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iLib08 - Citavi Accornero, N.; Berardelli, A.; Fabiano, F.; Inghilleri, M.; Taverniti, L. (1983): [Perception of light modulation].

In: Bollettino della Società italiana di biologia sperimentale, Jg. 59, H. 12, S. 1980–1983. A simple method for testing visual sensitivity to flickering light sources is proposed. Abstract The method employs a triangular function generator, which modulates the luminance of a chromatic light source. Amplitude and frequency of the triangular pattern are adjusted until the subject perceives a periodic variation of luminance. In normal subjects the maximum sensitivity was found at a frequency modulation of 510 Hz. In multiple sclerosis patients the method proved to be more accurate than flicker fusion frequency in revealing subclinical damage of the visual pathway. Schlagwörter Flicker Fusionphysiology; Humans; Multiple Sclerosisphysiopathology; Photic Stimulation; Visual Perceptionphysiology Anderson, A. J.; Vingrys, A. J. (2001): Multiple processes mediate flicker sensitivity. In: Vision research, Jg. 41, H. 19, S. 2449–2455. By systematically manipulating the luminance of a flickering spot and the area Abstract immediately surrounding it, we investigated why thresholds from flickering stimuli that cause a change in average luminance are elevated relative to those from stimuli with no luminance change. Threshold elevation resulted from local light adaptation and from temporal-frequency-specific interactions between the spot and its surround: at low frequencies, the contrast between the spot and the surround elevated thresholds, whereas at high frequencies, dark adaptation within the surround elevated thresholds. Our findings suggest that two common ways of determining temporal sensitivity may give markedly different outcomes. Schlagwörter Adaptation, Ocularphysiology; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Contrast Sensitivityphysiology; Humans; Lighting; Sensory Thresholdsphysiology; Time Factors Anderson, D. J.; Legg, N. J.; Ridout, D. A. (1997): Preliminary trial of photic stimulation for premenstrual syndrome. In: Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jg. 17, H. 1, S. 76–79. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1080/01443619750114211. Abstract In an open study 17 women with confirmed, severe and long-standing premenstrual syndrome used photic stimulation with a flickering red light, every day for up to four menstrual cycles. At the end of treatment prospectively recorded median luteal symptom scores were reduced by 76% (95% confidence interval 54-93, P < 0.001), with clinically and statistically significant reductions for depression, anxiety, affective lability, irritability, poor concentration, fatigue, food cravings, bloating and breast pain. Twelve of the 17 patients (71%) no longer had the premenstrual syndrome. One patient failed to improve. One patient withdrew because of worsening premenstrual depression, but photic stimulation was otherwise well tolerated. The improvement is greater than that reported for relaxation or in open studies of fluoxetine, and much more than historical placebo rates. Photic stimulation may be a useful treatment for the premenstrual syndrome, and by its suggested action on circadian rhythms may have wider therapeutic applications. Becker, Cordula; Elliott, Mark A. (2006): Flicker-induced color and form: interdependencies and relation to stimulation frequency and phase. In: Consciousness and cognition, Jg. 15, H. 1, S. 175–196. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1016/j.concog.2005.05.004. Abstract Our understanding of human visual perception generally rests on the assumption that conscious visual states represent the interaction of spatial structures in the environment and our nervous system. This assumption is questioned by circumstances where conscious visual states can be triggered by external stimulation which is not primarily spatially defined. Here, subjective colors and forms are evoked by flickering light while the precise nature of those experiences varies over flicker frequency and phase. What's more, the occurrence of one subjective experience appears to be associated with the occurrence of others.

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While these data indicate that conscious visual experience may be evoked directly by particular variations in the flow of spatially unstructured light over time, it must be assumed that the systems responsible are essentially temporal in character and capable of representing a variety of visual forms and colors, coded in different frequencies or at different phases of the same processing rhythm. Adult; Color Perception; Humans; Light; Male; Models, Psychological; Physical Stimulationmethods; Time Factors; Visual Perception

Bobon, D. P.; Lecoq, A.; Frenckell, R. von; Mormont, I.; Lavergne, G.; Lottin, T.: [Critical flicker fusion frequency in psychopathology and psychopharmacology. Review of the literature]. In: Acta psychiatrica Belgica, Jg. 82, H. 1, S. 7–112. Abstract As far back as the second century, Ptolemy reported the apparent immobility of wheel radius at a certain speed. The psychophysical laws of this flicker fusion phenomenon related to the frequency of the light stimulus were established in 18341835 by the Englishman Talbot and by the Belgian Plateau, whose thesis in Liège is described as a landmark in the field. CFF is more a measurement of cortical arousal than of visual functions. In psychophysiology, CFF underwent periods of success and oblivion, at the mercy of researcher's enthusiasm or disappointment. At the turn of this century, Pierre Janet measured CFF in the laboratory of physiology of the Salpêtrière Hospital and demonstrated its decrease 'in hysteria, in states of depression, of lowered tension'. All reviewers of CFF literature have overlooked these observations, reported by Henri Piéron in the 'Melanges dedicated to Monsieur Pierre Janet'. When CFF falls into disgrace, it is because of the variability of its results, due to differences in apparatus and designs of the trials as well as the great number and the intrication of the variables which modify CFF thresholds, among them the nonsensory variables. When CFF is reappraised, as it has been the case in psychopharmacology in recent years, the reason is that it represents a brief, easy and economical measure of vigilance which, under certain conditions, seems to be also reliable, valid and sensitive. In the present monograph, the first in French on CFF, the authors try to analyze the most important contributions of the literature from the standpoint of the most relevant variables: characteristics of the stimulus (light intensity, wave form, wavelength, light-dark-ratio, diameter of the flickering point), test procedure (light vs. dark adaptation, visual angle, continuous vs. discontinuous presentation, monocular vs. binocular vision), influence of various physiological or psychological conditions (pupillary diameter, age, training, IQ; anxiety, depression, motivation etc.). The authors summarize the prerequisite for CFF to measure vigilance or aging in psychopharmacological research. The present Monograph is dedicated to the authors' 'Maîtres', who recently became Emeritus Professors, namely the ophthalmologist Roger Weekers, the pioneer of the clinical application of CFF in Belgium, and the psychiatrist Jean Bobon, who pioneered clinical psychopharmacology in Belgium. Schlagwörter Adaptation, Oculardrug effects; Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Dominance, Cerebralphysiology; Female; Flicker Fusiondrug effectsphysiology; Humans; Intelligencedrug effects; Male; Mental Disorderspsychology; Motivationdrug effects; Photic Stimulation; Psychotropic Drugspharmacology; Sensory Thresholds; Visual Fieldsdrug effects; Visual Pathwaysphysiology Boshouwers, F. M.; Nicaise, E. (1992): Responses of broiler chickens to high-frequency and low-frequency fluorescent light. In: British poultry science, Jg. 33, H. 4, S. 711–717. Abstract 1. The influence of the flicker frequency on physical activity and energy expenditure of broilers was studied using commercially available high-frequency (HF) and lowfrequency (LF) fluorescent lamps in a 23L:1D lighting schedule. 2. Broilers were reared under and adapted to HF. They were alternately subjected to HF and LF during measurement of activity and energy expenditure. 3. In comparison with HF, LF inhibited activity (number and intensity of movements), but did not influence energy expenditure. 4. It was concluded that the 100 Hz flickering of low-frequency

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light is detected by broilers and has measurable behavioural effects upon them. 5. The results were discussed in relation to current knowledge of human and birds' critical flicker frequency and perception. Animals; Chickensphysiology; Flicker Fusionphysiology; Lightingmethods; Motor Activityphysiology

Buerk, D. G.; Riva, C. E.; Cranstoun, S. D. (1995): Frequency and luminance-dependent blood flow and K+ ion changes during flicker stimuli in cat optic nerve head. In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, Jg. 36, H. 11, S. 2216–2227. Abstract PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood flow in the cat optic nerve head (ONH) is related to increased neuronal activity elicited by diffuse luminance flickering light stimulation. METHODS. ONH blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry in anesthetized cats during 1 to 3 minutes of flickering light stimulation at controlled luminance and frequency (n = 227 measurements in 18 cats) using either a conventional visual stimulator (repetitive short flashes) or a sinusoidally varying light stimulator. Potassium ion concentration ([K+]) changes in the vitreous humor immediately in front of the optic disk were measured with neutral carrier K+ ionophore liquid membrane microelectrodes. Effects of varying flicker frequency (2 to 80 Hz) at constant luminance were quantified. Effects of luminance were quantified by varying the modulation depth of the stimulus at constant frequency. RESULTS. Both ONH blood flow and [K+] increased during flicker stimulus with an average slope of 0.305% +/- 0.064% (SE)/microM [K+] (257 measurements in 18 cats). The peak ONH blood flow increase was 59% +/- 11% above baseline at 33.3 +/- 3.1 Hz. The peak [K+] increase was 188 +/- 42 microM above baseline at 38.3 +/- 3.3 Hz. Both ONH blood flow and [K+] changes had similar bandpass characteristics with frequency, first increasing, then dropping off at higher frequencies (122 measurements in 10 cats). Both frequency responses were described by power law functions (y = af"). Luminance responses for both ONH blood flow and [K+] changes could be fit by a modified Hill model and were 50% of maximum at light modulation depths of 21.2% +/- 4.6% and 22.5% +/- 3.7%, respectively (53 measurements in 5 cats). CONCLUSIONS. Increases in ONH blood flow were correlated with changes in [K+]. Both responses were remarkably similar, with no significant differences in the frequency for peak responses in ONH blood flow or [K+], in low- and high-frequency power law exponents of the two responses, or in the 50% response to light modulation. The results are consistent with close coupling of neuronal activity and ONH blood flow. Schlagwörter Animals; Biological Transport, Active; Blood Flow Velocityphysiology; Cats; Homeostasis; Laser-Doppler Flowmetry; Microelectrodes; Optic Diskblood supply; Optic Nervephysiology; Photic Stimulation; Potassiummetabolism; Vitreous Bodymetabolism Bush, R. A.; Sieving, P. A. (1996): Inner retinal contributions to the primate photopic fast flicker electroretinogram. In: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision, Jg. 13, H. 3, S. 557–565. Abstract The primate electroretinogram (ERG) recorded at the cornea in response to fast flickering light is thought to reflect primarily the cone photoreceptor potential. We investigated the origin of the photopic 33-Hz corneal flicker ERG to square-wave and photostrobe flashes by recording in the monkey before and after blocking postsynaptic responses with intravitreal injections of 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid and/or cis-2,3-piperidiendicarboxylic acid or sodium aspartate. Blocking postsynaptic ON or OFF responses produced effects on the timing and the waveform of the 33-Hz flicker ERG similar to changes in the b and the d waves in the corneal single-flash ERG. When all the ERG waves of postsynaptic origin in the flash ERG were abolished the flicker response was greatly suppressed, suggesting the postsynaptic cells producing the b and the d waves make major contributions to

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the photopic fast flicker ERG. Aminobutyric Acidspharmacology; Animals; Aspartic Acidpharmacology; Corneaphysiologyradiation effects; Electroretinography; Injections; Macaca fascicularisphysiology; Macaca mulattaphysiology; Photic Stimulationmethods; Pipecolic Acidspharmacology; Retinaphysiology; Synapsesdrug effects; Vitreous Body

Carmel, David; Saker, Pascal; Rees, Geraint; Lavie, Nilli (2007): Perceptual load modulates conscious flicker perception. In: Journal of vision, Jg. 7, H. 14, S. 14.1-13. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1167/7.14.14. Abstract Subjective visual experience depends not only on the spatial arrangement of the environment, but also on the temporal pattern of stimulation. For example, flickering and steady light presented in the same location evoke a very different perceptual experience due to their different temporal patterns. Here, we examined whether the availability of processing resources affected the temporal resolution of conscious flicker perception--the ability to distinguish rapid changes in light intensity, detecting visual temporal patterns. Participants detected flicker in a fixated LED that flickered at or around the individually adjusted critical flicker fusion (CFF) threshold while searching for a target letter presented in the periphery either on its own (low perceptual load) or among other letters (high load). Physically identical flickering stimuli were more likely to be perceived as "fused" under high (compared to low) load in the peripheral letter search. Furthermore, psychophysical measures showed a reduction in flicker detection sensitivity under high perceptual load. These results could not be due to criterion or stimulus prioritization differences or to differential likelihood of forgetting the correct response under different load conditions. These findings demonstrate that perceptual load influences conscious perception of temporal patterns. Schlagwörter Adult; Attentionphysiology; Female; Flicker Fusion; Humans; Light; Male; Periodicity; Psychophysics; Sensory Thresholds; Time Factors; Visual Fieldsphysiology; Visual Perceptionphysiology Chang, Y.; Burns, S. A.; Kreitz, M. R. (1993): Red-green flicker photometry and nonlinearities in the flicker electroretinogram. In: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics and image science, Jg. 10, H. 6, S. 1413–1422. We investigated whether responses from different cone classes are combined Abstract before or after the nonlinearity that is responsible for generating nonlinear response components of the flicker electroretinogram (ERG). We measured the nonlinear response of the retina while systematically varying the modulation in the longwavelength-sensitive and middle-wavelength-sensitive cones by changing the proportions of flickering 633- and 543-nm lights that compose a sum-of-sinusoids temporal waveform. We found that at high temporal frequencies the ERG responses are best accounted for by a model in which the principal retinal nonlinearity is located before the convergence of signals from the two cone classes. At low temporal frequencies the ERG signal is dominated by cone-antagonistic responses. At frequencies of 30 Hz and higher, the flicker ERG and psychophysical flicker photometry give similar estimates of the relative proportions of long- and middle-wavelength-sensitive cones. The ERG photometric null is frequency dependent, whereas the psychophysically determined ratio is much less sensitive to changes in frequency. Schlagwörter Color Perceptionphysiology; Electroretinography; Humans; Light; Male; Photometry; Photoreceptor Cellsphysiology; Psychophysics; Sensory Thresholds Colman, R. S.; Frankel, F.; Ritvo, E.; Freeman, B. J. (1976): The effects of fluorescent and incandescent illumination upon repetitive behaviors in autistic children. In: Journal of autism and childhood schizophrenia, Jg. 6, H. 2, S. 157–162. Abstract Repetitive behaviors of six autistic children were observed under two conditions of background illumination. During two sessions, the room was illuminated by

