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Title

The stylistic analysis of literary language in relation to English teaching in Hong Kong

Author(s)

Chan, Kam-wing, Philip.; .

Citation

Issue Date

1987

URL

http://hdl.handle.net/10722/29150

Rights

The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.

THE

S T Y L I S T I C A N A L Y S I S O F LITERARY L A N G U A G E IN R E L A T I O N

TO

E N G L I S H T E A C H I N G IN HONG K O N G

To

be

s u b m i t t e d to The D e p a r t m e n t of E n g l i s h

Studies

and

Comparative L i t e r a t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y of Hong K o n g fulfilment Arts in

in p a r t i a l of

of the r e q u t r e m e a t s for the D e g r e e of M a s t e r

L i t e r a r y S t u d i e s , in A u g u s t , 1987.

Chan Kant N i n g , P h i l ip

DECLARATION

I work or

hereby

d e c l a r e that this t h e s i s r e p r e s e n t s

my

own this a

a n d that it h a s not b e e n p r e v i o u s l y s u b m i t t e d to any o t h e r institution

in a p p l i c a t i o n for a d m i s s i o n to qualification.

degree, deploma or other

Chan Kam W i n g , P h i l i p August, 1987

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

w o u l d 1 ike to thank my s u p e r v i s o r P r o f e s s o r

Preston, overall

and Mrs H e l e n Kwok for their valuable a d v i c e on the

d i r e c t i o n of the t h e s i s , a n d for their s u g g e s t ion on the a p p r o a c h to the topic.

My h e a r t felt t h a n k s go to D r K e r r , of his time

who h a s s p e n t much with

in r e a d i n g my m a n u s c r i p t a n d in d i s c u s s i n g

it w i t h m e .

And Sau

finally,
.

I w a n t to thank my s t u d e n t s at Chiu School, who have given the ir

Lut me

Memorial

Secondary and

inspirat ion

encouragement

through lessons.

active

r e s p o n s e s and p a r t icipat ion. in my

III

I I

Ill

ABSTRACT

The

a i m s of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n are to i n v e s t i g a t e in r e l a t i o n to l i t e r a r y language to talk a b o u t literary style what how

what

style means can be

methods these of of

used m a y be

and

methods

to s o l v e p e d a g o g i c a l in Hong one

problems

English teaching three chapters*

The d i s s e r t a t i o n c o n s i s t s lays down the

Chapter

theoretical This is

framework based

of what characterizes the Saussaurean s e i o l o g y , is

on m y reading of

Russian defined two

Formalism as a use

and Speech A c t Theory. L i t e r a r y style not the which a kind use of integrates of language language style as

Chapter in a

illustrates analysis use of act*

practical reflexive in speech

language and as a special Chapter of three this

type of d i s c o u r s e the

pedagogical to literary

implications language

stylistic

approach

for E n g l i s h t e a c h i n g

in Hong K o n g *

The and form

investigation

is based on m y course*

teaching

experience takes the to be

m y study on the of a language I

My conclusion

that the s t y l i s t i c have d i s c u s s e d and

approach

i l l u s t r a t e d can

u s e f u l l y a p p l i e d to the teaching of I propose that

language and

literature* of

it s h o u l d be considered

in any p l a n n i n g

the future d i r e c t i o n s

in E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n of Hong K o n g *

IV

PREFACE

This dissertation arises teacher of E n g l i s h the not into were my first

from b o t h m y e x p e r i e n c e course.

as

and m y s t u d y on the

During was it

few years of m y nevertheless

English Literature I have always incorporated

language

teaching to students to

of works of develop their to certain to

Literature reading sensitize effects. them and the

introduced

B a s i c s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s was done them to the l i t e r a r y use of and episodes language for

Dialogues involved. they began

were

dramatized learning of

get

Students to

found language

interesting beyond

e x t e n d t h e i r use to express when

language

examination (see Appendix

context

their

f e e l i n g s and was language the

thoughts I class. language many My and

Literature in the

reinforced Major

what

I had b e e n d o i n g and initial

emphasis

focus were put on

and the use of style common study on the

in L i t e r a t u r e

I have two

found

in the teaching of these

subjects*

course p r o v i d e d a theoretical b a s i s to e v a l u a t e It also m y past enabled

methodology experience

w h i c h e n a b l e d me in perspective.

teaching me to in

systematically the classroom.

analyse and organize m y current practice The r e s u l t is e m b o d i e d in t h i s

dissertation.

It

addresses

t w o k i n d s of

q u e s t i ons theoret i c a l i n c l u d e : What

and

pedagogical.

The t h e o r e t i c a l q u e s t i o n s

is the it? Is in

s t y l e of l i t e r a r y language? it our use separated

H o w can w e c h a r a c t e r i z e

f r o m that of the o r d i n a r y u s e of l a n g u a g e is discourse from in the in I

d a i l y c o m m u n i c a t i o n 7 How of language ? To

literary ordinary start by The

different

that

communication examining

answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , as a system of

language

signification.

Saussurean concept of the s i g n is a p o i n t of e n t r y A l t h o u g h Saussure c l a s s i f i e s 1iterature as a S e c o n d order' that the m e d i u m system, becomes

it is a legacy of h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n

the focal p o i n t of the s t u d y of art and language the p r i m a r y concern sharpens reflexive function of the s t u d y of this use is The Russian on So the the

focus on the m e d i u m b y of language in l i t e r a t u r e . b y the d o m i n a n t

poetic on the of the

characterized

focus

B u t the l i t e r a r y use of language discourse pragmatic attempts analysis to which the partakes of o t h e r interpersonal

is also a k i n d such as

functions This

ones*

dissertation and discourse of the

b r i n g the F o r m a l i s t approaches in the s t y l i s t i c

together use of

language*

VI

The second k i n d of q u e s t i o n s are of p e d a g o g i c a l W h a t are the p r o b l e m s of E n g l i s h t e a c h i n g should language the and effort ? language and Literature be taught

nature: How

in H o n g Kong? to the

second is

learner? H o w are these

two subjects

related? W h y

language standard f a l l i n g a l t h o u g h the spent Why What language This the is place have on it is g r e a t e r of the than that of

time other

subjects dropping? literary teaching? recommend Literature

the n u m b e r might

Literature stylistic

candidates approach to

in b o t h

language to

and

Literature and and the

dissertation

attempts

illustrate language to both

i n t e g r a t i o n of the the stylistic of

t e a c h i n g of approach

through

l i t e r a r y and n o n - l i t e r a r y u s e

VII

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE : THE L I T E R A R Y USE O F L A N G U A G E : A T H E O R E T I C A L F R A M E W O R K 1 - 28

CHAPTER TWO : THE USE OF STYLE : A PRACTICAL ANALYSIS 29 -52

CHAPTER THREE : TEACHING LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE 53


