.
Upon the experimental side, Wien's law (2) has met with important confirmation.
Paschen finds that his observations are well represented, if he takes
2
14455 , c =
4 being measured in centigrade degrees and in thousandths of a millimetre (L)
1
.
Nevertheless, the law seems rather difficult of acceptance, especially the implication that as
the temperature is raised, the radiation of given wavelength approaches a limit. It is true that
for visible rays the limit is out of range. But if we take =60 L, as (according to the
remarkable researches of Rubens) for the rays selected by reflexion at surfaces of Sylvin, we
1
DneOn hodnota
2
14388Lm.K
B
c hc k = =
2
see that for temperatures over 1000 (absolute) there would be but little further increase of
radiation.
The question is one to be settled by experiment; but in the meantime I venture to suggest
a modification of (2), which appears to me more probable priori. Speculation upon this
subject is hampered by the difficulties which attend the Boltzmann Maxwell doctrine of the
partition of energy. According to this doctrine every mode of vibration should be alike
favoured ; and although for some reason not yet explained the doctrine fails in general, it
seems possible that it may apply to the graver modes. Let us consider in illustration the case
of a stretched string vibrating transversely. According to the Boltzmann Maxwell law the
energy should be equally divided among all the modes, whose frequencies are as 1, 2, 3, .....
Hence if k be the reciprocal of , representing the frequency, the energy between the limits k
and k+dk is (when k is large enough) represented by dk simply.
When we pass from one dimension to three dimensions, and consider for example the
vibrations of a cubical mass of air, we have ( Theory of Sound , 267) as the equation for
k
2
,
2 2 2 2
, k p q r = + +
where p, q, r are integers representing the number of subdivisions in the three directions. If
we regard p, q, r as the coordinates of points forming a cubic array, k is the distance of any
point from the origin. Accordingly the number of points for which k lies between k and k+dk,
proportional to the volume of the corresponding spherical shell, may be represented by k
2
dk,
and this expresses the distribution of energy according to the Boltzmann Maxwell law, so
far as regards the wavelength or frequency. If we apply this result to radiation, we shall have,
since the energy in each mode is proportional to 4,
2
d , k k q (0.3)
or, if we prefer it,
4
d . q l l

(0.4)
It may be regarded as some confirmation of the suitability of (4) that it is of the prescribed
form (1).
The suggestion is that (4) rather than, as according to (2)
5
d l l

(0.5)
may be the proper form when 4is great*. If we introduce the exponential factor, the
complete expression will be
2
4
1
d .
c
c e
lq
q l l
 
(0.6)
3
If, as is probably to be preferred, we make k the independent variable, (6) becomes
2
2
1
d .
c k
c k e k
q
q

