Michael Glenn A.

Kho 10689818

Techno-structural interventions: Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. Total Quality provides an umbrella under which everyone in the organization can strive and create customer satisfaction. It is a people-focused management system that aims at continual increase in customer satisfaction at continually lower real costs. Also, TQM has been widely used in manufacturing, education, government, and service industries (wiki). Detailed Definition TQM views an organization as a collection of processes. It maintains that organizations must strive to continuously improve these processes by incorporating the knowledge and experiences of workers. The simple objective of TQM is "Do the right things, right the first time, every time". TQM is infinitely variable and adaptable. Although originally applied to manufacturing operations, and for a number of years only used in that area, TQM is now becoming recognized as a generic management tool, just as applicable in service and public sector organizations. Origins / Proponents "Total Quality Control" was the key concept of Armand Feigenbaum's 1951 book, Quality Control: Principles, Practice, and Administration, a book that was subsequently released in 1961 under the title, Total Quality Control. W. Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran, Philip B. Crosby, and Kaoru Ishikawa also contributed to the body of knowledge now known as TQM. The American Society for Quality says that the term Total Quality Management was first used by the U.S. Naval Air Systems Command "to describe its Japanese-style management approach to quality improvement." This is consistent with the story that the United States Navy Personnel Research and Development Center began researching the use of statistical process control (SPC); the work of Juran, Crosby, and Ishikawa; and the philosophy of W. Edwards Deming to make performance improvements in 1984. This approach was first tested at the North Island Naval Aviation Depot. Timeline of Total Quality Management’s “Birth”

Specific objectives which TQM aims to achieve: There are a number of evolutionary strands, with different sectors creating their own versions from the common ancestor. TQM is the foundation for activities, which include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Commitment by senior management and all employees Meeting customer requirements Reducing development cycle times Just In Time/Demand Flow Manufacturing Improvement teams Reducing product and service costs Systems to facilitate improvement Line Management ownership Employee involvement and empowerment Recognition and celebration Challenging quantified goals and benchmarking Focus on processes / improvement plans Specific incorporation in strategic planning

This shows that TQM must be practiced in all activities, by all personnel, in Manufacturing, Marketing, Engineering, R&D, Sales, Purchasing, HR, etc. What organizational issues and concerns are being addressed? The methods for implementing this approach come from the teachings of such quality leaders as Philip B. Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, Armand V. Feigenbaum, Kaoru Ishikawa and Joseph M. Juran. A core concept in implementing TQM is Deming’s 14 points, a set of management practices to help companies increase their quality and productivity: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Create constancy of purpose for improving products and services. Adopt the new philosophy. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. End the practice of awarding business on price alone; instead, minimize total cost by working with a single supplier. Improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production and service. Institute training on the job. Adopt and institute leadership. Drive out fear. Break down barriers between staff areas. Eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the workforce. Eliminate numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for management. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship, and eliminate the annual rating or merit system. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement for everyone. Put everybody in the company to work accomplishing the transformation.

Basic Steps undertaken to implement the intervention Six Statistical Quality Control tools that everyone should know and use 1. Pareto Analysis 2. Process Flow Chart 3. Fishbone (Cause & Effect) Diagrams 4. Histograms 5. Control Charts 6. Scatter Plots Or, this can be reclassified for tools for two types of data: 1. Numerical Data: Histograms Pareto Diagrams Control Charts Scatterplots Process Capability 2. Language Data Cause and effect Diagrams Six Graphs for Planning a Change

Plan, Do, Check, Act TQM Process Improvement and Problem Solving Sequence PLAN (PLAN A CHANGE) DEFINE THE PROBLEM
1. Recognize that what you are doing is a "PROCESS" 2. Identify the commodity being processed. - Process Inference 3. Define some measurable characteristics of value to the commodity. 4. Describe the "PROCESS" o Process Flow Analysis's o Flow charts o List of steps 5. Identify the "Big" problem o Brainstorming o Checklists o Pareto analysis

8. Determine the relationship between cause and effect o Scatter diagrams o Regression analysis 9. Determine what the process is doing now o Control charts - sampling

11. Determine what change worked (confirmation).

12. Ensure the fix is embedded in the process and that the resulting process is used. Continue to monitor the process to ensure: A. The problem is fixed for good. and B. The process is good enough o Control charts - sampling ****To ensure continuous improvement, return to step 5.

6. "BRAINSTORM" what is causing the problem. 7. Determine what past data shows. o Frequency distribution o Pareto charts o Control charts - sampling

10. Determine what change would help

• • •

Your knowledge of the process Scatter diagrams Control Charts - sampling Pareto analysis

• • •

Histograms Control charts - sampling Scatter diagrams

****Then make the change.

Conclusion Total Quality Management encourages participation amongst shop floor workers and managers. There is no single theoretical formalization of total quality, but Deming, Juran and Ishikawa provide the core assumptions, as a "...discipline and philosophy of management which institutionalizes planned and continuous... improvement ... and assumes that quality is the outcome of all activities that take place within an organization; that all functions and all employees have to participate in the improvement process; that organizations need both quality systems and a quality culture". References: Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (1997). Organizational Development & Change. 6 ed. South-Western College Publishing Harvey, D.F., & Brown, D.R. (2006). An Experimental Approach to Organizational Development. London: Prentice Hall. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Open Courseware Hyde, A. (1992). The Proverbs of Total Quality Management: Recharting the Path to Quality Improvement in the Public Sector. Public Productivity and Management Review, 16(1), 25-37.

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