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Tetanus - Corticosteroid

AKA : “lockjaw” - Anticonvulsant


C.A. : clostridium tetani
- Osmotic diuretic
M.O.T. :open wounds
I.P. :7-14 days Nursing responsibility:
• Assess neurologic function
S/S: • Maintain fluid balance
Six P’s • Adequate nutrition
- pain at the site • Provision of comfort
- painful swallowing Prevention:
- perspiration • Immunization
- position alteration • Covering of mouth and nose
- “plastic” smile • Proper disposal of secretion
- painful movt. of the jaw and neck
Diagnostic exam: VIRAL
1. Clinical observation Poliomyelitis
2. History of wound • AKA infantile paralysis/heine-
Management: medin disease/acute flaccid
paralysis
- Tetanus immune globulin
• C.A. : poliovirus (entero virus)
antibody
• M.O.T. : direct contact
- antibiotic Types:
Nursing responsibility: • Unapparent/sub clinical
• Safety and prevent injury • Abortive
• Provide adequate nutrition • Major
• Prevent spasm as much as a. non- paralytic
possible b. paralytic
Prevention: Non paralytic
• Painful head
- Immunization
• Irritability
- Wound care • Lethargy
• Arm, neck and leg pain
Meningitis - Infection/inflammation of • Yielding muscle spasm
the covering of the brain and spinal Paralytic
cord
- affectation of the medulla
C.A. : H. influenza bacilli
Diagnostic procedure:
CMV (if with AIDS)
cryptococcus (with AIDS) • Throat culture
• Stool exam
MENINGOCOCCEMIA/MENINGOCOC • Convalescent serum antibody
CAL INFECTION/SPOTTED FEVER titer
- most fatal, involves the vascular Nursing responsibility:
system - assess for the exacerbation of
C.A. : neisseria meningitis paralysis
M.O.T. :direct contact/droplet - Assess for neurologic damage
I.P. : 2- 10 days
- VS
Signs and symptoms: - Nutrition
- flu-like symptoms (SIC) - Emotional support
Severe HA/Joint Pain Prevention:
Increased temp. - immunization
Chills

Signs and symptoms:


- Photophobia Rabies
- Restlessness AKA : hydrophobia, lyssa, La Rage
C.A. : rhabdo virus
- Increased ICP
M.O.T. : contact with saliva of a rabid
- Nausea and vomiting animal/ droplet
- Seizure I.P. : 10 days to years
- Increased ICP
- Photophobia,diplopia Signs and symptoms:
- Ecchymosis
Prodromal stage
-local pain and burning sensation,
Diagnostic procedure:
pruritus at the bite site
• Lumbar puncture - flu-like symptom (SIC)
• C & S of CSF - nervousness
• Counter immuno - photophobia
electrophoresis - sensitivity to noise
• Culture of blood, urine, throat - pupillary dilatation and altered LOC
Management:
Excitement stage
- Antibiotic (ampicillin)
- intermittent hyperactivity
- aerophobia • Observation
- hydrophobia • ELISA
- CNS dysfunction • Blood tests
Management:
Paralytic stage - Antibiotic
- rapid and progressive deterioration Nursing Responsibility:
- coma • Rest
- death • Passive exercise
Diagnostic procedure: • Strengthening exercise
• Rapid fluorescent focus inhibitor Prevention:
test • Avoid tick infested places
• Brain biopsy • Use of protective clothing
Management:
• Post exposure prophylaxis Colorado tick fever
• vaccination C.A. : arbo virus
M.O.T. :wood tick