(0.7)
Whether (6) represents the facts of observation as well as (2) I am not in a position to say.
It is to be hoped that the question may soon receive an answer at the hands of the
distinguished experimenters who have been occupied with this subject.
* Stewart's work appears to be insufficiently recognized upon the Continent. [See Phil.Mag. i. p. 98, 1901; p.
494 below.]
Phil. Mag. Vol. XLV. p. 522 (1898).
Wied. Ann. Vol. LVIII. p. 662 (1896).
Wied. Ann. Vol. i. p. 74 (1900).
*[1902. This is what I intended to emphasize. Very shortly afterwards the anticipation
above expressed was confirmed by the important researches of Rubens and Kurlbaum (Drude
Ann. iv. p. 649, 1901), who operated with exceptionally long waves. The formula of Planck,
given about the same time, seems best to meet the observations. According to this
modification of Wien's formula,
2
c
e
lq 
in (2) is replaced by
( )
2
1 1
c
e
lq
 . When 4is great,
this becomes 4/c
2
, and the complete expression reduces to (4).]
2. Planck 1901
Model, kter pIesnr popisuje spektrln hustotu v celm frekvengnm rozsahu
publikoval Max Planck jako ber das Gesetz der Energieverteilung im Normalspektrum v
Annalen der Physik (4. serie) 4 (1901), 553 563. Uvdm anglick pIeklad, originln glnek
je snadno dostupn.
On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum
Introduction.
The recent spectral measurements made by O. Lummer and E. Pringsheim
2
, and even
more notable those by H. Rubens and F. Kurlbaum
3
, which together confirmed an earlier
result obtained by H. Beckmann
4
, show that the law of energy distribution in the normal
spectrum, first derived by W. Wien from molecularkinetic considerations and later by me
from the theory of electromagnetic radiation, is not valid generally.
2
O.Lummer, E.Pringsheim, Verhandl. Der. Deutscg. Physikal. Gesellsch. 2. p.163. 1900.
3
H.Rubens, F.Kurlbaum, Sitzungsber. D. k. Akad. D. Wissensch. Zu Berlin vom 25. October 1900,
p.929.
4
H. Beckmann, Inaug.Dissertation, Tbingen 1898. Vgl. Auch H.Rubens, Wied. Ann. 69. p.582. 1899.
4
In any case the theory requires a correction, and I shall attempt in the following to
accomplish this on the basis of the theory of electromagnetic radiation which I developed. For
this purpose it will be necessary first to find in the set of conditions leading to Wien s energy
distribution law that term which can be changed; thereafter it will be a matter of removing this
term from the set and making an appropriate substitution for it.
In my last article
5
I showed that the physical foundations of the electromagnetic
radiation theory, including the hypothesis of natural radiation, withstand the most severe
criticism; and since to my knowledge there are no errors in the calculations, the principle
persists that the law of energy distribution in the normal spectrum is completely determined
when one succeeds in calculating the entropy S of an irradiated, monochromatic, vibrating
resonator as a function of its vibrational energy U. Since one then obtains, from the
relationship dS/dU =1/4, the dependence of the energy U on the temperature 4, and since the
energy is also related to the density of radiation at the corresponding frequency by a simple
relation
6
, one also obtains the dependence of this density of radiation on the temperature. The
normal energy distribution is then the one in which the radiation densities of all different
frequencies have the same temperature.
Consequently, the entire problem is reduced to determining S as a function of U, and it
is to this task that the most essential part of the following analysis is devoted. In my first
treatment of this subject I had expressed S, by definition, as a simple function of U without
further foundation, and I was satisfied to show that this from of entropy meets all the
requirements imposed on it by thermodynamics. At that time I believed that this was the only
possible expression and that consequently Wien s law, which follows from it, necessarily had
general validity. In a later, closer analysis
7
, however, it appeared to me that there must be
other expressions which yield the same result, and that in any case one needs another
condition in order to be able to calculate S uniquely. I believed I had found such a condition in
the principle, which at the time seemed to me perfectly plausible, that in an infinitely small
irreversible change in a system, near thermal equilibrium, of N identical resonators in the
same stationary radiation field, the increase in the total entropy S
N
=NS with which it is
associated depends only on its total energy U
N
=NU and the changes in this quantity, but not
on the energy U of individual resonators. This theorem leads again to Wien s energy
