iLib08 - Citavi Eysel, U. T.; Burandt, U. (1984): Fluorescent tube light evokes flicker responses in visual neurons.

In: Vision research, Jg. 24, H. 9, S. 943–948. Single neurons in the cat visual system respond distinctly to the temporal Abstract information present in light from fluorescent tubes driven by 50 or 60 Hz alternating current. Despite the resulting flicker frequencies of 100 or 120 Hz all retinal and most thalamic neurons show strong phase locking of the neuronal responses to the modulation of fluorescent tube light. Some retinal ganglion cells have not yet reached their critical flicker fusion frequency under such conditions. Though usually beyond perception, the frequency and depth of modulation of artificial light thus might well play a role in biological light effects. Schlagwörter Animals; Cats; Evoked Potentials, Visual; Flicker Fusionphysiology; Geniculate Bodiesphysiology; Light; Lighting; Optic Nervephysiology; Photometry; Retinaphysiology; Retinal Ganglion Cellsphysiology Frascella, J.; Lehmkuhle, S. (1984): An electrophysiological assessment of X and Y cells as pattern and flicker detectors in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat. In: Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale, Jg. 55, H. 1, S. 117–126. We tested the hypothesis that geniculate X cells are the neural substrate of Abstract psychophysically identified pattern channels and that geniculate Y cells are the neural substrate of psychophysically identified flicker channels. The hypothesis was tested by measuring the relative sensitivity of isolated X and Y cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat to counterphase and on-off grating presentations. The fundamental and second harmonic responses of X and Y cells to sinusoidal counterphase and on-off temporal modulation were measured at a number of spatial frequencies using two contrasts, 0.1 and 0.4. The fundamental responses of both X and Y cells to sinusoidal counterphase were greater relative to on-off responses. The second harmonic responses of Y cells to counterphase were larger at high spatial frequencies. Contrast sensitivity also was measured. At all spatial frequencies, both X and Y cells were slightly more sensitive to counterphase than to on-off presentations. Since flicker sensitivity in humans is twice as high for counterphase as for on-off presentations across all spatial frequencies, whereas pattern sensitivity is equal for the two presentations, we conclude that X and Y cells do not subserve uniquely pattern and flicker sensitivity, respectively. This conclusion is based on the result that differences between X and Y cells to counterphase and on-off presentations were inconsistent with the differences observed for pattern and flicker sensitivity. We suggest then that a spatial/temporal dichotomy does not seem to accurately characterize the functional roles of X and Y cells. Schlagwörter Animals; Brain Mapping; Cats; Evoked Potentials, Visual; Flicker Fusionphysiology; Form Perceptionphysiology; Geniculate Bodiescytology; Neuronsclassification; Pattern Recognition, Visualphysiology; Retinaphysiology; Sensory Thresholds; Synaptic Transmission Magnussen, S.; Spillmann, L.; Stürzel, F.; Werner, J. S. (2001): Filling-in of the foveal blue scotoma. In: Vision research, Jg. 41, H. 23, S. 2961–2967. The blue-blindness (tritanopia) of the human foveola normally goes unnoticed but Abstract can be directly visualized by having observers view a flickering, monochromatic, short-wavelength field. The blue scotoma appears as a tiny dark spot in central vision, the visibility of which depends upon the wavelength of the field and the temporal frequency of modulation. Comparisons of fading times as a function of flicker frequency for the blue scotoma, foveal afterimages and optically stabilized images indicate a common time course, consistent with the hypothesis that perceptual filling-in of the foveal blue scotoma reflects the operation of neural processes similar to those involved in fading and regeneration of stabilized images. Schlagwörter Afterimagephysiology; Flicker Fusion; Humans; Optic Diskphysiology; Perceptual