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fluorescent light and during two other sessions, by equal intensity incandescent light. Subjects spent significantly more time engaged in repetitive behavior under fluorescent light. Previous research suggested that these findings were related to the flickering nature of fluorescent ilumination. Practical and theoretical implications were discussed. Further experimentation was suggested to assess relationships between flickering illumination and arousal. Arousal; Autistic Disorderdiagnosis; Behavior; Child, Preschool; Humans; Intelligence Tests; Lighting; Male; Reinforcement (Psychology); Stereotyped Behavior

Corwin, T. R.; Dunlap, W. P. (1987): The shape of the high frequency flicker sensitivity curve. In: Vision research, Jg. 27, H. 12, S. 2119–2123. Abstract For a light flickering with a modulation amplitude delta L, there is a single frequency f above which the light appears steady (fused). The relationship between delta L and f has been measured often under a variety of conditions, but its mathematical form is disputed. Three candidate functions have been proposed: (1) log delta L alpha f [Ferry-Porter law], (2) log delta L alpha f1/2 [diffusion model], and (3) log delta L alpha log f [cascaded integrator model]. Although all three functions roughly fit flicker fusion data (after appropriate linear transformation), they differ in curvature. We compared these functions using the general expression (4) log delta L alpha f lambda, where lambda denotes a curvature parameter. Functions (1)-(3) are special cases of (4) with lambda = 1, 0.5, and 0 respectively. When applied to 35 sets of flicker fusion data, the mean values of the best fitting lambda for each data-set was 0.919 (95% confidence interval 1.027 to 0.812). We conclude that the Ferry-Porter law describes most data better than a diffusion model, and that an integrator model deviates consistently in every case. Schlagwörter Flicker Fusionphysiology; Humans; Mathematics; Models, Neurological Crewther, Sheila G.; Barutchu, Ayla; Murphy, Melanie J.; Crewther, David P. (2006): Low frequency temporal modulation of light promotes a myopic shift in refractive compensation to all spectacle lenses. In: Experimental eye research, Jg. 83, H. 2, S. 322–328. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1016/j.exer.2005.12.016. Abstract Emmetropization, the process by which ocular growth of young animals adapts to ensure focussed retinal images, can be disrupted by high frequency flicker, causing a hypermetropic shift. Emmetropization can also be disrupted differentially, in a sign dependent manner, by pharmacological alteration of the balance of activation of the ON and OFF retinal sub-systems in normal light or by rearing in an environment with a moving spatiotemporally varied diamond pattern (yielding local sawtooth illumination on the retina). Thus the aim of this experiment was to determine whether low frequency temporal modulation alone was sufficient to cause defocus sign-dependent interference with compensation. Chicks were reared for 6 or 7 days with monocular +/-10 D, 0 D, or No Lenses in a 12h light/dark cycle. Luminance of the environment was temporally modulated during the light cycle with a non-square wave profile pulse of 250 msec duration, with the illumination fluctuating between 1.5 and 180 lux at 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 4 Hz or with no flicker (0 Hz-180 lux). Final refractive state and ocular dimensions, measured using retinoscopy and A-scan ultrasonography, demonstrated that in the absence of temporal luminance modulation (0 Hz), chicks compensated to induced defocus in the expected signdependent manner. However, under 1, 2 and 4 Hz flickering light conditions, there was an overall myopic offset of approximately 6D across lens groups with refractive compensation to positive lenses more strongly inhibited. This myopic offset was reflected by increases in the depth of both vitreous and anterior chambers. However, luminance modulation had no effect on refraction or ocular parameters in the No Lens conditions. This is a hitherto unreported strong interaction between lens wear and low frequency temporally modulated light, with the refractive compensation mechanism being overridden by a generalized myopic shift. Schlagwörter Accommodation, Ocularphysiology; Adaptation, Ocularphysiology; Animals;

iLib08 - Citavi Chickens; Contact Lenses; Eyeglasses; Light; Male; Myopiaphysiopathology; Photic Stimulationmethods; Refraction, Ocularphysiology; Time Factors Delorme, A.; Frigon, J. Y.; Lavoie, G. (1976): [The illusion of movement in flickering light: the effect of the frequency of flicker and the intensity of the light]. In: Canadian journal of psychology, Jg. 30, H. 2, S. 115–121. Schlagwörter Female; Flicker Fusion; Humans; Illusions; Lighting; Male; Motion Perception; Optical Illusions; Visual Perception Dezawa, M.; Mo, X.; Oshitari, T.; Takano, M.; Meyer-Rochow, V. B.; Sawada, H.; Eguchi, E. (2001): Effects of light and darkness on cell deaths in damaged retinal ganglion cells of the carp retina. In: Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis, Jg. 61, H. 2, S. 85–91. Abstract Effects of light and darkness on the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in young carp were measured by TUNEL method after transection of the optic nerve. Following the operation, the fish were kept under one of four regimens; constant darkness (DD), constant light (LL), 12 hr light and 12 hr dark (LD) and 3 hr of flickering light followed by 21 hr in the dark (FL). On day 3, the highest ratio of apoptotic RGCs was seen under conditions of DD, followed by LL, LD, and FL. On day 6, the percentages of apoptotic RGCs were lower under every experimental condition than what they had been earlier on day 3, but the same ranking order was maintained. Immunohistochemically it could be shown that phosphorylated ERKs were more intensively localized in FL rather than DD retinas. The results suggest that illumination regimens, and in particular cyclic diurnal light/dark changes, have an influence on the degree of apoptosis of damaged RGCs, and that inhibition of apoptosis is correlated with the higher expression of phosphorylated ERKs. Schlagwörter Adaptation, Ocularphysiology; Animals; Apoptosisphysiology; Carps; Dark Adaptationphysiology; Darkness; Fluorescent Antibody Technique; In Situ Nick-End Labeling; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinasesmetabolism; Optic Nerve Injuriespathologyphysiopathology; Photic Stimulation; Retinal Ganglion Cellsenzymologypathology Diamond, A. L. (1979): Microsecond sensitivity of the human visual system to irregular flicker. In: Science (New York, N.Y.), Jg. 206, H. 4419, S. 708–710. Abstract A flickering light presented to the eye produces a small alternating voltage at the scalp of a subject. This alternating voltage indicates the following response of the brain to the flicker. If every other flash in the flicker is displaced temporally by as little as 30 microseconds, an asymmetry appears in the brain's alternating voltage. The results suggest an underlying mechanism that may enhance visual detection of high-frequency flicker. Schlagwörter Evoked Potentials; Flicker Fusionphysiology; Humans; Time Factors; Vision, Ocular Dixon, Bernard (2004): Green light flickering for the UK's first GM crop. In: Current biology : CB, Jg. 14, H. 6, S. R213-4. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.02.043. Schlagwörter Government Regulation; Great Britain; Journalism; Plants, Genetically Modified; Zea mays Dong, C. J.; McReynolds, J. S. (1992): Comparison of the effects of flickering and steady light on dopamine release and horizontal cell coupling in the mudpuppy retina. In: Journal of neurophysiology, Jg. 67, H. 2, S. 364–372. Abstract 1. The effects of flickering adapting illumination (repetitive flashes) on horizontal cell responses to illumination of the center and surround portions of the receptive field were compared with those of steady adapting illumination in dark-adapted mudpuppy retinas. 2. Exposure to flickering adapting light caused an increase in amplitude of responses to small spots in the receptive-field center and a decrease in the response to a concentric annulus. This is interpreted as due to an increase in coupling resistance between horizontal cells. 3. The uncoupling effect of flickering adapting light was no greater than that of the same quantity of steady adapting light

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at the same intensity, even when the rate of flickering was varied by a factor of 10. 4. The uncoupling effect of flickering light was blocked by the dopamine antagonists fluphenazine and SCH23390, indicating that it is mediated by dopamine release. 5. The uncoupling effect of flickering light was also blocked in the presence of 2amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (APB), which prevents light responses of on-center but not off-center bipolar cells, suggesting that flickering light increases dopamine release via the on-pathway. 6. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist bicuculline had an uncoupling effect similar to that of adapting illumination. This effect was blocked by dopamine antagonists, indicating that there is tonic GABAmediated inhibition of dopamine release in mudpuppy retina similar to that previously reported by others in fish and turtle retinas. 7. The uncoupling effect of bicuculline was not reversed by APB. However, APB alone caused an increase in coupling that was rapidly reversed by bicuculline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Aminobutyric Acidspharmacology; Animals; Benzazepinespharmacology; Bicucullinepharmacology; Darkness; Dopaminemetabolism; Dopamine Antagonists; Fluphenazinepharmacology; Necturus; Photic Stimulation; Retinacytologymetabolism; Visual Fieldsdrug effects

Falkowska, Z. (1976): [Harmful effects of flickering light]. In: Klinika oczna, Jg. 46, H. 7, S. 823–825. Schlagwörter Adult; Child; Epilepsyetiology; Female; Humans; Male; Photic Stimulationadverse effectsinstrumentation Falsini, B.; Fadda, A.; Iarossi, G.; Piccardi, M.; Canu, D.; Minnella, A. et al. (2000): Retinal sensitivity to flicker modulation: reduced by early age-related maculopathy. In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, Jg. 41, H. 6, S. 1498–1506. Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate retinal, cone-mediated flicker sensitivity (CFS) in agerelated maculopathy (ARM) by quantifying response gain and threshold of the focal electroretinogram (FERG) to flicker modulation. METHODS: Nineteen patients with ARM (visual acuity > or =20/30) and 11 age-matched control subjects were examined. Twelve patients had less than 20 soft drusen in the macular region and no hyper-/hypopigmentation (early lesion), whereas seven had more than 20 soft drusen and/or focal hyper-/hypopigmentation (advanced lesion). Macular (18 degree ) FERGs were elicited by a sinusoidally flickering (41 Hz) uniform field (on a light-adapting background) whose modulation depth was varied between 16.5% and 94%. Amplitude and phase of the response's fundamental harmonic were measured. RESULTS: In both control subjects and patients with ARM, log FERG amplitude increased with log stimulus modulation depth with a straight line (power law) relation. However, the slope (or gain) of the function was, on average, steeper in control subjects than in patients with either early or advanced lesions. Mean FERG threshold, estimated from the value of the log modulation depth that yielded a criterion response, did not differ between control subjects and patients with early lesions but was increased (0.35 log units) compared with control subjects in those with advanced lesions. In both patient groups, but not in control subjects, mean FERG phase tended to delay with decreasing stimulus modulation depth. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal CFS losses can be detected in ARM by evaluating the FERG as a function of flicker modulation depth. Reduced response gain and phase delays, with normal thresholds, are associated with early lesions. Increased response thresholds, in addition to gain and phase abnormalities, may reflect more advanced lesions. Evaluating CFS by FERG may directly document different stages of macular dysfunction in ARM. Schlagwörter Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Color Vision Defectsphysiopathology; Electroretinographymethods; Female; Flicker Fusion; Humans; Macular Degenerationphysiopathology; Male; Middle Aged; Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cellsphysiopathology; Visual Acuity

iLib08 - Citavi Friedman, Deborah I.; Dye, Timothy de ver (2009): Migraine and the environment. In: Headache, Jg. 49, H. 6, S. 941–952. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2009.01443.x. Abstract Migraineurs often describe environmental triggers of their headaches, such as barometric pressure change, bright sunlight, flickering lights, air quality, and odors. Environmental aspects of indoor space and workplaces are also implicated in migraine experience. Comprehensive migraine treatment programs emphasize awareness and avoidance of trigger factors as part of the therapeutic regimen. As migraine has a substantial economic impact, remediation of correctable environmental triggers may benefit employee attendance and productivity among migraineurs. Few controlled studies in the literature, however, confirm environmental influences on migraine and headaches. Although some are controversial, migraineurs worldwide consistently report similar environmental triggers. This article addresses commonly mentioned environmental triggers with a discussion of their pathophysiology and proposed preventive measures. OBJECTIVE: To examine the epidemiological evidence for commonly-mentioned environmental migraine triggers, discuss their possible role in the pathophysiology of migraine and propose preventive measures to avoid or minimize exposure. BACKGROUND: Migraineurs often describe environmental triggers of their headaches, such as barometric pressure change, bright sunlight, flickering lights, air quality and odors. Environmental aspects of indoor space and workplaces are also implicated in the migraine experience. As migraine has a substantial economic impact, remediation of correctable environmental triggers may improve attendance and productivity among migraineurs in the workplace. METHODS: We reviewed the literature addressing indoor and outdoor environmental factors which are commonly implicated as migraine triggers. RESULTS: Although some factors are controversial, migraineurs worldwide consistently report similar environmental triggers. However, few studies confirm environmental influences on migraine and headaches. Research to date indicates that migraineurs have lower thresholds for light-induced discomfort, sine grating distortion and illusions, noise tolerance and olfactory sensitivity compared to the general population. CONCLUSION: There are conflicting studies supporting the validity of patient-reported environmental migraine triggers. Prospective studies are needed to determine the extent that external stimuli influence the migraine process. Decreased thresholds for light, noise, olfactory and visual stimuli in migraineurs may be minimized by modifying the work, home and classroom settings. Grădină, C.; Chihaia, V.; Constantinidis, A.; Cristian, K.: [Electroencephalographic studies of persons experimentally exposed to flickering and non-flickering incandescent and fluorescent lighting]. In: Fiziologia normală şi patologică, Jg. 12, H. 4, S. 317–325. Schlagwörter Cerebral Cortexphysiology; Electroencephalography; Fluorescence; Humans; Lighting GRANDA, A. M. (1961): Electrical responses of the human eye to colored flickering light. In: Journal of the Optical Society of America, Jg. 51, S. 648–654. Schlagwörter Color Perceptionphysiology; Ocular Physiological Phenomena Guggenheim, P.; Scollo-Lavizzari, G.; Hess, R. (1968): [Diagnostic singificance of increased brain electric reaction to flickering light]. In: Fortschritte der Neurologie, Psychiatrie, und ihrer Grenzgebiete, Jg. 36, H. 6, S. 342–372. Schlagwörter Adolescent; Adult; Child; Electroencephalography; Epilepsydiagnosis; Female; Humans; Light; Male; Methods; Migraine Disordersdiagnosis; Nervous System Diseasesdiagnosis; Photosensitivity Disorders; Seizuresdiagnosis Guignard, C.; van Toi, V.; Burckhardt, C. W.; Schelling, J. L. (1983): Effect of digoxin on the sensitivity to flickering light. In: British journal of clinical pharmacology, Jg. 15, H. 2, S. 189–196. Abstract 1 The sensitivity to flickering light at various light frequencies (DeLange curve) was