-82

NOTES

83

-85

APPENDIX

ONE

86

-97

A P P E N D I X TWO

98

APPENDIX

THREE

104-120

BIBLIOGRAPHY

121-124

VIII

CHAPTER ONE THE L I T E R A R Y USE OF L A N G U A G E : A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

If literary

there

is such a t h i n g as 1 i t e r a t u r e , for in language, be is

there u s t be that is

expressed and recorded Then the

it spoken or

written, But in it and

literary language

seems

v i e w of the protean nature of develops endless through theories between attempt to but system of This examined kind changes about literature brought well by

the c o m p l e x i t i e s its the currency

as

pedagogical the be

and language as language m a y not only

literary The

fruitful, the basic

i n v e s t i g a t i o n can throw light on which literature can is be

language w i t h i n of

dialectic relationship from w h i c h it

in s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s , implications

is hoped that teaching of

pedagogical

can be drawn

for the

language and of

literature*

The of entry*

Saussurean concept of the s i g n m a y p r o v i d e a p o i n t it are a s y s t e m s of is the basic up of that two

languages

s i g n s w h i c h are m a d e image, called a

sound or graphic the

and a concept, because the is

*signif i e d , * These s i g n s are of the sign if ier is no

^arbitrary* with natural the or the

correspondence only

signified necessary

conventional

^^ere

relationship between

the s y s t e m of signs and

world

of

objects

to

which

they

refer.

This

arbitrary language our

r e l a t i o n s h i p p o i n t s to the Words generate

i f f e r e n t I a l , p o w e r of

the m e a n i n g of o b j e c t s and

articulate

e x p e r i e n c e of t h i n g s b y of one s i g n from the o t h e r s , from the others.

i e . the d i f f e r e n c e c o r r e s p o n d i n g to that of just as the sign sign from fact ^dog^, its that that sign to this langue, one

concept differs the

Thus,

g r a p h i c a l l y and p h o n e m i c a l l y from the of from the concept that of o t h e r

meaning

is g e n e r a t e d concepts* The

difference meaning

is i d e n t i f i e d b y signs cannot b e taken in r e l a t i o n to the o t h e r s . are concerned With this with in m i n d , the the

presupposes Every Language s t u d i e s , totality of

linguistic functions Saussure,

relationship^

he distinguishes individual

the language system from p a r o l e , of the s y s t e m the


%

realization places of

in actual of

instances of

l a n g u a g e . A n d he as the

importance

langue o v e r p a r o l e

object

1inguistics.:

Language that time

study before Saussure

is

more historical change or

in

it concentrated on the ways This became known as

languages Philology he

through

Comparative as the

Historical

Linguistics,

which

characterizes

study of language* I n j u x t a p o s i t i o n to t h i s what he how in introduces as which investigates point is

a language time* The

functions as a s y s t e m at a p a r t i c u l a r d i s t i n c t i o n of these two

orientations

essential knowledge of

as

each

contributes

to

different

kinds

of study

w h i c h are c o m p l e m e n t a r y to a c o m p r e h e n s i v e

languaige W i t h i n the f r a m e w o r k of the s y n c h r o n i c distinguishes that may *syatagmatic* relations, other

study, the units from at ,

Saussure

relationship because they

l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s have w i t h occur together in a

sequence,

r e l a t i o n s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a u n i t a given p o i n t w i t h i n a sentence and a u n i t it is with which

The

influence

of

Ideas o u t l i n e d

above

on

linguistics this essay.

is t r e m e n d o u s , My ideas of m a i n focus for his the

b u t that is o u t s i d e the scope of is on the study of implications 1 i terature of of and the the

Saussurean application language

ideas to the e x a m i n a t i o n

literary

When

Saussure

launched h i s

^revolutiorxary, concept

of

the s i g n , he was p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the study system from a l i n g u i s t i c p o i n t of for only as a or minor the language, parole w i t h i n the on the

language as a regard

H e had l i t t l e which he He

considered had study not of

imagined

significant

H e r e , I do not suggest that he the study of Plato the u l t i m a t e 3 has

is the p i o n e e r of warned And that art

is thrice r e m o v e d

m i m e t i c t h e o r y is p r e d i c a t e d on the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n art and o b j e c t s * D e s p i t e t h e i r d i f f e r e n t s t a n d p o i n t s , b o t h take p o w e r of B u t where they in

account of the r e f e r e n t i a l differ the point in g e n e r a l

from Saussure from a

is that t h e y treat art utilitarian or

form

of l i t e r a t u r e

moralistic the The

of view whereas Saussure language

is c o n c e r n e d w i t h how

s y s t e m of

t e c h n i c a l l y and c o n c e p t u a l l y works.

concept of the s i g n is s i g n i f i c a n t to the v e r y art as a vehicle of for from the

in s h i f t i n g o u r a t t e n t i o n w i t h using purposes That the or with the

i m p o s i t i o n of personal v i e w s on the

m e d i u m becomes primary

focal p o i n t of the s t u d y of art and language the

concern of t h e s t u d y of literatture is a legacy of contributioru

Saussure

Saussureconcept for systems However, or etiquette,

of the s i g n does not is o n l y one of

just a p p l y the

to

language

signifying ritual and

compared w i t h other systems such as linguistic can therefore signs say are that to more

complex

arbitrary: signs ideal of And are This those

wholly the

arbitrary

w h i c h come closest

is w h y language,

the m o s t c o m p l e x and w i d e s p r e a d is also the m o s t characteristic^ model of for its

systems of e x p r e s s i o n , for t h i s reason as a w h o l e , < Saussure ^ 8 ) *

can serve as a though language

semiology systems
#

is o n l y one

If would

1inguistics venture for

m a y serve as a m o d e l that literature In

for s e m i o l o g y , may the serve as

I a of is

to propose the study

paradigm

of l a n g u a g e

doaii!i which

literature based on from literature

is a

H e r e w e m a y try to d i s t i n g u i s h a p o i n t of by as Effective strict observation and the view*

language As a

system w h i c h s i g n i f i e s language is codified to

accurately

and

u n a m b i g u o u s l y as p o s s i b l e . on clear definition and

depends of the

correspondence extreme example which the

b e t w e e n the to

signified this is

illustrate

is the t r a f f i c signals sharply demarcated is Each

of for

spectrum

of c o l o u r The

compliance* as the objects to d e n o t e

spectrum of

language

larger new will

are v a r i e d and e n d l e s s * of

discovery effect

or change

in concept or r e l a t i o n

things the

a r e f i n i n g of the s p e c t r u m *

A n d where

material

w o r l d of c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s more no cat* or sharply

is c o n c e r n e d ,

t h e s p e c t r u m can b e There is a

w i t h i n a language c o m m u n i t y *

a m b i g u i t y b e t w e e n a room and a b u i l d i n g But when feelings it is not them the concrete

or a dog and

objects b u t our the

views is

about

that are c o n c e r n e d , the c o n c e p t * constitute

spectrum

less p o w e r f u l because abstract the

to c o n t a i n

A house

is not a home are kinds of and can

elements

which

the concept and

and

subject

to d i f f e r e n t degrees

experiences literature

for consideiration S o w e m a y regard l a n g u a g e as a c o n t i n u u m in Language

become concrete or

more

l i t e r a r y w h e n the t h i n g it s i g n i f i e s

is

less views which

or m a t e r i a l or w h e n it is p e r t a i n i n g to our L i t e r a r y language d e a l s w i t h concepts

feelings*

resist ordinary l a n g u a g e , formulated by it.