Creutzfeldt-jacob disease I.P. : 3-6 days
• Slow progressive disease
commonly affecting 40 years Signs and Symptoms:
old and above • Abrupt onset of fever and chills
• C.A. : infective protein • Arching of the back
pathogen
• Photophobia
• M.O.T. :corneal transplant,
human growth hormone, beef • HA with eye movement
with mud cow dse. • N&V
Signs and symptoms: • Conjunctival infection
• Memory changes • Alt.LOC
• Nervousness
• Maculo papular petechial
• Startle reflex
rashes
• Sleep disturbance
Diagnostic Procedure:
• Rapid deterioration
• Blood tests
• Confusion
• Smear stain
• Dementia
Management:
• (+) babinski reflex
• Removal of tick’s head
Diagnostic Procedure:
Nursing Responsibility:
• Neurologic exam
• Bleeding precaution
• CT scan
• Comfort measures
Management:
• NO SPECIFIC TREATMENT
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
• Comfort measure
C.A. : ricketsia ricketsii
Prevention:
M.O.T.:wood/dog tick
• Avoid mode of transmission
I.P. : 2-12 days
Circulatory System
S/S:
Lyme’s disease
C.A. :borrelia burgdoferi (spirochete) • Flu-like symptom
M.O.T. : bite of tick or feces of tick • Excruciating pain
I.P. : 3-32 days • Anorexia
• Rashes
Signs and Symptoms:
• Petechiae
First stage • Erythomatous macule
- flu like symptoms with regional • Bronchial cough
lymphadenopathy • Rapid RR
- bull’s eye rash – classic skin lesion • thrombocytopenia
- erythema chromicum migrans (ECM) Diagnostic Procedure:
• Immunofluorescent assay
Second stage • Cutaneous biopsy of rash
Neurologic affectation • Blood test
- HA Management:
- stiff neck - careful removal of tick’s head
- memory loss - Antibiotic treatment
Cardiovascular affectation - Provision of comfort
- heart block
- palpitation Integumentary system
Viral
Third stage 1. Measles
musculoskeletal affectation AKA : rubeola morbilli, hard measles,
- bone pains little red disease
- cartilage affectation C.A. : rubeola virus (paramyxovirus)
- arthritis M.O.T. :airborne
- joint swelling and pain I.P. : 8-14 days
- limited movement
Diagnostic Procedure:
S/S: • Anorexia
Prodromal stage • Irritability
- high grade fever (3-4days)
• Listlessness
- anorexia
- voice hoarseness • Maculopapular rash on trunks,
- 3 C’s (coryza, conjunctivitis, cough) arms, neck
- white spot in buccal mucosa • Nagayama spot
- Koplik spots Dx:
Eruptive stage - Clinical observation
- fever peaks
- rash appears
Post eruptive stage
- fine desquamation
Dx: 5. Chicken pox
• Clinical observation AKA : varicella
• Blood tests C.A. : varicella virus
Management: M.O.T. :airborne, direct or indirect
• Symptomatic treatment I.P. : 13-17 days
• Antibiotic
• Keep warm and dry S/S:
• Hygienic measure • Slight fever
• Malaise
Prevention: • Anorexia
• immunization • Vesico-pustular rash
• pruritus
2. German Measles Management:
AKA : third disease, Roteln, Rubella • Comfort measure
C.A. toga viridae • Administration of zovirax
(psedoparamyxovirus)
M.O.T. :droplet 6. Herpes zoster
I.P. : 14-21 days (18 days) AKA : shingles, Zona
C.A. : varicella zoster virus
S/S: M.O.T. :
Pre eruptive
- low grade fever S/S:
- HA - Fever
- malaise
- Malaise