distribution law. But since the latter is not confirmed by experience one is forced to conclude
5
M. Planck, Ann. D. Phys. 1. p.719. 1900.
6
See Eq. (8) below.
7
M. Planck, loc. cit., p. 730 ff.
5
that even this principle cannot be generally valid and thus must be eliminated from the
theory
8
.
Thus another condition must now be introduced which will allow the calculation of S,
and to accomplish this it is necessary to look more deeply into the meaning of the concept of
entropy. Consideration of the untenability of the hypothesis made formerly will help to orient
our thoughts in the direction indicated by the above discussion. In the following a method will
be described which yields a new, simpler expression for entropy and thus provides also a new
radiation equation which does not seem to conflict with any facts so far determined.
I. Calculations of the entropy of a resonator as a function of its energy.
1. Entropy depends on disorder and this disorder, according to the electromagnetic
theory of radiation for the monochromatic vibrations of a resonator when situated in a
permanent stationary radiation field, depends on the irregularity with which it constantly
changes its amplitude and phase, provided one considers time intervals large compared to the
time of one vibration but small compared to the duration of a measurement. If amplitude and
phase both remained absolutely constant, which means completely homogeneous vibrations,
no entropy could exist and the vibrational energy would have to be completely free to be
converted into work. The constant energy U of a single stationary vibrating resonator
accordingly is to be taken as time average, or what is the same thing, as a simultaneous
average of the energies of a large number N of identical resonators, situated in the same
stationary radiation field, and which are sufficiently separated so as not to influence each
other directly. It is in this sense that we shall refer to the average energy U of a single
resonator. Then to the total energy
(0.1)
N
U NU =
of such a system of N resonators there corresponds a certain total entropy
(0.2)
N
S N S =
of the same system, where S represents the average entropy of a single resonator and the
entropy S
N
depends on the disorder with which the total energy U
N
is distributed among the
individual resonators.
2. We now set the entropy S
N
of the system proportional to the logarithm of its
probability W, within an arbitrary additive constant, so that the N resonators together have the
energy U
N
8
Moreover one should compare the critiques previously made of this theorem by W. Wien (Report of the
Paris Congress 2, 1900, p. 40) and by O. Lummer (loc. cit., 1900, p.92).
6
(0.3) ln const.
N
S k W = +
In my opinion this actually serves as a definition of the probability W, since in the basic
assumptions of electromagnetic theory there is no definite evidence for such a probability.
The suitability of this expression is evident from the outset, in view of its simplicity and close
connection with a theorem from kinetic gas theory
9
.
3. It is now a matter of finding the probability W so that the N resonators together
possess the vibrational energy U
N
. Moreover, it is necessary to interpret U
N
not as a
continuous, infinitely divisible quantity, but as a discrete quantity composed of an integral
number of finite equal parts. Let us call each such part the energy element C; consequently we
must set
(0.4) ,
N
U Pe =
where P represents a large integer generally, while the value of Cis yet uncertain.
Now it is evident that any distribution of the P energy elements among the N resonators
can result only in a finite, integral, definite number. Every such form of distribution we call,
after an expression used by L. Boltzmann for a similar idea, a complex (v originlu
Complexion ). If one denotes the resonators by the numbers 1, 2, 3, . . .N, and writes these
side by side, and if one sets under each resonator the number of energy elements assigned to it
by some arbitrary distribution, then one obtains for every complex a pattern of the following
form:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
7 38 11 0 9 2 20 4 4 5
Here we assume N =10, P =100. The number R of all possible complexes is obviously
equal to the number of arrangements that one can obtain in this fashion for the lower row, for
a given N and P. For the sake of clarity we should note that two complexes must be
considered different if the corresponding number patters contain the same numbers but in a
different order.
From combination theory one obtains the number of all possible complexes as:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
. 1 . 2 ... 1 1 !
.
1 . 2. 3 ... 1 ! !
N N N N P N P
P N P
+ + +  + 
= =