concepts w h i c h are not

adequately

Saussure d i s t i n g u i s h e s that For the langue in

langue

from p a r o l e and primary

specifies concern. of a

former s h o u l d be the

is a set of *hoajrd d e p o s i t e d b y the practice speakers w h o b e l o n g to system to all the same and

speech

grammatical exists what

intents

in the m i n d of each Louis interprets as the parole schema, norm

is and and from is or that it

O n the other h a n d , accidental we individual accidental * Saussure is an

is o n l y an i n d i v i d u a l * In separating is social from what is langue what

act of r e a l i z a t i o n . are separating what

from

and what

is e s s e n t i a l It

is a n c i l l a r y

(Saussure, p . 14).

understandable study for

distinguishes essential,

l a n g u e for l i n g u i s t i c

social, homogeneous, system. Linguistics

conceptual,

static, and

structured and total so langue

is a s c i e n c e ,

is the system for s c i e n t i f i c

investigation^

In resources langue this

line w i t h the d i s t i n c t i o n , of and the language for literature

would categorize to to be parole. just To wish

the be do to

language of

is not meant to b e l i t t l e

literature.

situate order

the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n language and l i t e r a t u r e that language can be the function u n e q u i v o c a l l y * system as its b a s i s , relationship But it Very must be starts the s i g n i f i e d R u l e s of observed* the and It

in has

b e e n said that to and usage s h o u l d as a

norm language Having

language

literature between

conventional signifier.

the this this our

does not n e c e s s a r i l y stop often, literature modify, lays

within bare

relationship

to q u e s t i o n ,

parody or u n d e r m i n e

To some e x t e n t , it challenges the hence collective, and total


*

social static, time,

homogeneous, system of

conceptual At the same

structured

is based on l a n g u a g e , its challenge on the same conventionalized which underline

is predicated and In

relationship langue.

conceptualization this way, and

the system of

we m a y postulate literature dynamic is and

that the

relationship the

between

language

dialectical: voluntaristic

individual, of is

heterogeneous# literary both changes are realizations the system of lose their

realization langue

language of parole w i t h i n and initiated in of

the system of that system*

Language the into they They can is

in the d o m a i n of language have

Many of been normalized noraailized, less cliches*

literary

langue*

But once these are more or

freshness and become

are n o longer treated as l i t e r a r y * be characterized b y the d y n a m i c langue*

So l i t e r a r y language it

tension w i t h w h i c h

related to the

system of

And by i t s e l f ,

literary language

is a r e f l e x i v e

medium,* medium and also

it is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y the c o n s c i o u s use of i t s v e r y to reflect on and question our In arbitrary

conventionalized creates t e n s i o n This this made

conceptualizaton.

this way,

it

in the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the s i g n and the tension unsettles our s t r i c t adherence language to is

r e l a t i o n s h i p and hence and w e may gain different

perspectives currency of the A

of o u r s e l v e s and the w o r l d * ordinary language tends

O n the other h a n d , and the

to r e i n f o r c e

stabilize signifier* and norm* So

relationship

between

the s i g n i f i e d and

once w i d e l y accepted then will be d e r i v e d to

become a the

rules when

language to take

is a the arbitrary r e l a t i o n s h i p may

there

is a tendency our

for granted and hence

perception which

b e enclosed w i t h i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l Jameson <1972 calls the

system of

Fredric

son-house *

language

Although situation, the

Saussure does not p r o v i d e a s o l u t i o n to concept of the s i g n has a l r e a d y p o i n t e d It nature is his idea of the erodes arbitrary the

this to and

his

problem*

differential theory of

of the sign that language

mimetic to

art,

so that

functions not so m u c h Jonathan in

reflect r e a l i t y as to shape our p e r c e p t i o n * in his introduction writes: to Saussure^s

Culler, General role

Course

helps us to understand the

played

by

d i s t i n c t i o n s w h i c h structure our w o r l d
2

and

the

systems of c o n v e n t i o n b y w h i c h m a n b e c o m e s h o m o a creature w h o g i v e s t h i n g s meanings* And it

significans: is through that

focus on the sign as a system of r e l a t i o n s people Traces b e g i n to v i e w of language as an i n f l u e n c e can be organizing found in

subsequent Prague in the

literary Linguistic light of

t h e o r i e s of the R u s s i a n F o r m a l i s t s and the Circle. I w o u l d try to read t h e i r basic the nature of concept in order ideas to

further as to

characterize

l i t e r a r y language,

as w e l l

formulate s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s .

Formalism

is

essentially

the

study

of

literary

language. U n l i k e the A n g l o - A m e r i c a n N e w C r i t i c i s m w h i c h also explores endorse Literature leading what is or literary cultural in Formalists aesthetic It the Study do not form.

v a l u e s of the

is only a special use of figure of The S o c i e t y for

is as the of Poetic of all which are an of and

Language, V i k t o r S h k l o v s k y , d e f i n e s stylistic include devices sound; to or is conventional depends ^routines on of employed imagery,

i t , s u m 3 The

total

in i t * . rhythm, ordinary

devices, etc., giving

syntax, language effect. on the

interrelated,
t

estranging

,t

il iarizing* predicated

The c o n c e p t arbitrary

nature of the l i n g u i s t i c taking this nature our for granted, of

Communication so in the are

currency,

perceptions

the

world

conditioned Jakobson It
1

and

is

to

Roman
4
#

organized v i o l e n c e c o m m i t t e d on ordinary s p e e c h or ^estranges' the conventionalized

alienates

of o r d i n a r y language so that w e m a y g a i n a d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n and f u l l e r e x p e r i e n c e of is through deviation reality* which The is from is

f o r m a l l y at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of the d e v i c e s the backdrop of the n o r m * The of a t e x t

structured in its d i f f e r e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h other t e x t s *