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determined in 20 controls and 45 patients receiving maintenance doses of digoxin. 2 Flicker thresholds (mean percentage of maximal light modulation +/- s.d.; F 30 Hz) were 7.6 +/- 1.7 in controls and 9.4 +/- 1.7 in patients with optimal plasma digoxin levels (0.5-1.9 ng/ml), but they rose to 15.5 +/- 1.9 at subtoxic levels (2.03.0 ng/ml), and to 21.8 +/- 2.6 at toxic levels (above 3.0 ng/ml). 3 Flicker sensitivity was inversely correlated with plasma digoxin levels and returned to baseline values when the administration of digoxin was interrupted. 4 The DeLange curve seems to be a valuable tool to measure the toxic effects of digitalis on the visual system. Digoxinbloodpoisoning; Female; Flicker Fusiondrug effects; Humans; Lightdiagnostic use; Male

Haamedi, Sakineh N.; Djamgoz, Mustafa B. A. (2002): Dopamine and nitric oxide control both flickering and steady-light-induced cone contraction and horizontal cell spinule formation in the teleost (carp) retina: serial interaction of dopamine and nitric oxide. In: The Journal of comparative neurology, Jg. 449, H. 2, S. 120–128. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1002/cne.10278. Adaptation to ambient light, which is an important characteristic of the vertebrate Abstract visual system, involves cellular and subcellular (synaptic) plasticity of the retina. The present study investigated dopamine (DA) and nitric oxide (NO) as possible neurochemical modulators controlling cone photomechanical movements (PMMs) and horizontal cell (HC) spinules in relation to steady and flickering light adaptation in the carp retina. Haloperidol (HAL; a nonspecific DA receptor blocker) or cPTIO (a NO scavenger) largely inhibited the cone PMMs and HC spinule formation induced by either steady or flickering light. These results suggested that both DA and NO could be involved in the light-adaptation changes induced by either pattern of input and that DA and NO effects may not be completely independent. The possibility that NO and DA interact serially was evaluated pharmacologically by cross-antagonist application (i.e., DA + cPTIO or NO + HAL). When a NO donor was coapplied with HAL to dark-adapted eyecups, normal light-adaptive cone PMMs and HC spinules occurred. In contrast, when DA was applied in the presence of cPTIO, the darkadapted state persisted. It was concluded 1) that DA and NO are both light-adaptive neurochemicals, released in the retina during either steady or flickering light; 2) that the effects of DA and NO on light-adaptive cone PMMs and HC spinules do not occur in parallel; and 3) that NO and DA act mainly in series, specifically as follows: Light --> DA --> NO --> Cone PMMs + HC spinules. Schlagwörter Adaptation, Ocularphysiology; Animals; Carpsmetabolism; Dopaminemetabolismphysiologysecretion; Flicker Fusionphysiology; Light; Nitric Oxidemetabolismphysiologysecretion; Photic Stimulationmethods; Retinametabolismphysiologysecretion; Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cellsmetabolismphysiologysecretion Hasenöhrl, R.; Berger, H. (1970): [Influence of intensive dazzling stimuli on the electroretinogram of monochromatic flickering light in man]. In: Acta biologica et medica Germanica, Jg. 25, H. 5, S. 847–854. Schlagwörter Accommodation, Ocular; Adaptation, Ocular; Adult; Amplifiers, Electronic; Electrophysiology; Electroretinography; Humans; Light; Male; Photosensitivity Disorders; Retinaphysiology HAUSLER, H. P.; Siedek, H. (1951): [Studies on the effect of minimal work and flickering light on circulation and gaseous metabolism.]. In: Cardiologia, Jg. 18, H. 4, S. 233–243. Schlagwörter Blood Circulation; Light; Work Herrmann, C. S. (2001): Human EEG responses to 1-100 Hz flicker: resonance phenomena in visual cortex and their potential correlation to cognitive phenomena. In: Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale, Jg. 137, H. 3-4, S. 346–353. Abstract The individual properties of visual objects, like form or color, are represented in different areas in our visual cortex. In order to perceive one coherent object, its features have to be bound together. This was found to be achieved in cat and

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monkey brains by temporal correlation of the firing rates of neurons which code the same object. This firing rate is predominantly observed in the gamma frequency range (approx. 30-80 Hz, mainly around 40 Hz). In addition, it has been shown in humans that stimuli which flicker at gamma frequencies are processed faster by our brains than when they flicker at different frequencies. These effects could be due to neural oscillators, which preferably oscillate at certain frequencies, so-called resonance frequencies. It is also known that neurons in visual cortex respond to flickering stimuli at the frequency of the flickering light. If neural oscillators exist with resonance frequencies, they should respond more strongly to stimulation with their resonance frequency. We performed an experiment, where ten human subjects were presented flickering light at frequencies from 1 to 100 Hz in 1-Hz steps. The event-related potentials exhibited steady-state oscillations at all frequencies up to at least 90 Hz. Interestingly, the steady-state potentials exhibited clear resonance phenomena around 10, 20, 40 and 80 Hz. This could be a potential neural basis for gamma oscillations in binding experiments. The pattern of results resembles that of multiunit activity and local field potentials in cat visual cortex. Adult; Brain Mapping; Cognitionphysiology; Electroencephalography; Evoked Potentials; Female; Humans; Male; Photic Stimulation; Visual Cortexphysiology

Hess, R. F.; Harding, G. F.; Drasdo, N. (1974): Seizures induced by flickering light. In: American journal of optometry and physiological optics, Jg. 51, H. 8, S. 517–529. Schlagwörter Action Potentials; Age Factors; Anticonvulsantstherapeutic use; Behavior Therapy; Brainphysiopathology; Contact Lenses; Electroencephalography; Epilepsydrug therapyetiologyphysiopathologytherapy; Eyeglasses; Female; Humans; Lightadverse effects; Male; Photic Stimulation; Sex Factors; Television; Time Factors HOFMANN-CREDNER, D. (1953): [Effect of flickering light on water diuresis in man.]. In: Helvetica medica acta, Jg. 20, H. 1, S. 1–19. Schlagwörter Diuresis Horn, F. K.; Link, B.; Dehne, K.; Lämmer, R.; Jünemann, A. G. (2006): [Flicker provocation with LED full-field stimulation in normals and glaucoma patients]. In: Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft, Jg. 103, H. 10, S. 866–872. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1007/s00347-0061389-5. Abstract BACKGROUND: Flicker light is an easy method to test sensory function after stress. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of flicker stress on temporal contrast sensitivity in healthy controls and patients with glaucomatous alteration of the optic disk. METHODS: A commercially available full-field stimulator (Retiport, Roland Consult) equipped with white LEDs was modified to perform psychophysical tests. The patients underwent measurements of the recovery time interval from cessation of flicker stress until recognition of a pregiven flicker contrast after photo stress. In addition, we studied contrast sensitivity with a continuous flickering target and with a flicker burst protocol avoiding adaptation to prevailing flicker. All tests were performed at a constant retinal illumination and at a frequency of 37 Hz for provocation as well as for contrast sensitivity tests. SUBJECTS: Normal healthy controls (40), "preperimetric" (62), and "perimetric" (52) open-angle glaucoma patients were studied. Exclusion criteria were age lower than 31 years, visual acuity under 0.6, and perimetric mean defect more than 9.5 dB. RESULTS: Recovery time after flicker stress was significantly longer in patients than in normals and longer in perimetric than in preperimetric patients. Analysis in perimetric patients revealed a larger area under ROC for the provocation test (0.95) than in contrast sensitivity tests (continuous flicker method: 0.90, flicker burst mode: 0.84). CONCLUSION: High-power LEDs which are installed in modern full-field devices can be used as a helpful tool to study psychophysical properties. In the present study it could be shown that threshold, adaptation, and recovery of temporal

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transfer characteristics are impaired in many patients with glaucoma. Contrast Sensitivity; Female; Flicker Fusion; Glaucomadiagnosis; Humans; Lightinginstrumentationmethods; Male; Middle Aged; Perimetryinstrumentationmethods; Photic Stimulationinstrumentationmethods; Reference Values; Reproducibility of Results; Semiconductors; Sensitivity and Specificity

Isokawa-Akesson, M.; Komisaruk, B. R. (1985): Tuning the power spectrum of physiological finger tremor frequency with flickering light. In: Journal of neuroscience research, Jg. 14, H. 3, S. 373–380. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1002/jnr.490140309. Abstract Fast Fourier Transform analyses were performed on finger tremor movements at 0.2-Hz intervals from 0.4 to 40 Hz in 10 human subjects, under a flickering light condition of 4-15 Hz and an unstimulated control condition. Under the control condition, the power spectrum showed an essentially normal curve distribution, except for an early frequency component in the histogram. In contrast, when the flickering light stimulus was presented, the power of specific frequency components at 8-11 Hz was strongly enhanced. This effect was induced exclusively at a frequency of 8, 9, or 11 Hz of flickering light, and this flickering frequency producing the enhancement effect differed from subject to subject. There existed a significant correlation between the frequencies of flicker and tremor at the tuned frequency. These findings demonstrate that a specific frequency of flickering light can intensify a specific frequency of physiological finger tremor, and that different individuals exhibit different optimal "tuning" frequencies. Schlagwörter Adult; Electroencephalography; Female; Fingersphysiology; Fourier Analysis; Humans; Male; Movement; Photic Stimulation Jacome, D. E.; Risko, M. (1986): Lightning artifact in the EEG. In: Clinical EEG (electroencephalography), Jg. 17, H. 2, S. 105–109. Abstract Lightning is highly prevalent in South Florida. The artifact caused by lightning in EEG recordings is of variable duration and seen as abrupt deflection of pens, sometimes followed by sustained pen drift and slow recovery mimicking amplifier overload as caused by rapid unplugging and plugging of the equipment power cable from the wall outlet. Since this artifact was associated to hospital light flickering and was recorded independent of machine location and orientation, we believe it is secondary to extreme brief Mains voltage fluctuations, probably due to horizontal lightning electric field effects rather than radio or electromagnetic interference generated by lightning. Schlagwörter Electroencephalography; Florida; Humans; Lightning Kanai, Ryota; Chaieb, Leila; Antal, Andrea; Walsh, Vincent; Paulus, Walter (2008): Frequency-dependent electrical stimulation of the visual cortex. In: Current biology : CB, Jg. 18, H. 23, S. 1839–1843. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.10.027. Abstract Noninvasive cortical stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have proved to be powerful tools for establishing causal relationships between brain regions and their functions. In the present study, we demonstrate that a new technique called transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can interact with ongoing rhythmic activities in the visual cortex in a frequency-specific fashion and induce visual experiences (phosphenes). We delivered an oscillatory current over the occipital cortex with tACS. In order to observe interactions with ongoing cortical rhythms, we compared the effects of delivering tACS under conditions of light ("Light" condition) or darkness ("Dark" condition). Stimulation over the occipital cortex induced perception of continuously flickering light most effectively when the beta frequency range was applied in an illuminated room, whereas the most effective stimulation frequency shifted to the alpha frequency range during testing in darkness. Stimulation with theta or gamma frequencies did not produce any visual

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phenomena. The shift of the effective stimulation frequency indicates that the frequency dependency is caused by interactions with ongoing oscillatory activity in the stimulated cortex. Our results suggest that tACS can be used as a noninvasive tool for establishing a causal link between rhythmic cortical activities and their functions. Darkness; Electric Stimulationmethods; Female; Humans; Light; Male; Phosphenesphysiology; Visual Cortexphysiology; Visual Perceptionphysiology

Kelly, D. H. (1975): Luminous and chromatic flickering patterns have opposite effects. In: Science (New York, N.Y.), Jg. 188, H. 4186, S. 371–372. Abstract When stimulated in phase by a sinusoidally flickering, uniform field, the red and green cone systems tend to inhibit each other. This inhibition is minimized by (i) counterphase (luminance) patterns or (ii) red/green (chromaticity) flicker. However, when (i) and (ii) are combined, the usual flickering-pattern effect is reversed: instead of enhancing chromatic flicker, counterphase patterns tend to suppress it. Schlagwörter Color Perception; Discrimination (Psychology); Flicker Fusion; Humans; Information Theory; Light; Models, Neurological; Pattern Recognition, Visual; Photic Stimulation; Photoreceptor Cellsphysiology; Visual Fields Kim, R. Y.; Retsas, S.; Fitzke, F. W.; Arden, G. B.; Bird, A. C. (1994): Cutaneous melanoma-associated retinopathy. In: Ophthalmology, Jg. 101, H. 11, S. 1837–1843. Abstract PURPOSE: To define further the syndrome of cutaneous melanoma-associated retinopathy, of which only five affected patients have been reported previously. METHODS: Three men with melanoma-associated retinopathy were examined and studied electrophysiologically. Two were studied in detail psychophysically. RESULTS: Visual symptoms consisted of flickering black and white spots, shimmering patches of colors, and night blindness. The onset was acute and nonprogressive. Reduced amplitudes were observed in the flash electroretinographic b-wave and the pattern electroretinogram. Color vision, contrast sensitivity, and light- and dark-adapted perimetric sensitivities were abnormal. In one patient, the rate of dark adaptation was normal with elevated final cone and rod thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: Melanoma-associated retinopathy is a paraneoplastic syndrome distinct from cancer-associated retinopathy with a different visual prognosis. It may preferentially affect men. Schlagwörter Aged; Color Vision Defectsetiology; Dark Adaptation; Electroretinography; Humans; Male; Melanomacomplications; Middle Aged; Paraneoplastic Syndromes; Prognosis; Retinal Diseasesdiagnosisetiology; Skin Neoplasmscomplications; Vision Disordersdiagnosisetiology; Vision Tests; Visual Acuity Kiryu, J.; Asrani, S.; Shahidi, M.; Mori, M.; Zeimer, R. (1995): Local response of the primate retinal microcirculation to increased metabolic demand induced by flicker. In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, Jg. 36, H. 7, S. 1240–1246. Abstract PURPOSE. To study the response of the macular circulation to a local increase in metabolic demand created by a flickering source of illumination. METHODS. Lasertargeted angiography (release of a fluorescent dye from heat-sensitive liposomes using a laser pulse) was used to study, in subhuman primates, changes in hemodynamic parameters of the retinal circulation that were induced by a flickering source of illumination. Changes in the macular macrocirculation were compared with those in the macular microcirculation and were evaluated at various distances from the foveola. RESULTS. In response to monochromatic light flicker, the blood flow in retinal arteries increased by 30%. The response of the microcirculation was not homogeneous. It showed a maximum increase in the mid-perifoveal region where there is an increase in ganglion cells and nerve fibers. Interestingly, the maximum change in the index representing capillary blood flow exceeded the blood flow change in the artery (P < 0.08). CONCLUSIONS. A stimulus expected to cause increased metabolic demand results in a regulatory response by the retinal