Now according to Stirlings theorem, we have in the first approximation:
! ,
N
N N =
9
L.Boltzmann, Sitzungsber. D. k. Akad. D. Wissensch. Zu Wien (II) 76. p.428, 1877.
7
And consequently, the corresponding approximation is:
( )
.
N P
N P
N P
N P
+
+
=
4. The hypothesis which we want to establish as the basis for further calculation
proceeds as follows: in order for the N resonators to possess collectively the vibrational
energy U
N
, the probability W must be proportional to the number R of all possible complexes
formed by distribution of the energy U
N
among the N resonators; or in other words, any given
complex is just as probable as any other. Whether this actually occurs in nature one can, in the
last analysis, prove only by experience. But should experience finally decide in its favor it
will be possible to draw further conclusions from the validity of this hypothesis about the
particular nature of resonator vibrations; namely in the interpretation put forth by J .v. Kries
10
regarding the character of the original amplitudes, comparable in magnitude but independent
of each other. As the matter now stands, further development along these lines would appear
to be premature.
5. According to the hypothesis introduced in connection with equation (3), the entropy
of the system of resonators under consideration is, after suitable determination of the additive
constant:
(0.5) ( ) ( ) { }
ln ln ln ln
N
S k k N P N P N N P P = = + +  
and by considering (4) and (1):
1 ln 1 ln .
N
U U U U
S k N
e e e e
= + + 
Thus, according to equation (2) the entropy S of a resonator as a function of its energy U
is given by
(0.6) 1 ln 1 ln .
U U U U
S k
e e e e
= + + 
II. Introduction of Wien s displacement law.
6. Next to Kirchoff s theorem of the proportionality of emissive and absorptive power,
the socalled displacement law, discovered by and named after W. Wien
11
which includes as a
special case the Stefan Boltzmann law of dependence of total radiation on temperature,
10
J oh. V. Kries, Die Principien der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung p.36. Freiburg 1886.
11
W. Wien, Sitzungsber. D. k. Akad. D. Wissensch. Zu Berlin vom 9. Febr. 1893. p.55.
8
provides the most valuable contribution to the firmly established foundation of the theory of
heat radiation, In the form given by M. Thiesen
12
it reads as follows:
( )
5
.d .d , E l q y lq l =
where is the wavelength, E d represents the volume density of the blackbody radiation
13
within the spectral region to +d, 4represents temperature and p(x) represents a certain
function of the argument x only.
7. We now want to examine what Wien s displacement law states about the
dependence of the entropy S of our resonator on its energy U and its characteristic period,
particularly in the general case where the resonator is situated in an arbitrary diathermic
medium. For this purpose we next generalize Thiesens form of the law for the radiation in an
arbitrary diathermic medium with the velocity of light c. Since we do not have to consider the
total radiation, but only the monochromatic radiation, it becomes necessary in order to
compare different diathermic media to introduce the frequency Linstead of the wavelength .
Thus, let us denote by u dLthe volume density of the radiation energy belonging to the
spectral region Lto L+dL; then we write: u dLinstead of E d; c/Linstead of , and cdL/L
2
instead of d. From which we obtain
5
2
.
c cq
q y
n n
=
u
Now according to the wellknown Kirchoff Clausius law, the energy emitted per unit
time at the frequency Land temperature 4from a black surface in a diathermic medium is
inversely proportional to the square of the velocity of propagation c
2
; hence the energy
density U is inversely proportional to c
3
and we have:
5
2 3
, f
c
q q
n n
=
u
where the constants associated with the function f are independent of c.
In place of this, if f represents a new function of a single argument, we can write:
(0.7)
3
3
f
c
n q
n
=
u
12
M. Thiesen, Verhandl. D. Deutsch. Phys. Gesellsch. 2. p.66. 1900.
13
Perhaps one should speak more appropriately of a white radiation, to generalize what one already
understands by total white light.
9
and from this we see, among other things, that as is well known, the in the cube of the volume
3
at a given temperature and frequency the radiant energy u
3
is the same for all diathermic
media.
8. In order to go from the energy density u to the energy U of a stationary resonator
situated in the radiation field and vibrating with the same frequency L, we use the relation
expressed in equation (34) of my paper on irreversible radiation processes
14
:
2
2
U
c
n
= K
(K is the intensity of a monochromatic linearly, polarized ray), which together with the well
known equation:
8
c
p K
u =
yields the relation:
(0.8)
2
3
8
. U
c
pn
u =
From this and from equation (7) follows:
, U f
q
n
n
=
where now c does not appear at all. In place of this we may also write:
.
U
f q n
n
=
9. Finally, we introduce the entropy S of the resonator by setting
(0.9)
1 d
.
d
S
U q
=
We then obtain:
d 1
d
S U
f
U n n
=
and integrated:
(0.10) ,
U
S f
n
=
14
M. Planck, Ann. D. Phys. 1. p.99 1900.
10
that is, the entropy of a resonator vibrating in an arbitrary diathermic medium depends only
on the variable U/L, containing besides this only universal constants. This is the simplest form
of Wien s displacement law known to me.
10. If we apply Wien s displacement law in the latter form to equation (6) for the
entropy S, we then find that the energy element Cmust be proportional to the frequency L,
thus:
h e n =
and consequently:
1 ln 1 ln .
U U U U
S k
h h h h n n n n
= + + 
here h and k are universal constants.
By substitution into equation (9) one obtains:
1
ln 1 ,
k h
h U
n
q n
= +
(0.11)
1
h
k
h
U
e
n
q
n
=