- sore throat
- coryza - Musculoskeletal pain
- colds - Pleurisy
- fine red, petechial spots on soft - Painful vesico papular rash
palate Dx Procedure:
Eruptive - Clinical observation
- maculo-papular pinkish rash, - Tzanck smear
- enlargement of lymphnodes
DX : clinical observation Bacterial
MNGT :symptomatic 1. Scarlet Fever
AKA : scarlatina, 2nd disease
3. Erythema infectiosum C.A. : group A beta hemolytic
AKA : 5th disease, slapped cheek streptococci
disease M.O.T. :direct/ indirect
C.A. : human parovirus I.P. : 2-4 days
M.O.T. :direct, droplet
I.P. : 4-10 days S/S:
Prodromal stage
S/S: - abrupt high fever
- Low grade fever - Nausea &Vomiting
- Mild colds - Head Ache
- Intensify red rash - abdominal pain
- sore throat
- Body malaise - circum oral pallor
- Pale ring around the mouth - exanthum
Dx: Eruptive stage
- Clinical exam - edematous and beefy red pharynx
- Light and electron microscopy and swollen uvula
- strawberry tongue
4. Roseola infantum - tiny subcutaneous vesicles around
AKA : 6th disease, exanthum subitum the cuticles of the nails
C.A. : human herpes virus strain B - erythema group together at the skin
I.P. : 10-15 days folds

S/S: Diagnostic Procedure:


• High grade fever • Pharyngeal culture
• Throat culture - sinking of nose bridge
• Rapid antigen test - enlargement of male’s breast (gyne)
• CBC - chronic ulcer
• Dick’s test
• Schult’z charlton test Types
Management: 1. Paucibacillary
• Antibiotic (tuberculoid/indeterminate)
• Proper nutrition -non infectious type 6-9 mos. Of
treatment
2. Erysipelas 2. Multibacillary (lepromatous/
C. A. : Group A betahemolytic borderline)
streptococci - infectious type 24-30 mos treatment
M.O.T. :direct contact
Management:
S/S: Multi drug therapy (use of two or more
- flu like symptoms drugs, 1 week no longer
- Bright red, large raised spots communicable)
- Painful, itchy lesions Treatment Paucibacillary Multibacillary
Dx. Procedure: days 9 mos 18 mos
• C&S of secretions
• CBC
Management: Day 1 and Rifampicin6,4 Rifampicin6,45
- antibiotic monthly 5 Clofazimine 3
TX Dapsone 1 Dapsone 1
3. Impetigo
AKA : “mamaso”
C.A. : staphylococcus aureus Group A Daily Dapsone 1 Clofazimine50/
beta hemolytic streptococci treatment Dapsone 1 50
M.O.T. : direct or indirect
I.P. : 4-10 days
Prevention:
• Avoidance of prolonged skin
S/S:
contact
Non bullous
• BCG
- pustular honey colored crust
• Hygiene
- pruritus
• NTN
- burning sensation
• Education
- regional lymphadenopathy
• Support
Bullous
- thin vesicle
Fungal
- clear crust
1. Ringworm
- painless
AKA : tinea
Dx. Procedure:
C.A. : dermatophytes
• Gram stain of vesicle
M.O.T. :direct
• Culture and sensitivity
Management:
Types
• Antibiotic treatment
• Tinea capitis
• Comfort measures
• Tinea corporis
• Tinea ungium
5. Leprosy
• Tinea barbae
Affectation of the skin and peripheral
• Tinea pedis
nerves
• Tinea cruris
C.A. : mycobacterium leprae/
Dx. Procedure:
hansen’s bacillus
• C&S
M.O.T. :prolonged skin contact, droplet
• Wood light exam
infection
Management:
• Antifungal
S/S:
• Comfort measures
Early
- change in skin color (reddish /