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microcirculation. This response shows spatial variations that correspond with known variations in retinal anatomy. The authors propose that a redistribution of blood can occur between the capillary layers to fulfill high metabolic demands by neuronal tissue remote from the choroid. Animals; Arteriolesphysiology; Blood Flow Velocityphysiology; Fluorescein Angiography; Fundus Oculi; Hemodynamicsphysiology; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Light; Macula Luteablood supply; Microcirculation; Papio; Retinametabolismradiation effects; Retinal Vesselsphysiologyradiation effects

Kolbinger, W.; Weiler, R.: Modulation of endogenous dopamine release in the turtle retina: effects of light, calcium, and neurotransmitters. In: Visual neuroscience, Jg. 10, H. 6, S. 1035–1041. Abstract In the turtle retina, dopamine has been observed in a small population of amacrine cells. Whereas the effect of dopamine has been intensively studied, knowledge about the release of this transmitter and the neuronal control of its release are still poorly understood. We therefore decided to study the release of endogenous dopamine. Isolated retinas were superfused with Ringer's solutions and stimulated with increased potassium, light, or drugs which interfere with neurotransmitter systems. Dopamine was analyzed by using aluminum-oxide extraction and highpressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. Increased potassium (25 mM) caused a five-fold increase in the basal release. When calcium was replaced by cobalt, no increase was induced by 25 mM potassium. Flickering light increased the basal release of endogenous dopamine by a factor of three. The effect of flickering light was greater in the presence of additional steady background illumination. Kainate (10 microM), an agonist for excitatory amino acids, doubled the basal dopamine release. Bicuculline (10 microM), a gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) antagonist, increased the release to about six times the basal level. Naloxone (10 microM), an opiate antagonist, increased the release to eight times the basal level. These findings suggest that dopamine is released from amacrine cells in the turtle retina in a calcium-dependent manner, which is most likely a vesicular release. Dopamine release is induced by flickering light vs. darkness and vs. steady background illumination. A moderate background illumination alone does not significantly increase basal dopamine release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Schlagwörter Animals; Calciumpharmacology; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Dopaminebiosynthesis; Light; Neurotransmitter Agentspharmacology; Potassiumpharmacology; Retinadrug effectsmetabolism; Turtles Korol, S.; Chanson, J. F.; Meyer, J. J. (1976): [The use of flickering light in the functional study of the macula]. In: Bulletins et mémoires de la Société française d'ophtalmologie, Jg. 88, S. 30–39. Schlagwörter Adolescent; Adult; Child; Electroretinography; Female; Flicker Fusion; Humans; Macular Degenerationdiagnosis; Male; Middle Aged; Retinal Degenerationdiagnosis Kowacs, P. A.; Piovesan, E. J.; Werneck, L. C.; Fameli, H.; Pereira da Silva, H. (2004): Headache related to a specific screen flickering frequency band. In: Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache, Jg. 24, H. 5, S. 408–410. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1111/j.1468-2982.2004.00686.x. Abstract The case of a 25-year-old white male, who had migrainous headaches each time he sat in front of his personal computer screen, is described. Changing the screen frequency from 60 to 75 Hz through a Windows command could abolish the headaches. In several surveys, computer screens have been reported to be a migraine trigger. We hypothesize that this environmental trigger may be related to the abnormal flicker fusion thresholds that have been described in migraineurs. It may be that modifying the frequencies of light sources, such as computer screens, could become a non-pharmacological approach to prevent migraine attacks. Schlagwörter Adult; Computer Terminals; Headacheetiology; Humans; Male; Photic Stimulationadverse effects

iLib08 - Citavi Lalitha, R.; Suthanthirarajan, N.; Namasivayam, A.: Effect of flickering light stress on certain biochemical parameters in rats. In: Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology, Jg. 32, H. 3, S. 182–186. Abstract The acute effects of flickering light of 80 Lux intensity for thirty minutes duration, on plasma corticosterone, total serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels were studied in albino rats. Statistically significant increase was observed in the corticosterone, cholesterol, SGOT and SGPT, while a marked reduction was seen in the serum triglyceride level, indicating that the flickering light is a potent stressor to these animals causing alterations in the biochemical parameters studied. Schlagwörter Alanine Transaminaseblood; Animals; Aspartate Aminotransferasesblood; Cholesterolblood; Corticosteroneblood; Female; Lightadverse effects; Male; Rats; Rats, Inbred Strains; Stress, Physiologicalbloodetiology; Triglyceridesblood Maddocks, S. A.; Goldsmith, A. R.; Cuthill, I. C. (2001): The influence of flicker rate on plasma corticosterone levels of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris. In: General and comparative endocrinology, Jg. 124, H. 3, S. 315–320. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1006/gcen.2001.7718. Recent reviews have highlighted the differences between human and avian vision Abstract with regard to temporal resolution and the potential problems it may cause for avian welfare and video playback experiments. Birds tend to have much higher critical fusion frequencies than do humans (>100 Hz vs 50-60 Hz in humans), which means that they perceive light as flickering up to and over 100 Hz. This is higher than most television monitors (which have refresh rates of 50 or 60 Hz) and normal fluorescent lighting (100 or 120 Hz), and because humans find flickering light aversive, it has been suggested that birds will as well. If this were the case, then there would be welfare implications of maintaining them under such lighting and also a potential effect on their behavioral responses in video playback experiments. However, there is some behavioral evidence that indicates that birds do not appear to find flicker aversive and may even prefer flickering lighting. The authors aimed to determine whether a passerine, the European starling, found flicker aversive by measuring the corticosterone stress response in birds maintained under high- or low-frequency fluorescent lighting (35-40 kHz vs 100 Hz) for 1 or 24 h. The results suggest that low-frequency lighting is potentially more stressful because, where differences exist, birds in the low-frequency treatment always showed higher basal corticosterone. However, the evidence is not consistent because in half of the blocks, there were no significant treatment effects and, where there were, the time course of the effects was variable. Schlagwörter Animals; Corticosteroneblood; Flicker Fusion; Songbirdsblood Mäkelä, P.; Rovamo, J.; Whitaker, D. (1994): Effects of luminance and external temporal noise on flicker sensitivity as a function of stimulus size at various eccentricities. In: Vision research, Jg. 34, H. 15, S. 1981–1991. Abstract We studied how the dependence of flicker sensitivity on stimulus size was affected by the eccentricity of the stimulus at high luminance, at low luminance (with quantal noise), and at high luminance with the addition of pure white temporal noise. Flicker sensitivity was measured as a function of stimulus size for temporal frequencies of 1-30 Hz with uniform sinusoidally flickering spots. Sensitivity first increased with increasing stimulus size but then the increase saturated. At high luminance the saturation took place at larger stimulus sizes with increasing eccentricity. Without externally added temporal noise the maximum sensitivity was higher at the fovea than in the periphery at temporal frequencies of 1-10 Hz, but at 30 Hz this situation reversed. Therefore only the ascending parts of the spatial integration curves from various eccentricities could be superimposed by size scaling. E2, the eccentricity at which the spatial scale doubles, was found to be 2.2-2.7 deg for 1-10 Hz but 4.4 deg for 30 Hz. When enough temporal noise was added, performance at all stimulus sizes studied could be made independent of eccentricity by spatial scaling,

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since noise reduced maximum sensitivities to a constant level at all eccentricities. E2 was found to be 4.1 deg for 3 Hz and 7.2 deg for 30 Hz. When light level was reduced by 3 log10 units, foveal and peripheral flicker sensitivity functions almost superimposed at all stimulus sizes studied. Hence, at 1 and 3 Hz E2 was very large, about 70 and 22 deg, respectively. At 10 and 30 Hz no size scaling was needed and E2 was therefore infinite. Adult; Flicker Fusionphysiology; Fovea Centralisphysiology; Humans; Light; Photometry; Size Perceptionphysiology; Time Factors; Visual Fields

Mandecka, Aleksandra; Dawczynski, Jens; Blum, Marcus; Müller, Nicolle; Kloos, Christoph; Wolf, Gunter et al. (2007): Influence of flickering light on the retinal vessels in diabetic patients. In: Diabetes care, Jg. 30, H. 12, S. 3048–3052. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.2337/dc07-0927. Abstract OBJECTIVE: Stimulation of the retina with flickering light increases retinal vessel diameters in humans. Nitric oxide is a mediator of the retinal vasodilation to flicker. The reduction of vasodilation is considered an endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the response of retinal vessels to flickering light in diabetic patients in different stages of diabetic retinopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 53 healthy volunteers, 68 type 1 diabetic patients, and 172 type 2 diabetic patients. The diameter of retinal vessels was measured continuously online with the Dynamic Vessel Analyzer (DVA). Diabetic retinopathy was classified using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study criteria. Changes in vasodilation are expressed as percent change over baseline values. RESULTS: After adjustments for age, sex, and antihypertensive treatment, the response of retinal arterioles to diffuse luminance flicker was significantly diminished in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with healthy volunteers. The vasodilation of retinal arterioles and venules decreased continuously with increasing stages of diabetic retinopathy. The retinal arterial diameter change was 3.6 +/- 2.1% in the control group, 2.6 +/2.5% in the no diabetic retinopathy group, 2.0 +/- 2.7% in the mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) group, 1.6 +/- 2.2% in the moderate NPDR group, 1.8 +/- 1.9% in severe NPDR group, and 0.8 +/- 1.6% in proliferative diabetic retinopathy group. CONCLUSIONS: Flicker responses of retinal vessels are abnormally reduced in diabetic patients. This decreased response deteriorated with increasing stages of retinopathy. The response was already reduced before clinical appearance of retinopathy. The noninvasive testing of retinal autoregulation with DVA might prove to be of value in early detection of diabetic vessel pathological changes. Schlagwörter Adult; Aged; Arteriolesphysiopathologyradiation effects; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1physiopathology; Diabetic Retinopathyphysiopathology; Female; Flicker Fusionphysiology; Humans; Light; Male; Middle Aged; Patient Selection; Photic Stimulation; Reaction Time; Reference Values; Retinal Vesselsphysiopathology; Vasodilationphysiology; Vision Disordersepidemiologyphysiopathology Mandecka, Aleksandra; Dawczynski, Jens; Vilser, Walthard; Blum, Marcus; Müller, Nicolle; Kloos, Christoph et al. (2009): Abnormal retinal autoregulation is detected by provoked stimulation with flicker light in well-controlled patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy. In: Diabetes research and clinical practice. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2009.06.017. Abstract AIMS: Investigation of retinal vasodilation under flickering light is considered a dynamic analysis in contrast to the static analysis of retinal vessel equivalents (mean retinal vessel diameter). We investigated whether dynamic analysis apart from the static one in type 1 diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy with wellcontrolled diabetes could lead to additional information regarding retinal autoregulation. METHODS: 18 normotensive type 1 diabetic patients without retinopathy and 19 healthy subjects were included. Diameter of retinal vessels was measured with Dynamic Vessel Analyzer. Changes in vasodilation are expressed as percent change over baseline values. RESULTS: HbA(1c) was 7.5+/-1.0% in diabetic patients. In arteries, the response to flicker was diminished in diabetic

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patients compared to healthy volunteers (p<0.023). In patients flicker stimulation increased arterial diameter by +2.7% in contrast to +4.4% in controls. Venous vessel diameter increased by +3.1% in diabetic individuals and by +5.3% in the control group (p<0.002). There were no differences in static analysis between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic patients without retinopathy with relatively good glycemic control show reduced retinal vasodilation after flicker indicating dysfunction in retinal autoregulation. The use of provocation test in conjunction with static analysis could lead to additional information regarding abnormal retinal autoregulation.

