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Crowded Coasts: Fieldwork and Research

Coastal Development
To investigate factors that have shaped the development and growth of contrasting crowded coasts over time.

Coastal Competition
To investigate pressure on the coastal environment when development and conservation meet head on.

Coastal Erosion or Flooding
To investigate the rate of coastal retreat or the degree of coastal flood risk, together with their impacts on development and people on a small scale.

Coastal Management
To investigate the success of coastal management strategies.

Seaford (+ Research Bournemouth and Foreign Resort: e.g. Spain, Florida, ustralia ! Fieldwork:
Surve( visitor num+ers, ages, distance traveled, duration of sta( (,uestionnaire!, pedestrian count, traffic surve( (in and out of season! *nvironmental surve(s, land use surve( (closed newl( opened shops and hotels! Surve( reasons for sta(, where mone( spent, suggestions for improvements from tourists (,uestionnaire! .and use surve(s (age of +uildings!

Seven Sisters Country Park (+ Research on "orfa #arlech, $.%ales & Sand 'unes! Fieldwork:
ssess the value and level of destruction of high value coastal areas (Seven Sisters /ountr( 0ark!. *.g. #igh value coastal areas such as Sand 'unes ("orfa #arlech!. Transects & S(stematic, Stratified, random, +reak of slope .and use - ctivit( mapping *nvironmental Surve(s - litter sampling *nvironmental 1mpact

Cuckmere Haven and Seaford Fieldwork:

(+ research on Reculver Ba(, )ent & *rosion and "anagement!

Cuckmere Haven and Seaford Fieldwork:

(+ research on Reculver Ba(, )ent & *rosion and "anagement!

2 'igital photos, field sketches and video evidence to show evidence of erosion or effectiveness of sea defences 2 "apping - recording evidence of t(pes of wave, longshore drift, storm conditions, +each morpholog( (transects!, cliff face features (undercutting, slides, slumps, rock falls! low l(ing land, salt marsh, flood levels, and the presence of sea defences. 2 'amage to sea defences & Bi2polar surve(s, at risk land use on cliffs or sea front (hotels, residential, recreational, +usiness!. Surve( views3uestionnaires of various local people, council etc. 1mpacts on +usiness-land use.

2 "apping-recording structures and their effects as defences in coping with waves, .S', storms, mass movement. #ow various flood defences work together, impacts down drift (measure height of +each either side of gro(nes, annotated photo4s! 2 Surve(s or environmental damage from development and visitor pressure, strengths and weakness of strategies to manage fragile areas (annotated photos!, surve( interest groups. 2 /ost +enefit anal(sis of different management strategies along the coast 2 /onflict matri5 of different viewpoints and interest groups along the coast of defences

Researc :
0opulation data from censuses. 6ld maps 6ld photographs For foreign resorts: Travel +rochures, online holida( info

Researc :
"aps of changing land use 0revious surve(s $ews paper articles & applications for development /onsultation with interest groups in the area

Researc :
2 .ocal or *nvironment genc( data regarding past and present rates of erosion and flood risk (storm-flood return!. #istorical documents and maps. Satellite images (e.g. plotting .S'!, online site (universit( sites! 2 $ews paper coverage of events, secondar( 3uestionnaire data, impacts on planning, land use and insurance, long term effects on 7o+s etc, environmental losses (+eaches, SSS14s etc!

Researc :
2 .ocal or *nvironmental genc( data regarding changes in rates of erosion and flood risk. #istorical documents and maps. Satellite images, online sites (universit(!. 2 $ewspaper coverage, secondar( 3uestionnaire data, impacts on planning, land use and insurance, longer term impacts (+eaches, SSS14s etc!. 1mpacts on +io2diversit( studies.

