
Mandore was Lhe former caplLal of Mahara[as of
Marwar and ls locaLed flvemlles from !odhpur.
- uurlng Lhe perlod of Lhe Mahara[as, lL
was used as a place of lelsure by Lhe royalLles. 1he
place presenLs an lnLeresLlng conLrasL of 8rlLlsh sLyle
bungalows and hollday lodges of Lhe royals (1hlkhana)
wlLh varlous Lrlbal communlLles resldlng amldsL Lhe
Lhlck lush foresL on Lhe hllls surroundlng Lhe reglon.
1he flora and fauna en[oys Lhe adulaLlon of Lhe
LourlsLs Lo Lhe fullesL. 1he hlghesL polnL of Lhe Aravalll
ls Lhe'Curu Shlkhar' wlLh avasL sancLuary LhaL shelLers
bears and varlous specles of deer are Lhe oLher
a number of specles llke langur, wlld boars, Sambar,
aLLracLlons.
leopards and many more along wlLh a number of
- udalpur ls ofLen called Lhe 'venlce of Lhe flowerlng planLs and Lrees, whlch enhance Lhe beauLy
LasL'. lL ls also Lhe 'clLy of lakes'. 1he Lake Þalace (!ag of Lhe whole scenery. AnoLher LourlsL desLlnaLlon ls
nlwas) locaLed ln Lhe mlddle of Þlchola Lake ls Lhe nakkl Lake. 1he lake ls plcLuresquely seL amldsL hllls
flnesL example of archlLecLural and culLural marvel. and ls belleved Lo have been carved ouL by Lhe gods
1he grand ClLy Þalace on Lhe banks of Lhe lake, along wlLh Lhelr nalls. lL ls a popular spoL for boaLlng. 1he
wlLh Lhe Monsoon Þalace (Sa[[an Carh) on Lhe hlll arLlflclal lake here, whlch ls 1200 mLs. above Lhe sea
above, enhances Lhe beauLy of Lhls magnlflcenL clLy. level, ls Lhe hlghesL ln wesLern lndla. 1he surroundlng
udalpur ls also Lhe cenLre for performlng arLs, crafLs hllls haveseveral areas of lnLeresL.
and lLs famed mlnlaLure palnLlngs. 1he Shllpgram
fesLlval ls a greaL crowd-puller on Lhe new ?ear eve.
ClLy palace, laLeh Þrakash palace, !ag mandlr,
Sa[[angarh and Lake Þlchola are some of Lhe oLher
promlnenL LourlsL desLlnaLlons wlLhln LheSLaLe.
- 8anLhambhor naLlonal Þark,
once a prlncely game conserve, ls Lhe scene where Lhe
celebraLed lndlan Llgers are besL seen. A slgnlflcanL
geologlcal feaLure wlLhln Lhe park ls Lhe 'CreaL
8oundary laulL' where Lhe vlndhaya plaLeau meeLs
Lhe Aravalll range. 1he Llger ls noL Lhe only aLLracLlon
- ls slLuaLed on Lhe !alpur-Alwar SLaLe
aL 8anLhambhor. A varleLy of blrds, lncludlng owleLs,
hlghway, aL a dlsLance of abouL 73 km from !alpur. lL ls
Lhe ublqulLous langur (monkey), leopard, caracal,
ln Lhe vlclnlLy of lmporLanL and recognlzed LourlsL
hyena, [ackal, [ungle caL, marsh crocodlles, wlld boar,
MCUN1 A8U
UDAIÞUk
kAN1nAM8nCk
VIkA1NAGAk
liqure 5.24: Loke Po/oce
liqure 5.2l: konthombhor Notiono/ Pork
liqure 5.22: ui/woro temp/e

30


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
1,444 plllars all dlsLlncLly carved, no Lwo plllars belng
desLlnaLlons such as Sarlska (a Þro[ecL 1lger
allke. laclng Lhe maln Lemple are Lhe Lemples of
sancLuary), Slllserh, A[abgarh- 8hangarh and Alwar.
ÞarasvanaLh and nemlnaLh, wlLh exqulslLe flgure
1here ls some very unlque and hlsLorlcal venues aL
carvlng whlch look slmllar Lo LhaL of kha[uraho
vlraLnagar whlch have largely escaped LourlsL
sculpLures. AnoLher Lemple worLh vlslLlng ls Lhe
aLLenLlon. A complex of rock shelLer and naLural cave
nearby'Sun 1emple' dedlcaLed Lo Lhe'Sun Cod'.
shelLers found ln dlfferenL hllls of vlraLnagar lndlcaLe
Lhe presence of prehlsLorlcal people from Lhe
- ChlLLorgarh forL ls belleved Lo be
beglnnlng of Lhe early SLone Age up Lo laLe SLone Age.
consLrucLed by 8hlm, a hero from Lhe myLhologlcal
1here are some very hlsLorlcal and lmporLanL slLes aL
eplc MahabharaLa. AlLhough ln rulns, lL sLands as an
vlraLnagar.
overwhelmlng remlnder of lLs pasL hlsLory of Lrlumph
and Lragedy.
- 8eauLlfully sculpLured !aln Lemples
mark Lhe glory of Lhls renowned place. Consldered as
- lL ls locaLed aL Lhe [uncLlon of !odhpur,
one of Lhe flve holy places for Lhe !aln communlLy,
!alsalmer and 8lkaner 8oad. 1he lndlan nuclear
Lhese were creaLed ln Lhe 13Lh cenLury durlng Lhe
deLonaLlon broughL Lhe reglon lnLo Lhe llmellghL.
relgn of 8ana kumbha. 1he Lemple ls an asLoundlng
Þokran ls also renowned for lLs furnlLure and lnLerlor
creaLlon of archlLecLural splendor wlLh 29 halls and
crafLs.
CnI11CkGAkn
kANAkÞUk
ÞCkkAN
liqure 5.2õ: konokpur
liqure 5.25: virotnoqor
31



SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
MAICk SCUkCLS
CI ÞCLLU1ICN
CnAÞ1Lk 6

32
6.1. INDUS1kIAL DLVLLCÞMLN1
1

6.2. MINLkAL kLSCUkCLS

AlLhough lndusLrles are a source of employmenL and
promoLe developmenL ln Lhe SLaLe, Lhey also emerge as a
radlLlonally noL an lndusLrlal SLaLe, Lhe recenL
ma[or source of polluLlon. 1ext||e, b|each|ng, dye|ng and
encouragemenL Lo Lhe lndusLrlal secLor by
pr|nt|ng un|ts are Lhe ma[or sources of polluLlon. Cf Lhe
governmenL organlzaLlons llke 8llCC (8a[asLhan
10,000 lndusLrles reglsLered ln Lhe SLaLe, 1313 are reglsLered
SLaLe lndusLrl al uevel opmenL and lnvesLmenL
manufacLurers of LexLlle, whlle 130 are reglsLered dyelng
CorporaLlon LLd.) have led Lo Lhe developmenL of
lndusLrles ln Lhe SLaLe, Lhe ma[or secLor generaLlng
lndusLrles and lndusLrlal secLors. kllcO has played a
hazardous wasLe ln Lhe form of chemlcals resldues &LffluenL
caLalyLlc role ln Lhe lndusLrlal developmenL of 8a[asLhan.
1reaLmenL ÞlanLs (L1Þ) wasLe from LexLlle unlLs are
8llCC provldes unlque flnanclal package Lo lnvesLors for
concenLraLed ln WesLern 8a[asLhan. Surface and
small, large and medlum lndusLrlal pro[ecLs. WlLh 26
groundwaLer are affecLed ln Þall, 8aloLra, !asol, 8lLhu[a,
reglonal offlces all over 8a[asLhan, Lo admlnlsLer Lhe
!odhpur, Sanganer and 8agru. Sectors re|ated to asbestos
developmenL of land relaLed lnfrasLrucLure for
andasbestos product|on, chem|ca|s, fert|||zers andwasteo||
lndusLrlallzaLlon, 8llCC has so far developed 322
ref|ner|es have a poLenLlal Lo produce hazardous wasLe.
lndusLrlal Areas by acqulrlng abouL 60,281 acres of land
1hlrLy poLenLlal hazardous wasLe generaLlng unlLs have been
(8llCC, offlclal webslLe).
ldenLlfled ln koLa, across secLors of chemlcals, cemenL,
Someof LhelmporLanL zones ldenLlfled are:
ceramlcs, eLc. no such lndusLrles have been ldenLlfled ln
Speclal Lconomlc Zones (!alpur and !odhpur)
karaull, !aloree, ÞraLapgarh, 8aran and uausa. WasLe waLer
Agro lood Þarks (koLa, !odhpur, Srlganganagar &
dlscharged from dye-lnLermedlaLe manufacLurlng unlL has
Alwar)
caused excesslvegroundwaLer polluLlon ln 8lchrl vlllage, near
udalpur, whlch has been classlfled as aconLamlnaLed slLe. LxporL ÞromoLlon lndusLrlal Þarks (!alpur, !odhpur
and neemrana)
lnformaLlon 1echnology Þarks (!alpur, !odhpur, koLa
8a[asLhan SLaLe ls one of Lhe rlchesL SLaLes ln Lhe counLry ln
and udalpur)
respecL of mlneral resources. SlxLy one varleLles of mlnerals
Cems &Cold !ewelry Complex (SlLapura,!alpur)
occur ln 8a[asLhan, lncludlng LwenLy Lwo varleLles of mlnor
1exLlleClLy(8hllwara)
mlnerals and LhlrLy nlnevarleLles of ma[or mlnerals. Marblels
LeaLher Complex (Manpur Macherl ,!alpur)
one of Lhe prlme sLone mlneral mlned ln 8a[asLhan (8lCC,
Ceramlcs Complex (khara, 8lkaner)
2009). AlmosL Lhe enLlre producLlon of CalclLe, Cypsum,
Lead-Zlnc concenLraLe and Amphlbole varleLy of AsbesLos
Mlnor Mlneral Complexes (karaull, Sawal Madhopur,
comes from Lhe SLaLe (5tote lloo, 2007-2012). 8a[asLhan
uholndaln 8a[samand and MlLrapuraln uausa)
ranks flrsL ln Lhe producLlon of mlnor mlnerals by
8lo-1ech Þarks (SlLapura- !alpur and Chopankl-
conLrlbuLlng 30° shareof LhenaLlonal producLlon.
8hlwadl)


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
LxLenslve mlnlng operaLlons can also affecL Lhe waLer
balanceln mlnlng areas.
loresL degradaLlon due Lo mlnlng has slgnlflcanLly
degraded ecosysLems.
Mlnlng of mlca around Sambhar, Lunl and Chambal
have led Lo conLamlnaLlon of Lhe surroundlng waLer
bodles.
uegradaLlon of land as observed ln 8amgan[ Mandl of
koLadlsLrlcL, 8a[samand.
Parmful lmpacL on hlsLorlcal monumenLs and rellglous
places. 1hls can be seen ln Lhe case of 8rl[ Chaurasl kos
Þarlkrama belL (ln 8haraLpur) whlch ls of rellglous
lmporLance.
ln order Lo reduce Lhe effecLs of mlnlng on ecologlcal
sysLems, lnlLlaLlves have been made Lo promoLe eco-frlendly
5ource: 5tote of íovltoomeot kepott of kojostboo (5Oí)
mlnlng Lechnlques.
2007
Mlnlmlzlng Lhe generaLlon of (a) dusL of gaseous alr
polluLanLs, (b) llquld effluenLs, and (c) nolse and
8a[asLhan ranks flfLh ln Lerms of Lhe value of ma[or
vlbraLlons.
mlnerals produced ln Lhe counLry. Mlnlng ls also one of
Lco-frlendly mlne deslgn and layouL lncludes
Lhe lmporLanL lndusLrlal acLlvlLles whlch are changlng Lhe
mlnlmlzlng Lhe use of foresL land, mlnlmal breaklng of
soclal and economlc sLaLus of Lhe populaLlon ln Lhe areas
land Lhrough deep excavaLlon works, raLher Lhan a
ln and around Lhe place. ueposlLs of copper, lead and zlnc
spread-ouL layouL, uLlllzlng Lhe generaLed wasLe early
can befound ln LheSLaLe. 1hreedlsLrlcLs ln 8a[asLhan have
for maklng embankmenLs around mlne excavaLlons and
been ldenLlfled as heavlly mlned. 1he LoLal resource of
along sLream banks
lead and zlnc ore ls 483 meLrlc Lonnes (M1), of whlch 90
percenL ls found ln 8a[asLhan. 1he Lead and Zlnc ore
Lco-frlendly mlnlng meLhods lnclude, mlnlmlze
mlnlng aL Agucha (8hllwara), uarlba-8eLhumnl
blasLlng, by uslng surface mlners eLc, use of weL drllllng,
(8a[samand), and Zawar (udalpur) are envlronmenLally
sclenLlflc blasL deslgn, pre-blasL weLLlng and weLLlng of
crlLlcal mlnlng areas. LnvlromenLally, among Lhe sLone
blasL-plles beforeloadlng.
mlnlng areas, Lhe mosL crlLlcal mlnlng area ls mlnlng of
Lco-frlendly maLerlal handllng lncludes Lhe use of
koLa SLone ln 8amgan[ Mandl and !halawar. 1he mlnlng
conveyor or aerlal ropeway ln reference Lo dumpers,
acLlvlLles are carrled ouL for explolLaLlon of mlnerals, wlLh
conveyors Lo be enclosed, wlLh negaLlve pressure so
mlnerals belng locaLed ln areas of ecologlcal lmporLance.
LhaL dusL does noL leak ouL, and crushlng, slzlng and
Large LracLs of land are degraded durlng Lhe process
screenlng planLs Lo be enclosed, wlLh effecLlve dusL
of mlneral exploraLlon lLself, as well as Lhe exLernal
suppresslon and dusL-collecLlon arrangemenLs.
burden of wasLe dumps.
Lco-frlendly solld wasLe managemenL lncludes
AnoLher ma[or lmpacL ls on waLer courses whlch
careful dump-slLe selecLlon, avoldlng sLeep slopes,
may have Lo be dlverLed. WaLer courses are geLLlng
malnLenance of safe dump-slopes Lhrough benchlng, Lo
sllLed and even choked byralnwaLer.
prevenL subsequenL slope fallures, dump consolldaLlon
and dralnage, mechanlcal reclamaLlon of dump-Lops,
1he alr quallLy geLs affecLed by Lhe dusL generaLed
and concurrenL or earllesL blologlcal reclamaLlon
by mlnlng and dumplng operaLlons, and by Lhe
Lhrough re-LreaLlngLhepyramld.
gaseous emlsslons of Lhe lnLernal combusLlon
englnes and operaLlons of Lhe heavy earLh movlng
lf some dlverslon of waLer channels becomes necessary
equlpmenL.
due Lo avallablllLy of mlneral ln a lease area aL a
parLlcular locaLlon only, new dralns followlng Lhe