Mayr, N.; Wimberger, D.; Pichler, H.; Mamoli, B.; Zeitlhofer, J.; Spiel, G. (1987): Influence of television on photosensitive epileptics. In: European neurology, Jg. 27, H. 4, S. 201–208. We examined 32 epileptics (20 female; 12 male; aged 6-73 years) who had Abstract displayed photoconvulsive reactions to flickering light in the EEG; they were examined with regard to their risks of getting epileptic seizures upon watching television (TV) under certain conditions. On a colour TV set each patient was shown a 3-min videofilm with slow- and fast-moving parts under 16 different conditions. The conditions had the following variables: (1) colour - monochrome; (2) dark room - light room, and (3) four different distances from the screen. In addition, each patient was subjected for 3 min to manipulated image interferences, including the vertical rolling of the picture. The results of this TV stimulation were always negative, i.e. in no patient did TV provoke a reproducible paroxysmal discharge in the EEG, nor was there any epileptic seizure. Our findings are discussed in connection with the corresponding literature. Schlagwörter Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Child; Electroencephalography; Epilepsies, Partialetiology; Epilepsyetiology; Epilepsy, Absenceetiology; Evoked Potentials, Visual; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Photic Stimulation; Television Michelson, George; Patzelt, Alexander; Harazny, Joana (2002): Flickering light increases retinal blood flow. In: Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.), Jg. 22, H. 3, S. 336–343. Abstract PURPOSE: To examine the retinal blood flow in normal eyes before and during retinal stimulation by flickering light. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS AND TESTING: Twenty-seven eyes of 27 normal subjects with a mean age +/- SD of 38 +/- 15 years (study I) and 21 eyes of 21 normal subjects with a mean age +/- SD of 46 +/- 17 years (study II) were examined with respect to capillary retinal blood flow and central retinal artery and central retinal vein blood flow velocities during flickering light stimulation. A luminance flicker light with a frequency of 8 Hz increased the neuronal activity of retinal ganglion cells. In study I, the retinal capillary blood flow was measured before and during flickering by scanning laser Doppler flowmetry (670 nm, Heidelberg Retina Flowmeter). In study II, the blood flow velocities in the central retinal artery and central retinal vein were examined by pulsed Doppler sonography. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in blood flow velocities in the central retinal artery and vein and in retinal capillary blood flow after full-field flicker stimulation. RESULTS: In study I, measurements of blood flow during retinal flicker stimulation showed a significant increase in the mean value of blood flow +/- SD from 317 +/- 72 arbitrary units to 416 +/- 103 arbitrary units. The change was on average 46 +/- 19%. In study II, the systolic and end-diastolic blood flow velocities in the central retinal artery increased significantly (P < 0.0001): systolic, 9 cm/s to 15 cm/s (+62%); end-diastolic, 2.7 cm/s to 5.3 cm/s (+96%). In the central retinal vein, the systolic and end-diastolic blood flow velocities increased significantly (P < 0.0001): systolic, 4.3 cm/s to 6.7 cm/s (+56%); end-diastolic, 1.8 cm/s to 3.6 cm/s (+100%). The authors found no significant change in blood pressure and heartbeat frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Visual stimulation of the retina by flickering light strongly increased the juxtapapillary retinal capillary blood flow and central retinal artery blood flow velocity in normal eyes.

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Adult; Blood Flow Velocityradiation effects; Blood Pressure; Capillaries; CrossSectional Studies; Heart Rate; Humans; Intraocular Pressure; Laser-Doppler Flowmetry; Light; Middle Aged; Photic Stimulation; Prospective Studies; Retinaradiation effects; Retinal Arteryphysiology; Retinal Veinphysiology; Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed

Neal, M.; Cunningham, J. (1994): Modulation by endogenous ATP of the light-evoked release of ACh from retinal cholinergic neurones. In: British journal of pharmacology, Jg. 113, H. 4, S. 1085–1087. Abstract The retina is an area of the central nervous system that possesses intrinsic cholinergic neurones which release acetylcholine (ACh) in response to stimulation with flickering light. Using an eye-cup preparation in anaesthetized rabbits we found that when the retina was exposed to the P2-purinoceptor antagonist, PPADS, the light-evoked release of ACh was strikingly increased (by over 40%). In contrast, ATP reduced the light-evoked release of ACh by 20%. The inhibitory effect of ATP was not due to its catabolism to adenosine because it was not affected by the A1adenosine receptor antagonist, DPCPX, in combination with adenosine deaminase. The actions of both ATP and PPADS were completely blocked by strychnine. We conclude that during physiological stimulation of the retina with light, ATP is coreleased with ACh and partially inhibits ACh release by activating (with ACh) an inhibitory glycinergic feedback loop. Schlagwörter Acetylcholinemetabolism; Adenosine Triphosphatephysiology; Animals; Feedbackphysiology; Neuronsmetabolismradiation effects; Parasympathetic Nervous Systemmetabolism; Photic Stimulation; Pyridoxal Phosphateanalogs & derivativespharmacology; Rabbits; Receptors, GABA-Bmetabolism; Receptors, Purinergic P2antagonists & inhibitors; Retinacytologymetabolismradiation effects Neal, M.; Cunningham, J.; Matthews, K. (1998): Selective release of nitric oxide from retinal amacrine and bipolar cells. In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, Jg. 39, H. 5, S. 850–853. Abstract PURPOSE: To investigate the cellular origin of nitric oxide released from the rabbit retina in response to physiological stimulation with light. METHODS: The release of nitric oxide from the retina was measured in rabbits anesthetized with urethane. An eye-cup was prepared and was filled with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate. After washing for 45 minutes, 0.5 ml medium was placed in the eyecup. The medium was replaced every 10 minutes, and nitric oxide in the resultant samples was measured using nitrate reductase and a nitric oxide meter. RESULTS: In the unstimulated dark-adapted retina there was a spontaneous resting release of nitric oxide (1.20 nmol/min). When the retina was stimulated for 10 minutes with flickering light there was an increase in nitric oxide release to almost double the resting release. Stimulation of the retina for 10 minutes with continuous light produced a similar increase in nitric oxide release. The exposure of the retina to L-amino-4phosphonobutyrate (APB), which specifically blocks transmission between the photoreceptors and the depolarizing bipolar cells, abolished the evoked release of nitric oxide caused by flickering light and continuous light. In contrast, the nonselective excitatory amino acid antagonist cis-2,3-piperidinedicarboxylic acid (PDA) had no effect on the flicker-evoked release of nitric oxide, but it more than halved the release caused by continuous light. A similar differential effect on release was found with glycine, which abolished the nitric oxide release evoked with continuous light but did not affect the flicker-evoked release. The inhibitory effect of glycine was blocked by strychnine. CONCLUSIONS: Nitric oxide was released in the retina by flickering light and by continuous light, but the two types of stimulation cause nitric oxide release from different cells. Because in the rabbit retina nitric oxide synthase occurs mainly in a subpopulation of amacrine cells and a few bipolar cells, our pharmacologic results suggest that continuous light causes nitric oxide release from amacrine cells, whereas flickering light evokes nitric oxide release from bipolar cells. Schlagwörter Aminobutyric Acidspharmacology; Animals; Dark Adaptation; Enzyme

iLib08 - Citavi Inhibitorspharmacology; Excitatory Amino Acid Agonistspharmacology; Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonistspharmacology; Glycinepharmacology; Interneuronsmetabolism; Light; Neuronsmetabolism; Nitric Oxidemetabolism; Nitric Oxide Synthaseantagonists & inhibitors; Photic Stimulation; Pipecolic Acidspharmacology; Rabbits; Retinadrug effectsmetabolismradiation effects; omega-N-Methylargininepharmacology Newman, Eric A. (2005): Calcium increases in retinal glial cells evoked by light-induced neuronal activity. In: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, Jg. 25, H. 23, S. 5502–5510. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1354-05.2005. Abstract Electrical stimulation of neurons in brain slices evokes increases in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) in neighboring astrocytes. The present study tests whether similar neuronto-glial signaling occurs in the isolated rat retina in response to light stimulation. Results demonstrate that Müller cells, the principal retinal glial cells, generate transient increases in Ca(2+) under constant illumination. A flickering light stimulus increases the occurrence of these Ca(2+) transients. Antidromic activation of ganglion cell axons also increases the generation of Müller cell Ca(2+) transients. The increases in Ca(2+) transients evoked by light and antidromic stimulation are blocked by the purinergic antagonist suramin and by TTX. The addition of adenosine greatly potentiates the response to light, with light ON evoking large Ca(2+) increases in Müller cells. Suramin, apyrase (an ATP-hydrolyzing enzyme), and TTX substantially reduce the adenosine-potentiated response. NMDA, metabotropic glutamate, GABA(B), and muscarinic receptor antagonists, in contrast, are mainly ineffective in blocking the response. Light-evoked Ca(2+) responses begin in Müller cell processes within the inner plexiform (synaptic) layer of the retina and then spread into cell endfeet at the inner retinal surface. These results represent the first demonstration that Ca(2+) increases in CNS glia can be evoked by a natural stimulus (light flashes). The results suggest that neuron-to-glia signaling in the retina is mediated by neuronal release of ATP, most likely from amacrine and/or ganglion cells, and that the response is augmented under pathological conditions when adenosine levels increase. Schlagwörter Action Potentials; Adenosineagonistspharmacology; Adenosine Triphosphatemetabolismpharmacology; Animals; Apyrasepharmacology; Axonsphysiologyradiation effects; Calciummetabolismphysiology; Light; Male; Neurogliacytologyphysiologyradiation effects; Neuronsmetabolismphysiologyradiation effects; Rats; Rats, Long-Evans; Receptors, Purinergicantagonists & inhibitors; Retinacytologyphysiologyradiation effects; Retinal Ganglion Cellsphysiologyradiation effectsultrastructure; Suraminpharmacology; Tetrodotoxinpharmacology Nguyen, Nhung X.; Horn, Folkert K.; Seitz, Berthold; Cursiefen, Claus; Martus, Peter; Langenbucher, Achim; Küchle, Michael (2002): Temporal contrast sensitivity using full-field flicker test (Erlangen flicker test) in patients after penetrating keratoplasty. In: Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv für klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie, Jg. 240, H. 6, S. 443–447. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1007/s00417-002-0456-0. Abstract BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of temporal contrast sensitivity testing using full-field flicker stimulation in patients after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and to assess whether this method is influenced by postoperative corneal topographic changes. METHODS: Forty-five patients (age 46.5+/-14.2, median 47 years) who had undergone PK and 194 age-matched controls were included in this study. The postoperative interval was 11.8+/-10.2 months (median 9 months). Patients with pre-existing glaucoma or any postoperative intraocular pressure elevation were excluded. The indications for PK were keratoconus in 54% of cases, Fuchs' dystrophy in 38% and stromal dystrophies in 8%. Temporal contrast sensitivity was determined with sinusoidal flickering light (37.1 Hz) of constant mean photopic luminance (10 cd/m(2))

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presented in a full-field bowl with an increasing threshold strategy. RESULTS: Mean temporal contrast sensitivity did not differ between patients after PK (1.49+/-0.13, range 1.26-1.78, confidence interval 1.45-1.53) and controls (1.55+/-0.17, range 1.16-1.98, confidence interval 1.47-1.51). No significant correlation between temporal contrast sensitivity and visual acuity could be found in patients after PK or in normals ( r<0.2, P=0.3). In patients after PK, temporal contrast sensitivity was statistically independent of keratometric astigmatism ( r=0.3, P=0.7), topographic astigmatism ( r=0.3, P=0.4), spherical equivalent ( r=0.07, P=0.7), central corneal thickness ( r=-0.06, P=0.7) and time since operation ( r=-0.07, P=0.6). CONCLUSIONS: Temporal contrast sensitivity using full-field flicker stimulation seems to be feasible in patients after PK and does not depend on topographic changes of the cornea. The results indicate that the full-field flicker test may be helpful as a supplementary means of detecting early glaucoma caused by ocular hypertension in patients after PK. Adult; Aged; Contrast Sensitivityphysiology; Corneaphysiology; Corneal Topography; Female; Humans; Keratoplasty, Penetratingphysiology; Male; Middle Aged; Vision Tests

Nguyen, Thanh T.; Cheung, Ning; Wong, Tien Y. (2008): Influence of flickering light on the retinal vessels in diabetic patients: response to Mandecka et al. In: Diabetes care, Jg. 31, H. 6, S. e51; author reply e52. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.2337/dc08-0227. Schlagwörter Diabetic Retinopathyphysiopathology; Flicker Fusionphysiology; Humans; Light; Photic Stimulation; Reaction Time; Retinal Vesselsphysiopathology; Vision Disordersphysiopathology Nowak, J. Z.; Zurawska, E. (1989): Dopamine in the rabbit retina and striatum: diurnal rhythm and effect of light stimulation. In: Journal of neural transmission, Jg. 75, H. 3, S. 201–212. Abstract In rabbits, dopamine levels in the retina, but not in the caudate nucleus, showed clear diurnal rhythm, with high values seen in the light phase. Thirty min exposition of dark-adapted rabbits to day-light produced no changes in dopamine levels in the retina. In rabbits treated with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, the same light exposition decreased the retinal amine level by 18%, while stimulation with intensive, flickering light significantly decreased the retinal dopamine content by 36%. Experiments performed at noon and midnight, under light or dark conditions, showed the retinal dopamine levels to be very similar in groups kept either at light or dark, irrespective of the time of the day, although in animals deprived of light the amine levels were clearly lower than in those exposed to light, both at noon and midnight. Under all experimental conditions there were no significant changes in dopamine level and utilization in the caudate nucleus. The isolated and superfused retina (preloaded with [3H]-dopamine), when stimulated with flashes of white light (2 Hz, 10 min), released [3H]-radioactivity in a Ca2+-dependent manner. It is concluded that in rabbits, light enhances dopamine levels and utilization selectively in the retina, and the observed diurnal changes in the amine metabolism are dependent on the presence or absence of light, and not on the time of the day. The proposed physiological role(s) of the retinal dopaminergic mechanisms is discussed. Schlagwörter Animals; Caudate Nucleusmetabolismphysiology; Circadian Rhythm; Dopaminemetabolismphysiology; Female; Lighting; Male; Rabbits; Retinametabolismphysiology Nuboer, J. F.; Coemans, M. A.; Vos, J. J. (1992): Artificial lighting in poultry houses: do hens perceive the modulation of fluorescent lamps as flicker. In: British poultry science, Jg. 33, H. 1, S. 123–133. Abstract 1. Many poultry houses are illuminated by fluorescent lamps which produce discontinuous illumination with a frequency of either 100 or 120 Hz. 2. This study investigated whether domestic fowls perceive this discontinuity as flicker by training two Leghorn hens to choose between a continuous and a discontinuous light, all other variables being identical. 3. The light-stimulus was either monochromatic with