2. Pediculosis
whitish)
AKA : lice
- loss of sensation on skin lesion
M.O.T. : direct contact
- Decrease /loss sweating & hair
growth over lesion
Types
- thickened or painful nerves
• Corpora's
- muscle weakness/paralysis pain
• Capitis
-redness of the eyes nasal obstruction
• Pubis
or bleeding
- ulcer that does not heal
3. Scabies
Late sign
C.A. : sarcoptes scabie
- loss of eyebrow (madarosis
M.O.T. : direct contact
- inability to close eyelids
S&SX : itchiness, threadlike
(lagopthalmos
lesion
- clawing of fingers and toes
DX : visual exam of burrow
- contractures
MNGT : antifungal • ESR
• Liver enzymes
Respiratory System Management:
• Antibiotic
1. Pneumonia - Inflammation of • Antipyretic
the lung parenchyma • Apply chest binder
C.A. : bacteria, virus, protozoa • oxygen PRN
M.O.T. : direct or indirect
I.P. : 24-72 hours 3. Epiglotitis
Classification AKA : synglotitis
i. Primary C.A. : Haemophilus influenza B
ii. Secondary pneumococci
GAB streptococci
S/S: M.O.T.: direct/indirect
• Chills
• High grade fever S/S:
• Productive cough • High fever
• Purulent sputum • Sore throat
• Pleuritic chest pain • Dysphagia
• HA • Inspiratory retraction
• Myalgia • Nasal flaring
• Crackles • Stridor
• Dyspnea • Tripod position
Dx. Procedure: Dx. Procedure:
- general assessment • Throat culture
- X-ray Management:
- Blood culture antibiotic
- CBC
- bronchoscopy 4. Diptheria
Types C.A. : corynebacterium diptheria
a. Very severe disease M.O.T. : direct/indirect
- Stridor I.P. : 2-5 days
- Convulsion
- Abnormally sleepy
- Not able to drink and eat S/S:
b. Severe pneumonia • Low grade fever
- Chest indrawing • Foul smelling mucopurulent
- Fast breathing nasal discharge
c. Pneumonia • Sore throat
- No chest indrawing • Inflammation of cervical
- Fast breathing lymphnodes
d. No pneumonia • Grayish white membrane on
- Cough and colds soft palate
- No chest indrawing Dx. Procedure:
- No fast breathing • Nose culture
Management: • Throat culture
• Antibiotic • Schick test
• Bronchodilator • Molony test
• Mucolytic Management:
• Inhalation therapy • Diptheria antitoxin
Nursing Responsibility: • Airborne precaution
• Positioning
• Increased Oral Fluid Intake 4. Pertusis
• CPT AKA : whooping cough
• EDBE C.A. : bordetella pertusis
• Suctioning M.O.T. : direct/indirect
• Postural drainage I.P. : 5-21 days
• Inhalation TX
S/S:
2. Legionaire’s disease Catarrhal stage
AKA : legonellosis - highly contagious
C.A. : legonella - low grade cough
M.O.T. : airborne - colds, sneezing, lacrimation
I.P. : 12-20 days - listlessness
- night cough
S/S: Paroxysmal stage
• Flu-like symptoms - spasmodic cough
• General malaise - 5-10 forceful cough and ends with a
• Grayish non purulent sputum whoop
• Chestpain on coughing - expels mucous
Dx. Procedure: Convalescent stage
• CXR - symptoms subsides
• CBC - no longer communicable
Dx. Procedure:
- nasopharyngeal swab - coughing,
- Sputum C & S - wheezing,
Management: - malaise,
• Antibiotic - dyspnea
• Pertusis immune globulin DX :
• Oxygen therapy C&S of secretion, serum antibody titer,
• Antitussive ELISA
• Codeine
• Rest
• Aspiration prec!