and from equation (8) there then follows the energy distribution law sought for:
(0.12)
3
3
8 1
1
h
k
h
c
e
n
q
p n
=

u
or by introducing the substitutions given in 7, in terms of wavelength instead of the
frequency:
(0.13)
5
8 1
.
1
ch
k
c h
E
e
lq
p
l
=

I plan to derive elsewhere the expressions for the intensity and entropy of radiation
progressing in a diathermic medium, as well as the theorem for the increase of total entropy in
nonstationary radiation processes
III. Numerical values
11. The values of both universal constants h and k may be calculated rather precisely
with the aid of available measurements. F. Kurlbaum
15
, designating the total energy radiating
into air from 1 sq cm of a black body at temperature t C in 1 sec by S
t
, found that:
15
F. Kurlbaum, Wied. Ann. 65. p.759. 1898.
11
5
100 0 2 2
Watt erg
0,0731 7,31.10 .
cm cm sec
S S  = =
From this one can obtain the energy density of the total radiation energy in air at the
absolute temperature 1:
( )
5
15
3 4 10 4 4
4.7,31.10 erg
7,061.10 .
cm grad 3.10 . 373 273

=

On the other hand, according to equation (12) the energy density of the total radiant
energy for 4=1 is:
2 3 3
3
3 3
0
0
0
8 d 8
d d
1
h h h
k k k
h
k
h h
u e e e
c c
e
n n n
n
p n n p
n n n
  
= = = + + +

L u
and by termwise integration:
4
4
3 4 4 4 3 3
8 1 1 1 48
6 1 .1,0823 .
2 3 4
h k k
u
c h c h
p p
= + + + + =
L
If we set this equal to 7,061.10
15
, then, since c =3.10
10
cm/sec, we obtain:
(0.14)
4
15
3
1,1682.10 .
k
h
=
12. O. Lummer and E. Pringsheim
16
determined the product
m
4, where
m
is the
wavelength of maximum E in air at temperature 4, to be 2940 Lgrad. Thus, in absolute
measure:
0,294cm.grad .
m
l q =
On the other hand, it follows from equation (13), when one sets the derivative of E with
respect to 4equal to zero, thereby finding =
m
1 1
5
m
ch
k
m
c h
e
k
l q
l q
 =
and from this transcendental equation:
.
4,9651.
m
c h
k
l q =
Consequently:
11
10
4,9651.0,294
4,866.10 .
3.10
h
k

= =
16
O.Lummer, E.Pringsheim, Verhandl. Der Deutschen Physikal. Gesellsch. 2 p.176. 1900.
12
From this and from equation (14) the values for the universal constants become:
(0.15)
27
6,55.10 erg.sec , h