Data Presentation:
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Data !nalysis:

.argel( influenced +( data t(pe & *dited '8'-transcript of interviews, nnotated photos-sketches & To show coastal retreat or landuse changes 91S (customised with data-photos!, #istorical maps & To show coastal retreat, management or changes in landuse and development 'ata can +e ta+ulated, put into graphs or charts & To compare management strategies, or landuse in different locations 'ata can +e presented as cross sections & To show transect data & Beach profiles will indicate the t(pe of waves and therefore erosion ,uestionnaire and Bi2polar outputs & can +e presented in a range of appropriate charts and graphs & To show opinions on development, management and conservation strategies range of appropriate statistical methods "ean, "edian and "ode & /an +e used to anal(se 3uestionnaire or numerical data Flow diagrams and mind maps & /an +e used to descri+e theor( +ehind coastal defence schemes nnotating graphs and charts 2 To help e5plain anomalous data, or e5plain maps and 91S

Coastal Development

Coastal Competition

Coastal Erosion or Flooding

Coastal Management

To investigate factors that have shaped the development and growth of contrasting crowded coasts over time.

To investigate pressure on the coastal environment when development and conservation meet head on.

To investigate the rate of coastal retreat or the degree of coastal flood risk, together with their impacts on development and people on a small scale.

To investigate the success of coastal management strategies.

Seaford Results and Conclusions:
2 1nitial research showed the arrival of the railwa( connecting the town to .ewes and .ondon in the :;th /entur( helped it +ecame a small seaside resort town. 2 .anduse surve(s carried out using transects through Seaford showed that most shops were for local people, e.g. selling low order convenience goods, although nearer the centre there were some cafes and restaurants as well as an information centre for tourists. 2 0edestrian and car park surve(s showed that Seaford was 3uiet and footfall was low 2 /ar park- num+er plate surve( and 3uestionnaires showed the ma7orit( of people visiting Seaford were from S* *ngland so had not travelled long distances to visit the area. lthough there were a small num+er of coaches and mini +uses in the Seven Sisters /ar 0ark 2 ,uestionnaires showed that most people visiting Seaford were coming to visit and walk in the Seven Sisters /ountr( 0ark 2 .anduse mapping also found that there were < B=B4s, although at the time all had vacancies 2 The surve( showed that although Seaford ma( have initiall( developed with tourism it is now more of a dormitor( settlement for Brighton and *ast+ourne, or +eing used +( visitors to the Seven Sisters /ountr( 0ark Research: http:--www.seaford.co.uk-inde5.php shows the attractions in Seaford .imitations 2 The time we visited, as the well maintained +each is said to +e the main attraction of Seaford and the weather and time of (ear was too cold for it to +e popular

Seven Sisters Country Park Results and Conclusions:
2 Bi2polar surve( showed that area within the Seven Sisters /ountr( 0ark (/uckmere #aven! has a much higher 3ualit( than areas outside it (Seaford! 2 "anagement strategies tall( sheet shows that this is +ecause it is ver( well managed with a large num+er and variet( of strategies 2 #owever & we did not visit in peak season which would almost certainl( have influenced our results 2 .anduse mapping and 91S showed in the areas used +( people - tourists the environment had +een impacted. *.g. litter around car parks and footpaths, and waste washed up onto the +each from shipping and fishing industries around Seaford Research: (http:--www.sevensisters.org.uk- ! shows the area is well managed and ver( +io2 diverse. .imitations 2 The time we visited as the weather and time of (ear was too cold for it to +e popular and therefore have a large impact on the environment

Cuckmere Haven and Seaford Results and Conclusions:
Transects & 2 Beach profile had a >storm +each4 (steep ridge!. These are formed +( strong, destructive waves indicating high risk from erosion. 2 0e++les were unsorted in si?e and angularit(, there was also much driftwood - material on the +each. This indicates strong wave energ( had left us with little pattern to show longshore drift - sorting. 2 %aves were fre3uent and strong indicating high risk from erosion 2 nnotated photos - sketches & showed erosion was taking place and gave evidence for high risk, especiall( at the +ase of the cliffs. Research: 6ld photos - "aps & 9ave evidence that erosion has taken place on this stretch of coast. 9eolog( & /halk cliffs (which could +e seen in the lighter sea colour around them! are at risk from erosion .imitations & %ider stretch of coast to e5amine would have given a +etter overall picture of erosion and the impact of management strategies. 'ates of old photos, newspapers and maps at more regular intervals would have helped us understand the change more easil(