• Application of abdominal hernia 4. Hantavirus pulmonary
syndrome
5. Tuberculosis C. A. : hantavirus
AKA : galloping consumption, phitisis M.O.T. :inhalation, ingestion and
C.A. : tubercle bacilli contact with infected rodents
M.O.T.: airborne S/S:
ingestion of contaminated milk - fever
I.P. : 4-8 weeks - myalgia
- HA,
- N&V
- cough,
- Hypoxia
S/S: - dec. BP, inc. RR & CR
- fatigue/weakness DX : CXR, blood exam
- Low grade fever MNGT : ribavirin
- Chest pain/back pain
- Productive cough Fungal
- Mucopurulent sputum 1. Coccidioiodomycosis
- Occasional hemoptysis AKA : San Joaquin Valley fever
Dx. Procedure: C.A. : coccidiodes
• Tuberculin syringe test M.O.T. : inhalation of spore in soil
• Sputum exam I.P. : 1-4 weeks
• CXR
Management: S/S:
• Rifampicin 450 mg • Flu like symptoms
• Isoniazid 300 mg • Sore throat
• Pyrazinamide 500 mg (2 tabs) • Malaise
• Ethambutol 400 mg (2 tabs) • Itchy macular rash
• Streptomycin 1 gm • Dry cough
• Chest pain
Viral Dx. Procedure:
1. Colds • Coccidiodine skin test
AKA : coryza, rhinitis • CBC
C.A. : subgroup of myxovirus • ESR
M.O.T. :direct/indirect • CSF analysis
I.P. : 1-4 days Management:
Antifungal
S/S:
- pharyngitis 2. Blastomycosis
- chills AKA : Gilchrist’s disease
- HA C.A. : blastomyces dermatitidis
- watery eyes M.O.T. : inhalation
I.P. : weeks- months
2. Influenza S/S: mimics URTI, night sweats,
AKA : flu, la grippe chest pain
C.A. : myxovirus influenza DX : C & S
M.O.T. : direct/ indirect MNGT :antifungal
I.P. : 24-72 hours
3. Histoplasmosis
S/S: AKA : Ohio Valley Disease/cultural
-body malaise Mississippi disease/amphotericin
- HA mountain disease/Darling’s disease
- chills C.A. : H. capsulatum
- myalgia H. Duboisi
- conjuctivitis M.O.T. : inhalation of spores from
infected source
MNGT :amantadine I.P. : 5-18 days

3. Respiratory syncitial virus S/S:


C.A. : subgroup of myxo virus • Flu like symptoms
M.O.T. : direct/indirect • TB like symptoms if chronic
I.P. : 4-5 days
S/S:
- nflamed mucous membrane Dx. Procedure:
• Tissue biopsy • enema
• Sputum culture
Management: 4. Shigellosis
• Antifungal AKA : dysentery bacillary, bloody flux
• glucocorticoids C. A. : shigella dysenteriae
M.O.T. :fecal oral
Gastrointestinal System I.P. : 1-4 days
Bacterial S/S:
1. Gastroenteritis - abrupt diarrhea
C. A. : bacterial- salmonella - abdominal cramping,
virus- norvale virus - painful straining
protozoa – amoeba - mucoid stool with blood
helminths – enterobius
toxin – plants, toad stool 5. Cholera
drug RX – antibiotic AKA : Violent dysentery, El Tor
M.O.T. :fecal-oral C.A. : Vibrio cholera/Comma
5 F’s M.O.T. :ingestion
- feces I.P. : few hours- 5 days usually 3
- food days
- fomites S/S:
- flies - vomiting
- fingers - abdominal cramping
S/S: - severely frequent defecation
• Anorexia
• N&V 6. Traveller’s diarrhea
• Abdominal pain and cramping C. A. : E. coli
• Borborygmi M.O.T. : ingestion
• Diarrhea I.P. : 24-72 hours
Dx. Procedure: S/S:
• Stool exam - abrupt diarrhea
• GM stain - abdominal cramping,
• Blood culture - N&V
Management:
• Antibiotic 7. Hepatitis
• Oral rehydration Hepatitis C.A. M.O.T. I.P.
