You are on page 1of 3

iLib08 - Citavi Binnie, C. D.; Korte, R. A. de; Wisman, T. (1979): Fluorescent lighting and epilepsy. In: Epilepsia, Jg. 20, H. 6, S. 725–727.

Fluorescent tubes flash at twice the mains frequency (100 Hz in Europe). With Abstract aging, 50-Hz brightness modulation appears. A survey of tubes used in our institute showed that 42% exhibited brightness modulation up to a depth of 20% or occasionally 30%. The effects of fluorescent lighting on the EEGs of 20 patients with photosensitive epilepsy have been studied. In no patient did the 100-Hz flicker of normally functioning tubes elicit paroxysmal activity. In 8 of 13 subjects sensitive to 50 Hz, IPS paroxysmal discharges were evoked by 50-Hz brightness modulation, but only at modulation depths of 50% or more. It is concluded that as paroxysmal activity could not be elicited by normally functioning tubes nor at those depths of modulation occurring in practice, fluorescent lighting is unlikely to present a hazard to photosensitive patients. Schlagwörter Adolescent; Adult; Electroencephalography; Epilepsyetiology; Female; Humans; Lighting; Male Chauhan, K.; Charman, W. N. (1996): Accommodation responses to flickering stimuli. In: Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists), Jg. 16, H. 5, S. 391–408. Abstract It has been suggested that accommodation to visual display unit (VDU) symbols or to stimuli lit by fluorescent tubes or similar temporally modulated light sources may be less accurate due to flicker. Furthermore, if the microfluctuations of accommodation play a part in the control of steady-state accommodation, the effects of stimulus flicker might affect the quality of this control. Experiments are described in which monocular accommodation stimulus-response curves for sinusoidal grating stimuli (1.0, 5.3 and 8.9 c/deg) were measured under the following conditions of temporal modulation: (1) square-wave on-off modulation to give spatial modulation varying between 0 and 37%; (2) sinusoidal modulation to give spatial modulation varying between 0 and 37%; (3) sinusoidal modulation to give spatial modulation varying between 16 and 32%; and (4) on-off modulation with varying mark/space ratio. Temporal modulation frequencies were between 0.5 and 7.8 Hz and above the critical fusion frequency (CFF) i.e., > or = 40 Hz. In general, the results suggest that while lower-frequency flicker may adversely affect the accuracy and stability of the accommodation response, the latter are very little affected by flicker at frequencies > or = 40 Hz. Thus flicker from fluorescent lamps or VDUs is unlikely to cause systematic accommodation difficulties. The possible relevance of the results to theories which ascribe a role for the higher-frequency (> 0.5 Hz) accommodative microfluctuations in the control of the response is considered. Schlagwörter Accommodation, Ocularphysiology; Analysis of Variance; Humans; Lightadverse effects; Vision Testsmethods Eysel, U. T.; Burandt, U. (1984): Fluorescent tube light evokes flicker responses in visual neurons. In: Vision research, Jg. 24, H. 9, S. 943–948. Abstract Single neurons in the cat visual system respond distinctly to the temporal information present in light from fluorescent tubes driven by 50 or 60 Hz alternating current. Despite the resulting flicker frequencies of 100 or 120 Hz all retinal and most thalamic neurons show strong phase locking of the neuronal responses to the modulation of fluorescent tube light. Some retinal ganglion cells have not yet reached their critical flicker fusion frequency under such conditions. Though usually beyond perception, the frequency and depth of modulation of artificial light thus might well play a role in biological light effects. Schlagwörter Animals; Cats; Evoked Potentials, Visual; Flicker Fusionphysiology; Geniculate Bodiesphysiology; Light; Lighting; Optic Nervephysiology; Photometry; Retinaphysiology; Retinal Ganglion Cellsphysiology