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100% sinusoidal modulation or a fluorescent lamp whose modulation frequency could be electrically adjusted. 4. Each (correct) choice for the discontinuous light was followed by a 5 Hz higher frequency, whereas an incorrect choice was followed by a 10 Hz lower frequency. 5. On the basis of this principle the animals themselves established the highest perceivable frequency of the discontinuous light, called the Critical Fusion Frequency (CFF), that they could discriminate from continuous light. 6. These frequencies typically depend on the stimulus intensity increasing with increasing intensities, until a maximum value is reached. 7. Two factors limited the magnitudes of the CFF's that were recorded: the maximum stimulus intensities produced and variability in the chicken's response ("behavioural noise"). In spite of these constraints 105 Hz was established as the maximum CFF. 8. On the basis of extrapolation it is concluded that the direct light from fluorescent lamps driven by 50 Hz alternating current is seen by the chicken as flickering. 9. The results justify large-scale comparison of behaviour and production in poultry houses that are illuminated either by low-frequency or by high-frequency fluorescent lamps. Animals; Chickensphysiology; Conditioning, Classical; Female; Fluorescence; Housing, Animal; Lighting; Microcomputers; Visual Perception

Oomman, A.; Madhusudanan, M. (2001): Lorazepam: an adjuvant therapy in patients with seizure and heliotaxis. In: Neurology India, Jg. 49, H. 3, S. 317–319. Abstract Photosensitive epilepsy is a type of reflex epilepsy. Five percent of epileptics are photosensitive, i.e. they show photoconvulsive response (PCR) during intermittent photic stimulation. Patients with photogenic or photosensitive epilepsy have seizures with flickering light. They also exhibit heliotaxis. Sodium valproate and ethosuximide are the common drugs used. Even though benzodiazepines are useful, the specific effect of lorazepam is not mentioned. We report 5 cases of photosensitive epilepsy with inadequate response to usual antiepileptic drugs who had complete or near complete remission with lorazepam. Schlagwörter Adolescent; Anticonvulsantstherapeutic use; Child; Epilepsy, Reflexdrug therapyphysiopathology; Female; Humans; Lorazepamtherapeutic use; Male; Middle Aged; Sunlight Pemp, Berthold; Garhofer, Gerhard; Weigert, Guenther; Karl, Katharina; Resch, Hemma; Wolzt, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold (2009): Reduced Retinal Vessel Response to Flicker Stimulation but Not to Exogenous Nitric Oxide in Type 1 Diabetes. In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1167/iovs.08-3260. Abstract Purpose: Various studies have shown that retinal vessels in patients with diabetes mellitus have a reduced capacity to adapt to changes of perfusion pressure and to stimulation with flickering light. Structural and functional changes of retinal vessels in diabetes could lead to a general reduction of vasodilator and/or vasoconstrictor capacity. To gain more insight into this topic we compared the response of retinal vessel diameters to systemic glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and stimulation with diffuse luminance flicker in patients with diabetes and healthy controls. Methods: 20 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus featuring no or mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 20 healthy and age-matched subjects were included in this study. The IMEDOS Dynamic Vessel Analyzer was used for measurement of diameters of retinal arteries and veins. The response of diameters was measured continuously during stimulation with flickering light as well as immediately after sublingual application of 0.8 mg of GTN. Results: The response of retinal vessels to flickering light was significantly reduced in patients with diabetes (arteries: 2.9% in diabetes versus 7.0% in controls, p < 0.002; veins: 4.6% in diabetes versus 6.8% in controls, p = 0.020). GTN-induced vasodilatation was not different between patients with diabetes and healthy controls (p >/= 0.70). Conclusions: The present study confirms reduced response of retinal vessels to stimulation with flickering light in diabetes. The response of retinal vessels to a direct NO-donor is, however, maintained. This indicates that abnormal flicker-induced vasodilatation in diabetes is not a

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consequence of generally reduced retinal vascular reactivity.

Peterson, M.; Ohzawa, I.; Freeman, R.: Neural and perceptual adjustments to dim light. In: Visual neuroscience, Jg. 18, H. 2, S. 203–208. At reduced luminance levels, the visual system integrates light over extended Abstract periods of time. Although the general effects of this process are known, specific changes in the visual cortex have not been identified. We have studied the physiological changes that occur during a transition from high to low luminance by measurements of single neurons in the cat's primary visual cortex. Under lowluminance conditions, we find increased latencies, expanded temporal responses, and a loss of temporal structure. This results in temporal-frequency tuning curves that are peaked at relatively low frequencies. To examine parallel perceptual changes, we compared perceived temporal frequency in human subjects under high- and low-luminance conditions. Low-luminance flickering patterns are perceived to modulate at relatively high rates. This occurs even though peak sensitivity is shifted to relatively low temporal frequencies. To explore further the perceptual component, we measured perceived temporal frequency in human subjects with unilateral optic neuritis for whom optic nerve transmission is known to be relatively slow and generally similar to the normal physiological state under low luminance. These subjects also perceive relatively high modulation rates through their affected eye. Considered together, these results demonstrate an inverse relationship between the physiological and the perceptual consequences of reduced stimulus luminance. This relationship may be accounted for by shifts of neuronal population responses between high- and low-luminance levels. Schlagwörter Animals; Cats; Dark Adaptation; Evoked Potentials, Visual; Humans; Light; Neuronsphysiology; Optic Neuritisphysiopathology; Perceptual Disordersphysiopathology; Psychophysics; Visual Cortexphysiology; Visual Perceptionphysiology Petrenko, E. T.: [Effect of rhythmical light flickering on the stability of the human body]. In: Biofizika, Jg. 31, H. 4, S. 722–723. Abstract Influence of photostimulation upon the man's movements biomechanics (stabilogram, goniogram, electromiogram etc) according to the one-leg toe balance model was investigated on 500 persons. Lowering of the exercise biomechanical efficiency at the background of light gleams was established. Light gleams with the frequency of 8-12 Hz which violated movement control processes (the correction of the body GWC) had maximal confusing effect. Schlagwörter Biomechanics; Humans; Photic Stimulation; Postural Balance Pevzner, L. Z.; Malinauskaite, O. L. (1978): Constant and flickering light stimulations produce similar effects on RNA content in visual cells. In: Acta histochemica, Jg. 63, H. 2, S. 288–291. Abstract Adult male rats were illuminated for 2 h with a constant or flickering light of 40 Lx intensity; frequency of flickering was 2 Hz. By means of two-wave-length visible cytospectrophotometry of gallocyanin-stained sections, it was shown that the light stimulation resulted in a marked RNA accumulation in retina ganglion neurons and in the neurons of all the cell layers of visual cortex (with the only exception of the layer VI). In the cells of perineuronal glia, a decrease of the RNA content per cell was found in the retina while no changes were observed in the visual cortex. Effects of constant and flickering light stimulations were qualitatively and quantitatively similar. Schlagwörter Animals; Light; Male; Neurogliametabolismradiation effects; Neuronsmetabolismradiation effects; RNAmetabolism; Rats; Retinacytology; Spectrophotometry; Visual Cortexcytology Piccardi, Marco; Ziccardi, Lucia; Stifano, Giovanna; Montrone, Lucrezia; Iarossi, Giancarlo; Minnella, Angelo et al. (2009): Regional cone-mediated dysfunction in age-related maculopathy evaluated by focal

iLib08 - Citavi electroretinograms: relationship with retinal morphology and perimetric sensitivity. In: Ophthalmic research, Jg. 41, H. 4, S. 194–202. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1159/000217723. Abstract PURPOSE: To assess regional cone-mediated function in age-related maculopathy (ARM) by focal electroretinograms (FERGs), and to compare FERGs with morphologic changes and perimetric sensitivity at corresponding locations. METHODS: Twenty-six ARM patients and 12 age-matched controls were evaluated. FERGs were elicited by either a central (0-2.25 degrees , C) or a paracentral annular (2.25-9 degrees , PC) flickering (41 Hz) field, presented on a light-adapting background. Morphological changes (soft drusen and/or retinal pigment epithelium defects) at matched locations were assessed by fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Perimetric sensitivity was measured by Octopus 10 degrees program (tM2). RESULTS: When compared to controls, mean C and PC FERG amplitudes of patients were reduced (p < 0.01), and the mean PC FERG phase was delayed (p < 0.01). Both FERG delays and morphologic lesions tended to involve to a greater extent the PC compared to the C region. In the C region, perimetric losses were correlated with the extent of morphologic lesions (p < 0.05). In the PC region, perimetric losses were correlated with FERG amplitudes (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In ARM, FERG losses are eccentricity-dependent, not quantitatively linked to retinal morphology, and correlated with perimetric losses, suggesting a heterogeneous dysfunction with loss of both C and PC perimetric sensitivities. Poulton, E. C.; Kendall, P. G.; Thomas, R. J. (1966): Reading efficiency in flickering light. In: Nature, Jg. 209, H. 5029, S. 1267–1268. Schlagwörter Humans; Light; Reading Previc, Fred H.; McLin, Leon N.; Novar, Brenda J.; Kosnik, William: Comparison of violet versus red laser exposures on visual search performance in humans. In: Journal of biomedical optics, Jg. 10, H. 3, S. 34003. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1117/1.1925207. Previous research suggests that the visual impairment of a violet laser is not highly Abstract localized on the retina, because the lens absorbs most short-wavelength visible light and partly retransmits it as a diffuse fluorescence at approximately 500 nm. The present study investigated whether a 405 nm violet diode laser more greatly impairs visual search performance in humans than does a 670 nm red diode laser, depending on target eccentricity. Participants had to locate a square among 15 diamonds spread throughout a visual search display while being exposed to a violet or red laser beam that was either continuous or flickering and presented either onaxis or 33 degrees off-axis. Whereas the continuous on-axis violet and red lasers had comparable effects on search performance when the target was located near the center of the beam, the violet laser disrupted processing of eccentric targets more than did the red laser. The search decrements were reduced for both lasers when the beams were flickered or presented off-axis. Both the bluish appearance and greater spatial spread of effect of the violet laser suggest that the unique impairment caused by a violet laser beam derives from its induced lens fluorescence. Schlagwörter Adult; Color; Humans; Lasers; Middle Aged; Pattern Recognition, Visualphysiologyradiation effects; Photic Stimulationmethods; Psychomotor Performancephysiologyradiation effects Purpura, K.; Tranchina, D.; Kaplan, E.; Shapley, R. M. (1990): Light adaptation in the primate retina: analysis of changes in gain and dynamics of monkey retinal ganglion cells. In: Visual neuroscience, Jg. 4, H. 1, S. 75–93. Abstract The responses of monkey retinal ganglion cells to sinusoidal stimuli of various temporal frequencies were measured and analyzed at a number of mean light levels. Temporal modulation tuning functions (TMTFs) were measured at each mean level by varying the drift rate of a sine-wave grating of fixed spatial frequency and contrast. The changes seen in ganglion cell temporal responses with changes

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in adaptation state were similar to those observed in human subjects and in turtle horizontal cells and cones tested with sinusoidally flickering stimuli; "Weber's Law" behavior was seen at low temporal frequencies but not at higher temporal frequencies. Temporal responses were analyzed in two ways: (1) at each light level, the TMTFs were fit by a model consisting of a cascade of low- and high-pass filters; (2) the family of TMTFs collected over a range of light levels for a given cell was fit by a linear negative feedback model in which the gain of the feedback was proportional to the mean light level. Analysis (1) revealed that the temporal responses of one class of monkey ganglion cells (M cells) were more phasic at both photopic and mesopic light levels than the responses of P ganglion cells. In analysis (2), the linear negative feedback model accounted reasonably well for changes in gain and dynamics seen in three P cells and one M cell. From the feedback model, it was possible to estimate the light level at which the dark-adapted gain of the cone pathways in the primate retina fell by a factor of two. This value was two to three orders of magnitude lower than the value estimated from recordings of isolated monkey cones. Thus, while a model which includes a single stage of negative feedback can account for the changes in gain and dynamics associated with light adaptation in the photopic and mesopic ranges of vision, the underlying physical mechanisms are unknown and may involve elements in the primate retina other than the cone. Adaptation, Ocularphysiology; Animals; Electrophysiology; Feedback; Flicker Fusion; Light; Linear Models; Macaca fascicularis; Retinaphysiology; Retinal Ganglion Cellsphysiology; Synaptic Transmission; Visual Pathwaysphysiology

Roderick, Michael L. (2006): The ever-flickering light. In: Trends in ecology & evolution (Personal edition), Jg. 21, H. 1, S. 3–5. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1016/j.tree.2005.11.005. Abstract To date, ecologists involved in global change have focused on the consequences of changes in air temperature. Concurrently, the amount of sunlight reaching the surface of the Earth has been declining, resulting in so-called 'global dimming'. Now, Wild et al. and Pinker et al. have reported a reversal in this trend in some regions that has occurred over the past 15 years or so. These new findings, combined with earlier work, show that the transparency of the atmosphere can vary substantially over periods of at least 20-50 years. Thus, the ecological consequences of sustained trends in the occurrence of sunlight at the surface of the Earth need a more careful assessment than was previously thought. Schlagwörter Air Pollutants; Atmosphereanalysis; Ecology; Environmental Monitoring; Greenhouse Effect; Models, Theoretical; Photosynthesis; Scattering, Radiation; Sunlight Sandström, M.; Lyskov, E.; Berglund, A.; Medvedev, S.; Mild, K. H. (1997): Neurophysiological effects of flickering light in patients with perceived electrical hypersensitivity. In: Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jg. 39, H. 1, S. 15–22. Abstract An increasing number of people in Sweden are claiming that they are hypersensitive to electricity. These patients suffer from skin as well as neurological symptoms when they are near computer monitors, fluorescent tubes, or other electrical appliances. Provocation studies with electromagnetic fields emitted from these appliances have, with only one exception, all been negative, indicating that there are other factors in the office environment that can effect the autonomic and/or central nervous system, resulting in the symptoms reported. Flickering light is one such factor and was therefore chosen as the exposure parameter in this study. Ten patients complaining of electrical hypersensitivity and the same number of healthy voluntary control subjects were exposed to amplitude-modulated light. The sensitivity of the brain to this type of visual stimulation was tested by means of objective electrophysiological methods such as electroretinography and visual evoked potential. A higher amplitude of brain cortical responses at all frequencies of stimulation was found when comparing patients with the control subjects, whereas

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no differences in retinal responses were revealed. Adult; Computer Terminals; Dermatitisdiagnosisetiologyphysiopathology; Electricityadverse effects; Electromagnetic Fieldsadverse effects; Electroretinography; Environmental Illnessdiagnosisetiologyphysiopathology; Evoked Potentials, Visual; Female; Humans; Lightdiagnostic use; Male; Middle Aged; Nervous System Diseasesdiagnosisetiologyphysiopathology