It m u s t be p o i n t e d o u t that the F o r m a l i s t s treat p o e t r y as they the q u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y have used l i t e r a r y use of language* Travels and Tristram Although Shandy to

i l l u s t r a t e the d e v i c e s of examples are taken from

m o s t of w h i c h they t h i n k For it
5

their of as

organized poetry speech is than

in its p h o n i c

one

thing, to an many are

w r i t t e n to be read and to w r i t i n g ,

is closer

w h i c h Saussure considers Secondly#

i m p e r f e c t and d e r i v a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n * . of the

features w h i c h are characterized as . 6 p h o n o l o g i c a l rather than g r a p h i c a l , and these more condense in poetry than literature in prose*

features we

are must and

Moreover,

r e m e m b e r that is constantly may

starts

from the oral

traditions the to of

influenced b y the oral culture of why the and tend speak

time* identify poetic

These

explain

with language as

10

There a r e ,

of c o u r s e , c r i t i c a l o b j e c t i o n s t o t h i s

^To

t h i n k of l i t e r a t u r e as the F o r m a l i s t s d o is r e a l l y to of all literature as poetry. Signi f icantly, when

think the

F o r m a l i s t s came to c o n s i d e r prose w r i t i n g , t h e y o f t e n extended poetry* besides to But it the k i n d s of t e c h n i q u e literature to they had used

simply with

is u s u a l l y j u d g e d to c o n t a i n for not in exa pie, realist or

poetry

include, which is

naturalistic conscious Eagleton, or p*6

writing

1inguistically striking predicated way

self< the

s e l f - e x h i b i t ing )* This

any is

criticism

on

traditional

c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of genres

in l i t e r a t u r e ,

which The is hard Woolf poems, or

has b e e n found

in c r i t i c a l

black and w h i t e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n prose and p o e t r y to e s t a b l i s h * short story A prose w o r k , Kew Gardens for instance, V i r g i n i a is p o e t i c , whereas m a n y

especially literariness ,as w e l l as all kind these, And

those m o d e r n ones are

prosatic

Poeticalness

is n o t u n i q u e to p o e t r y , in n o n - l i t e r a r y w r i t i n g * must p o i n t out, the degree

it is found in prose The d i f f e r e n c e between in


7

is o n l y in degree b u t not to its

is also r e l a t e d

function* of

Deviation the enables

is one p r o m i n e n t b u t use of

important characteristic The compactness of

poetry and

one to feel the t e n s i o n b e t w e e n the s u c c i n c t l y and And in p o e t r y f o r m , In

deviation

the norm m o r e

there are m o r e r e s t r i c t i o n s

that means

there

is a greater range of d e v i a t i o n * language, because shall start

literary in poetry

by examining deviation Moreover,

it is o b v i o u s and o b j e c t i v e *
11

it has great

pedagogical

implications, w h i c h I shall e x p l a i n l a t e r . But I line strictly throughout. counter and naturalist There writing are kind some of which other is not There

do not f o l l o w the F o r m a l i s t is a point in

includes

realist

criteria as

which

make

people

regard

this

writing

And I shall d i s c u s s the l i m i t a t i o n s of and e x p l o r e other c r i t e r i a . H e r e , to b e speak only of For is literariness not f a i r , the let

Formalism Formalists alone all

literature,

literature* even if it

a theory to a p p l y to a l l w i l l And I m u s t p o i n t literature

be

trivial does focus

out that m y essay my

not p r e s u m e is o n l y to

to d e f i n e

as Eagleton does, language*

characterize

If feature of literary with as the paradigm the purpose of of literary

is an language,

important is a p o i n t to identify language clarify of must to * not asserted language* to

there

to treat p o e t i c language* F i r s t , we m u s t It is

observant ^ogs use

Eagleton

t o spot the L o n d o n U n d e r g r o u n d N o t i c e s

b e c a r r i e d o n the e s c a l a t o r , o r a n o t h e r n o t i c e : be put in this .6- 7 )* But and the find them

(Eagleton,

For al ists have

that e s t r a n g e m e n t as the sole' p r o p e r t y of They bare* only the the purpose w o r k i n g of language is a of

literary is

estrangement our

in s h a p i n g kind of

perception* use of

Literary language*

reflexive

S h k l o v s k y in *Art as T e c h n i q u e *
12

(1917 w r i t e s :

The

p u r p o s e of art is to i m p a r t the s e n s a t i o n of t h i n g s

as

t h e y are p e r c e i v e d , and n o t as t h e y are k n o w n . The of art is to m a k e objects to increase the the difficulty of to and

technique forms of an

make

difficult, perception,

length is

process

perception Art

a e s t h e t i c end in i t s e l f and m u s t b e p r o l o n g e d . of not e x p e r i e n c i n g the a r t f u l n e s s of an o b j e c t ;

is a w a y is

the object

This

is a step further from

l a y i n g bare

of

the

arbitrary

and c o n v e n t i o n a l nature of the

sign b y What for he to are to

p o i n t i n g back to the w o r k i n g of the system of the Eagleton has taken * seizes* a^ the two ^^^ h a n g i n g
#

m u s t be p e r v e r s e

i n s t r u c t i o n a l n o t i c e s out of c o n t e x t a l i t e r a r y reading on it. Notices

wilfully written traffic with

to g i v e clear signals, o p e r a t i v e on the between It the

They are comparable unquestioned s i g n and the

the

correspondence

concept.

s i m p l y means the order or replace the

is a p r a c t i c a l joke to d i s t u r b Writers though of not to very which fingers, Gothic

filters of the

literature

m a y s o m e t i m e s p l a y t h i s k i n d of joke purpose is to draw our our found perceptions. in

attention One

the

medium

which

affects

interesting is

e x a m p l e can be

interpolated w i t h serpentine function lines,

of p o i n t i n g blank from

script,

and blank instructional signals

these signs

differently

13

such

as

road

signs.

So

by

all

rneatris,

language

for

c o m m u n i c a t i o n has to b e p l a i n and d i r e c t * A n d the c o n t e x t of its use e l i m i n a t e s all ambiguities.

The literary Eagleton But what

context from writes:

is is not.

in Addressing this

what

is

what

question,

if I were to hear s o m e o n e at the n e x t is a w f u l l y s q u i g g l y or language? l a n g u a g e , because

pub Is

table this of

remark

As a matter

fact it i^ Hamsun's novel Hunger

it comes from K n u t it is

The context t e l l s m e that i t s e l f has no inherent

b u t the language

properties of

or q u a l i t i e s w h i c h m i g h t d i s t i n g u i s h it from other k i n d s discourse*

A s a matter of if or it is part of the

this

is not literary language is

even

W h e t h e r the language

literary levels one If of from were all or a

not has to be seen in r e l a t i o n to other parts or of the t e x t as a w h o l e * W e cannot to d e c i d e whether of it the is qualities

or structures or two

isolate

sentences

deviation

constitutes there

be a n o r m a t i v e If e v e r y s e n t e n c e or u n i t or a novel that

w h i c h the language d e v i a t e s . there


*

would * Not It

e i t h e r be no line or u n i t Is not
14

poem

is

literary.

coincident

literary

critics

throughout Canto,

l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y chose the same

be

it C h a p t e r , even

E p i s o d e , S c e n e , and in elaborattion* And w i t h i n a

l i n e or word to analyse

literary period, lesser.