iLib08 - Citavi Küller, R.; Laike, T. (1998): The impact of flicker from fluorescent lighting on well-being, performance and physiological arousal. In: Ergonomics, Jg. 41, H. 4, S. 433–447. In working environments all over the world, fluorescent tubes are by far the Abstract dominating light source. Still, there have been very few studies on the impact of the non-visible flicker from fluorescent tubes. The purpose of the study was to compare the impact on subjective well-being, performance and physiological arousal of fluorescent light powered by conventional and high-frequency ballasts. Thirty-seven healthy males and females were subjected to either condition in a laboratory office on two separate occasions with 1 week in between. Although the methodology was quite extensive, only a few general effects were observed. However, when the light was powered by the conventional ballasts, individuals with high critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF) responded with a pronounced attenuation of EEG alpha waves, and an increase in speed and decrease in accuracy of performance. These results may be understood in terms of heightened arousal in the central nervous system in response to the pronounced light modulation caused by the conventional ballasts. In order to alleviate this potential stress source, it is recommended that fluorescent lighting be powered by electronic high-frequency ballasts of good quality. Schlagwörter Adult; Analysis of Variance; Arousalphysiology; Electroencephalography; Environment; Female; Humans; Lighting; Male; Middle Aged; Occupational Health; Task Performance and Analysis; Workplace Nuboer, J. F.; Coemans, M. A.; Vos, J. J. (1992): Artificial lighting in poultry houses: do hens perceive the modulation of fluorescent lamps as flicker. In: British poultry science, Jg. 33, H. 1, S. 123–133. Abstract 1. Many poultry houses are illuminated by fluorescent lamps which produce discontinuous illumination with a frequency of either 100 or 120 Hz. 2. This study investigated whether domestic fowls perceive this discontinuity as flicker by training two Leghorn hens to choose between a continuous and a discontinuous light, all other variables being identical. 3. The light-stimulus was either monochromatic with 100% sinusoidal modulation or a fluorescent lamp whose modulation frequency could be electrically adjusted. 4. Each (correct) choice for the discontinuous light was followed by a 5 Hz higher frequency, whereas an incorrect choice was followed by a 10 Hz lower frequency. 5. On the basis of this principle the animals themselves established the highest perceivable frequency of the discontinuous light, called the Critical Fusion Frequency (CFF), that they could discriminate from continuous light. 6. These frequencies typically depend on the stimulus intensity increasing with increasing intensities, until a maximum value is reached. 7. Two factors limited the magnitudes of the CFF's that were recorded: the maximum stimulus intensities produced and variability in the chicken's response ("behavioural noise"). In spite of these constraints 105 Hz was established as the maximum CFF. 8. On the basis of extrapolation it is concluded that the direct light from fluorescent lamps driven by 50 Hz alternating current is seen by the chicken as flickering. 9. The results justify large-scale comparison of behaviour and production in poultry houses that are illuminated either by low-frequency or by high-frequency fluorescent lamps. Schlagwörter Animals; Chickensphysiology; Conditioning, Classical; Female; Fluorescence; Housing, Animal; Lighting; Microcomputers; Visual Perception Sakai, Tsutomu; Calderone, Jack B.; Lewis, Geoffrey P.; Linberg, Kenneth A.; Fisher, Steven K.; Jacobs, Gerald H. (2003): Cone photoreceptor recovery after experimental detachment and reattachment: an immunocytochemical, morphological, and electrophysiological study. In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, Jg. 44, H. 1, S. 416–425. Abstract PURPOSE: To compare the morphologic and functional recovery of the retina after detachment and reattachment in an animal with a cone-dominant retina, the ground squirrel. METHODS: Ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) retinas were detached for 1 day and reattached for 7, 35, or 96 days (n = 2, each time point). Flicker ERGs were recorded 1 day after the detachment and at various times after

iLib08 - Citavi


reattachment. Contrast-response functions were measured for isochromatic modulation and for selective modulation of short-wavelength-sensitive (S) and middle-wavelength-sensitive (M) cones. At the end of the experiment, retinas were prepared for light microscopy or immunocytochemical staining with antibodies to rod opsin, S and M cone opsins, cytochrome oxidase, synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), interphotoreceptor-binding protein (IRBP), and peanut agglutinin lectin (PNA). Photoreceptor density maps were created from wholemount preparations labeled with biotinylated PNA and anti-S cone opsin. Cell counts of photoreceptor nuclei and cone outer segments (OS) were compared with flicker ERG data. Cell death was examined by the TUNEL method. RESULTS: Reattachment stopped photoreceptor cell death and reversed the disruption of interphotoreceptor matrix as well as the redistribution of Müller cell proteins. It also activated some astrocytes based on anti-GFAP staining. S- and M-cone OS showed a gradual recovery in length after reattachment, and this recovery continued to the longest time points examined. ERG contrast gains also recovered after reattachment, but these reached asymptotic levels by approximately a week after reattachment. There were significant correlations between outer nuclear layer (ONL) cell counts and ERG contrast gains. No differences were noted in the indices of recovery of M and S cones. CONCLUSIONS: The ERG can be used to follow specifically the changes in the retina that occur after retinal detachment and reattachment. Animals; Cell Death; Contrast Sensitivityphysiology; Electroretinography; Eye Proteinsmetabolism; Female; Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect; Male; Microscopy, Confocal; Mitochondriaphysiology; Neurogliaphysiology; Presynaptic Terminalsphysiology; Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cellspathologyphysiology; Retinal Detachmentphysiopathologysurgery; Sciuridae; Sulfur Hexafluoridetherapeutic use