Saunders, Richard D.; Jefferys, John G. R. (2007): A neurobiological basis for ELF guidelines. In: Health physics, Jg. 92, H. 6, S. 596–603. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1097/01.HP.0000257856.83294.3e. Abstract It is well understood that electric currents applied directly to the body can stimulate peripheral nerve and muscle tissue; such effects can be fatal if breathing is inhibited or ventricular fibrillation is induced. Exposure to extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields will also induce electric fields and currents within the body, but these are almost always much lower than those that can stimulate peripheral nerve tissue. Guidance on exposure to such fields is based on the avoidance of acute effects in the central nervous system. This paper reviews the physiological processes involved in nerve cell excitability in the peripheral and central nervous system, and the experimental evidence for physiologically weak electric field effects. It is concluded that the integrative properties of the synapses and neural networks of the central nervous system render cognitive function sensitive to the effects of physiologically weak electric fields, below the threshold for peripheral nerve stimulation. However, the only direct evidence of these weak field interactions within the central nervous system is the induction of phosphenes in humans--the perception of faint flickering light in the periphery of the visual field, by magnetic field exposure. Other tissues are potentially sensitive to induced electric fields through effects on voltage-gated ion channels, but the sensitivity of these ion channels is likely to be lower than those of nerve and muscle cells specialized for rapid electrical signaling. In addition, such tissues lack the integrative properties of synapses and neuronal networks that render the central nervous system potentially more vulnerable. Schlagwörter Animals; Body Burden; Central Nervous Systemphysiologyradiation effects; Computer Simulation; Electricity; Electromagnetic Fields; Environmental Exposureanalysisstandards; Humans; Models, Biological; Models, Neurological; Neurobiologymethodsstandards; Peripheral Nervous Systemphysiologyradiation effects; Practice Guidelines as Topic; Radiation Dosage; Radiation Monitoringmethodsstandards; Radiation Protectionmethodsstandards; Radio Waves; Relative Biological Effectiveness; Reproducibility of Results; Sensitivity and Specificity Schmeisser, E. T. (1985): Flicker electroretinograms and visual evoked potentials in the evaluation of laser flash effects. In: American journal of optometry and physiological optics, Jg. 62, H. 1, S. 35–39. Abstract Electroretinograms (ERG's) and visual evoked potentials (VEP's) were recorded from four cynomolgus monkeys in response to a sinusoidally flickering argon laser beam (514 nm) producing a 50-micron spot on the fovea. Super-position of a 20-Hz train of six pulses of Q-switched (120 ns) frequency-doubled neodymium laser light (532 nm) at "safe" exposure energies in 250 ms had no significant effects on the ERG (p greater than 0.05). The VEP was disrupted significantly (p less than 0.001) but demonstrated recovery within 500 ms of the initial pulse. Therefore, flash effects of pulsed visible lasers at these doses on suprathreshold luminance processing are probably limited only to the exposure period. Schlagwörter Animals; Electroretinography; Evoked Potentials, Visual; Lasers; Macaca fascicularis; Retinaphysiologyradiation effects Shady, Sherif; MacLeod, Donald I. A.; Fisher, Heidi S. (2004): Adaptation from invisible flicker. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Jg. 101, H. 14, S. 5170–5173. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1073/pnas.0303452101.

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Human ability to resolve temporal variation, or flicker, in the luminance (brightness) or chromaticity (color) of an image declines with increasing frequency and is limited, within the central visual field, to a critical flicker frequency of approximately 50 and 25 Hz, respectively. Much remains unknown about the neural filtering that underlies this frequency-dependent attenuation of flicker sensitivity, most notably the number of filtering stages involved and their neural loci. Here we use the process of flicker adaptation, by which an observer's flicker sensitivity is attenuated after prolonged exposure to flickering lights, as a functional landmark. We show that flicker adaptation is more sensitive to high temporal frequencies than is conscious perception and that prolonged exposure to invisible flicker of either luminance or chromaticity, at frequencies above the respective critical flicker frequency, can compromise our visual sensitivity. This suggests that multiple filtering stages, distributed across retinal and cortical loci that straddle the locus for flicker adaptation, are involved in the neural filtering of high temporal frequencies by the human visual system. Adaptation, Psychological; Humans; Light

Shpak, A. A.; Rudneva, M. A.: [Critical frequency of light flickering rhythm reproduction in visual evoked potentials: physiological essence of the method]. In: Vestnik oftalmologii, Jg. 107, H. 1, S. 42–45. Abstract Critical frequency of light flickering rhythm reproduction in visual evoked potentials (CFLF) was studied in 25 patients (35 eyes) with partial optic nerve atrophy, 4 patients (7 eyes) with moderate changes in the optic route suprachiasmal sections, and 23 normal subjects; automated static perimetry and visometry were carried out as well. CFLF was found reduced in the majority of patients with optic nerve atrophy, whereas in suprachiasmal involvement this parameter remained within the normal range. CFLF values were in good correlation with vision acuity and light sensitivity of visual field sites within the angle of 15 degrees from the center (the correlation was higher for foveal light sensitivity when it was expressed in relative units, and for light sensitivity of paracentral visual field sites when expressed in logarithmic units). The authors come to a conclusion that CFLF functional and anatomic substrate is the foveal area cortical projection sites and, to a lesser degree, cortical projection sites of visual field sites within 15 degrees from the center; in optic nerve atrophy CFLF values depend on the status of the optic nerve sections (the axial bundle) corresponding to a certain visual field site. Schlagwörter Adolescent; Adult; Child; Evoked Potentials, Visual; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Optic Atrophyphysiopathology; Perimetry; Visual Acuity Siedek, H.; Hammerl, H.; Klein, K.; Studlar, P.; Bablik, C. (1965): [Autonomic changes under the influence of flickering light]. In: Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Innere Medizin, Jg. 71, S. 961–965. Schlagwörter Autonomic Nervous Systemphysiology; Carotid Arteries; Eosinophils; Fatty Acidsmetabolism; Fatty Acids, Nonesterifiedmetabolism; Humans; Light; Pulse Soeta, Yoshiharu; Uetani, Shouji; Ando, Yoichi (2002): Propagation of repetitive alpha waves over the scalp in relation to subjective preferences for a flickering light. In: International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology, Jg. 46, H. 1, S. 41–52. Abstract Paired-comparison tests were performed to examine subjective preferences for a flickering light. Electroencephalograms were then recorded from seven electrodes (10-20 system) during presentations of the most and least preferred flickering-light conditions. As a way of investigating the flow of alpha waves on the scalp over both the left and right hemispheres in relation to subjective preference, the alpha waves were analyzed by means of the cross-correlation function (CCF). The maximum value of the CCF, /phi(tau)/(max), between the alpha waves measured at different electrodes and its delay time, tau(m), were analyzed. Results show that the most preferred flickering light has a significant larger /phi(tau)/(max) than the least preferred flickering light, and that /phi(tau)/(max) decreases with increasing distance between comparison (O(1) or O(2)) and test electrodes. On the other hand, the

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delay time of the maximum value of the CCF, tau(m), increases with the distance between comparison and test electrodes. Adult; Algorithms; Alpha Rhythm; Electrodes; Electroencephalography; Functional Lateralityphysiology; Humans; Male; Photic Stimulation; Scalpanatomy & histology

Sokol, S. (1973): Electroretinogram of the turtle retina obtained with flickering light. In: Vision research, Jg. 13, H. 1, S. 197–199. Schlagwörter Action Potentials; Animals; Dark Adaptation; Electroretinography; Flicker Fusion; Photic Stimulation; Photoreceptor Cellsphysiology; Retinaphysiology; Retinal Pigmentsphysiology; Spectrophotometry; Turtlesphysiology Stockman, A.; MacLeod, D. I.; Lebrun, S. J. (1993): Faster than the eye can see: blue cones respond to rapid flicker. In: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics and image science, Jg. 10, H. 6, S. 1396–1402. Abstract Flickering lights that are detected by the blue cones of the human visual system fuse to yield a steady sensation at much lower rates of flicker than do lights that are detected by the red or green cones. Yet, although blue-cone-detected lights flickering at 30-40 Hz appear to be steady, they are still able to interact with red- or green-cone-detected flickering lights to produce clearly detectable beats in the form of an amplitude modulation of the red- or green-cone flicker. Thus the blue cones produce a viable high-frequency flicker signal, as do the red and green cones, but one that is normally lost before it reaches sensation. The temporal-frequency response for the blue-cone beat interaction is similar in shape to the temporalfrequency response for directly detected red- or green-cone flicker. When measured through the same pathway (which we identify as the luminance pathway, since it is able to transmit high-frequency flicker), the response of the blue cones seems to be as fast as that of the other cones. Schlagwörter Color Perceptionphysiology; Flicker Fusionphysiology; Humans; Light; Ocular Physiological Phenomena; Photometry; Photoreceptor Cellsphysiology; Sensory Thresholds Suzumura, A. (1966): [Studies on the kinetic visual acuity; on the influence of flickering light upon the kinetic visual acuity]. In: Nippon ganka kiyo, Jg. 17, H. 2, S. 185–191. Schlagwörter Adult; Asthenopiaetiology; Female; Flicker Fusion; Humans; Occupational Medicine; Vision, Ocularphysiology Takahashi, T.; Tsukahara, Y.: Usefulness of blue sunglasses in photosensitive epilepsy. In: Epilepsia, Jg. 33, H. 3, S. 517–521. The suppressive effect of sunglasses upon photoparoxysmal responses (PPRs) Abstract elicited by 15-Hz flicker stimuli with a low luminance of nearly 10 nits was studied in eight patients with photosensitive epilepsy. Using three commercially available sunglasses of neutral density (ND), blue, and brown, the influence upon generalized PPRs elicited by a flickering dot pattern (FDP) and red flicker (RF) stimuli was separately examined in six patients; the luminance of the visual stimuli decreased from roughly one-fifth (ND and brown sunglasses) to one-tenth (blue sunglasses). With FDP stimulation, four of the six patients wearing each of the three sunglasses had no provocation of PPRs, whereas two of the six patients had provocation of generalized PPRs with all of the sunglasses. With RF stimulation, two of the six patients wearing ND sunglasses had provocation of generalized PPRs; three of the six patients wearing brown sunglasses had similar provocation; in contrast, none of the six patients showed provocation of PPRs while wearing blue sunglasses. These results suggest that the suppressive effect of the three sunglasses on FDP stimulation is mainly due to a luminance diminution, whereas that of blue sunglasses on RF stimulation is produced by an inhibitory effect of short wavelengths and possibly by a luminance diminution. Thus, blue sunglasses are thought to be useful in the treatment of patients with photosensitive epilepsy. Schlagwörter Adolescent; Color; Electroencephalography;

iLib08 - Citavi Epilepsyetiologyphysiopathologyprevention & control; Eyeglasses; Female; Humans; Lightadverse effects; Male; Photic Stimulation Takahashi, T.; Tsukahara, Y. (1979): Influence of red light and pattern on photic driving. In: The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine, Jg. 127, H. 1, S. 45–52. The photic drivings (PDs) in response to the following visual stimuli were studied in Abstract 108 cases, of which 84 (78%) were epileptics; ages ranged from 5 to 57 years old. An intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) of 5 cycles/sec by a stroboscopic light was given to the subjects with eyes closed and open. Following these stimuli, red-flicker and flickering-pattern of 5 cycles/sec and 20 cd/m2 were given successively to the subjects with eyes open using a "visual stimulator". The PDs evoked by IPS to the eyes closed and those by red-flicker were similar in the wave form and amplitude. In most of the cases, however, both stimuli failed to evoke apparent PDs (over 25 muV in amplitude), i.e., in 81% and 72%, respectively. IPS to the eyes open and flickering-pattern showed comparable effects in evoking PDs; they evoked high amplitude PDs (over 50 muV in amplitude) with a frequency of 19% by the former and 28% by the latter. In 95 out of 108 cases, both IPS to the eyes closed and redflicker failed to evoke apparent PDs. In rare cases, IPS to eyes closed evoked high amplitude PDs; in 7 out of these 8 cases, red-flicker also evoked high amplitude PDs. In 18 out of 20 cases in which high amplitude PDs were evoked by IPS to the eyes open, flickering-pattern was also effective in evoking high amplitude PDs. Based on these findings, similarities between IPS to the eyes closed and red-flicker, and similarities between IPS to the eyes open and flickering-pattern in evoking PDs are discussed. It is concluded that flickering-pattern and red-flicker are superior to IPS to the eyes open and closed, respectively, for examining the low frequency PDs. Schlagwörter Adolescent; Adult; Child; Child, Preschool; Color; Electroencephalography; Epilepsyphysiopathology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Photic Stimulationmethods Takahashi, T.; Tsukahara, Y. (1998): Pocket Monster incident and low luminance visual stimuli: special reference to deep red flicker stimulation. In: Acta paediatrica Japonica; Overseas edition, Jg. 40, H. 6, S. 631–637. On the evening of 16 December 1997 approximately 700 people around the nation Abstract (mostly children) were rushed to hospitals and treated for seizure symptoms. The youngsters had been watching the vastly popular TV animated cartoon series Pocket Monsters (Pokemon). We designated those individuals as a main group, who presumably had simultaneous occurrence of visually induced seizures. Followup studies revealed that 5-10.4% of Pokemon viewers had various minor symptoms not requiring hospital treatment. We designated those as a subgroup. Due to an official report regarding the problematic TV scene as a low luminance, 12 Hz alternating red/blue stimulus, we attempted an accounting of the Pokemon incident, with regard to the main group in particular, on the basis of electroencephalographic activation by use of low luminance 15 Hz deep red flicker stimulation. In order to explain the entire Pokemon incident, including symptoms experienced by individuals of the subgroup, we considered the possibility that some healthy youngsters may have latent photosensitivity and we thought that such a sensitivity might be disclosed by use of low luminance deep red flicker stimulation which is more provocative of photoparoxysmal response than ordinary high luminance stroboscopic intermittent photic stimulation. For prevention of visually induced seizures by TV viewing, we stress that care should be taken to test not only red flicker but also flickering geometric pattern stimuli. Schlagwörter Cartoons as Topic; Child; Color; Electroencephalography; Female; Humans; Japan; Male; Photic Stimulationadverse effects; Seizuresetiologyphysiopathology; Television