=
(0.16)
16
erg
1,346.10 .
grad
k

=
These are the same number that I indicated in my earlier communication.
3. Hustota stav
V uzavIen dutinr (gern trleso) existuje nekonegnr mnoho mdt kmitt
elektromagnetickho vlnrn, charakterizovanch frekvenc a polarizac. KaSd md se vOak
chov jako nezvisl kvantov linern harmonick osciltor.
ZIen je uzavIeno v kvdru o hranch dlky (ve tIech rozmrrech) L
1
, L
2
, L
3
(objem
1 2 3
V L L L = ). Obecn vlnov vektor mtSeme zapsat jako
2
cos ,
i i
i
k e
p
a
l
=
_
r
r
(3.1)
kde cos
i
a jsou smrrov kosiny vektoru k
r
,
2
cos 1
i
i
a =
_
. Dvourozmrrn pIpad je
znzornrn na obrzku. Pokud pIedpokldme periodick okrajov podmnky, mus bt dlky
hran
i
L
celogselnmi nsobky prtmrtt cos
i i
l l a = vlnov dlky do pIsluOnho smrru
i
e
r
, ,
cos
i i i i i
i
L n n n
l
l
a
= = (3.2)
nebo zapsno pomoc sloSek vlnovho vektoru
2 2
cos 2 .
i
i i
i i
n
k
L
p p
a p
l l
= = = (3.3)
13
(Pokud bychom uvaSovali podmnky takov, Se vlna mus mt uzly na strnch, platilo by
msto (3.3) ,
i i i i
k n L n p = . PIi integraci pIes hlov promrnn bychom ale museli
integrovat jen 1 2
d
gst prostorovho hlu. Vsledek by byl pochopitelnr stejn.)
Zopakujme jeOtr jednou tuto vahu. PIi periodickch okrajovch podmnkch mme
( ) [ ] ( ) ( )
2
exp , 0 , x A i k x L k n
L
p
y y y = = = (3.4)
pIitom n jsou jak kladn, tak zporn cel gsla, protoSe [ ] exp A i k x a [ ] exp A i k x 
odpovdaj dvrma rtznm stavtm. PIi IeOen v nekonegnr vysok potencilov krabici mme
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) sin cos , 0 0 0 , , x A k x B k x L B k n
L
p
y y y = + = = = = (3.5)
pIitom n jsou kladn cel gsla, protoSe ( ) sin A k x a ( ) sin A k x  odpovdaj stejnmu stavu.
Hrana kvdru pIipadajcho na jeden stav v prostoru vlnovch vektort je tedy
1 2
2 2
i i
i
i i i
n n
k
L L L
p
p p
^ = = (3.6)
a objem kvdru v d  rozmrrech je (pro urgitou hodnotu vlnovho vektoru mtSeme mt g
nezvislch stavt, u elektromagnetickho zIen 2 g = dva polarizagn stavy)
( )
na jedenstav
2
.
d
d
k
gV
p
D =
r
(3.7)
Poget stavt v elementu d
d
k
r
dostaneme pak podrlenm tohoto elementu vrazem (3.7), tj.
( )
d .
2
d
d
gV
dn k
p
=
r
(3.8)
PIejdeme k hypersfrickm souIadnicm, kdy
1 1
d d d .
d d d
k
k k k W
=
r
r
(3.9)
Budeme dle pIedpokldat izotropn zvislost energie na hybnosti (vlnovm vektoru), tj.
( )
( ) E k E k =
r
. Potom mtSeme (3.8) integrovat pIes hlov promrnn a dostaneme vraz pro
hustotu stavu v zvislosti na energii
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1
d d , .
d 2
d
d
d d d d
k E
V
n E E E g S
E
E
k
r r
p
l
l
= = (3.10)
V tomto vztahu je
1 d
S
povrch 1 d rozmrrn koule jednotkovho polomrru (odvozen na
konci kapitoly)
14
( )
2
1
2
.
2
d
d
S
d
p
G
= (3.11)
Pro pIpad zIen gernho trlesa se vsledek vraznr zjednoduO. PIedevOm
2
4 S p = a 2 g = .
Dle E c k w = = h h , takSe
( )
2
3 2
d d .
V E
n E
c
p
=
h
(3.12)
V zpisu pomoc frekvence Lnebo vlnov dlky pak mme
2
3 4
d
d 8 d , d 8 . n V n V
c
n l
p n p
l
= = (3.13)
J e zajmav si vOimnout pIpadu volnch gstic hmotnosti m v nekonegnr vysok
potencilov jmr. Plat ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 E p m k m = =h . Oznagme pro 1 d = dlku segky L,
velikost plochy pro 2 d = A a pro 3 d = objem V. J ednoduchm vpogtem dostvme
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
12
2
3 2
3
2
1
1
2
2
.
2
2
2 2
3
2
d
d E
mL
E
m A
m V
E
r
p
p
p
p
p
h
h
h
(3.14)
Objem d rozmrrn koule polmrru r bude
d
d d
V C r = s
d
C jako konstantou mrrnosti. Kouli
si mtSeme pIedstavit sloSenou z elementrnch slupek d d
d d
V S r = , kde
d
S je plocha slupky.
Spojenm obou vztaht dostvme
1
d
.
d
d d
d d
V
S d C r
r

= = (3.15)
Spogteme integrl z funkce
( )
2
exp r  pIes cel prostor nejprve v kartzskch a potom
sfrickch souIadnicch, tedy
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2
1 1
exp d exp d d exp d
d
d
d d d
r V x x x x x x p
  
 =   =  =
K K K (3.16)
a
15
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
0
2 1 2 1
0
0
exp d exp d
1
exp d exp d .
2 2 2
d d
d d d
d d
r V r S r
d C d
d C r r r t t r d C
 
 =  =
 =  = G
(3.17)
Porovnnm (3.16) a (3.17) dostvme s vyuSitm vztahu ( ) ( ) 1 x x x G + = G vraz pro
konstantu
d
C
2
1
2
d
d
C
d
p
=
G +
(3.18)
a tedy vyjdIen objemu a povrchu d rozmrrn koule
2 2
1
, .
1 1
2 2
d d
d d
d d
V r S d r
d d
p p