s o m e a u t h o r s are c o n s i d e r e d g r e a t e r , some

some

E v e n a m o n g the w o r k s of each a u t h o r , some less. than

receive

more critical attention, some part is more

T h i s m a y e x p l a i n that the others lights. although At least, and

literary

different the

c r i t i c s d o see it in d i f f e r e n t

use of l a n g u a g e is one

in a s p e c i a l w a y t h r o u g h d e v i a t i o n which makes it

foregrounding

Let context itself

us tells

come

back it

to is literary;

conclusion but the language might are The first one is he

m e that

has n o inherent p r o p e r t i e s o r q u a l i t i e s w h i c h it from o t h e r k i n d s of which Eagleton g i v e s .

distinguish two contexts

h i m s e l f at the p u b t a b l e , h e a r i n g the q u o t e d line I p r e s u m e that he would not choose j u s t the this line for critical sense not

analysis. of the

Of course,

f i r s t c o n t e x t does not m a k e if desk or it were

j u s t one such pub table Still to a

It m a k e s b u t t h e teachers

the tell

manager's whether it

office. belongs

these r e l e v a n t

contexts The

cannot

context, is literary* literary

the n o v e l It
#

s t i l l cannot t e l l the line

if the l i n e

can o n l y t e l l

is a part of the

larger

framework* literary.

To be a part of t h i s He cannot a s s u m e

is not

necessarily the name

that the c o n t e x t 15

, Us *

of

the n o v e l can i d e n t i f y any sentence b e l o n g i n g to In t e s t i n g w h e t h e r the 1ine is l i t e r a r y ,

it

as

literary seems novel

Eagleton the

to r e s t r i c t the word c o n t e x t to j u s t the n a m e of or the k n o w l e d g e to that the l i n e comes from that Ha sun*s means more a

novel: is

answer literary is

the q u e s t i o n of how I k n o w it coes Literary from Knut

this

that

novel than it out who of the

context is

that*

To test w h e t h e r one

b y taking

of the w h o l e work is m o r e p e r v e r s e than the were accused of a n a l y s i n g the structure independent

social and p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t *

In order which The

fact,

there

is no need to do that perverse language has no inherent of

test

in

to conclude might

that

properties

distinguish sign is

it from other k i n d arbitrary and

linguistic

But seen

language s i g n i f i e s by in r e l a t i o n a l of discourse course terms as a w h o l e * from another is

and it has to be

W h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s one k i n d the of This of which is seen language in or

includes

functions, in w h o l e *

structures and A n d the d i s t i n c t i o n

have to be related a continuum* of Bloom novel

There can be no such thing as pure any k i n d * The piece of

that of it the is it

reads in J o y c e ' s 0 1 v s s e s c a n n o t b e taken o u t to c h a r a c t e r i z e as l i t e r a r y because one k n o w s


#

from Joyce

J o y c e s p e n d o e s n o t endorse e v e r y sentence

w r o t e as l i t e r a r y , r a t h e r , in t h i s case, h e m a k e s it read as
16

an

advertisement us

which

m a y a p p e a r on a n e w s p a p e r b u t not as an

and

he

means

to read it as s u c h ,

imaginative is a

literary a d v e r t i s e m e n t

in a fiction*

Literary language

c o m p l i c a t e d subject because draw to on it is not a f i x e d e n t i t y ; at the same t i m e d e v i c e s it can common of no on l i t e r a r y language can b e e a s i l y found in m a n y or characterize kinds is writing way along School to T h i s does not m e a n that there literary

we m a y proceed and the Prague and

the l i n e of the to analyse early its phase of

The

has

been

generally This

attacked for treating p o e t i c language as a l l d e v i a t i o n * be a t t r i b u t e d to w h i c h focuses within Jakobson a text* and the Prague School, on the concept of art as forms of such as here

device language and by the

Tynyanov represented

attempt concept. they treat includes It Instead

to answer the charge by e x t e n d i n g of

of seeing the t e x t as a set

devices, Structure relations*

it as a f u n c t i o n i n g structural all all of the t e x t

system.

in reciprocal be it

a p p l i e s to

forms of language,

defailiarized To from the

or n o t * see the

It is the text in the t o t a l i t y of is to shift the a t t e n t i o n devices to

the text as a structure as

the o p e r a t i o n of

relationships This is

underlying

the ediu as a structural signs w h i c h

system. function

of the relationships.
17

in a s y s t e m of

In . poetics', correspond

Jakobson's 8

*Closing

statement:

1inguistics

and which

s t r u c t u r e can b e a n a l y s e d to the six factors: the

in s i x f u n c t i o n s on the the

focus on

addresser the

constitutes conative on the

emotive

function

addressee

function code the And the

on the c o n t e x t the r e f e r e n t i a l function on the

function means of

contact

f u n c t i o n and on the m e s s a g e the concept of component of a dominant* work of

the

poetic as

is d e f i n e d it

focusing determines, the system ,

art:

and transforms the r e m a i n i n g co ponents* U n d e r all f u n c t i o n s can b e present in a text. The

r e l a t i v e p r e d o m i n a n c e of one w i l l background* message So if the p o e t i c

r e l e g a t e the others to the predominates,


t

function

the
l #

w i l l b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d as

^ l i t e r a r y , or

aesthetic

This is seen in d i f f e r e n t i a l Under this there discourse theory,

r e l a t i o n w i t h other a

functions* relative

the w o r d 1 iterairy b e c o m e s

is no a b s o l u t e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n one k i n d of others*

from the

W i t h i n the p o e t i c f u n c t i o n , there is a c o n t i n u i n g the registers and relationships the change are pedantic diction poet is among the various Thus, elements archaic but

shift which

in p o e t i c

forms*

diction can be

word order

in e p i c p o e m s in m o d e r n p o e t r y * on b y The

ironic poetic that

who To the diction has

considers Romantics become

is a m a n speaking to this poetic

Wordsworth

18

^automat ised , to restore

so a * n e w , language m u s t be sought freshness of a

in

order The

* the g l o r y and the

dream,

shifting authors,

d o m i n a n t operates not o n l y in i n d i v i d u a l t e x t s and but also w i t h i n literary periods* Jakobson even

a p p l i e s the concept of the d o m i n a n t to the b e t w e e n 1 i t e r a r y and non 1iterary systems . Renaissance poetry is to h i m r e l a t e d to The d o m i n a n t visual art of of

R o m a n t i c poetry to m u s i c and of

to verbal

These topic

g e n e r a l i z e d o b s e r v a t i o n s m a y c o n s t i t u t e an i n t e r e s t i n g in s y n c h r o n i c s e m i o l o g y . of the d o m i n a n t B u t m y concern is h o w the literary

concept

helps characterize

The principle text is

concept of

of

the d o m i n a n t

is

developed

the a

in w h i c h the language of or at one l e v e l in the or

another

constituting This shift hence derived our the

a s h i f t i n g of r e l a t i o n s h i p s in turn upsets our usual from our

structure. language, which is draws

conception of

we are estranged

fixed p e r c e p t i o n The dominant or

from this conception.

in a text tension

attention

to the dynamic relations

between is not The

d e f a m i l iar.ized and the of all or only itself

a t i2ed Literature defai 1 iairized language.

constituted

focus on the message The word message traditionally derived

helps express a p o e t i c which is

is not e q u i v a l e n t to the c o n t e n t * to the f o r m . It is the

opposed the

utterances the is a It

intentional

and systematic working of in a t e x t The d o m i n a n t is

^interrelationships as a whole structuring principle

in w h i c h the
19

is a n a l o g o u s to f o r e g r o u n d i n g , w h i c h is a b a s i c t e c h n i q u e of visual art. And again, t h e s e t w o concepts are b a s e d on the

differential

r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the sign.