1.
2.
3.
4.
3.
6.
7.
8.
Lead & Zlnc
Copper
Llme SLone (SMS Crade)
Llme SLone (CemenL Crade)
8ock ÞhosphaLe
Cypsum
LlgnlLe
Marble
200.208
193.073
613.760
18829.490
83.671
163.807
3200.000
1144.100
S. No. Name of M|nera| keserves
(M||||on 1ones)
33



SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
conLours be consLrucLed by lessees, so LhaL waLer
flows unobsLrucLed Lo maln waLer bodles/ponds /
Lanks/naLural reservolrs.
Mun|c|pa| So||dWaste lncludes commerclal and resldenLlal
1he lessees of ma[or and mlnor mlnerals havlng areas
wasLes generaLed ln a munlclpal or noLlfled area ln elLher
more Lhan flve hecLares shall develop Lhlck
solld or seml-solld form, excludlng lndusLrlal hazardous
afforesLaLlon zone on Lhe boundary of lease ln aL leasL
wasLes and lncludlng LreaLed blo-medlcal wasLes.
aLen meLre sLrlp.
Whenever mlnlng reaches Lhe waLer Lable, Lhe
SLaLe of Munlclpal wasLe generaLlon ln Lhe SLaLe-1he lack of
leaseholder should dlg a separaLe well ln Lhe lease
sclenLlflc daLa on Lhe generaLlon of munlclpal wasLe ln Lhe
area lLself, ln whlch Lhe waLer from Lhe mlnlng plL ls
SLaLe has resulLed ln rough esLlmaLes of wasLe generaLed.
dlsposed wlLh Lhe ob[ecLlve of recharglng Lhe waLer
ConLrlbuLlon ln Lerms of munlclpal solld wasLe producLlon
Lable.
ls hlghesL from koLaand !alpur.
6.3. SCLID] nA2AkDCUS WAS1L GLNLkA1ICN
MUNICIÞAL SCLIDWAS1L

Muncipo/ woste qenerotion in kojosthon
0
100000
200000
300000
400000
300000
600000
700000
800000
900000
D|str|cts
IMÞAC1 CI MUNICIÞAL WAS1L GLNLkA1ICN
MUNICIÞAL SCLID WAS1LS (MANAGLMLN1 &
kLSÞCNSL
nANDLING) kULLS, 2000 (MSWkULLS)
faclllLles ls raLher poor. !odhpur ls Lhe only clLy wlLh a wasLe - 1he lack
processlng faclllLy, comprlsed of Secured Landflll laclllLles
of proper slLes for approprlaLe dlsposal of solld wasLe ls a
(SLl) and composLlng faclllLy. Land wlLhln Lhe clLy has boLh
cause for concern. lndlscrlmlnaLe dumplng of munlclpal
been 'ldenLlfled' and 'alloLLed'. ln !alpur Loo, a slLe for a
wasLe can lnfluence Lhe physlo-chemlcal properLles of soll.
wasLe processlng faclllLy has boLh been 'ldenLlfled' and
1oxlc wasLe, also Lend Lo geL leached lnLo soll and
'alloLLed' for Lhe consLrucLlon of solld wasLe processlng unlL
surroundlng waLer bodles. Lmlsslons from Lhe dump slLes
(Secured Land-flll laclllLles).
can also conLrlbuLe Lo release of alr polluLanLs such as
meLhaneconLrlbuLlng Lo LhecllmaLechange.
lor a large SLaLe, Lhe sLaLe of wasLe processlng
are appllcable
{5ource: kojosthon 5tote Po//ution contro/ 8oord {k5Pc8), 2008-09

34
liqure õ.1: Muncipo/ woste qenerotion in kojosthon


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
A
[
m
e
r
8
a
n
s
w
a
r
a
8
a
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r
8
k
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l

w
a
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a
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(
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p
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a
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)
C
a
r
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r
g
u
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a
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a
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a
p
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o
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e
!
h
n
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u
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u
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u
k
o
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a
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l
a
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a
w
a
l

M
a
d
h
o
p
u
r
S
l
l
r
o
h
1
o
n
k
Lo every munlclpal auLhorlLy responslble for collecLlon, deflned as º any wasLe, whlch ls generaLed durlng Lhe
segregaLlon, sLorage, LransporLaLlon, processlng and dlagnosls, LreaLmenL or lmmunlzaLlon of human belngs or
dlsposal of munlclpal solld. anlmals or ln research acLlvlLles perLalnlng LhereLo or ln Lhe
producLlon or LesLlng of blologlcal, and lncludlng caLegorles
1heruleconLalns Lhefollowlng four schedules:
menLloned ln Schedulel."
1reaLmenL faclllLles for blo-medlcal wasLe are avallable ln
Lhe dlsLrlcLs of !alpur, Alwar, 8haraLpur, udalpur, !odhpur,
A[mer, 8hllwara, 8lkaner, nagpur, Panumangarh, Shrl
Canganagar (SÞC8, 2007).
uoJet tbe ptovlsloos of tbe obove, tbe tespooslblllty of.
- Munlclpal AuLhorlLles are
enLrusLed wlLh Lhe responslblllLy for Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of
all provlslons of Lhe above (for deLalls: Munlclpal Solld
WasLes (ManagemenL &Pandllng) 8ules, 2000). 1hey shall
also be responslble for auLhorlzlng Lhe seLLlng up of wasLe
processlng and dlsposal faclllLylncludlng landfllls.
Centra| Þo||ut|on Contro| 8oard and the State 8oard
or the Comm|ttees - 1he SLaLe 8oard or Lhe
CommlLLee shall monlLor Lhe compllance of Lhe
5ource: As pet lofotmotloo tecelveJ by klc8s/lccs os oo Motcb
sLandards regardlng groundwaLer, amblenL alr,
2007
leachaLe quallLy and Lhe composL quallLy, lncludlng
lnclneraLlon sLandards as speclfled under Schedules ll,
lll and lv.
Pazardous wasLe presenLs boLh lmmedlaLe and long Lerm
rlsks Lo human belngs, anlmals, planLs and Lhe
envlronmenL. lL requlres speclal handllng for deLoxlflcaLlon
8lo-medlcal WasLe (ManagemenL & Pandllng) 8ules were
or dlsposal.
enacLed ln 1998 under Lhe provlslons of LnvlronmenLal
ÞroLecLlon AcL, 1996. ln 2003, Lhrough a noLlflcaLlon of Lhe
Pazardous wasLe ls legally deflned as ´ooy woste wblcb by
MlnlsLry of LnvlronmenL and loresLs, Lhe above was
teosoo of lts pbyslcol, cbemlcol, teoctlve, toxlc, flommoble,
amended and would hence be known as 8|o-Med|ca|
exploslve ot cottoslve cbotoctetlstlcs cooses Jooqet to
Waste (ManagemenL and Pandllng) (AmendmenL) 8ules,
beoltb ot eovltoomeot, wbetbet olooe ot wbeo lo cootoct
2003. As per Lhese rules, blo-medlcal wasLe has been
wltb otbet wostes ot sobstooces". lL can be any dlscarded
MUNICIÞAL AU1nCkI1¥

nA2AkDCUSWAS1L
8IC-MLDICAL WAS1L
Schedu|e-I
Schedu|e-II
Schedu|e-III
Schedu|e-IV
8elaLes Lo lmplemenLaLlon schedule
SpeclflcaLlons relaLlng Lo collecLlon,
segregaLlon, sLorage, LransporLaLlon,
processlng and dlsposal of munlclpal
solld wasLe (MSW).
SpeclflcaLlons for land fllllng lndlcaLlng,
slLe selecLlon, faclllLles aL Lhe slLe,
speclflcaLlons for land fllllng, ÞolluLlon
prevenLlon, waLer quallLy monlLorlng,
ambl enL al r qual l Ly monl Lorl ng,
ÞlanLaLlon aL landflll slLe, closure of
landflll slLeand posL care.
lndlcaLe wasLe processlng opLlons
lncludlng sLandards for composLlng,
LreaLedleachaLes and lnclneraLlons.
33
C|t|es]1owns
covered
!alpur,Alwar,
8haraLpur
udalpur
!odhpur
A[mer,
8hllwara
8lkaner,
nagpur
Panumangarh
Name of
Common 8|o-
med|ca| Waste
1reatment
Iac|||ty (C8W1I)
lnsLromedlx
(lndla) ÞvL. LLd.
Ln-vlslon Lnvlro
Lnglneer (Þ) LLd.
Sales ÞromoLers,
8hopal
Sales ÞromoLers,
A[mer
L-1ech Þro[ecLs,
8lkaner
L-1ech Þro[ecLs,
Panumangarh
No. of
heath
care
fac|||t|es
633
83
117
198
43
273
No. of
covered
beds
10149
2443
3830
1772
2060
2029
1ob/e õ.2: 8io-medico/ woste




SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
solld or llquld LhaL conLalns one or more of 39 carclnogenlc, Lo Loxlc effecLs on moLher), alLeraLlons of lmmunoblologlcal
muLagenlc, or LeraLogenlc compounds aL levels LhaL exceed homeosLasls, CenLral nervous SysLem dlsorder (CnS
esLabllshed llmlLs (lncludlng many solvenLs, pesLlcldes, and dlsorder), congenlLal anomalles eLc.
palnL sLrlppers), caLches flre easlly (such as gasollne, palnLs,
- As an lnlLlaLlve Lo reduce Lhe lmpacL of
and solvenLs), ls reacLlve or unsLable enough Lo explode or
hazardous wasLe, wasLe LreaLmenL, sLorage and dlsposal
release Loxlc fumes (lncludlng aclds, bases, ammonla, and
faclllLles have been seL up ln Lhe SLaLe. Landflll slLes,
chlorlne bleach) or ls capable of corrodlng meLal conLalners
lnclneraLors, LreaLmenL faclllLles, blo-remedlaLlon
such as Lanks, drums, and barrels (such as lndusLrlal
meLhods, reuslng and recycllng of wasLes are some of Lhe
cleanlng agenLs and oven and draln cleaners).
sLeps Laken ln dlfferenL parLs of Lhe SLaLe. ln Lhe SLaLe, a
ln C1Sul (Common 1reaLmenL, SLorage and ulsposal laclllLy)
8a[asLhan, hazardous wasLe generaLlon from poLenLlal ls developed near udalpur, wlLh few lndusLrles havlng
hazardous wasLe generaLlng unlLs ls 613,809 meLrlc Lones closed Lhelr earller developed Secured Landflll laclllLles
per annum (M1A).1here are 492 poLenLlal hazardous wasLe (SLl) and preferrlng Lo dlspose-of Lhelr hazardous wasLe aL
generaLlng unlLs ln Lhe SLaLe (2009), (loveototy of C1Sul, udalpur. 1hls slLe was ldenLlfled near vlllage Cudll,
nozotJoos woste Ceoetotloq uolts lo kojostboo, 2009). 1eh Mavll dlsLrlcL, udalpur. AbouL 60° of Lhe poLenLlal
1hey are locaLed ln 28 dlsLrlcLs ouL of Lhe LoLal 33 dlsLrlcLs ln hazardous wasLe generaLed ls dlsposed Lhrough Secured
Lhe SLaLe. llve dlsLrlcLs, namely- 8aran, Churu, ÞraLapgarh, Landflll SlLes (SLl), whlle 23° ls dlsposed Lhrough
!alore and karaull do noL have any lndusLry generaLlng lnclneraLlon (agaln a source of polluLlon). ln vlew of Laklng
poLenLlal hazardous wasLe.83 lndusLrles of Lhe englneerlng advanLage of Lhe recovery of energy from hlgh calorlflc
secLor have been ldenLlfled, LhaL have a poLenLlal Lo value hazardous wasLe, parLlcularly chemlcal sludge from
generaLe hazardous wasLe, whlle 73 LexLlle lndusLrles have wasLe waLer LreaLmenL as well as Lo ensure Lhe ulLlmaLe
been ldenLlfled, (loveototy of nozotJoos woste Ceoetotloq dlsposal of such hazardous wasLe by co-lnclneraLlon ln Lhe
uolts lo kojostboo, 2009). Among Lhe dlsLrlcLs, !alpur and cemenL kllns, Lhe effluenL LreaLmenL planL sludge havlng
Alwar have Lhe largesL number of ldenLlfled lndusLrles LhaL hlgh calorlflc value ls belng dlverLed Lo cemenL lndusLrles
arecapableof generaLlng hazardous wasLe. for co-lnclneraLlon lnLo Lhe kllns as per Lhe guldellnes of
CÞC8. 1hepoLenLlal hazardous wasLe generaLlng unlLs have
- lnadequacles ln wasLe
made Lhe followlng arrangemenLs for dlsposal of Lhelr
managemenL pracLlces can pose slgnlflcanL rlsks of concern
hazardous wasLe.
Lo Lhe socleLy. lf dumped lndlscrlmlnaLely ln any
envlronmenLal medla, hazardous wasLes may have boLh
shorL and long-Lerm effecLs on boLh human and ecologlcal
sysLems. ln addlLlon, lmproper LreaLmenL, sLorage, and
dlsposal of hazardous wasLes can resulL ln conLamlnanLs
durlng posslble exposures, and poLenLlal adverse healLh
and envlronmenLal lmpacLs. ln general, any chemlcals can
cause severe healLh lmpalrmenL or even deaLh lf Laken by
humans ln sufflclenLly large amounLs. Cn Lhe oLher hand,
Lhere are Lhose chemlcals of prlmary concern whlch, even
ln small doses, can cause adverse healLh lmpacLs. PealLh
effecLs of populaLlons exposed Lo hazardous chemlcals
lnclude Carclnogenesls (l.e. causlng cancers), CeneLlc
defecLs, lncludlng muLagenesls (l.e. causlng alLeraLlons ln
genes whlch are LransmlLLed from one generaLlon Lo
anoLher or causlng herlLable geneLlc damage),
8eproducLlve abnormallLles lncludlng LeraLogenesls (l.e.
causlng damage Lo developlng feLus noL necessarlly relaLed
kLSÞCNSL
S1A1L CI nA2AkDCUS WAS1L IN 1nL S1A1L
IMÞAC1 CI nA2AkDCUSWAS1L
1ype of fac|||ty
Secured Land-flll laclllLles (SLl) developed by
lndlvldual unlLs (1unlL ls also connecLed wlLh C1ul)
lnclneraLors provlded by lndlvldual lndusLrlal unlLs for
lnclneraLlon of hazardous wasLe (1unlL closed &3unlL
connecLed wlLh C1ul also).
unlLs who are LransporLlng Lhe wasLe Lo cemenL kllns
for co-lnclneraLlon (3 unlLs are connecLed wlLh C1ul
also).
unlLs LransporLlng Lhelr wasLe Lo Common 1reaLmenL,
SLorage&ulsposal laclllLles aL uCCl udalpur
unlLs who are LreaLlng, Lhelr wasLe by bloremedlaLlon
meLhod.
unlLs who are elLher reuslng Lhelr wasLe or sold Lo Lhe
recyclers
unlLs who havesLoragefaclllLy
Number
12
7
33
318
17
68
12
Source: loveototy of nozotJoos woste Ceoetotloq uolts lo kojostboo, 2009.

36
1ob/e õ.l: 5tote of notordous woste


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
6.4. VLnICULAk DIS1kI8U1ICN
6.6. CCNSUMÞ1ICN CI ILk1ILI2LkS &
ÞLS1ICIDLS
ILk1ILI2LkS
ÞLS1ICIDLS
6.S. DCMLS1ICSLWAGLLCAD
sewage by welghL buL ls large by volume and conLalns
lmpurlLles such as organlc maLerlals and planL nuLrlenLs
1he modes of vehlcular LransporLaLlon ln Lhe SLaLe are
LhaL Lend Lo roL. 1he maln organlc maLerlals are food and
varled. lL lncludes moLor rlckshaws, Lwo wheelers, auLo
vegeLable wasLe, planL nuLrlenL come from chemlcal soaps,
rlckshaws, Lempo, car [eep LracLors, Lrallers, buses, Lrucks,
washlng powders, eLc. uomesLlc sewage ls llkely Lo conLaln
cabs eLc. 8eLween 2002 and 2008, vehlcular Lrafflc ln Lhe
dlsease causlng mlcrobes. 1hus, dlsposal of domesLlc wasLe
SLaLe has lncreased by 40.92° Cwnershlp of Lwo wheelers,
waLer ls aslgnlflcanL Lechnlcal problem.
Lempo, cars and cabs has lncreased by 40° (42.98297°,
60.03323°, 49.32192°, and 48.47481° respecLlvely),
Solls of 8a[asLhan are low Lo medlum ln avallablllLy of
nlLrogen. 1oLal consumpLlon of nlLrogenous ferLlllzers ln Lhe
SLaLe ls 619,823 mllllon Lones (2003-06), a Lwo percenL
lncrease from Lhe prevlous year (2004-03). ÞhosphaLlc
ferLlllzer consumpLlon ls 242,394 mllllon Lones (2003-06), a
16° lncrease from Lhe prevlous year (2004-03) (8oslc
5totlstlcs kojostboo, 2007). ÞoLash (k) ferLlllzer
consumpLlon ls 198,64 mllllon Lones (2003-06), a 17°
lncrease from Lhe prevlous year (2004-03). An lncrease ln
consumpLlon of ferLlllzers lmplles LhaL lLs poLenLlal
conLrlbuLlon as asourceof waLer polluLlon also lncreases.
8eglonal dlsparlLles ln Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of vehlcles are
markedly noLlceable. As of 2007-08, !alpur has Lhe hlghesL
ownershlp of vehlcles ln Lhe SLaLe (1288, 820 vehlcles).
A[mer, Alwar, !odhpur, karaull, udalpur also have
ownershlp of alargenumber of vehlcles. WlLh over flvelakh
LracLors ln Lhe SLaLe, Lhe domlnanL role of agrlculLure ln Lhe
SLaLels hlghllghLed.

vehlcles are Lhe ma[or source of alr polluLlon. Such
lncreases arebound Lo affecL LheamblenL alr quallLy.
1here are Lwo lmporLanL facLors whlch are responslble for
uomesLlc sewage refers Lo Lhe wasLe waLer LhaL ls
Lhe lncreaslng Lrend of pesLlclde use, l.e. hlgh lrrlgaLlon
dlscarded from households. Also referred Lo as sanlLary
lnLenslLy coupled wlLh appllcaLlon of hlgh ferLlllzer dosages
sewage, such waLer conLalns awldevarleLyof dlssolved and
and cllmaLe of Lhe area. use of ferLlllzers and pesLlcldes ls
suspended lmpurlLles. lL amounLs Lo a very small fracLlon of
0
1000000
2000000
3000000
4000000
3000000
6000000
7000000
2002-03 2007-08
¥ear
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

v
e
h
|
c
|
e
s
CLhers
Cabs
1ruck
8us
1raller
1racLor
!eep
Car
1empo
AuLo rlckshaw
1wo wheeler
MoLor vehlcles

liqure õ.2: Modes of 1ronsport in kojosthon
37
0
100000
200000
300000
400000
300000
600000
700000
Iert|||zer consumed
2004-03
2003-06
5ource: 8oslc 5totlstlcs of kojostboo, 2007
liqure õ.l: lerti/iter consumption in kojosthon




SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
A
m
o
u
n
t

(
|
n

m
|
|
|
|
o
n

t
o
n
n
e
s
)
n
l
L
r
o
g
e
n
l
o
u
s

(
n
)
Þ
h
o
s
p
h
a
L
l
c
(
Þ
)
Þ
o
L
a
L
s
l
c

(
k
)
necessary for crop producLlon, buL on Lhe oLher hand, lL 1he conLenLs of Lhese chemlcals are absorbed by soll
also has an adverse lmpacL on ground and surface waLer and passes on Lo groundwaLer and surface waLer,
quallLy, as LheyarenoL used sclenLlflcally. renderlng lL unflL for human consumpLlon.
1helr exLenslve use causes soll polluLlon. 1he run-off LuLrophlcaLlon of lakes/ponds leads Lo growLh of
from agrlculLure flelds where Lhese chemlcals are weeds and oLher aquaLlc planLs causlng a decay of
used leads Lo surfacewaLer polluLlon. lakes/ponds over aperlod of Llme.
lnfllLraLlon of waLer from Lhese flelds also leads Lo
groundwaLer polluLlon.

38

SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
7.1. AIkÇUALI1¥

and rall as modes of LransporL mlghL lead Lo Lhe secLor
emerglng as oneof Lhema[or conLrlbuLors Lo alr polluLlon.
Alr polluLlon ls deflned as Lhe presence ln Lhe aLmosphere
of subsLances ln such amounLs as Lo affecL humans,
Mojor sources of oir po//ution ore:
vegeLaLlon, anlmals or oLher maLerlals adversely. lL ls a
Cx|des of Su|phur (SCx) - Ma[or anLhropogenlc sources
reflecLlon on Lhealr quallLy.
of sulphur oxldes ln amblenL alr are burnlng of fossll
ÞopulaLlon growLh, lndusLrlallzaLlon and urbanlzaLlon, fuels for boLh domesLlc and lndusLrlal purposes. loresL
mlnlng, llmlLed energy resources and culLural Lourlsm flres and blologlcal processes llke decomposlLlon also
emerge as Lhe ma[or conLrlbuLors of alr polluLlon wlLhln add Lo Lhe SCx levels. Adverse healLh effecLs lnclude
LheSLaLe. lrrlLaLlon Lo eyes and resplraLory sysLem.
Cx|des of N|trogen (NCx) - Sources lnclude combusLlon
WlLh Lhe occurrence of over slxLy Lypes of mlnerals,
and subsequenL oxldaLlon of organlc nlLrogen ln fuels.
8a[asLhan ls one of Lhe rlchesL SLaLes ln Lhe counLry wlLh
1ransporL and lndusLrlal secLors are ma[or conLrlbuLors.
respecL Lo Lhe occurrence of mlneral resources. AlLhough
1hese polluLanLs also Lend Lo affecL Lhe resplraLory
economlcally beneflclal, mlnlng acLlvlLles affecL alr
LracL.
polluLlon. uusL generaLed durlng mlnlng and dumplng
Suspended Þart|cu|ate Matter (SÞM) - Less Lhan 100
operaLlons, as well as Lhe gaseous emlsslons emlLLed by
mlcromeLres ln slze, flne parLlcles presenL ln boLh
combusLlon englnes and oLher equlpmenL, ls a cause for
naLural and anLhropogenlc sources may cause lL Lo
concern.
emerge as a source of polluLlon. lncreaslng vehlcular
and consLrucLlon acLlvlLles are some of Lhe oLher
1radlLlonally noL an lndusLrlal SLaLe, Lhe recenL
causes. lnhalaLlon of suspended parLlcles can affecL
encouragemenL Lo Lhe lndusLrlal secLor by governmenL
Lhe resplraLory sysLem adversely Lhrough Lhelr
organlzaLlons llke 8llCC (8a[asLhan SLaLe lndusLrlal
accumulaLlon ln Lhewlnd plpeand Lhelungs.
uevelopmenL and lnvesLmenL CorporaLlon LLd.) have led
kesp|rab|e Suspended Þart|cu|ate Matter (kSÞM or Lo Lhe developmenL of lndusLrles and lndusLrlal secLors.
ÞM10) - Less Lhan Len mlcromeLers ln dlameLer,, ÞolluLanLs released by Lhese lndusLrles are a cause for
sources of 8SÞM lnclude fuel combusLlon ln lndusLrles, concern. 1ransporLaLlon and Lhe energy secLor also
power planLs, moLor vehlcles, eLc. Solld wasLe dlsposal emerge as one of Lhe drlvlng forces of alr polluLlon. An
(open burnlng) and consLrucLlon acLlvlLles are some of expandlng populaLlon, coupled wlLh Lhe rlslng use of
LheoLher sources. vehlcular forms of LransporL, has conLrlbuLed Lo an
lncrease ln Lhe levels of alr polluLlon. Also aLLrlbuLable Lo
CarbonMonox|de-lL ls released ln LheaLmospheredue
Lhls alr polluLlon ls Lhe poor quallLy of LransporL
Lo Lhe lncompleLe combusLlon of fuel used by vehlcles
lnfrasLrucLure. 1he quallLy of fuel ls poor and
and lndusLrles. uue Lo lLs hlgh afflnlLy Lo haemoglobln,
malnLenance ls lnsufflclenL, conLrlbuLlng Lo hlgher
CC dlsplaces Lhe oxygen ln blood, leadlng Lo oxygen
emlsslons and poorer alr quallLy. A rlch hlsLorlcal, culLural
sLarvaLlon and severehealLh affecLs.
and archlLecLural herlLage has led Lo Lhe promoLlon of Lhe
nydrocarbons - 1hese are small parLlcles of un-burnL
SLaLe as a leadlng LourlsL desLlnaLlon. 1he use of alr, road
fuel and have carclnogenlc Lendencles.
LNVIkCNMLN1AL
ÇUALI1¥
CnAÞ1Lk 7
39

SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
.AIkÇUALI1¥ ASSLSSMLN1
Lo assess healLh hazards and damage Lo maLerlals. under
nAMÞ, four alr polluLanLs vlz., Sulphur uloxlde (SC2), Cxldes
CenLral ÞolluLlon ConLrol 8oard has been execuLlng a
of nlLrogen as nC2 and Suspended ÞarLlculaLe MaLLer (SÞM)
naLlon-wlde programme of amblenL alr quallLy
and 8esplrable Suspended ÞarLlculaLe MaLLer (8SÞM/ÞM10),
monlLorlng known as Lhe naLlonal Alr CuallLy MonlLorlng
have been ldenLlfled for regular monlLorlng aL all Lhe
Þrogrammesme (nAMÞ). 1he neLwork conslsLs of 342
locaLlons.
monlLorlng sLaLlons, coverlng 127 clLles/Lowns ln 28
SLaLes and four unlon 1errlLorles of Lhe counLry. 1he
WlLhln Lhe SLaLe of 8a[asLhan, monlLorlng sLaLlons of Lhe
ob[ecLlves of Lhe nAMÞ are Lo deLermlne Lhe sLaLus and
SLaLe ÞolluLlon ConLrol 8oard are locaLed aL Alwar, !alpur,
Lrends of amblenL alr quallLy, Lo ascerLaln wheLher Lhe
!odhpur, koLaand udalpur.
prescrlbed amblenL alr quallLy sLandards are vlolaLed and
State
8a[asLhan
C|ty
Alwar
!alpur
!odhpur
koLa
udalpur
Name of mon|tor|ng stat|ons
8llCCÞump Pouse
CauravSolvex/vlLageulsLlllers LLd.
8eglonal Cfflce
8llCCCfflce, M.l.A.
vklA
Cfflce of ulsLrlcL LducaLlon Cfflcer, Chandpole
A[merl CaLe
8a[asLhan SÞC8Cfflce
8eglonal Cfflce(norLh),
8SÞC8, vldaya nagar
So[aLl CaLe
MahaMandlr Þollce1hana
ShasLrl nagar Þollce 1hane
Cfflceof Pouslng 8oard
8llCC/8.C. Cfflce
ulCCfflce
8eglonal Cfflce
kvk8horkhara
Munlclpal CorporaLlon 8ldg
8eglonal Cfflce
1own Pall
AmabmaLa
1ype of |ocat|on of
mon|tor|ng stat|on
lndusLrlal
lndusLrlal
8esldenLlal
lndusLrlal
lndusLrlal
8esldenLlal
8esldenLlal
8esldenLlal
8esldenLlal
8esldenLlal
8esldenLlal
8esldenLlal
8esldenLlal
8esldenLlal
lndusLrlal
lndusLrlal
lndusLrlal
8esldenLlal
8esldenLlal
lndusLrlal
8esldenLlal
8esldenLlal

60
1ob/e 7.1 : Operotinq Monitorinq 5totions under Notiono/ 4ir Çuo/ity
Monitorinq Proqrommes in kojosthon 5tote {N4MP) 5totus of 4ir Po//ution in kojosthon


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan

SOx at monitoring stations (Industrial)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
V
K
I
A
M
I
A
G
a
u
r
a
v
S
o
l
v
e
x
L
t
d
.
R
I
I
C
O
P
u
m
p
H
o
u
s
e
R
e
g
i
o
n
a
l
O
I
I
i
c
e
R
e
g
i
o
n
a
l
O
I
I
i
c
e
,
M
I
A
R
e
g
i
o
n
a
l
o
I
I
i
c
e
B
a
s
n
i
I
n
d
l
.
A
r
e
a
Moni toring stations
S
O
x
c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
s
(
u
m
)
2008
2009
Maximum
Permissible
limit
SOx at monitoring stations in Rajasthan (Residential)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
A
j
m
e
r
i
g
a
t
e
J
h
a
l
a
n
a
C
h
a
n
d
p
o
l
e
V
i
d
h
y
a
d
h
a
r
N
a
g
a
r
R
e
g
i
o
n
a
l
O
I
I
i
c
e
M
u
n
i
c
i
p
a
l
C
.
B
l
d
g
S
a
m
c
o
r
e
G
l
a
s
s
A
m
b
a
m
a
t
a
T
o
w
n
H
a
l
l
S
o
j
t
i
g
a
t
e
S
h
a
s
h
t
r
i
N
a
g
a
r
M
M
P
o
l
i
c
e
T
h
a
n
e
H
o
u
s
i
n
g
B
o
a
r
d
Moni toring Stations
S
O
x
c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
m
i
c
r
o
m
e
t
r
e
s
)
2008
2009
Maximum
Permissible
limit

61
Status of SCx w|th|n the State- Annual average for SCx aL mosL sLaLlons (2008-09), however an lncrease can be
levels across Lhe SLaLe ls well wlLhln Lhe maxlmum observed aL Lhe monlLorlng sLaLlons ln koLa (8eglonal
permlsslble llmlLs, boLh wlLh respecL Lo resldenLlal and Cfflce) and Alwar (Caurav Solvex LLd.)

lndusLrlal areas. A general decllnlng Lrend can be observed
liqure 7.1: 5Ox ot monitorinq stotions {lndustrio/)
liqure 7.2: 5Ox ot monitorinq stotions {kesidentio/)




SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan

AOx at monitoring stations in Rajasthan (Industrial)
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
V
K
I
A
M
I
A
G
a
u
r
a
v
S
o
l
v
e
x
R
I
I
C
O
P
u
m
p
R
e
g
i
o
n
a
l
O
I
I
i
c
e
R
e
g
i
o
n
a
l
O
I
I
i
c
e
,
R
e
g
i
o
n
a
l
o
I
I
i
c
e
B
a
s
n
i
I
n
d
l
.
Monitori ng stati ons
N
O
x
c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
u
m
)
2008
2009
Maximum
permissible
limit

62
Status of NCx w|th|n the State- AlLhough nCx levels ln Lhe (Pouslng 8oard). All locaLed ln resldenLlal areas, an lncrease
SLaLe are wlLhln Lhe maxlmum permlsslble llmlLs for boLh ln nCx can culmlnaLe ln adverse healLh effecLs, and could
resldenLlal and lndusLrlal areas, an lncreaslng Lrend can be emerge as a cause for concern. lncrease ln Lhe use of
observed aL Lhe monlLorlng sLaLlons ln !alpur (A[merl gaLe, vehlcular Lrafflc could beaLLrlbuLed Lo lLs rlse.
!halana, Chandpole and vldhyadhar nagar) and !odhpur

AOx at monitoring stations in Rajasthan (Residential)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
A
j
m
e
r
i
g
a
t
e
J
h
a
l
a
n
a
C
h
a
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d
p
o
l
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V
i
d
h
y
a
d
h
a
r
N
a
g
a
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R
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i
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a
l
O
I
I
i
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M
u
n
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p
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C
.
B
l
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S
a
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G
l
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A
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b
a
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a
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a
T
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H
a
l
l
S
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a
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S
h
a
s
h
t
r
i
N
a
g
a
r
M
M
P
o
l
i
c
e
T
h
a
n
e
H
o
u
s
i
n
g
B
o
a
r
d
Monitoring stations
N
O
x
c
o
n
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
m
i
c
r
o
m
e
t
r
e
s
)
2008
2009
Maximum
permissible
limit
liqure 7.l: NOx ot monitorinq stotions in kojosthon {kesidentio/)
liqure 7.4: NOx ot monitorinq stotions in kojosthon {lndustrio/)


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan

SPM at monitoring stations in Rajasthan (Residential)
0.0
50.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
250.0
300.0
350.0
400.0
450.0
500.0
A
j
m
e
r
i
g
a
t
e
J
h
a
l
a
n
a
C
h
a
n
d
p
o
l
e
V
i
d
h
y
a
d
h
a
r
N
a
g
a
r
R
e
g
i
o
n
a
l
O
I
I
i
c
e
M
u
n
i
c
i
p
a
l
C
.
B
l
d
g
S
a
m
c
o
r
e
G
l
a
s
s
A
m
b
a
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a
t
a
T
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H
a
l
l
S
o
j
t
i
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a
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e
S
h
a
s
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t
r
i
N
a
g
a
r
M
M
P
o
l
i
c
e
T
h
a
n
e
H
o
u
s
i
n
g
B
o
a
r
d
Monitoring stations
S
P
M
l
e
v
e
l
s
(
)
2008
2009
Maximum
Permissible
Limit

SPM at monitoring stations (Industrial)
0.0
50.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
250.0
300.0
350.0
400.0
450.0
500.0
V
K
I
A
M
I
A
G
a
u
r
a
v
S
o
l
v
e
x
L
t
d
.
R
I
I
C
O
P
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a
l
O
I
I
i
c
e
R
e
g
i
o
n
a
l
O
I
I
i
c
e
,
M
I
A
R
e
g
i
o
n
a
l
o
I
I
i
c
e
B
a
s
n
i
I
n
d
l
.
A
r
e
a
Moni tori ng stati ons
S
P
M
l
e
v
e
l
s
2008
2009
Maximum
Permissible
Limit
63
Status of SÞM w|th|n the State- 1he SLaLe of SÞM levels ln for concern. MonlLorlng sLaLlons locaLed ln lndusLrlal areas
Lhe SLaLe ls grlm. AL all monlLorlng sLaLlons locaLed ln fare a shade beLLer wlLh only Lhree (vklA, 8eglonal offlce,
resldenLlal areas, SÞM exceeds maxlmum permlsslble 8asnl lndusLrlal Area) exceedlng maxlmum permlsslble
llmlLs. Among monlLorlng sLaLlons (resldenLlal) recordlng llmlLs for boLh consecuLlve years. Ascendlng of Lhe SÞM
an lncrease, Lhe mosL dramaLlc can be observed aL Lhose ln levels aL monlLorlng sLaLlons ln !odhpur, beyond Lhe
!alpur (vldhyadhar nagar) and udalpur (AmbamaLa and permlsslble llmlLs for lndusLrlal areas, could be aLLrlbuLed
1own Pall). A hlgh concenLraLlon of SÞM ln alr can cause Lo naLural causes (dusL).
acuLe resplraLory problems Lo Lhe resldenLs and ls a cause
liqure 7.5: 5PM ot monitorinq stotions in kojosthon {kesidentio/)
liqure 7.õ: 5PM ot monitorinq stotions in kojosthon {lndustrio/)




SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan

RSPMat monitoring stations in Rajasthan
(Residential)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
A
j
m
e
r
i
g
a
t
e
J
h
a
l
a
n
a
C
h
a
n
d
p
o
l
e
V
i
d
h
y
a
d
h
a
r
N
a
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a
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R
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g
i
o
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a
l
O
I
I
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M
u
n
i
c
i
p
a
l
C
.
B
l
d
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S
a
m
c
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r
e
G
l
a
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A
m
b
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a
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S
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r
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N
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a
r
M
M
P
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l
i
c
e
T
h
a
n
e
H
o
u
s
i
n
g
B
o
a
r
d
Monitoring stations
R
S
P
M
l
e
v
e
l
s
(
)
2008
2009
Maximum
Permissible
limit

RSPM at monitoring stations (Industrial)
0.0
50.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
250.0
300.0
V
K
I
A
M
I
A
G
a
u
r
a
v
S
o
l
v
e
x
L
t
d
.
R
I
I
C
O
P
u
m
p
H
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u
s
e
R
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g
i
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n
a
l
O
I
I
i
c
e
R
e
g
i
o
n
a
l
O
I
I
i
c
e
,
M
I
A
R
e
g
i
o
n
a
l
o
I
I
i
c
e
B
a
s
n
i
I
n
d
l
.
A
r
e
a
Monitori ng stations
R
S
P
M
l
e
v
e
l
s
(
)
2008
2009
Maximum
Permissible
limit

64
Status of kSÞM w|th|n the State - 8SÞM across monlLorlng doubled for Lhe perlod 2004-09 ln !alpur. 1hls could be
sLaLlons locaLed ln resldenLlal areas exceeds Lhe nAAC aLLrlbuLed Lo a rlse ln boLh vehlcular emlsslons and
sLandards. AlmosL half of Lhe monlLorlng sLaLlons locaLed ln lndusLrlal acLlvlLy wlLhln Lhe reglon. ln Lerms of nAAC
resldenLlal areas across Lhe SLaLe have recorded lncreased sLandards for lndusLrlal areas, 8SÞM ls ln exeedence aL
8SÞM levels for Lhe perlod 2008-09. SlgnlflcanL lncreases vklA, 8eglonal offlce, 8asnl lndusLrlal Area monlLorlng
could be observed aL monlLorlng sLaLlons ln udalpur sLaLlons.
(AmbamaLa and 1own Pall). 8SÞM levels have almosL
liqure 7.7: k5PM ot monitorinq stotions in kojosthon{kesidentio/)
liqure 7.8: k5PM ot monitorinq stotions in kojosthon{lndustrio/)