= =
G + G +
(3.19)
Vraz pro konstantu
d
C mtSeme upravit na
( )
( )
1 2 1
2
1
!
2
2
1 !
.
!
2
d d
d
d
d
d lich
d
C
d sud
d
p
p
 +
+
(3.20)
4. Vlastn kmity pole (mdy)
Zatm bez dtkazu jsme uvedli, Se kaSd md pole v uzavIen dutinr (gern trleso) se
chov jako nezvisl linern harmonick osciltor. Nyn to ukSeme. ZIen je uzavIeno
v kvdru o hranch dlky A, B, C (objem V ABC = ). Kalibraci zvolme coulombovskou, tj.
skalrn potencil je roven nule a nule je rovna divergence vektorovho potencilu:
0, 0 A f = =
r r
. Potencil (reln funkce) rozloSme do Fourierovch sloSek
( )
( )
*
exp , 0 , ,
k k k k
k
A A t i k r k A A A

= = =
r r r r
r
r r r r r r r
r
(4.1)
pIitom
2
2 2
, , ,
y
x z
x y x
n
n n
k k k
A B C
p
p p
= = = (4.2)
16
kde , ,
x y z
n n n jsou cel gsla. Fourierovy sloSky vyhovuj rovnici (to plyne z vlnov rovnice)
2
2
2
0 .
k
k
d A
A
d t
w + =
r
r
r
r
(4.3)
J souli rozmrry A, B, C zvolenho objemu dostategnr velk, jsou sousedn hodnoty , ,
x y z
k k k
velmi blzk a mtSeme uvaSovat o pogtu moSnch stavt v intervalu hodnot vlnovho vektoru
, ,
2 2 2
x x y y z z
A B C
n k n k n k ,
p p p
D = D D = D D = D (4.4)
celkovr pak
( )
3
.
2
x y z
x y z
k k k
n n n n V
p
D D D
D = D D D = (4.5)
Pro pole dostaneme s potencilem (4.1)
( )
( )
exp ,
exp .
k
k
k
k
d A
A
E i k r
t d t
B A i k A i k r
=  = 
= =
r
r
r
r
r
r
r r
r
r r r r r r
r
(4.6)
Celkov energie pole je
( ) ( )
*
2 2 *
0 0
0 0
1 1 1
.
2 2
k k
k k
k
d A d A
V
E B dV k A k A
d t d t
e e
m m
+ = +
r r
r r
r
r r
r r r r r r
E = (4.7)
J ednoduchou pravou (vyuSit kalibragn podmnky) pIepOeme vraz (4.7) na
*
2 * 0
, .
2
k k
k k
k k
k
d A d A
V
A A c k
d t d t
e
w w
= + =
r r
r r
r
r r
r r r
E (4.8)
Rozklad potencilu (4.1) obsahuje jak stojat, tak postupn vlny. VhodnrjO pro interpretaci je
rozklad potencilu, kter obsahuje jen postupn vlny
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
*
exp exp .
k k
k k
k
A a i k r t a i k r t w w
=  +  
r r
r
r r r
r r r r
(4.9)
Porovnnm (4.9) a (4.1) dostvme
( ) ( )
*
exp exp .
k k
k k k
A a i t a i t w w

=  +
r r r
r
r r
(4.10)
Dosazen (4.10) do (4.8) umoSDuje teo napsat energii pole jako
2 *
0
, 2 .
k
k k k k
k
V a a e w = =
r r r r
r
r r
E E E (4.11)
Obdobnr dostaneme pro impuls
( )
0
1
.
k
k
k
E B dV
k c m
= =
r
r
r
r r r
E
P (4.12)
17
Nakonec zavedeme kanonick promrnn
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
*
0
*
0
exp exp
exp exp .
k k
k k k
k
k k k
k k k
Q V a i t a i t ,
d Q
P i V a i t a i t
d t
e w w
w e w w
=  +
=    =
r r r
r
r r r
r
r r
r
r
r r
(4.13)
V trchto promrnnch mme energii vyjdIenu jako energii souboru nezvislch
harmonickch osciltort
( )
2 2 2
1
, .
2
k
k k k k
k
P Q w = = +
r r r r
r
r
E E E (4.14)
5. Planckovo kvantovn energie
Pokud bychom uvaSovali klasicky, kaSdmu mdu pole kter je ekvivalentn
linernmu harmonickmu osciltoru o dvou stupnch volnosti pIsluO energie
B
U k T = .
Z hustoty stavt (3.13) pak dostaneme rozloSen energie pro jednotkov objem ve tvaru
2
3
d 8
d .
B B
n
u k T u k T
V c
n n
p
n n = = (5.1)
Toto je standardn vyjdIen tzv. Rayleighova J eansova zkona. J e jasn, Se celkov energie
ve spektru vysok nekonegn. Planckovo IeOen problmu je v tom, Se pogt stIedn hodnotu
energie pro danou frekvenci a teplotu tak, jako by odpovdala moSnm hodnotm energie,
kter jsou celistvmi nsobky jistho zkladnho kvanta energie a pravdrpodobnost jejich
vskytu se Id Boltzmannovm rozdrlenm. S oznagenm zkladnho kvanta energie hn jsou
tedy moSn hodnoty energie
n
E nhn = a stIedn hodnotu energie, kterou Planck nahradil
hodnotu
B
k T z ekvipartignho teormu, dostaneme jako
0
0
.
n B
n B
E k T
n
n
E k T
n
E e
U
e