• IVF replacement
• F & E balance A Hepa A Fecal-oral 2-6 weeks
• Nutrition (infectious RNA
hepa/catar containing
2. Salmonellosis rhal virus
AKA : salmonella food poisoning jaundice)
C.A. : salmonella specie
M.O.T. : ingestion of protein rich
infected foods
I.P. : 6-8 hours
B (serum HBV DNA Sexual / 8-24 weeks
3. Staphylococcal food poisoning hepa/viral) containing parenteral
C.A. : staphylococcus
M.O.T. :CHON & CHO rich infected
foods
I.P. : 2- 6 hours
C (post HCV Sexual / 5-12 weeks
2. Botulism tranfusion) parenteral
C.A : clostridium botulinum
M.O.T. :ingestion of improperly
preserved food, contaminated honey,
wound infection D HDV delta Sexual / 3-13 weeks
I.P. : 12-36 hours (dormant virus parenteral
type of
hepa B

S/S:
- Vertigo E (enteric HEV Fecal - 3-6 weeks
- dry mouth virus) oral
- sore throat
- weakness, G HGV Sexual / unknown
- constipation parenteral
- CNS affectation
Dx. Procedure: S/S:
Lab analysis Pre icteric stage
Management: - malaise, fatigue, fever, HA, N & V
• Botulism antitoxin - anorexia
• NGT gastric lavage - RUQ pain
- diarrhea M.O.T. : fecal –oral
- anemia I.P. : 2-10 days
Icteric stage S & SX : sudden watery stool
- jaundice DX : specific stool exam,
- pruritus small bowel biopsy
- tea colored urine MNGT : medicate
- light colored stool
Post icteric/ convalescent stage 4. Schistosomiasis
- increase energy AKA : bilhariasis or snail fever
- GI symptoms subsides C.A. : Schistosoma japonicum (bld
Dx. Procedure: fluke)
Serum antigen antibody S. Mansoni
HBSag S. haematobium
HBEag S/S:
anti HBS • Diarrhea
Liver enzyme tests • bloody stool
Bilirubin test • Enlargement of abdomen
Prothrombin test • Spleenomegaly
Management: • Weakness
- Symptomatic treatment • Anemia
- Diet • Inflamed liver
- Rest • p222
- medicate Management:
Prevention: • Praziquantel (biltricide)
Immunization • Oxamniquine (S.mansoni)
Proper handwashing • Metrifonate (S. haematobium)
Proper food handling

Protozoan
1. Giardiasis
AKA : lambliasis
C.A. : giardia lamblia Genito-urinary system
M.O.T. :fecal oral Bacterial
I.P. : 1-3 weeks 1. Chlamydia
C.A. : chlamydia trachomates
S/S: M.O.T. :sexual contact, delivery
• Abdominal cramps I.P. : 7- 14 days
• Nausea S & SX :women - clear vaginal
• Anorexia discharge, burning sensation,
• Diarrhea itchiness, PID
• Stool changes men – clear penile discharge, dysuria,
• Vomiting epididymitis
• Weight loss DX : vaginal culture, Gram stain,ELISA
• Distention/flatulence / belching MNGT :medicate (doxycycline,
Dx. Procedure: azithromycin, erythromcin)
• Stool exam education
• Duodenal aspiration biopsy behavior modification
Management:
• Increase OFI 2. Gonorrhea
• F & E balance AKA : clap, strain, jack, morning drop
• Nutrition C.A. : neisseria gonorrhea
• Medicate M.O.T. :sexual contact, delivery
I.P. : 2-10 days
2. Amoebiasis
AKA : amoebic dysentery S/S:
C.A. : entomoeba hystolitica • Women
M.O.T. : fecal –oral -low abdominal pain, dysuria, urinary
I.P. : 2-4 weeks frequency,itchy, red edematous
meatus, purulent discharge
S/S: - Men
• Stool changes - Sx of urethritis, dysuria, purulent
• Diarrhea discharge
• Foul smelling stool
Dx. Procedure: Complication:
• Stool exam • Sterility
• Indirect hemo agglutination test • Gonococcal septicemia
Management: Dx. Procedure:
• Increased OFI • Vaginal/penile culture
• Nutrition • Cervical exam
• Rest • Pap smear
• Medicate Management:
• Medicate
3. Cryptosporidiosis oral - cephalosporin, ciprofloxacin,