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
63
SUMMAk¥ CI AIkÇUALI1¥IN 1nLS1A1L
LIMI1A1ICNS
3) M|n|ma| Nat|ona| Standards (MINAS) - 1he CenLral
ÞolluLlon ConLrol 8oard (CÞC8) lnLends Lo develop
Alr quallLy ln Lhe SLaLe ls varled wlLh respecL Lo locaLlon of
Mlnlmum naLlonal SLandards (MlnAS) for all Lypes of
monlLorlng sLaLlons and Lhe parameLers belng measured.
lndusLrles wlLh regard Lo Lhelr effluenL dlscharge
AlLhough boLh SCx and nCx meeL Lhe nAAC sLandards seL
(waLer polluLanLs), emlsslons (alr polluLanLs), nolse
for boLh resldenLlal and lndusLrlal areas across Lhe SLaLe, an
levels and solld wasLe. 1he proposed model for
lncreaslng Lrend aL cerLaln monlLorlng sLaLlons ls a causefor
evolvlng lndusLry- speclflc sLandards envlsages
concern. Lmerglng as a serlous healLh hazard ln Lhe SLaLe,
speclfylng llmlLs of polluLanLs Lo proLecL Lhe
SÞM and 8SÞM levels exceedlng Lhe nAAC sLandards are a
envlronmenL.
cause for concern. lf lefL unchecked, lL could lead Lo
lncreased resplraLory lllnesses.
4) Nat|ona| A|r Çua||ty Mon|tor|ng Þrogrammesme
(NAMÞ) -nAMÞ ls a naLlon-wlde programme of
kesponse: In|t|at|ves to |mprove A|r Çua||ty |nthe State
amblenL alr quallLy monlLorlng. SLaLeÞolluLlon ConLrol
1) 2CNING A1LAS - As a response Lo lncreaslng levels of
8oards have been asked Lo monlLor addlLlonal
alr polluLlon across Lhe dlfferenL SLaLes, CenLral
polluLanLs llke Carbon Monoxlde eLc. near Lrafflc
ÞolluLlon ConLrol 8oard (CÞC8) ln collaboraLlon wlLh
lnLersecLlons and make operaLlonal and non-
respecLlve SLaLe ÞolluLlon ConLrol 8oards (SÞC8), has
operaLlonal sLaLlons.
proposed Lhe 'Zonlng ALlas, lor ClLlng of lndusLrles'. lL
3) Gu|de||nes for Stone Crusher Industry - SLone
classlfles Lhe envlronmenL ln a ulsLrlcL and presenLs
crushlng ls an lmporLanL mlneral based lndusLry wlLhln
Lhe polluLlon recelvlng poLenLlal of varlous slLes/zones
Lhe SLaLe. keeplng Lhls ln mlnd, 8a[asLhan ÞolluLlon
ln Lhe ulsLrlcL and Lhe posslble alLernaLe slLes for
ConLrol 8oard has lald down cerLaln guldellnesfor Lhls
lndusLrles Lhrough easy-Lo-read maps. lL helps Lo
lndusLry:
reduce varlous forms of lndusLrlal polluLlon by
- Aerlal dlsLance of Lhe nearesL polnL of boundary
ensurlng LhaL polluLlng lndusLrles adopL clean
of proposed crusher slLe musL be aL leasL 300
Lechnologles.
meLres from naLlonal Þarks and SancLuarles and
2) Charter on 'Corporate kespons|b|||ty for
23 meLres from any 8eserve loresL/ÞroLecLed
Lnv|ronmenta| Þrotect|on (CkLÞ)' - 1he MlnlsLry of
loresL/unclasslfled loresL.
LnvlronmenL & loresLs (MoLl) has launched
- uusL LlghL houslng shall be provlded aL all sLone Lhe CharLer on 'CorporaLe 8esponslblllLy for
crushers, wlLh faclllLles for Lhe exLracLlon and LnvlronmenLal ÞroLecLlon (C8LÞ)' ln march 2003 wlLh
collecLlon of dusL. Lhe purpose Lo go beyond Lhe compllance of
regulaLory norms for prevenLlon and conLrol of
- vlbraLory screens shall be lnsLalled for dusL
polluLlon Lhrough varlous measures, lncludlng wasLe
collecLlon
mlnlmlzaLlon, ln-planL process conLrol and adopLlon of
- SLockplles should bekepL sufflclenLly weL
clean Lechnologles. 1he CharLer has seL LargeLs
concernlng conservaLlon of waLer, energy, recovery of - A mlnlmum of 33° of Lhe LoLal area for Lhe sLone
chemlcals, reducLlon ln polluLlon, ellmlnaLlon of Loxlc crusher lndusLry should becovered byplanLaLlon
polluLanLs, process and managemenL of resldues LhaL and aL leasL Lwo rows of Lall Lrees of sulLable
are requlred Lo be dlsposed off ln an envlronmenLally specles have Lo be planLed wlLhln and along Lhe
sound manner. Some of Lhe LargeLs seL for Lhe Lannery boundary of Lhe premlses Lo develop a green
lndusLry are: belL.
- WasLe mlnlmlzaLlon measures have Lo be
lmplemenLed ln all Lannery clusLers -lor one of Lhe largesL SLaLes ln Lhe counLry, Lhe SLaLe
ÞolluLlon ConLrol 8oard has lLs monlLorlng sLaLlons locaLed
- All ma[or Lannery unlLs should Lake up
onlyln flveclLles, wlLh only18monlLorlng sLaLlons.
envlronmenLal audlLlng on an annual basls




SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
1ob/e 7.2 : woter Çuo/ity Monitorinq 5totions
5ource: kojostboo 5tote lollotloo coottol 8ootJ, 2008-09
Water body
Mahl rlver
Chambal rlver
Chambal rlver
Chambal rlver
udalsagar lake
Þlcholalake
laLeh sagar
Þushkar
nakkl lake
kodrauam
D|str|ct
Sawal Madhopur
koLa
koLa
udalpur
udalpur
udalpur
A[mer
ML.Abu, SLrophe
Locat|on of mon|tor|ng stat|ons
near lnLakepolnL, downsLream of Mahl rlver
8ameshwar ChaL
Akelgarh, u/s of koLa8arrage
8angpur vlllage, d/s of koLa8arrage
udalsagar lake
near lnLake polnL of Þhed
near lnLakepolnL of Þhed
AL Cau ChaL, Þushkar
near Þhed pumplng sLaLlon

66
7.2. WA1LkÇUALI1¥
7.2.1. SUkIACLWA1Lk
nlLrogenous, ÞhosphaLlc and ÞoLaLslc (nÞk) consumpLlon
of 882, 083 mllllon Lonnes ln Lhe SLaLe would resulL ln
dlscharge of a porLlon of ferLlllzers lnLo surroundlng waLer
WlLh Lhe SLaLe accounLlng for only one percenL of Lhe LoLal
bodles, Lhereby affecLlng Lhe waLer quallLy (8aslc SLaLlsLlcs
surface waLer resources ln Lhe counLry, 8a[asLhan ls one of
of 8a[asLhan, 2007). lmproper LreaLmenL and dlsposal of
LhedrlesL SLaLes ln LhecounLry.
lndusLrlal and urban sewage leads Lo conLamlnaLlon of
surroundlng waLer bodles. LxLenslve mlnlng wlLhln Lhe
1he ma[or rlvers of 8a[asLhan are Chambal and Mahl,
SLaLe, leads Lo dlvergence of waLer courses around mlnlng
havlng Lhelr LrlbuLarles and dlsLrlbuLarles flowlng ln Lhe
slLes and dump yards. Also, some of Lhe waLer courses are
SLaLe. unregulaLed mulLlpleuseof Lherlver waLer aL varlous
geLLlng choked and conLamlnaLed due Lo Lhe washed ouL
segmenLs have deLerloraLed Lhe surface waLer quallLy and
wasLe. uyelng and prlnLlng lndusLrles are also conLrlbuLlng
ls ama[or causefor concern.
Lo LhepolluLlon of waLer quallLyln cerLaln dlsLrlcLs.
1he drlvlng forces of surface waLer polluLlon ln Lhe SLaLe are
SurfacewaLer CuallLyAssessmenL
Lhe lncreaslng populaLlon, agrlculLure, mlnlng, lndusLrlal
1he 8a[asLhan SLaLeÞolluLlon ConLrol 8oard has monlLorlng
acLlvlLyand urban dlscharge.
sLaLlons for surface waLer locaLed along Mahl and Chambal
rlvers. MonlLorlng of waLer quallLy aL udalsagar, Þlchola,
WlLh 63.32percenL of Lheland caLegorlzedas cropped area,
laLehsagar, Þushkar lakes ls carrled ouL by8SÞC8.
Lhe demand for surface waLer ls bound Lo lncrease. A LoLal
CÞC8 ln collaboraLlon wlLh concerned SÞC8s have waLer. pP, conducLlvlLy, dlssolved oxygen and blochemlcal
esLabllshed a naLlonwlde neLwork of waLer quallLy oxygen demand (8Cu) are some of Lhe parameLers
monlLorlng comprlslng 1019 sLaLlons ln 27 SLaLes and slx monlLored, as an assessmenL of surfacewaLer quallLy.
unlon 1errlLorles. Among Lhe 1019 sLaLlons, 392 are on
WaLer can be puL Lo a range of uses, ranglng from domesLlc
rlvers, 63 on lakes, 17 on dralns, 13 on canals, 3 on Lanks, 3
purposes Lo lndusLrlal uses. uependlng on Lhe use waLer ls
on creeks, 3 on ponds and 321 are groundwaLer sLaLlons. A
puL Lo, lL musL meeL cerLaln sLandards LhaL deLermlne
waLer chemlsLry analysls ls underLaken Lo deLermlne Lhe
quallLy.
chemlcal composlLlon and hence, Lhe quallLy of surface


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
1ob/e 7.l : woter Çuo/ity 5tondords, prescribed by lndion 5tondords lnstitution {l5l)
Þarameter
pP
ConducLlvlLy, µmho/cm
ulssolved Cxygen, mg/l
8Cumg/l, (3days aL 27°C)
pP
ConducLlvlLy, µmho/cm
ulssolved Cxygen, mg/l
8Cumg/l, (3days aL 27°C)
pP
ConducLlvlLy, µmho/cm
ulssolved Cxygen, mg/l
8Cumg/l, (3days aL 27°C)
pP
ConducLlvlLy, µmho/cm
ulssolved Cxygen, mg/l
8Cumg/l, (3days aL 27°C)
1ype of use
Class SW l (SalL pans, Shell
fl shl ng, Marl ne cul Lure,
Lcologlcally senslLlveZones
CLASS SW-ll WA1L8S (lor
8aLhl ng, ConLacL WaLer
SporLs and Commercl al
llshlng)
CLASSSW-lll WA1L8S
(lor l ndusLrl al Cool l ng,
8ecreaLlon (non-conLacL) and
AesLheLlcs)

urlnklng waLer
Standard
6.3-8.3
3.0mgl/l or 60 percenL saLuraLlon value, whlchever ls
hlgher (noL less Lhan 3.3mg/l aL anyLlmeof Lheyear)
6.3-8.3
4.0mg/l of 30° saLuraLlon value whlchever ls hlgher
(noL less Lhan 3.3mg/l aL anyLlme)
3mg/l
6.3-8.3
3.0mg/l of 30° saLuraLlon valuewhlchever ls hlgher
67
S1A1LCI SUkIACLWA1LkÇUALI1¥IN kAIAS1nAN four monlLorlng sLaLlons, waLer had uC levels above
3.0mg/L (mlnlmum requlremenL for lndusLrlal purposes:
S1kLAMS - As per lndlan Councll of Medlcal 8esearch
3mg/L and 4mg/L for domesLlc purposes). 8lochemlcal
(lCM8) sLandards, pPlevels ln Lhe Chambal and Mahl rlvers
oxygen demand (8Cu) ls also wlLhln Lhe permlsslble llmlLs.
are wlLhln Lhe hlghesL deslrable levels (7-8.3). AL all four
lor all four monlLorlng sLaLlons, 8Cu ls beLween 0.89 and
monlLorlng sLaLlons, however, Lhey are close Lo Lhe upper
1.99 mg/L (mlnlmum requlremenL: 3mg/L or less) ,( WaLer
llmlL. ulssolved oxygen (uC) ln waLer ls sufflclenL as per
CuallLySLandards: lSl recommend)
sLandards for waLer for lndusLrlal and oLher purposes. AL all





SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan

pH levels at monitoring stations across the state
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
M
a
h
i
R
a
m
e
s
h
w
a
r
G
h
a
t
A
k
e
l
g
a
r
h
R
a
n
g
a
r
p
u
r
U
d
a
i
s
a
g
a
r
h
P
i
c
h
o
l
a
F
a
t
e
h
s
a
g
a
r
P
u
s
h
k
a
r
N
a
k
k
i
l
a
k
e
K
o
d
r
a
D
a
m
K
a
l
y
a
n
a
L
a
k
e
Monitoring stations
p
H
2008
2009

Conductivity at monitoring stations in the state
0.0
500.0
1000.0
1500.0
2000.0
2500.0
3000.0
M
a
h
i
R
a
m
e
s
h
w
a
r
G
h
a
t
A
k
e
l
g
a
r
h
R
a
n
g
a
r
p
u
r
U
d
a
i
s
a
g
a
r
h
P
i
c
h
o
l
a
F
a
t
e
h
s
a
g
a
r
P
u
s
h
k
a
r
N
a
k
k
i
l
a
k
e
K
o
d
r
a
D
a
m
K
a
l
y
a
n
a
L
a
k
e
Monitoring stations
C
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
(
u
m
h
o
/
c
m
)
2008
2009

68
liqure 7.9: pn /eve/s ot monitorinq stotions ocross the stote
liqure 7.10: conductivity ot monitorinq stotions in the stote


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan

Dissolved Oxygen at monitoring stations in Rajasthan
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
M
a
h
i
R
a
m
e
s
h
w
a
r
G
h
a
t
A
k
e
l
g
a
r
h
R
a
n
g
a
r
p
u
r
U
d
a
i
s
a
g
a
r
h
P
i
c
h
o
l
a
F
a
t
e
h
s
a
g
a
r
P
u
s
h
k
a
r
N
a
k
k
i
l
a
k
e
K
o
d
r
a
D
a
m
K
a
l
y
a
n
a
L
a
k
e
Monitoring stations
D
i
s
s
o
l
v
e
d
o
x
y
g
e
n
(
m
g
/
L
)
2008
2009
St andard
(4.O mg/L
or higher)

BODat monitoring stations in Rajasthan
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
M
a
h
i
R
a
m
e
s
h
w
a
r
G
h
a
t
A
k
e
l
g
a
r
h
R
a
n
g
a
r
p
u
r
U
d
a
i
s
a
g
a
r
h
P
i
c
h
o
l
a
F
a
t
e
h
s
a
g
a
r
P
u
s
h
k
a
r
N
a
k
k
i
l
a
k
e
K
o
d
r
a
D
a
m
K
a
l
y
a
n
a
L
a
k
e
Monitoring stations
B
O
D
(
m
g
/
L
,
3
d
a
y
s
a
t
2
7
C
)
2008
2009
St andard
(3.O
mg/L or
lower)
69
liqure 7.11: uisso/ved Oxyqen ot monitorinq stotions in kojosthon
liqure 7.12: 8Ou ot monitorinq stotions in kojosthon




SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan

70
LAkLS
SUMMAk¥ CI WA1Lk ÇUALI1¥ IN 1nL S1A1L
1C1AL DISSCLVLD SCLIDS
7.2.2. GkCUNDWA1LkÇUALI1¥
CnLCkIDL
- Lakes are an lnLegral parL of surface waLer wlLhln 1o a SLaLe llke 8a[asLhan, characLerlzed by scanLy ralnfall,
LheSLaLe. pPlevels aL LhemonlLorlng sLaLlons locaLed aL Lhe groundwaLer ls of crlLlcal lmporLance slnce 91° of Lhe
flve lakes (udalsagar, Þlchola, laLehsagar, Þushkar, nakkl, waLer supply ls meL by groundwaLer. AparL from drlnklng
and kalyana) are wlLhln permlsslble llmlLs, Lhough close Lo waLer needs, groundwaLer ls also drawn for lndusLrlal
Lheupper llmlL. lor domesLlc purposes, uClevels arewlLhln purposes ln koLa, udalpur and ChlLLorgarh dlsLrlcLs on a
permlsslble llmlLs only ln Lhree of Lhe slx lakes monlLored. very large scale. Þerlodlc monlLorlng of groundwaLer ls
uC levels are beyond Lhe permlsslble levels aL Þushkar carrled ouL by 1he naLlonal Pydrograph neLwork SLaLlons
(2.62mg/L)*, lower Lhan levels for even LhewaLer meanL for (nPS). 8ecordlng of groundwaLer levels, LemperaLure and
lndusLrlal purpose (mlnlmum: 3mg/L). 8.C.ulevels are well quallLy analysls of waLer Lhrough collecLlon waLer samples
beyond permlsslble levels aL Þushkar and udalsagar, ls carrled ouL. Þressure on groundwaLer-urlvlng forces LhaL
8.67mg/L and 6.38mg/L respecLlvely. 1hls could be conLrlbuLeLo LhepolluLlon and depleLlon of groundwaLer ln
aLLrlbuLed Lo Lhe facL LhaL boLh are promlnenL LourlsL Lhe SLaLe are expanslon of populaLlon and Lhelr growlng
desLlnaLlons, aLLracLlng large number of LourlsLs wlLhln Lhe waLer demand, lncreaslng agrlculLural and lndusLrlal
SLaLe. uumplng of wasLe, garbage and unconLrolled growLh consumpLlon, ln[ecLlon of effluenLs lnLoLheground, surface
of waLer hyaclnLh are also adversely affecLlng Lhe quallLy of run-off and subsequenL seepage.
waLer ln Lhe lakes. udalsagar emerges as Lhe mosL polluLed
8a[asLhan recelves scanLy amounLs of ralnfall, as a resulL,
of Lhe slx lakes, falllng Lo meeL mosL sLandards, whlle
expandlng populaLlons are Lurnlng Lo Lhe explolLaLlon of
borderlng Lhe upper llmlL of oLhers. 1he waLer quallLy of
groundwaLer Lo meeL Lhelr demands.
kalyana Lake, locaLed near !odhpur clLy, ls good, falllng
wlLhln Lhe permlsslble levels of waLer quallLy sLandards as
A largely agrarlan economy, farmers, counLs on
LhepP, uC, 8.C.uareall wlLhln LhepermlsslblellmlLs.
groundwaLer Lo supporL culLlvaLlon. 1he promoLlon of
lndusLrlal acLlvlLy has led noL only Lo Lhe explolLaLlon of
- WaLer
groundwaLer buL also Lo lLs conLamlnaLlon. Mlnlng
quallLy for Lhe SLaLe as a whole ls varled. WaLer quallLy of
acLlvlLles are also conLrlbuLlng Lo Lhe explolLaLlon of
mosL sLreams meeLs Lhe waLer quallLy sLandards, some of
groundwaLer. 1helmproper dlsposal of lndusLrlal and urban
Lhe lakes ln Lhe SLaLe falllng shorL. udalsagar and Þushkar
effluenLs, areleadlng Lo LheconLamlnaLlon of groundwaLer.
are Lhe worsL affecLed, havlng undeslrable levels of
Some of Lhe ma[or chemlcal consLlLuenLs conLamlnaLlng
dlssolved oxygen and 8Cu.
Lhe groundwaLer and some lLs healLh affecLs are dlscussed
below:
NC1L:
[mg/L- mllllgrams per llLer], [8.C.u. - 8lochemlcal oxygen
- 1oLal ulssolved Sollds
demand], [u.C. - ulssolved oxygen], [ConducLlvlLy - [u
(1uS) ls a measure of Lhe comblned conLenL of all
mho/cm-mlcro mho percenLlmeLre
organlc and lnorganlc subsLances conLalned ln waLer
ln a molecular or suspended form. Ma[or conLrlbuLlon
Lo Lhe 1uS ln waLer ls Lhe naLural conLacL wlLh rocks
and solls, wlLh mlnor conLrlbuLlon from polluLlon.
A scarce and unequal dlsLrlbuLlon of surface waLer
- lL ls one of Lhe mosL lmporLanL emphaslzes Lhe slgnlflcance of groundwaLer Lo boLh rural
consLlLuenLs presenL ln naLural waLer and remalns and urban populaLlons of a reglon. CroundwaLer refers Lo
soluble ln waLer unaffecLed by blologlcal processes. Lhe waLer locaLed beneaLh Lhe ground surface ln soll pore
Sea waLer lnLruslon and mlneral orlgln can also be a spaces or fracLures ln llLhologlc formaLlons. . 1he source of
cause of Lhe hlgh chlorlde conLenL. lndusLrlal effluenLs groundwaLer ls preclplLaLlon and Lhe lnfllLraLlon of surface
(galvanlzlng planLs, waLer sofLenlng planLs, oll waLer from runoffs and sLreams.


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
8.C.u- used as a gauge of Lhe effecLlveness of wasLewaLer LreaLmenL planLs, 8lochemlcal oxygen demand (8.C.u) ls a chemlcal procedure for
deLermlnlngLheupLakeraLe of dlssolvedoxygenbyLheblologlcal organlsms ln abody of waLer.
u.C. - lL ls a relaLlve measure of Lhe amounL of oxygen LhaL ls dlssolved or carrled ln a glven medlum. ulssolved oxygen (uC) ls measured ln sLandard
soluLlonunlLs suchas mllllllLers C2per llLer (ml/L), mllllgrams C2per llLer (mg/L).
{5ource: 6round woter yeor book, 2007-08)
Depthto water tab|e (mbg|)
>40
20-40
10-20
3-10
2-3
<2
1ota|
May, 07

18
22
28
21
9
2
100
August, 07
17
20
24
17
12
10
100
November, 07
17
20
24
21
12
6
100
Ianuary, 08
18
21
24
19
13
3
100
71
reflnerles) and sewage effluenLs are also sources of (2007). lor Lhe monLhs of May, AugusL, november and
large concenLraLlons of chlorlde. 1hose affecLed by !anuary, average groundwaLer levels for over 40° of Lhe
hearL or kldney dlseases should resLrlcL consumpLlon monlLorlng sLaLlons recorded a rlse ln groundwaLer levels
of waLer wlLh hlgh chlorldeconLenL. (2007).
- Sources of sulphaLe are organlc maLLer
uepLh Lo waLer level of more Lhan 40 m was noLlced ln
undergolng decomposlLlon, mlnlng, lndusLrlal wasLe,
18.33° of Lhe sLaLlons monlLored ln Lhe SLaLe, mosLly ln
deLergenLs, Lannerles, sLeel mllls, eLc.
!hun[hunu, Slkar, 8lkaner, Churu, nagaur, 8armer and
- Sources are mlneral deposlLs, soll,
!alsalmer dlsLrlcLs. WaLer level less Lhan 2m was observed
aLmosphere, ferLlllzers, and chemlcal lndusLrles.
ln 1.78° nPS falllng ln uungarpur, ChlLLorgarh, karaull,
ConsumpLlon of waLer hlgh ln nlLraLes can have
udalpur, !odhpur, 8answara, Panumangarh, Canganagar
adverse affecLs on Lhe cenLral nervous and cardlo
and A[mer dlsLrlcLs aL lsolaLedlocaLlons. (CroundwaLer ?ear
vascular sysLem.
8ook 2007-2008, May 2007). 8lse ln waLer levels, less Lhan
2m was observed ln aL leasL 30° of Lhe wells monlLored ln
- lluorlde ls an lnherenL componenL of
Lhe SLaLe across Lhe dlfferenL monLhs (2007). Such a rlse
lgneous rocks. ln mlnerals llke mlca, fluorlde lons are
could be observed ln dlsLrlcLs of 1onk, uausa, Þall, !odhpur,
bound on Lo mlneral surfaces. very hlgh concenLraLlon
Sawal Madhopur eLc. 8eLween 9-18° of Lhe sLaLlons saw a
of fluorlde may cause crlppllng skeleLal flurosls ln Lhe
rlse ln groundwaLer levels (May, AugusL, november, and
human body.
!anuary) of more Lhan 4m. 1hls can be observed ln Lhe
- Calclum ls ofLen a naLural componenL ln
dlsLrlcLs of Slrohl, 8answara, and !halawar eLc. (Source:
naLurally occurrlng rocks. LssenLlal for Lhe human
CroundwaLer ?ear 8ook2007-2008).
body, low Calclum conLenL can be llnked Lo rlckeLs and
defecLlve LeeLh. Powever, excesslve amounLs are a
A decllneln groundwaLer levels could berecordedln aL leasL
cause of sLones ln Lhe kldney and gall bladder. -
30° of Lhe monlLorlng sLaLlons (May, AugusL, november,
lron - A common ore ln cerLaln mlnerals, lL ls essenLlal
and !anuary 2006-2007).1hls decllne ls however less Lhan
for human nuLrlLlon.
2m. A 2-10° decllne can be observed ln Lhe groundwaLer
levels of more Lhan 4m (May, AugusL, november, and
!anuary 2006-2007) ln Lhe dlsLrlcLs of A[mer, Churu,
8hllwara, !aloreeLc. (Source: CroundwaLer ?ear 8ook 2007-
uepLh Lo WaLer 1able- lor over 60° of Lhe monlLorlng
2008).
sLaLlons, groundwaLer was wlLhln 20 m of Lhe surface
SULÞnA1L
NI1kA1L
ILUCkIDL
CALCIUM
S1A1LCI GkCUNDWA1LkIN 1nLS1A1L




SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
Depth to water
tab|e (mbg|)
>40
20-40
10-20
3-10
2-3
<2
Month
May,07
D|str|cts affected
!hun[hunu, Slkar, 8lkaner, Churu,
nagaur, 8armer and !alsalmer
nagaur, !odhpulr, !alpur, uausa,
Churu, Alwar, !alore, karaull,
8lkaner, !alsalmer, 8armer,
uhaulpur, Slkar and !hun[hunu
All dlsLrlcLs excepL !hun[hunu
8haraLpur, 8answara, Sawal
Madhopur, 8a[ as amand,
!halawar, A[mer, 8aran, udalpur,
Slrohl, 1onkand uungarpur
koLa, uungarpur, 8answara,
udalpur, 8aran, 8undl, Þall
uungarpur,ChlLLaurgarh, karaull,
udalpur, !odhpur, 8answara,
Panumangarh, Canganagar,
A[mer
november,07
!hun[hunu, Slkar, 8lkaner, !alsalmer,
Churu, 8armer, nagaur, !alpur
uausa, nagaur, !alpur, !alore,
Churu, !odhpur, Alwar, 8armer,
8lkaner
karaull, uhaulpur, Panumangarh,
Alwar, 1onk, 8hllwara, Canganagar,
Sawal Madhopur, Þall, 8haraLpur
and 8undl
!halawar, 8a[asamand, 8haraLpur,
A[mer, udalpur, Sawal Madhopur,
ChlLLaurgarh, 8hllwara, 8aran,
Canganagar, koLa, 1onk, 8answara,
Þall
8answara, Slrohl, uungarpur, koLa,
8undl, 8aran, udalpur, 8a[samand,
Þall, 1onk
8answara, uungarpur, 8undl, 8aran,
udal pur, 8a[ s amand, koL a,
ChlLLaurgarh

72
WA1Lk ÇUALI1¥ - WaLer quallLy ls essenLlal for beneflclal values wlLhln deslrable levels. ln Lhe dlsLrlcLs of 8armer,
use, oLherwlse lL may affecL human healLh adversely. 8oLh Churu, and 1onk, more Lhan 40° of sLaLlons have chlorlde
physlcal and chemlcal properLles of waLer deLermlne lLs beyond permlsslble llmlL of 1000mg/L. ln Lhe dlsLrlcLs of
quallLy. Alwar, 8answara, 8aran, 8hllwara, 8undl, uungarpur,
!hun[hunu, koLa and Slkar, no sLaLlon has a chlorlde value
Whlle 13.6° of Lhe hydrograph sLaLlons have a 1uS value
beyond LhepermlsslblellmlL of 1000mg/L.
wlLhln Lhe permlsslble llmlLs, 27.6° of Lhe sLaLlons have
values beyond permlsslble llmlLs. ulsLrlcLs of 8armer and ln all, 62.9° of Lhe sLaLlons have sulphaLe wlLhln deslrable
Churu have 30° of Lhelr sLaLlons wlLh hlgh 1uS levels. 1he levels. ln 8haraLpur, Churu and 1onk dlsLrlcLs, more Lhan
mlnlmum valueof 1uS has been found aL Malklsar (8lkaner) 40° of samples have sulphaLe values beyond permlsslble
as 130 mg/L and maxlmum value as 1230mg/L aL kanpura llmlLs. Maxlmum sulphaLe levels were observed aL kanpura
(A[mer). (2883mg/L) ln A[mer dlsLrlcL.
ln 690 waLer samples, only 13° have chlorlde value beyond WlLh respecL Lo nlLraLe concenLraLlon, 8armer and Churu
Lhe permlsslble llmlL of 1000mg/L and resL (31.3°) have are much affecLed, wlLh more Lhan 30° of Lhe sLaLlons


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
Const|tuent
1oLal ulssolve Sollds
(1uS)
Chlorlde
SulphaLe
nlLraLe
lluorlde
1oLal Pardness
Calclum
Magneslum
lron
Max|mum mg]L
12300
9088
2883
1304
20.01
4120
1000
807
18.6
Locat|on
kanpura(A[mer)
8uchwas (Churu)
kanpura(A[mer)
ChlLLaurgarh (8lkaner)
Þlprean (8lkaner)
8reLhakalan (uhaulpur)
A[gara(A[mer)
8raeLha(8haraLpur)
ChaLLarpur (Alwar)
M|n|mum mg]L
130
7
2
0
0.13
30
4
2.4
0
Locat|on
Malklsar (8lkaner)
uaLalaCu[ran (!alpur)
kalakheL (ChlLLaurgarh)
Mangrol (8aran)
SaLLasar (8lkaner)
SaLLasar (8lkaner),
8agora(!alore), uahal (!alore)
khandel (8a[samand)
AL cerLaln locaLlons
Source: CtoooJ wotet book yeot 2007-08
73
havlng nlLraLe values beyond Lhe permlsslble llmlL. (1.3mg/L). 1he hlghesL level of fluorlde was observed aL
Maxlmum value of nlLraLe (1304mg/L) was observed aL Þlprean of 8lkaner dlsLrlcL .
ChlLLorgarh of 8lkaner dlsLrlcL.
Calclum dose noL emergeas a causefor concern ln Lhe SLaLe
Plgh levels of fluorlde are a concern across Lhe SLaLe, wlLh as only 7.83° of sLaLlons are beyond Lhe permlsslble llmlL.
37.9° of Lhe groundwaLer samples collecLed havlng 1he maxlmum value of calclum (1000mg/L) has been
fluorlde beyond permlsslble llmlL of 1.3mg/L. 1he worsL observed ln A[gara of A[mer dlsLrlcL. Cnly 19.6° of sLaLlons
affecLed dlsLrlcLs are A[mer, 8armer, 8haraLpur, 8lkaner, have a magneslum value beyond Lhe permlsslble llmlL of
Canganagar, !alpur, !alsalmer, !alore, !odhpur, nagaur, Þall, 100mg/L. A LoLal of 17.8° of samples have an lron value
and Slrohl &1onk. 8eLween 40 ° and 70° of Lhe sLaLlons ln beyond LhepermlsslblellmlL of 1.0mg/L .
Lhese dlsLrlcLs have values beyond Lhe permlsslble llmlL
MonlLorlng of groundwaLer carrled ouL by SLaLe ÞolluLlon !alpur, koLa, Þall, and udalpur. AL cerLaln locaLlons,
ConLrol 8oard, lnvolves monlLorlng quallLy aL cerLaln hand ulssolved Cxygen below Lhe mlnlmum levels can be
pumps and wells across dlfferenL dlsLrlcLs. WlLh respecL Lo observed aL A[mer, Þall, and udalpur. AL cerLaln polnLs, u.C
pP levels, mosL locaLlons are wlLhln permlsslble llmlLs and, ls as low as 0.83 (open well waLer Loom[l Choudhary ka
almosL all of Lhem, border Lhe upper llmlL. LxcepLlons, 8era, u/s nayagaon, Þall). (ÞolnL locaLlons aLLached ln
exceedlng permlsslble llmlLs, are locaLed ln Lhe dlsLrlcLs of annexure)




SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan

B.O.D. levels at different point locations in
Rajasthan
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
1 4 7
1
0
1
3
1
6
1
9
2
2
2
5
2
8
3
1
3
4
3
7
Poi nt l ocati ons (Wel l s & tube wel l s)
B
.
O
.
D
.
l
e
v
e
l
s
(
m
g
/
L
)

D.O. levels at point locations across differnt
districts of Rajasthan
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1 4 7
1
0
1
3
1
6
1
9
2
2
2
5
2
8
3
1
3
4
3
7
Poi nt l ocati ons (Wel l s & tubewel l s)
D
.
O
.
l
e
v
e
l
s
(
m
g
/
L
)

74
liqure 7.1l: 8Ou ot different point /ocotions in kojosthon
liqure 7.14: uO ot point /ocotions ocross different districts of kojosthon


SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
SUMMAk¥CI GkCUNDWA1LkIN 1nLS1A1L
Loca| In|t|at|ves and Leg|s|at|ons
kLSÞCNSL
In|and Water Çua||ty Mon|tor|ng Network
7.3. CCN1AMINA1LDSI1L
Gu|de||nes for Stone Crusher Industry
1rad|t|ona| ka|n Water narvest|ng Systems |n the
State
sLone check dam, consLrucLed across a sLream or
1he depLh Lo Lhe waLer Lable ls affecLed by boLh lnfllLraLlon
gully, Lo capLure Lhe monsoon runoff on a sLreLch of
and consumpLlon. ln Lhe SLaLe, lnfllLraLlon from ralnfall ls
land. A kund or kundl looks llke an upLurned cup
Lhe maln source of recharge. AbouL 30° of Lhe recharge Lo
nesLllng ln a saucer. 1hese sLrucLures harvesL
groundwaLer ln areas falllng under Lhe lrrlgaLed commands
ralnwaLer for drlnklng, and doL Lhe sandler LracLs of
of lndlra Candhl nahar Þarlyo[na, Chambal and Mahl canal
Lhe1har ueserL ln wesLern8a[asLhan
sysLems ls esLlmaLed as Lhe seepage conLrlbuLlon from
4) - 8a[samand dlsLrlcL
conveyance sysLems and reLurn flow from lrrlgaLlon. Cwlng
ln wesLern 8a[asLhan has a rlch legacy of ralnwaLer
Lo hlgh raLes of evaporaLlon, lnfllLraLlon ls of Lhe order of
harvesLlng sLrucLures. A local volunLary organlzaLlon,
flve Lo seven percenL ln areas underlaln by hard rocks and
Lhe Mewar krlshak vlkas SamlLl (MkvS), has been
10 Lo 13 percenL ln alluvlal areas. More Lhan 20 percenL of
worklng ln LhedlsLrlcL for Lhewelfare of local farmers.
Lhe monlLorlng sLaLlons recorded depLhs Lo groundwaLer
1hey have consLrucLed 20-30 nadls wlLh a command
Lableof wlLhln 20m. 1hemanner of deposlLlon of geologlcal
arealn excess of 300haln Lambodl, Cudlla, kharasan,
formaLlons and arld condlLlons has led Lo hlgh sallnlLy ln
Paklawas and 8halru uas ka kheda. CollecLlon and
groundwaLer. ConLamlnaLlon of fluorlde ls also a ma[or
conservaLlon of ralnwaLer for all publlc bulldlngs and
problem affecLlng groundwaLer ln LheSLaLe.
esLabllshmenLs and all properLles, ln ploLs coverlng
more Lhan 300 sq m, ln urban areas has been made
compulsory by Lhe SLaLe governmenL ln vlew of
1) -1hls ls a decllnlng groundwaLer Lables.
Lhree-Ller programme l.e. Clobal LnvlronmenL
MonlLorlng SysLem (CLMS), MonlLorlng of lndlan
naLlonal AquaLlc 8esources SysLem (MlnA8S) and 1he SLaLe has one ldenLlfled conLamlnaLed slLe aL 8lchrl
?amunaAcLlon Þlan (?AÞ) ls belng adopLed. vlllagenear udalpur.
2) - ln order Lo
prevenL polluLlon of waLer bodles, Lhe nearesL polnL
of boundary of Lhe proposed sLone crusher musL be
aL leasL 300 meLres from Lhe WaLer 8ody. Land fllls of
proposed sLone crusher slLes, locaLed wlLhln Lhe
caLchmenL of a waLer body, would noL be granLed
permlsslon even lf Lheland ls locaLed beyond 300m.
3)
- A dry SLaLe, all LhaL could be done Lo Lrap raln
waLer should be carrled ouL, so as Lo ensure waLer
LhroughouL Lhe year. Þaar ls a common waLer
harvesLlng pracLlce ln Lhe wesLern 8a[asLhan reglon.
lL ls a common place where Lhe ralnwaLer flows from
Lhe agar (caLchmenL) and, ln Lhe process, percolaLes
lnLo Lhe sandy soll. Such a Lechnlque ls pracLlced ln
!alsalmer dlsLrlcL. !ohads are small earLhen check
1he lndlscrlmlnaLe dlsposal of acldlc wasLe waLer and
dams LhaL capLure and conserveralnwaLer, lmprovlng
sludge generaLed durlng Lhe manufacLure of a dye
percolaLlon and groundwaLer recharge. SLarLlng
lnLermedlaLe, P-acld, resulLed ln groundwaLer and soll
1984, Lhe lasL slxLeen years have seen Lhe revlval of
conLamlnaLlon of conLlguous areas. 1he unLreaLed wasLe
some 3000 [ohads spread across more Lhan 630
waLer was dlscharged aL Lhe sludge dump-slLes, creaLlng a
vlllages ln Alwar dlsLrlcL, 8a[asLhan. naada/bandha ls
crlLlcal envlronmenLal problem, parLlcularly as Lhe sludge ls
found ln Lhe Mewar reglon of Lhe 1har ueserL. lL ls a
spread all over Lhe lndusLrlal premlses. 1he conLamlnaLlon
liqure 7.15: lmpoundments of co/oured seepoqe
woter in vi//oqe 8ichhri
73



SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
ls subsLanLlaLed by dark brown colour, hlgh conducLlvlLy,
CCu, P-acld and sulphaLe conLenLs ln well waLers. 1hls
conLamlnaLlon rendered Lhe lmpacLed soll/land unflL for
lrrlgaLlon and drlnklng purposes.
1he enLlre conLamlnaLed area comprlses 330 hecLare of
conLamlnaLed land and slx abandoned dump-slLes ouLslde
Lhe lndusLrlal premlses have been found Lo be ecologlcally
fraglledueLo Lhereckless dlsposal acLlvlLles ln LhepasL.
I|gure 16: n-ac|d contam|nated we|| water |n v|||age

76
SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
A88kLVIA1ICNS
8C 8road Cauge MuÞ Medlum ulssecLed ÞlaLeau
8CM 8llllon Cublc MeLers MlnA8S MonlLorlng of lndlan naLlonal AquaLlc
8esources
8MW 8lo-Medlcal WasLe
MLu Mllllon LlLers per day
8Cu 8lologlcal Cxygen uemand
MoLl MlnlsLry of LnvlronmenL and loresLs
CAuA Command Area uevelopmenL AuLhorlLles
MSW Munlclpal Solld WasLe
CL1Þ Common LffluenL 1reaLmenL ÞlanL
MSL Mean Sea Level
CPW1Sul Common Pazardous WasLe 1reaLmenL
SLorage and ulsposal laclllLy M1 MeLrlc 1onnes
Cl81 CenLral lnsLlLuLe of 8oad 1ransporL nP naLlonal Plghways
CC Carbon Monoxlde nCC non-CovernmenLal CrganlzaLlon
CCu Chemlcal Cxygen uemand nCx Cxldes of nlLrogen
CÞC8 CenLral ÞolluLlon ConLrol 8oard nÞk nlLrogen Þhosphorous and ÞoLasslum
C8LÞ CorporaLe 8esponslblllLy for LnvlronmenLal Þ8ls ÞanchayaLl 8a[ lnsLlLuLlons
ÞroLecLlon
ÞlL Þubllc lnLeresL LlLlgaLlon
uLA ulsLrlcL LnvlronmenLal ALlas
ÞM ÞarLlculaLe MaLLer
uC ulssolved Cxygen
ÞWu Þubllc Works ueparLmenL
uoL ueparLmenL of LnvlronmenL
8ÞM 8esplrable ÞarLlculaLe MaLLer
LSÞ Lxchangeable Sodlum ÞercenLage
8llCC 8a[asLhan SLaLe lndusLrlal uevelopmenL and
LS8 LnvlronmenL SLaLus 8eporL lnvesLmenL CorporaLlon LLd.
Co8 CovernmenL of 8a[asLhan 8SÞC8 8a[asLhan SLaLe ÞolluLlon ConLrol 8oard
CSuA CroundwaLer Surveys and uevelopmenL 8SÞM 8esplrable Suspended ÞarLlculaLe MaLLer
Agency
81C 8eglonal 1ransporL Cfflce
PC Pydro Carbons
8uluÞ 8a[asLhan urban lnfrasLrucLure uevelopmenL
PuÞ Plghly ulssecLed ÞlaLeau Þro[ecL
PW Pazardous WasLe SP SLaLe Plghways
lCnÞ lndlra Candhl nahar Þarlyo[anan SC2 Sulphur uloxlde
lPSuÞ lnLegraLed Pouslng & Slum uevelopmenL Sol Survey of lndla
Þrogramme
SÞM Suspended ÞarLlculaLe MaLLer
!Lnnu8M !awahar Lal nehru naLlonal urban 8enewal
SS Suspended Sollds
Mlsslon
S1 Scheduled 1rlbe
kLu kllo LlLers per uay
S1Þ Sewage 1reaLmenL ÞlanL
77

SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
SWM Solld WasLe ManagemenL 1SÞ 1oLal Suspended ÞarLlcles
1kn 1oLal k[eldhal nlLrogen 1SÞM 1oLal Suspended ÞarLlculaLe MaLLer
1MC 1housand Mllllon Cubes uA urban AgglomeraLlon
1Þu 1ones per uay uL8 urban Local 8odles
1Sul 1reaLmenL SLorage and ulsposal laclllLy ZÞ Zllla Þarlshad
1SÞ 1rlbal SeLLlemenL Þlan

78

SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
LIS1 CI IIGUkLS
llgure 2.1 LocaLlon of 8a[asLhan llgure 4.10 !alsamand lake
llgure 2.2 AdmlnlsLraLlve ulvlslons llgure 4.11 lndlra Candhl nahar Þarlyo[na
llgure 2.3 WaLer Þlace of Slllserh llgure 4.12 8hakra Þro[ecL
llgure 2.4 Lohargarh llgure 4.13 Mahl Þro[ecL
llgure 2.3 ChlLLaurgarh forL llgure 4.14 8lsalpur Þro[ecL
llgure 2.6 Machkund llgure 4.13 Chambal valley
llgure 2.7 uausa llgure 4.16 8lver narmada
llgure 2.8 Pawa Mahal, !alpur llgure 4.17 Cross lrrlgaLed areas by lrrlgaLlon
pro[ecLs llgure 2.9 !alsalmer
llgure 4.18 lrrlgaLlon by sources llgure 2.10 !halawar
llgure 2.11 Char Þalace
llgure 3.1 Aravalll 8ange llgure 2.12 koLa
llgure 3.2 Crasslands llgure 2.13 Canganagar Canal
llgure 3.3 WeLland llgure 2.14 Þlchola Lake
llgure 3.4 1har ueserL llgure 2.13 8ural-urban ulchoLomy ln Lhe sLaLe
llgure 3.3 8lodlverslLy ln Lhe sLaLe llgure 2.16 ulsLrlbuLlon of 8ural-urban ÞopulaLlon
llgure 3.6 veoladeo ghana naLlonal park llgure 2.17 Levels of LducaLlon
llgure 3.7 1lger llgure 2.18 ueserL roads, 8halnsala
llgure 3.8 Sarlska naLlonal park llgure 2.19 8oad consLrucLlons under progress
llgure 3.9 kumbhalgarh SancLuary llgure 2.20 8allway fooL over-brldge ln koLa
llgure 3.10 SlLamaLa SancLuary
llgure 3.11 uarrah SancLuary llgure 3.1 Land uLlllzaLlon ln 8a[asLhan (2007)
llgure 3.12 MounL abu wlldllfe SancLuary llgure 3.2 WasLelands ln 8a[asLhan
llgure 3.13 Chamble Charlal SancLuary
llgure 3.14 ClLy palace Alwar llgure 4.1 Chambal rlver
llgure 3.13 dargah khwa[a sahlb llgure 4.2 Lunl rlver
llgure 3.16 Lalgarh palace llgure 4.3 Þlchola lake
llgure 3.17 1aragarh forL llgure 4.4 laLehsagar lake
llgure 3.18 keoladeo Chana naLlonal Þark 8harLpur llgure 4.3 udalsagar lake
llgure 3.19 !alpur llgure 4.6 8amsagar lake
llgure 3.20 ueserL fesLlval llgure 4.7 keoladeo lake
llgure 3.21 umald 8hawan palace llgure 4.8 Þushlar lake
llgure 3.22 ullwara Lemple llgure 4.9 nakkl lake
79

SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
llgure 3.23 8anLhambhor naLlonal park llgure 7.8 8SÞM aL monlLorlng sLaLlon (lndusLrlal)
llgure 3.24 Lake place llgure 7.9 ÞP levels aL monlLorlng sLaLlon across
Lhe sLaLe llgure llgure 3.23 vlraLnagar
llgure 7.10 ConducLlvlLy aL monlLorlng sLaLlon ln Lhe llgure 3.26 8anakpur
sLaLe
llgure 7.11 ulssolved oxygen aL monlLorlng sLaLlon ln
llgure 6.1 Munclpal wasLe generaLlon ln 8a[asLhan
8a[asLhan
llgure 6.2 Models of LransporL ln 8a[asLhan llgure
llgure 7.12 8Cu aL monlLorlng sLaLlon ln 8a[asLhan
llgure 6.3 lerLlllzer consumpLlon ln 8a[asLhan
llgure 7.13 8Cu aL dlfferenL polnL locaLlon ln
8a[asLhan
llgure 7.1 SCx aL monlLorlng sLaLlons (lndusLrlal)
llgure 7.14 uo aL polnL locaLlon across dlfferenL
llgure 7.2 SCx aL monlLorlng sLaLlons (8esldenLlal)
dlsLrlcLs of 8a[asLhan
llgure 7.3 nCx aL monlLorlng sLaLlons (8esldenLlal)
llgure 7.13 lmpoundmenLs aL coloured seepage
llgure 7.4 nCx aL monlLorlng sLaLlons (lndusLrlal)
waLer ln vlllage - 8lchhrl
llgure 7.3 SÞM aL monlLorlng sLaLlon (8esldenLlal)
llgure 7.16 P-acld conLamlnaLd well waLer ln vlllage
llgure 7.6 SÞM aL monlLorlng sLaLlon (lndusLrlal)
llgure 7.7 8SÞM aL monlLorlng sLaLlon (8esldenLlal)

80

SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
LIS1 CI 1A8LLS
1able 1.1 AdmlnlsLraLlve ulvlslons ln 8a[asLhan
1able 1.2 no. of urban AgglomeraLlons/ClLles
1able 1.3 8lock wlse SLaLus of Cround waLer
1able 6.1 8lo-medlcal wasLe
1able 6.2 SLaLe of Pazardous wasLe
1able 7.1 CperaLlng monlLorlng sLaLlon under nAMÞ
1able 7.2 WaLer quallLy monlLorlng sLaLlons
1able 7.3 WaLer quallLy sLandard by lSl
81

SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
(Aravalll range, Source, hLLp://lndlanadvenLureandwlldllfe.wordpress.com/)
(SLaLeof LnvlronmenL reporL, 2007).
(8aslc SLaLlsLlcs of 8a[asLhan, 2007).
(Census of lndla, 2001)
(CroundwaLer ?ear 8ook, 2007-2008)
(urafL 8a[asLhan WaLer Þollcy)
(lnvesLlgaLlon, ueslgn &8esearchunlL lrrlgaLlon, 8a[asLhan)
(8eporL of LheLxperL CommlLLeeon lnLegraLeduevelopmenL of WaLer 8esources, !une2003).
(lnvenLory of Pazardous WasLeCeneraLlng unlLs, 2009)
(Source: CroundwaLer ?ear 8ook2007-2008, May 2007
(Source: /www.ra[asLhanLourlsm.gov.ln)
WasLelands ALlas of lndla2003
(8ureau of lndlan SLandards (8lS), 2000)
Soclo-Lconomlc SLaLlsLlcs 8a[asLhan-2008-09
SLaLlsLlcal AbsLracL 8a[asLhan 2009
(hLLp://www.plannlng.ra[asLhan.gov.ln/Annual°20plan_0910/pdf/chap_20.pdf)
(www.ra[swasLhya.nlc.ln)
(Source: hLLp://lmages.google.co.ln/lmgres?lmgurl=hLLp://sawalmadhopur.nlc.ln)
(Lunl 8lver: Source: www.Lourlsma[mer.org)
(Source: Þlcholalake, Lourlsm-of-ra[asLhan.blogspoL.com)
(Source: www.ra[asLhanLourlsm.gov.ln)
(unLSCC-luCn reporL, 2008)
(hLLp://www.plannlng.ra[asLhan.gov.ln/1enLh°20Þlan/ChapLer/Þul/chap7-agrl.pdf)
(Source: /www.ra[asLhanLourlsm.gov.ln/)
Source: www.ra[asLhanLourlsm.gov.ln,
hLLp://[alsalmer.nlc.ln/)
(Mlsravlrendraand ÞandeyS.u., 2003)
(Pazard WasLe8eporL, 8a[asLhan)
S

82

SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
S. no. Maps
1 AdmlnlsLraLlve ulvlslons
2 SeLLlemenL
3 1ransporLaLlon
4A. 8alnfal
48. 1emperaLure(!an)
4C. 1 emperaLure([une)
3 naLural Pazard
6 Land use
7 Þhyslography
8 Soll
9 WasLeland
10 uralnage neLwork
11 lrrlgaLlon
12 Surface WaLer use
13 Surface WaLer llow
14 CroundwaLer use
13 Cround WaLer 1able
16 Pydrogeomorphology
17 8lodlverslLy
18 lnompaLlble Landuse
19 LocaLlon of lndusLrles
20 LocaLlon of ÞoLenLlal Mlneral 8elLs
21 A. Munlclpal Solld WasLe
218. 8lo Medlcal WasLe CeneraLlon
21C. PazwasLe CeneraLlon
22 vehlculardlsL
23 uomesLlc Sewage Load
24A ConsumpLlon of lerLlllzer
248 ConsumpLlon of ÞesLlsldes
23 Alr CuallLy
26A. CroundwaLer CuallLy lluorlde
268. CroundwaLer CuallLy SallnlLy
27 ConLamlnaLed SlLe
83

SLaLe LnvlronmenLal ALlas - 8a[asLhan
LIS1 CI MAÞS