=

=
=
(5.2)
Normovac faktor (statistickou sumu Z) spogteme v tomto pIpadr snadno, neboq je to
geometrick Iada
0 0
1
exp exp .
1 exp
n
n n B B
B
E h
Z n
k T k T h
k T
n
n
= =
1 1
= = =
1
( ) ( )
( )
_ _
(5.3)
Vraz v gitateli (5.2) spogteme jako
18
2
0
exp
,
1
1 exp
n B
E k T B
n B
n
B
h
h
k T Z
E e k
h
T
k T
n
n
n

=

=  =
 
takSe v konegnm tvaru mme
.
exp 1
B
hv
U
h
k T
n
=
1
( )
(5.4)
Pro spektrln hustotu vztaSenou na jednotkov objem U
n
pak ze vztahu
d
d
n
U U
V
n
n =
dostvme
2
3
8
.
exp 1
v
B
hv
U
c h
k T
pn
n
=
1
( )
(5.5)
Ponechnm nejniSOch glent v rozvoji dostvme v limitnch pIpadech pro
B
h k T n =
Rayleightv J eanstv zkon a pro
B
h k T n ? Wientv zkon
2
3
2
3
8
.
8
exp
B B
B
B
h k T U k T
c
h
h k T U h
c k T
n
n
pn
n
pn n
n n
1
( )
= B
? B
(5.6)
6. Einstein v vraz pro fluktuaci spektrln hustoty
Pro s t stupeD volnosti (md elektromagnetickho vlnrn) je stIedn hodnota energie
dna vztahem
exp d
.
exp d
s
s s
B
s
s
s
B
U
U
k T
U
U
k T
 G
=
 G
(6.1)
Celkov energie a celkov stIedn energie jsou pak
, .
s s
s s
U U U U = =
(6.2)
19
StIedn hodnotu fluktuace celkov energie zskme jako
( ) ( ) ( ) / /
/
2 2
2 2
.
s s s s
s s
s s s
U U U U U U U U U D =  =  = 
(6.3)
V poslednm kroku jsme vyuSili pIedpokladu o statistick nezvislosti jednotlivch stupDt
volnosti. Derivace U podle teploty dv
2
2
2
exp d exp d
1
,
exp d exp d
s s
s s s s
B B
s
B s s
s s
B B
U U
U U
U k T k T
T k T U U
k T k T
 G  G
= 
 G  G
(6.4)
takSe porovnnm (6.3) a (6.4) dostvme Einsteintv vztah
2 2
.
B
U
U k T
T
D =
(6.5)
UvaSujme energii obsaSenou v malm objemu dutiny gernho trlesa V a frekvengnm
intervalu zIen ( ) , d n n n +
d , U V r n = (6.6)
kde r je spektrln hustota zIen. Vztah (6.5) pIejde tak na
2 2
d .
B
U k T V
T
r
n
D =
(6.7)
Dosazenm Planckova vztahu
( )
2
3
8
,
exp 1
B
hv
T
c h
k T
pn
r n
n
=
1
( )
(6.8)
dostvme konegnr
3
2
2
d .
8
c
U h V n r r n
pn
D = +
(6.9)