C. A. : cryptosporidium ofloxacin
IV/IM – ceftriaxone (rocephin) Protozoan
1. Trichomoniasis
3. Syphilis C.A. : trichomonas vaginalis
AKA : Rox, Lues, Bad blood disease M.O.T. : sexual contact,
C.A. : Treponema pallidum contaminated douche, delivery
M.O.T.: sexual/blood I.P. : 4-20 days
transfusion/vertical transmission
I.P. : 10-90 days averagely 21 days S/S:
- itching, dyspareunia, dysuria,
S/S: urinary frequency
Primary stage - Post coital spotting,
- chancre menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea
- regional lymphadenopathy - Greenish yellow discharge,
Second stage malodorous frothy
- infectious, skin rashes, flu like Dx. Procedure:
symptoms • Direct microscopic exam
- condylomata lata/condylomata • Urine culture
• Cervical exam
Third stage/ late stage Management:
- assymptomatic • Metronidazole
- not communicable • Sitz bath to relive symptoms
- CV changes
- CNS changes Viral
- gummatous lesion 1. Genital Warts
- generalized lymphdenopathy AKA : codylomata accuminata,
Dx. Procedure: venereal warts
• History taking C.A. : human papilloma virus
• VDRL M.O.T.: sexual contact
• FTA ABC I.P.: 4 wks-9 mos.
• Rapid plasma reagent S & Sx : painless warts
Management: DX : dark filled microscopy
• Antibiotic (peniccilin G MNGT : podofilox 0.5%,
benzathine, doxycycline, cryosurgery, electo cautery, laser
tetracycline)
Complication: 2. Genital Herpes
Effects on pregnancy C.A. : genital herpes simplex type 2
saw like teeth M.O.T. :sexual contact, delivery
anterior bowing of tibia I.P. : 3-7 days
inflammation of fingers S & SX :fluid filled, painless, inguinal
lymph node, fever, body malaise,
4. Chancroid dysuria
C.A. : Haemophilis Ducruyi DX : physical exam, TZANCK TEST
M.O.T. :sexual contact MNGT :acyclovir
I.P. : 3-7 days
S & SX :irregular painful papule 3. HIV/AIDS
inguinal tenderness C.A. : human immuno virus/ retrovirus
dysuria M.O.T. :sexual contact, blood
DX : Gm stain, blood culture, lesion transfusion, exposure to infected
biopsy blood, pregnancy, sharing of infected
MNGT :azithromycin, erythromycin,IM needles
ceftriazone
S/S:
4. Bacterial Vaginitis Major
C.A. : Gardnella vaginalis - fever
M.O.T. : sexual contact - chronic diarrhea
I.P. : 5-7 days 10% weight loss
S & SX : itchiness, thin white Minor
discharge, gas bubbles, fishlike odor - persistent cough
DX : culture -generalized lymphadenopathy
MNGT : metronidazole - pruritus
- oral pharyngeal candidiasis
Fungal - recurrent herpes zoster
1. Candidiasis - progressive disseminated herpes
AKA : candidosis/ moniliasis simplex
C.A. : candida albicans Dx. Procedure:
M.O.T. : sexual contact, delivery • ELISA
I.P. : 2-5 days • Western blot
S & Sx : pruritus, dyspareunia, white • CD4 cell count
gray raised patches,cottage cheese
yellow odorless, contain curds Management:
DX : culture, GM • 4 cocktail drug (21 tabs a day)
MNGT :ketoconazole, 1. AZT – terminate viral replication
fluoconazole
2. Viramune – blocks DNA activity abdominal pain
of virus bleeding
3. Protease inhibitor – inhibits unstable bp
maturation of virus tourniquet test no longer
4. Fusion inhibitor –n does not reliable
allow fusion of virus to human death may occur
cell 7th-10th days/ convalescent or
recovery stage
Other Communicable Dse. - generalized flushing
1. Filariasis - regained appetite
C. A. : wuchereria bancrofti - stable BP
brugia malayi
brugia timori Classification