The powerful

concept

of

the

dominant

or

foregrounding

is

in r e g i s t e r i n g the d i a l e c t i c lanigiie* The

between langue constitutes of the the

l i t e r a r y language and the background components explains do when from which

the

deviation be

linguistic This

at d i f f e r e n t

l e v e l s can

why many l i n g u i s t i c the elements It

at c e r t a i n is also to b e n o t e d become

levels that or

not d e v i a t e the deviant

established

they w i l l from

constitute a normative

background T h i s can b e

w h i c h new d e v i a t i o n s can b e

analysed d i a c h r o n i c a l l y b y c o m p a r i n g the

the d i f f e r e n c e form and

between

and the R o m a n t i c p o e t i c

or b y tracing h o w the Sonnet of Petrarch t h r o u g h S p e n s e r , the R o m a n t i c s * and

form was d e v i a t e d Sidney,

from the

time to

S h a k e s p e a r e , Donne

A n d a c o m p a r i s o n of the sonnets of on deviation*

Wordsworth So the a

Keats m a y throw form or structure

literary normative can

of one p e r i o d m a y

constitute

from w h i c h the and may within a

following period, of

generations the same

deviate, form

particular

literary authors. and

be d e v i a t e d

in the works is u s u a l l y

different intentional

But above a l l ,

deviation

systematic.

20

It approach

is of

interesting to Harold According Bloom

introduce to

the

^ p s y c h o c r i t ical' intent ionatl i ty of to an

explain

deviation. struggle in

to B l o o m , of

p o e t s after M i l t o n have influence, to create

the

^anxiety

i m a g i n a t i v e space b y * isreading* t h e i r p o e t i c fathers . T h i s is seen in the p s y c h i c d e f e n c e s irony, synecdoche, in their

p o e t r y as tropes w h i c h i n c l u d e hyperbole> to new

metonymy,

m e t a p h o r and raetalepsis* These tropes enable from t h e i r predecessors

them
a

in order to j u s t i f y to

p o e t i c d i r e c t i o n in form or

diction;

misinterpret

t h e i r p o e m s ; to treat t h e m as against Shelley's Wordsworth's Misreading. the Ode to the


f

and e v e n to Bloom analyses how

West ode

Wind

struggles

against

^Immortal ity OUP,

< See H a r o l d B l o o m , ft M a p of_ Toronto, Melbourne, 1975 ). of

New York,

approach p r o v i d e s the changes point fathers of in l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s * view, and the Seen from a

impetus

psychological the texts kind But of of that

relationships between

sons he analysed r e g i s t e r an e x t r e m e

t e n s i o n w h i c h u n d e r l i e s the d y n a m i c s of is a a n x i e t y of reading of a r t i s t i c

A n d the the

influence as w e l l as the p s y c h i c defences p u t

in a p a s s i v e and i n v o l u n t a r y p o s i t i o n * show through reading of the R o m a n t i c s conscious of the W h e t h e r he or

What I try to is that an

author m u s t before predecessors


#

i n f l u e n c e of the

traditions his of

is i m i t a t i n g or d e v i a t i n g from there is an element

intentioaality^
21

The deviation*

concept of the d o m i n a n t p r e s u p p o s e s in the words of Mukarovsky^

systematic systematic in

^The

foregrounding

of c o m p o n e n t s

in a work of p o e t r y c o n s i s t s

the g r a d a t i o n of the that

i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of these and

components^

in t h e i r m u t u a l in the h i e r a r c h y

The c o m p o n e n t h i g h e s t < from the *

the a step the forward

T h i s can b e taken as differential And e l a t ionships of

Saussurean it as

c r i t i c s m a y accuse e s p e c i a l l y when M u k a r o v s k y asserts that

logocentrism,

< The of the this

d i s t o r t i o n of the norm of the standard is , very essence of (ibid i do not accept

assertion

although

i consider the concept of the

dominant 1

very powerful have made

in c h a r a c t e r i z i n g 1 i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e * I t h i n k it is not the d i s t o r t i o n but

it clear that

the

dialectic what think states: as

r e l a t i o n s h i p or d y n a m i c tension that A n d as for

constitutes he well the that gives as ( the they

is l i t e r a r y in language*

the d o m i n a n t , when as

M u k a r o v s k y has p r i v i l e g e d * All other components, interrelationships, of the the

it in v a l u e terms foregrounded or n o t , are evaluated The dominant motion, c

their

from is and o

component direction ibid norm and

of to,

work w h i c h sets

in

the relationships of all other foreground,

The background and the the d e v i a n t to produce are

as w e l l

equally

important because To

interact everything the

an aesthetic

evaluate upset

from the standpoint of the d o m i n a n t w h i c h are h e l d 22

is to

in a k i n d of

dialectic

balance the

Let m e p u t it in t h i s way as the t h e s i s and

if w e take the n o r m the deviant in

in the

background

foreground as the a n t i t h e s i s , will the the destroy dominant

the p r i v i l e g e of the d o m i n a n t turn as is it* the

the d y n a m i c t e n s i o n andsirnultaiiieously into a k i n d of s y n t h e s i s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s

norm at the same t i m e , in the very process

so that the d e v i a n t of privileging

^automat i z e d '

the d e v i a n t of a p e r i o d m a y c o n s t i t u t e norm of another p e r i o d as a p o i n t of d e v i a t i o n * deviant to be will of the offset its is a

B u t for the

w i t h i n a work of * 1 iterauriness> To me, the which can

literature gradation

principle The d o m i n a n t

aesthetically help but

organizes our p e r s p e c t i v e structure of

focus a hierarchical this

hierarchy has to be seen

in spatial

and

temporal deviant related*

terms.