iLib08 - Citavi Takahashi, T.; Tsukahara, Y.; Kaneda, S. (1981): Influence of pattern and red color on the photoconvulsive response and the photic driving. In: The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine, Jg. 133, H. 2, S. 129–137. Abstract Patients, 232 epileptics and 98 nonepileptics, were examined for photoconvulsive responses and photic driving, by using a stroboscope with a) a printed pattern (dots or grating) and b) a red plastic plate. The stimuli given were (1) dot pattern 5 Hz IPS, (2) red 5 Hz IPS, (3) grating pattern 15 Hz IPS, and (4) red 15 Hz IPS, with eyes open. Photoconvulsive responses evoked by (3) and (4) were 6.6% and 5.1%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those obtained from a control group flickered with ordinary white light, 15 Hz IPS, (1.1% and 0.9%, with eyes open and closed, respectively). High amplitude photic driving over 50 microV evoked by (1) occurred in 34.9% of the patients and by (2) 22.7%; these were significantly higher than in the control group with ordinary white flicker (12.5% and 5.2%). Similar stimuli of (1) to (4) with a constant brightness of 20 cd/m2 provided by a visual stimulator SLS-5100 were given in the same way. Photoconvulsive response evoked by 15 Hz flickering grating pattern occurred in 7.8% and by 15 Hz red flicker in 8.1%; the rate being slightly higher than, but not significantly different from, the above results. High amplitude photic driving evoked by 5 Hz flickering dot pattern and 5 Hz red flicker were 29.3% and 21.2%, respectively. These values were slightly lower than, but not significantly different from, the above results. It was concluded that the flicker stimulation with either pattern or red color is more potent in eliciting photoconvulsive responses (15 Hz) and photic driving responses (5 Hz) than conventional flicker. Furthermore, patterned IPS and red IPS showed almost the same activation effect on photoconvulsive responses and high amplitude photic driving as that of the comparable stimuli provided by a visual stimulator SLS-5100. Schlagwörter Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Child; Color; Electroencephalography; Epilepsyphysiopathology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Photic Stimulation; Seizuresetiology Terahata, K.; Shimada, H. (1970): [Light stimulation apparatus flickering at irregular intervals]. In: Igaku to seibutsugaku. Medicine and biology, Jg. 80, H. 5, S. 247–252. Schlagwörter Electroencephalographyinstrumentation; Light UTINA, Ia; NECHAEVA, N. V.; BRODSKII, V. Ia (1960): [RNA in ganglion cells of the retina in frogs in darkness and after the illumination with a constant flickering light.]. In: Biofizika, Jg. 5, S. 749–750. Schlagwörter Adaptation, Ocular; Light; RNAmetabolism; Retinametabolism van der Horst, G. J.; Muis, W. (1969): Hue shift and brightness enhancement of flickering light. In: Vision research, Jg. 9, H. 8, S. 953–963. Schlagwörter Color Perception; Flicker Fusion; Humans; Light; Photometry; Spectrum Analysis Vítová, Z. (1973): Responsiveness to flickering light in waking and sleeping infants. In: Physiologia Bohemoslovaca, Jg. 22, H. 2, S. 147–152. Schlagwörter Age Factors; Brain; Electroencephalography; Evoked Potentials; Eye Movements; Humans; Infant; Light; Sleep; Sleep, REM; Wakefulness Vítová, Z. (1973): Cerebral responses to flickering light in clinical research. In: Activitas nervosa superior, Jg. 15, H. 1, S. 63–69. Schlagwörter Adolescent; Brainphysiology; Brain Diseasesphysiopathology; Cerebral Palsyphysiopathology; Child; Child, Preschool; Electroencephalography; Evoked Potentials; Female; Humans; Hydrocephalusphysiopathology; Hypothyroidismphysiopathology; Infant; Male; Photic Stimulation; Sleep, REM; Thalamusphysiopathology; Wakefulness Wang, J.; Langer, S. (1997): A brief review of human perception factors in digital displays for picture archiving and communications systems. In: Journal of digital imaging : the official journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology, Jg. 10, H. 4, S. 158–168.

iLib08 - Citavi Abstract

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The purpose of this review is to further inform radiologists, physicists, technologists, and engineers working with digital image display devices of issues related to human perception. This article will briefly review the effects of several factors in human perception that are specifically relevant to a digital display environment. These factors include the following: the spatial and contrast resolution of the display device; background luminance level and luminance range of the display system; brightness uniformity; extraneous light in the reading room; displayed field size; viewing distance; image motion and monitor flickering; signal to noise ratio of the displayed image; magnification functions; and the user interface. After reviewing the perception study results, a checklist of desirable features and quality assurance issues for a digital display workstation are presented as an appendix. Computer Terminalsstandards; Data Display; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assistedstandards; Quality Control; Radiology Information Systemsstandards; User-Computer Interface; Visual Perception

Wang, L.; Bill, A. (1997): Effects of constant and flickering light on retinal metabolism in rabbits. In: Acta ophthalmologica Scandinavica, Jg. 75, H. 3, S. 227–231. PURPOSE: To characterize the glucose metabolism in the rabbit retina. Abstract METHODS: An artery and a vortex vein were cannulated. Arteriovenous differences in oxygen, lactate and glucose concentrations, and blood flow were determined during either 1) darkness and light, or 2) light and 4 Hz flickering light. RESULTS: In darkness, oxygen consumption, glucose consumption, and lactate formation were 0.122 +/- 0.014, 0.204 +/- 0.015 and 0.160 +/- 0.023 micromol/min (mean +/- SE), respectively. Constant light reduced oxygen consumption insignificantly, and had no effect on glucose consumption. Hyperoxia did not affect the lactate formation. Flickering light increased the glucose consumption and lactate formation by 1520%. CONCLUSIONS: In rabbits, 10% of the glucose consumed is oxidized, 4050% is metabolized to lactate and the rest is used for other purposes. The glycolysis is primarily aerobic. Flickering light increases the glucose metabolism, constant light having little effect. Schlagwörter Adaptation, Ocularphysiology; Animals; Blood Flow Velocityradiation effects; Glucosemetabolism; Glycolysisradiation effects; Lactic Acidbiosynthesis; Light; Oxygenmetabolism; Oxygen Consumptionradiation effects; Photic Stimulation; Rabbits; Retinametabolismradiation effects; Retinal Arteryphysiology; Retinal Veinphysiology Weiler, R.; Akopian, A. (1992): Effects of background illuminations on the receptive field size of horizontal cells in the turtle retina are mediated by dopamine. In: Neuroscience letters, Jg. 140, H. 1, S. 121–124. Abstract Intracellular recordings from luminosity-type horizontal cells of the turtle retina were used to analyze the effects of steady and flickering background illumination on the size of their receptive fields. Both types of background illumination reduce the size of the receptive field to about the same extent. The reduction seems largely due an increase in the coupling resistance between horizontal cells. The effects of both types of background illumination are sensitive to the dopamine antagonist fluphenazine. This suggests that steady and flickering illuminations stimulate the release of endogenous dopamine. Schlagwörter Animals; Dopaminephysiology; Electrophysiologymethods; Fluphenazinepharmacology; Light; Photic Stimulation; Retinacytologydrug effectsphysiology; Turtles; Visual Fields Weiner, A.; Sandberg, M. A. (1991): Normal change in the foveal cone ERG with increasing duration of light exposure. In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, Jg. 32, H. 10, S. 2842–2845. Abstract Foveal cone electroretinograms (ERG) were elicited with a stimulatorophthalmoscope from 24 normal subjects with a 4 degrees stimulus flickering at 42 Hz and centered within a 12 degrees steady surround. The stimulus and surround were presented at retinal illuminances of 4.8 log td and 5.5 log td, respectively, to

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facilitate visualization of the fundus. Several consecutive averaged responses were evaluated to determine whether increasing duration of light exposure causes an increase in amplitude, as previously found for the full-field cone ERG. On average, amplitude increased by 27% over time, and the linear regression of amplitude on recording number accounted, on average, for 42% of the amplitude variability between consecutive responses. Two subjects had amplitudes that were initially subnormal, based on previously published norms, but that value increased to within the normal range in subsequent recordings. These findings show that a significant change in the cone ERG occurs in the fovea with increasing duration of light exposure at these retinal illuminances, and suggest that, when the stimulatorophthalmoscope is used, consecutive foveal cone ERGs should be obtained from patients with suspected macular disease to avoid a false diagnosis of retinal malfunction. Adolescent; Adult; Child; Electroretinography; Fovea Centralisphysiology; Humans; Middle Aged; Photic Stimulation; Photoreceptor Cellsphysiology; Retrospective Studies

West, R. W.; Penisten, D. K. (1996): The effect of color on light-induced seizures: a case report. In: Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry, Jg. 73, H. 2, S. 109–113. Abstract BACKGROUND. Two to four percent of epileptics have their seizures triggered by flickering light, an effect which may be wavelength-dependent. We evaluated a patient with a long-standing history of light-induced petit mal seizures to determine if the seizures were triggered more effectively by a particular range of wavelengths and to determine whether this information could be used in the optometric management of such patients. METHODS. Flickering lights of different wavelengths but equal luminance were presented while the patient's electroencephalogram (EEG) and subjective reports were monitored. RESULTS. The EEG results were not significantly different for different wavelengths, but the patient reported that longer wavelength light induced stronger seizures more consistently. Based on these results we concluded that the patient might benefit from spectacles tinted to exclude transmission of red light. The patient was given 4 pairs of 85% transmission spectacles, which differed only in lens tint (red, yellow, green, and blue), to try over a period of time. The patient felt that the tinted lenses were not dark enough to decrease his seizures effectively and he has opted to wear standard sunglasses. CONCLUSIONS. We feel this case shows that patients with light-induced seizures can benefit from optometric consultation. Because the patient's subjective report identified the clearest wavelength effect, we feel that it is reasonable for the general practitioner to suggest deeply tinted lenses to reduce the frequency of seizures in these patients. Schlagwörter Adult; Color; Electroencephalography; Eyeglasses; Humans; Lightadverse effects; Male; Seizuresphysiopathologyprevention & control Wolfson, S. S.; Graham, N. (2000): Exploring the dynamics of light adaptation: the effects of varying the flickering background's duration in the probed-sinewave paradigm. In: Vision research, Jg. 40, H. 17, S. 2277–2289. Abstract In the probed-sinewave paradigm, threshold for detecting a probe is measured at various phases with respect to a sinusoidally-flickering background. Here we vary the duration of the flickering background before (and after) the test probe is presented. The adaptation is rapid; after approximately 10-30 ms of the flickering background, probe threshold is the same as that on a continually-flickering background. It is interesting that this result holds at both low (1. 2 Hz) and middle (9.4 Hz) frequencies because at middle frequencies (but not at low) there is a dcshift, i.e. probe threshold is elevated at all phases relative to that on a steady background (of the same mean luminance). We compare our results to predictions from Wilson's model [Wilson (1997), Visual Neuroscience, 14, 403-423; Hood & Graham (1998), Visual Neuroscience, 15, 957-967] of light adaptation. The model

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predicts the rapid adaptation, and the dc-shift, but not the detailed shape of the probe-threshold-versus-phase curve at middle frequencies. Adaptation, Ocularphysiology; Contrast Sensitivityphysiology; Flicker Fusion; Humans; Mathematical Computing

Wolfson, S. Sabina; Graham, Norma (2006): Forty-four years of studying light adaptation using the probedsinewave paradigm. In: Journal of vision, Jg. 6, H. 10, S. 1026–1046. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1167/6.10.3. Abstract Here we examine results from 44 years of probed-sinewave experiments investigating the dynamics of light adaptation. We also briefly examine four models that have been tested against the results. In these experiments, detection threshold is measured for a test stimulus superimposed at various times (phases) on a sinusoidally flickering homogeneous background. The results can be plotted as probe-threshold versus phase curves. Overall, the curves from different laboratories are remarkably similar given the substantial differences in experimental parameters. However, at medium frequencies of background flicker, there are some differences between the majority of the studies and a minority of two. An examination of the full set of results suggests that the differences are not as significant as they first appear and that the experimental condition leading to the differences is the use of long wavelength light in the two minority studies. Of the four models that have been tested, two fail to predict important features of the results, another is critically dependent on a mechanism unlikely to exist in the appropriate physiology, and the last seems quite promising. Schlagwörter Adaptation, Ocular; History, 20th Century; History, 21st Century; Humans; Models, Biological; Psychologyhistory; Psychophysics; Sensory Thresholds Wu, S.; Burns, S. A.; Reeves, A.; Elsner, A. E. (1996): Flicker brightness enhancement and visual nonlinearity. In: Vision research, Jg. 36, H. 11, S. 1573–1583. Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the nonlinear mechanism underlying brightness enhancement, in which a flickering stimulus appears brighter than a steady stimulus of equal mean luminance. The flickering and matching stimuli were temporally alternated. Both were cosine windowed to minimize the potential effects of temporal transients. Subjects adjusted the amplitude of the matching stimulus to match it in brightness to the flickering stimulus. The temporal frequency, modulation, and waveform of the flickering stimulus were varied. With sinusoidal flicker, brightness enhancement increased with increasing modulation at all frequencies, peaking at about 16 Hz at full modulation. The results were modeled by a broad temporal filter followed by a single accelerating nonlinearity. The derived temporal sensitivity of the early filter inferred from brightness enhancement decreased more slowly at high frequencies than the filter(s) inferred from flicker modulation thresholds. With low frequency sawtooth flicker, brightness enhancement was phase-dependent at low, but not at high modulations, suggesting that multiple neural mechanisms may also be involved in addition to an early nonlinearity. Schlagwörter Female; Flicker Fusionphysiology; Humans; Light; Male; Models, Biological; Photometry; Sensory Thresholdsphysiology; Time Factors