iLib08 - Citavi Closurephysiology Regan, D.; Lee, B. B.: A comparison of the 40-Hz response in man, and the properties of macaque ganglion cells. In: Visual neuroscience, Jg. 10, H. 3, S. 439–445. Visually evoked field potentials in human subjects and single-cell responses from Abstract retinal ganglion cells in the macaque monkey were compared in closely similar stimulus situations. The classical heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) technique was used to measure spectral sensitivity in man, both psychophysically and by recording the 40-Hz response, and to measure the spectral sensitivity of magnocellular (MC-) pathway cells of the macaque. The three measures gave closely similar spectral-sensitivity curves. Close agreement between the three measures was also found when the variable-modulation HFP technique was used to measure spectral sensitivity. When the relative phase between red and green lights was varied, the point of minimum subjective flicker for human observers was close to a sharp minimum found in the amplitude of the 40-Hz response in human and was also close to a minimum in the response of MC-pathway neurons in the monkey. The human 40-Hz response saturated at between 10 and 30% modulation depth, and so did the response of MC-pathway cells in the monkey. The 16-Hz response in human showed none of the above correlations with MC-pathway properties. On the other hand, parvocellular (PC-) pathway cells responded vigorously to constant-luminance, chromatic modulation, at frequencies higher than can be detected by human observers. The human 16-Hz response also was strong in that stimulus situation. In addition, the response of PC-pathway cells on increasing modulation depth showed little saturation, and this behaviour was paralleled by the human 16-Hz response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Schlagwörter Animals; Evoked Potentials, Visualphysiology; Humans; Macaca; Occipital Lobephysiology; Photic Stimulation; Psychophysics; Retinal Ganglion Cellsphysiology; Sensory Thresholds; Visual Pathwaysphysiology; Visual Perceptionphysiology Schieting, S.; Spillmann, L. (1987): Flicker adaptation in the peripheral retina. In: Vision research, Jg. 27, H. 2, S. 277–284. With strict fixation, a flickering light spot smaller than 3 deg presented to the Abstract peripheral retina will rapidly appear to lose contrast and stop flickering within 35 s, before fading away completely. The time required for this adaptation to occur decreases with: decreasing depth of modulation (97-9%); decreasing stimulus diameter (2 deg-7 min arc); increasing retinal eccentricity (20-50 deg); and increasing flicker frequency (1-7 Hz). Interestingly, the effect does not depend upon the regularity of the flickering stimulus, and it occurs twice as fast for stimuli presented to the temporal retina as for stimuli presented to the nasal retina. When changes in retinal eccentricity are compensated for by taking into account the cortical magnification factor, the time needed for perceived flicker to disappear remains constant at all eccentricities. With dichoptic stimulation interocular transfer is about 35%, suggesting a cortical contribution to flicker adaptation. The results indicate that the visual system adapts rather easily to peripheral flickering stimuli. Similarities as well as differences to motion adaptation are discussed. Schlagwörter Adaptation, Ocular; Fixation, Ocular; Humans; Motion Perceptionphysiology; Retinaphysiology; Vision, Ocularphysiology; Visual Cortexphysiology; Visual Perceptionphysiology Seitz, Aaron R.; Nanez, Jose E.; Holloway, Steve R.; Watanabe, Takeo (2006): Perceptual learning of motion leads to faster flicker perception. In: PLoS ONE, Jg. 1, S. e28. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000028. Abstract Critical flicker fusion thresholds (CFFT) describe when quick amplitude modulations of a light source become undetectable as the frequency of the modulation

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increases. The threshold at which CFF occurs has been shown to remain constant under repeated testing. Additionally, CFF thresholds are correlated with various measures of intelligence, and have been regarded by clinicians as a general measure of cortical processing capacity. For these reasons, CFF is used as a cognitive indicator in drug studies, as a measure of fatigue, and has been suggested as a diagnostic measure for various brain diseases. Here we report that CFFT increases dramatically in subjects who are trained with a motion-direction learning procedure. Control tasks demonstrate that CFFT changes are tightly coupled with improvements in discriminating the direction of motion stimuli, and are likely related to plasticity in low-level visual areas that are specialized to process motion signals. This plasticity is long-lasting and is retained for at least one year after training. Combined, these results show that CFFT relates to a specialized sensory process and bring into question that CFFT is a measure of high-level, or general, processes.

Spekreijse, H.; van Norren, D.; van den Berg, T. J. (1971): Flicker responses in monkey lateral geniculate nucleus and human perception of flicker. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Jg. 68, H. 11, S. 2802–2805. Abstract An analysis was made of the impulse discharge patterns-evoked by sinusoidal luminance modulation-of single cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the macaque monkey. The goal was to determine whether a correspondence could be observed between flicker detection by human subjects in psychophysical experiments and electrophysiological measurements of discharge patterns of single cells of the lateral geniculate nucleus. We found that the average discharge patterns of single cells exhibited the following behavior when mean retinal illumination was changed: In the low-frequency region (less than about 10 Hz) the response strength (impulses/sec) is independent of the mean luminance, in accordance with Weber's law; in the high-frequency region (above about 10 Hz) the response depends on the absolute modulation amplitude, in accordance with the Ferry-Porter law. Therefore the main features of human critical flicker frequency data are already present in the cellular (lateral geniculate nucleus) response of the macaque monkey. However, the steepness of high frequency fall-off in the response characteristics of these cells is much less than the corresponding fall-off in the human critical-flicker-frequency curves. Schlagwörter Animals; Electrophysiology; Flicker Fusion; Geniculate Bodiesphysiology; Haplorhini; Humans; Macaca; Stereotaxic Techniques; Visual Perception Thomas, C. G.; Menon, R. S. (1998): Amplitude response and stimulus presentation frequency response of human primary visual cortex using BOLD EPI at 4 T. In: Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Jg. 40, H. 2, S. 203–209. Abstract Detailed measurement of the neural response to flicker frequency using functional MRI (fMRI) were made. The fMRI signal peaks at a flicker frequency of 8 Hz in human V1, in agreement with previous positron emission tomography (PET) and fMRI experiments. The modulation amplitude of the hemodynamic response to varying continuous periods of flicker stimulation was measured. The hemodynamic response was not observed to be modulated by neural modulation for periods shorter than 6.7 s. The resemblance between the BOLD response to the stimulus presentation frequency and the base-line power spectra at the same frequencies suggests that the same underlying mechanism could be responsible for both curves and that the base-line fMRI power spectrum is probably due to base-line electrical activity in the brain. The integrals of the resting base-line power spectrum, the background power spectrum, the respiration component, and the cardiac component were found to be linearly dependent on TE. Schlagwörter Adult; Echo-Planar Imaginginstrumentation; Female; Flicker Fusionphysiology; Fourier Analysis; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assistedinstrumentation;

iLib08 - Citavi Magnetic Resonance Imaginginstrumentation; Male; Sensory Thresholdsphysiology; Visual Cortexphysiology Trehub, A. (1965): Spontaneous slow modulation of flicker-evoked response in human brain. In: Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, Jg. 19, H. 2, S. 182–184. Schlagwörter Cerebral Cortexphysiology; Electroencephalography; Humans; Light