So b y s y s t e m a t i c d e v i a t i o n , and

I mean how the

and the norm are It


t

is

these d i a l e c t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h in the language* A n d it is

constitute this

the

l iterariness* which

dynamic in the

tension

may s h i f t and renew our p e r s p e c t i v e between the sign and the That protean

is w h y

literature w h i c h makes

has

such e v e r renewing

and

potential

it generative

of different

I dominant

must as a

that structuring

I consider the gradation of seen in spatial

the and

temporal terms not in v a l u e ter s, 23

Mukarovsky*s

privileging

of the d o m i n a n t tends to u p s e t the d y n a m i c r e l a t i o n the norm and the d e v i a n t , the latter. Jakobson the

between with by of he the

and leads to a p r e o c c u p a t i o n to s h i f t the perspective to a kind

tried from

structuring

message

deviation

of the p o e t i c defined, axis of s e l e c t i o n still

The p o e t i c f u n c t i o n , from

the p r i n c i p l e of e q u i v a l e n c e into the a x i s of the gradation of the

However, dominant in

Jakobson

applied

v a l u e terms to make the p o e t i c f u n c t i o n p r e d o m i n a t e o v e r all m a y result it from in The Pratt puts the p o i n t projection p r i n c i p l e , poetic other functions function function other function, the function if it is in s t a b i l i z i n g literary language in k i n d and than

one more clearly; strictly

interpreted,

in rather special

r e l a t i o n to all the poetic other On the of of the

taken together.

On the one h a n d ,

requires

the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of at

least one

in order to g i v e rise to a message at without other utterances the participation of

poetic

or any c o m b i n a t i o n in which the

produce e q u i v l a l e n c e remains selection* conf igurat i on * The

principle

in its " u s u a l " poetic

placep

in the a x i s of this

transforms

( P r a t t , T o w a r d a S p e e p h A c t of

LlteraryDiscourse^p,32)

24

The

privileging

of the p o e t i c

function g i v e s in

rise

to

the p o e t i c / n o n p o e t ic o p p o s i t i o n and is r e s u l t i n g of <Poetic L a n g u a g e , fallacy. However,

a kind

it is fair of Pratt of the She

to. p o i n t Formalists acknowledges dominance

o u t that J a k o b s o n ^ s m e t h o d o l o g y and that work that successfully within

literature. and the

* the p r o j e c t i o n p r i n c i p l e can be

ideas of and a

and

focus on the message used to address

profitably makes * although

appropriately verbal

the q u e s t i o n

work of art a v e r b a l work of art?**

* they a My tried the of

cannot answer to the q u e s t i o n verbal message

poses:

makes

a v e r b a l w o r k of a r t ? , * * ( P r a t t 3 6 ) to pose such q u e s t i o n . ideas have

essay does not p r e s u m e to use some of

the F o r m a l i s t s *

to characterize the To me,

l i t e r a r y use of l a n g u a g e * the deviant and of the

do not p r i v i l e g e poetic function*

the is

relationship

between in o p p o s i t i o n * So there are There language

language

d i a l e c t i c a l b u t not as w e l l way of model

similarities

as d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e m . literary adopt and m o d i f y

is not o n l y one although the

Formalist There School like of the is

is basic to start the they the with speech kinds of Prague were

a point

for Pratt to say t h a t t h o u g h theory as u n i q u e l y concerned w i t h

regarded

elements

within the

the language serves

rather than within the two

functions

community*
*

consider these exclusive, kind to although the of

function not first

Formalists the second

emphasized one In

the

the neglect 25

c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the l i t e r a r y use of l a n g u a g e , from

I shall proceed second. on the

the f u n c t i o n of the first k i n d to those of the

I b e l i e v e t h i s i s the r i g h t procedure as m y focus use of

To

extend

the to

function the

as

elements the

within

the serves as a

functions

language literature the

within social

the

speech Still,

is to treat I do

discourse* in

follow

Formalist first

methodology

p r i m a c y to the f u n c t i o n of the But this function functions of the speech of language must be We explained may view

k i n d in c r i t i c a l the w i d e r the language use this

is related to and so with this

literary to

reference perspective language reciprocal discrete rules accused message language Objective By

larger

as a background foregrounded. To

from w h i c h the use of They are isolate in a the

literary and

is

dialectical

l i t e r a r y t e x t as a properties and were the which the

object

with

its

inherent

formal

is to upset this r e l a t i o n s h i p . And the F o r m a l i s t s of and doing this for t h e i r of the social context with in

disregard

is used* Fallacy

Roger Fowler

finds Jakob son c o m m i t t i n g

separating event,

out aad

the s i x

* the i

ive factors poetic overt

in

any as

speech

identifying

function

focussing

o n one of t h e M E S S A G E

linguistic

26

form

or surface

encourages

neglect

of

o t h e r factors pragmatic, r e f e r e n t i a l , metal i gu ist ic The linguistic m o d e l on w h i c h it is based c o n t a i n s the e l e m e n t s accommodaiting as it use:

of a cornmunicaitioia t h e o r y of l a n g u a g e , does they referential are and interpersonal given low

aspects of l a n g u a g e when

simply

attention

Jakobson

hierarchizes "poetic

the factors to p l a c e MESSAGE at the top for the

fimcticm", ( F o w l e r , L i t e r a t u r e as Social Discourse p, 187)

The focus on the message as the p o e t i c f u n c t i o n prominent writing of message the is an in some k i n d of l i t e r a t u r e b u t not m a y place all.

is Realist aspects

on the r e f e r e n t i a l

I do h o l d that the focus on the starting p o i n t w h e n the a n a l y s i s use of language it a procedural is concerned* But I consider I shall of it

literary

basic and g i v e the message

relate function this use

to other factors and s i t u a t e

the p o e t i c

in the w i d e r framework of the is to of language as the message and analyse the k i n d of discourse*

To do literary

in attitudinal utterance the colouring a

is the imparted by the

p a r t i c i p a t i o n and 9 author' Every And

presupposes

relationship

is special

literary

discourse in and

because place

literature

can be read at a far distance 27

from its o r i g i n and that the s p e a k i n g I is not u n d e r s t o o d as the author and the you is not always the and the in the literary 1 istener. attitude use of

there of the author

is speech identified

can be

w h i c h also partakes of p r a g m a t i c and functions* extend Thus,

interpersonal we

by i n t r o d u c i n g the d i s c o u r s e e l e m e n t s , f u n c t i o n of

the p o e t i c

language proposed b y

the F o r m a l i s t s * as exclusive together to in

We b e l i e v e well as the

that the p o e t i c f u n c t i o n and the interpersonal Rather, ones are not found

each other* literature, that shall also

they are u s u a l l y is their the

and

it

coplemeutary use of in

relationship language. I

literary

try to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s analysis of

integration texts*

chapter two,

in practical

literary

38

CHAPTER TWO THE USE O F STYLE : A PRACTICAL ANALYSIS

The t h e o r e t i c b a s i s w h i c h w e p r e d i c a t e t o c h a r a c t e r i z e literary we language p o i n t s t o the k i n d of s t y l i s t i c The study of in w h i c h analysis must the

are g o i n g to for ulate. from the v e r y m e d i u m

literature In

start systems

it is w r i t t e n ^

o f the Saussurean s i g n , system which

literature belongs

to a of

is based o n the system

language.