M.O.T. :insect bites (aedes poecillus Severe, frank type
I.P. : 8-16 mos. - flushing, sudden high fever,
severe hemorrhage followed by
S/S: sudden drop of temp.,shock
• Assymptomatic at first Moderate
• Inflammation of lymph nodes - with high fever but less
• Inflammation of blood vessel hemorrhage
• Swelling of scrotum mild
• Swelling of upper and lower - slight fever with or without petechial
extremities hemorrhage
• Enlargement and thickening of
the skin
Dx. Procedure: Dx. Procedure:
• History taking • Tourniquet test
• Observation • Supportive
• Nocturnal blood exam • Symptomatic
• Immunochromatographic test • Rapid replacement of body
Management: fluids
• Diethylcarbamazine or hetrazan
• surgery 4. Mumps - Swelling of one or
both parotid glands
2. Malaria C. A. : filterable virus
C.A. : genus plasmodium M.O.T. : contact with infected
types : secretion of the mouth and nose
Plasmodium falciparum I.P. : 12-26 days
P. vivax
P. ovale S/S:
P. malariae •Painful swelling in front of ear
M.O.T. :insect bite jaws and neck
• Fever
S/S: • Malaise
• Recurrent chills • Anorexia
• Fever • Swollen testicle
• Profuse sweating Management:
• Anemia • Prophylaxis
• Malaise • Active treatment
• Hepatomegaly • Soft or clear liquids
• spleenomegaly • Nasal and oral care
Management:
• Medicate (blood schizonticides) 5. Paragonimiasis
C.A. : paragonimus westermani, P.
3 Dengue Hemorrhagic siamenses
Fever M.O.T. : ingestion of improperly
AKA : H fever handled food
C.A. : dengue virus types 1,2,3,4 and S & SX : chronic cough, blood
chikungunya virus (aedes aegypti) streaked sputum, chest or back pain,
M.O.T. : mosquito bite PTB like symptoms
I.P. : uncertain (6days-1week) DX : sputum exam,
immunology, cerebral paragonimiasis
Stages MNGT : praziquantel, bithionol,
First 4 days / invasive stage
high fever 6. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
abdominal pain AKA : PSP / red tide poisoning
HA C. A. : dinoflagellates
hot flushes M.O.T. : ingestion of raw or
vomiting mishandled shellfish
conjunctival infection I.P. : 30 mins-several hours
epistaxis S & SX : numbness, vomiting,
4th-7th days/ toxic or hemorrhagic dizziness, HA, tingling sensation, rapid,
stage
lowering of temperature
difficulty in speaking and swallowing,
respiratory arrest
Management:
• No specific treatment
• Induced vomiting
• Coconut milk in the early stage

7. Leptospirosis
AKA : weil’s disease, mud fever, tench
fever, flood fever, japanese seven days
fever, spiroketal jaundice
C.A. : leptospires
(leptospirainterrogans)
M.O.T. : skin contact esp. open
wound
I.P. : 7-19 days

S/S:
• Leptospiremic phase
- fever
- HA
- myalgia
-N&V
- vomiting
- cough
- chest pain
Immune phase
with circulating IgM
Dx. Procedure:
• Culture
• Blood test
• CSF test
• Urine testing
Management:
• Antibiotic
- penicillin
- tetracycline
- ertyhtromycin
8. Anthrax
AKA: malignant pustule, malignant
edema, woolsorter disease, ragpicker
disease)
C.A. : bacillus anthracis
M.O.T. : contact with infected SEY (-.-)
animals, flies bites that fed on infected
animals
I.P. : few hours – 7 days

S/S:
Cutaneous form
-itchiness, papule becomes vesicle
then black eschar, painless lesion if left
untreated can lead to death
pulmonary form
- urti like symptoms, after 3-5 days can
become acute can cause death
gastrointestinal form
- violent gastroenteritis, vomiting,
bloody stools
Management:
• Education
• Immunize high risk person
• Control dust
• Handwashing