Cuckmere Haven and Seaford Results and Conclusions:
2 9ro(nes & "easuring on either side of the gro(nes showed that the( were trapping large amounts of sediment from longshore drift. The( are therefore effective as well as +eing re3uired. The( have had an impact reducing the risk (along with the sea wall in front of the houses! 2 "anagement of coast & 1t has +each replenishment - gro(nes - rip rap in Seaford and gro(nes - sea wall in /uckmere #aven. These seem effective in reducing rates of erosion although onl( in the areas the( are located. *.g. cost - +enefit & around housing - towns Research: S"0 2 http:--www.sdcg.org.uk.imitations & %ider stretch of coast to e5amine would have given a +etter overall picture of erosion and the impact of management strategies. 'ates of old photos, newspapers and maps at more regular intervals would have helped us understand the change more easil(

Coastal Development

Coastal Competition

Coastal Erosion or Flooding

Coastal Management

To investigate factors that have shaped the development and growth of contrasting crowded coasts over time.

To investigate pressure on the coastal environment when development and conservation meet head on.

To investigate the rate of coastal retreat or the degree of coastal flood risk, together with their impacts on development and people on a small scale.

To investigate the success of coastal management strategies.

"ournemout Results and Conclusions:
2 Bournemouth developed as a result of the railwa( e5pansion. 1n :@A; a link +etween .ondon and Bournemouth was +uilt which resulted in a growth in tourism (although still largel( the wealth(! 2 The seafront saw the ma7orit( of earl( developments including large hotels and winter gardens for the s(mphon( orchestra 2 s average wages increased more people +egan to visit Bournemouth and the pier was +uilt in the :@@B4s. 2 This period also saw the growth of smaller, more afforda+le guest houses to cater for the masses. These are found inland and spreading awa( from the seafront (due to land values! 2 'uring the :;<B4s-CB4s Bournemouth declined due to competition from cheaper, package holida(s in the "editerranean. 2 The :;@B-;B4s have seen regeneration take place. Dpgraded rail links and an airport have encouraged investment and emplo(ment. 2 The seafront areas of Bournemouth are still largel( home to tourist attractions. *.g. the pier and larger hotels, although some of the older hotels have +een redeveloped into student accommodation and flats. 2 s (ou move awa( from the seafront the accommodation +ecomes cheaper, guesthouses and campsites. 2 .anduse also +ecomes more residential and +rownfield sites have +een used to +uild new housing developments 2 The rural ur+an fringe of the cit( has seen the relocation of man( footloose industries such as +anks and financial institutions.

Morfa Harlec # $%&ales Results and Conclusions:
2 The dune s(stem is a fragile one and even small amounts of damage can cause long2term pro+lems. 2 #umans wander onto and through the dunes in increasingl( large num+ers and small paths which wear through the vegetation cover soon turn into deep gullies as the wind uses the opportunit( to carr( awa( the sand. 2 Ra++its in their hundreds dig large holes in the dunes. *ventuall(, large hollows, called +lowouts, are formed and up to ABE of a mature dune ma( +e lost. 2 0lants die and due to loss of ha+itat, insects, amphi+ians, +irds and animals also disappear. 2 The dunes in "orfa #arlech are protected +( the local authorit(. 2 This often means fencing off at least part of the dune s(stem so that pu+lic access is restricted. This allows damaged dunes to recover and-or ecologicall( important sections to +e protected. 2 0u+lic access to +eaches ma( +e via fenced2off pathwa(s. long the footpaths, information +oards can +e used to educate the pu+lic a+out wh( the dune s(stem is important and how the( can avoid damaging it. 2 Blowouts are repaired +( trapping the loose sand with +arriers 2 sometimes old /hristmas trees are used. lthough the +arriers are unsightl(, the( are eventuall( covered up and the vegetation re2esta+lishes itself. 2 The 'une management in "orfa #arlech is successful due to the num+er and variet( of techni3ues although conflict can still occur +etween environmentalists and tourists.

Reculver "ay# 'ent Results and Conclusions:

Reculver "ay# 'ent

2 The geolog( of the Reculver Ba( area is predominantl( sandstones and cla( 2 These rocks are easil( eroded. The cliffs are eroding at a rate of appro5imatel( F m a (ear. 2 6ld map illustrate that coastal erosion had washed awa( most of Reculver village +( :@BB, leading residents to re2locate to the inland settlement of #ill+orough. 2 .ongshore drift, driven +( strong north2easterl( winds, moves the +each material continuousl( westwards. 1f the +each was allowed to disappear, the waves would attack the sea wall and increase the risk of flooding. 2 large concrete sea wall, +uilt in :;AG, e5tends a+out FBB metres from in front of the 1nformation /entre along to the twin towers. 1n :;;<, huge +oulders, man( weighing up to < tonnes, were placed in front of the sea wall to give e5tra protection 2 rock armour - rip2rap. 2 The area is protected +( large rock gro(nes. 6riginall( there had +een wooden gro(nes although these were in an advanced state of deca( and were replaced +( rip2rap and the rock gro(nes. 2 'ue to the high energ( of the coastline repairs organised +( the *nvironment genc( (the government +od( which has responsi+ilit( for sea2defence work! and /anter+ur( /it( /ouncil, have +een carried out. The last such scheme in :;;A-;< cost HG.A million 2 The rapid rates of erosion have caused severe deca(, making the gro(nes ineffective and dangerous. t regular intervals, lorries +ring fresh supplies of shingle to replenish the +each. This method of coastal defence is called +each nourishment. 2 Further down the coast are unprotected cliffs. The cliffs are FB metre high, soft sandstones. Below the cliffs is a narrow shingle +each, mainl( of flint( material. Dnderneath the shingle is a rock( wave2 cut platform made of the same sandstone rocks as the cliff, this provides us with evidence of erosion. 2 s the waves at high tide undercut the cliff, a notch and sometimes small caves (usuall( no more than a metre high or deep! ma( form, +ut the soft sandstone easil( collapses. 2 Results indicate that this is an area with high energ( waves and rapid erosion. The coastline has +een managed with a variet( of hard and soft engineering with var(ing degrees of success.

) e *se of )ec nology:
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'igital cameras & for annotated photos 8ideo cameras & for filming techni3ues in the field or something taking place. *.g. wave action 91S & can +e used to plan field trips and also present data sets on maps 90S & to locate sites - features 1nternet & researching fieldwork - S"0s

To answer fieldwork and research 3uestions I Tr( to refer to what (ou actuall( did and found outI +ut don4t forget (ou can also appl( (our knowledge of case studies and theor( to help (irtual Fieldwork

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Barcelona Field Studies /entre:

o 8irtual Fieldwork: Reculver Ba(, )ent & *rosion and "anagement: http:--www.georesources.co.uk-recintro.htm
o o 8irtual Fieldwork: "orfa #arlec, Snowdonia $0, %ales 2 /oastal Sand 'unes and "anagement: http:--www.georesources.co.uk-csdintro.htm 8irtual Fieldwork: Florida )e(s, DS ke(s-triphome.html & 'evelopment - 1mpacts of tourism on the environment: http:--virtual2geolog(.info-vft-fl2

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8irtual Fieldwork: /oasts & "ethodolog(: http:--www.geograph(2fieldwork.org-coastfieldwork-inde5.htm

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http:--www.geograph(pages.co.uk-virtual.htm