It is ,

i n short, a special use o f language A n d i s f o r m u l a t e d i n the c o n c e p t o f In t h i s essay, I in to of

this special use of language

the d o m i n a n t b y the R u s s i a n For alists have adapted some of the Formalist

theories

literary instance their practice ,

and it seems l o g i c a l e g * , Jakofascrn's analysis

Shakespeare's Sonnet cxxix, a model of stylistic analysis* not of

o f Spirit* I h a v e d e c i d e d not i n the

<1970as t o d o so,

because t h e i r a n a l y s i s i s i r r e l e v a n t their concepts,

b u t because o f m y eservatioas in h i s

about

t h e i r pact ice and in

Roger Fowler,

I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Style, ;

The

effect

of of the l i t e r a r y object by

seems into a

to be the

structure,

diagrammed

linguistic

categories

p o n s t r a c t i o n a p p a r e n t l y m o r e c o m p l e x t h a n the o r i g i n a l

(but

n o t a c t u a l l y s o ) , and c e r t a i n l y I i f e l e s s i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h

29

the

original *

The the

analysis poems

is v e r y d i s t a n t become,

from

the

interpretation ,meaningless to r e v e a l

paradox ical1y is supposed

when e x p o s e d to a t e c h n i q u e w h i c h

meaning.

There the the That ie.

is a p o i n t

in t h i s c r i t i c i s m e s p e c i a l l y as far as is c o n c e r n e d . It o f t e n and gives

e f f e c t of t h e i r a n a l y s i s i m p r e s s i o n that

it is t o o c o m p l i c a t e d

mechanical.

is w h y F o w l e r f i n d s teaching English

it * 1 i f e l e s s * A n d for o u r p u r p o s e ^ their analysis be is t o o *

in H o n g K o n g , But to

technical* other

to b e a t t r a c t i v e .

f a i r to J a k o b s o n and reveal

t h e i r a n a l y s i s does not purport to

m e a n i n g e x t r i n s i c of the f o r m n o r d o e s It linguistic in is

it o f f e r t o p r e s c r i b e how different message what is

e s s e n t i a l l y to show

c o m p o n e n t s are s t r u c t u r e d t o e x p r e s s t h e In o t h e r w o r d s , it t r i e s t o show

literature by

literary that its

e x a m i n i n g how language works on the

principle to the

literature

serves no other purposes except p o i n t i n g As has been said function. because terms, the focus on

message constitutes renewed perception

the p o e t i c of

T h i s can by focusing

lead to a on use the of

* a c t of e x p r e s s i o n / we in which

o r in s i m p l e

the s p e c i a l

are m a d e aware of the s y s t e m of is articulated. However, in actual or they

reality

analytical work out

practices, this on

the For al islts d i d n o t e phatsize perception. s t r u c t u r i n g of Instead, language

potential the technical

concentrated

in

30

literature* isolating or to develop

That m a y e x p l a i n w h y t h e y w e r e accused the t e x t to analyse

of

it independent of the context I shall try by situating the

In formulating a stylistic this potential perception

message and

in the as w e l l

b e t w e e n the as r e l a t i n g the p o e t i c society.

addresser to

addressee,

function

the w i d e r language functions of

The generally deviant true

Formalists criticized and with Jakobson in

and the Prague School h a v e for their in literary to a structure this

been with

also the It is has

innovation in

that

response

criticism

h i s later to or

different the message in the of of

linguistic

rather than the d e v i a t i o n H o w e v e r both the concept of d e v i a t i o n principle of

the the

poetic text.

Prague School and

function

to focus our a t t e n t i o n on the

linguistic

the act of u t t e r a n c e . S t y l e then is a s e l f - r e f e r e n c e , a k i n d of reflexive use of literary starting p o i n t and the analysis reference. will We language. This concept of style is

the m e d i u m should be the focus of any a n a l y s i s . proceed Our this stylistic frame of have

be based on

find that both d e v i a t i o n and e q u i v a l e n c e and

to be analysed equivalence in

are seen as much as a choice as a constraint in the syntactic, semantic systems

the total options a v a i l a b l e

phonological

and p r a g m a t i c syste s* The f i r s t three


31

c o v e r the range of s t r u c t u r a l while

a a d g r a a t ical

possibilities choice genre style for is the

t h e f o u r t h refers t o t h e c o n t e x t

in w h i c h the topic, of

is m a d e . and the

T h i s takes account of the a u d i e n c e , attitude historical of the a u t h o r s perspective, S o our social

study

involves

decorii , It

restrictions, combination

as w e l l as

interpersonal

functions.

of these aspects w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s

the s t y l e of

literary language *

E v e r y u s e of a l a n g u a g e p r e s u p p o s e s a c h o i c e , choice is a f f e c t e d b y t h e p u r p o s e of t h e u s e of a to is the t o s o m e e x t e n t r e f l e c t e d in language that is used for particular

and each

According English form of

use

of the

determines that

particular language So the is the

u s e of o r d i n a r y subordinates the c h o i c e for effective

f o l l o w i n g t h e r u l e s of g r a m m a r a s far a s p o s s i b l e can b e basic then language language language for such less The of choice of

p r o b l e m a t i c and the f o r m O n the o t h e r from the a n d it so is n o t hand,

m a y b e less v a r i e d * can draw on

literary of often

i r r e s p e c t i v e of

m a d e t o serve e x t r i n s i c p u r p o s e s , The q u e s t i o n of c h o i c e

it can b e less significant:

unlfor^^ it is the the of

choice which use


r

literary language is d e c i s i v e

Style it is a

of

d e c i s ioci# and S t y l isfcics is t h e s t u d y of c h o i c e .

32

Choice

involves

v o

l it ion*

It is a conscious act of

the

e x p r e s s i o n of f r e e d o m f r o m c o n s t r a i n t s . f r e e d o m and constraint u n d e r l y i n g a l l is greater and m o r e d y n a m i c And this intensity

The t e n s i o n b e t w e e n linguistic performance language


f

in the l i t e r a r y use of in El iot's

is expressed

Burnt

Norton*: Words Crack and s o m e t i m e s U n d e r the t e n s i o n , slip, u n d e r the slide, perish,

Decay i t h imprecision, will not stay in p l a c e , W i l l not stay s t i l l

Since

literature

is

a w r i t t e n record of the

use

of is

l i t e r a r y language essential. background is a of

in the p a s t ,

a historical perspective constitute the a

Literary

traditions

n o m a t i ve of is

constraints

from w h i c h

expression

B u t n o t e v e r y act of for Coleridge s t r a n g e h i s work

b r e a k from the past

e m p l o y e d obsolete

forms to

He holds h i m w i t h h i s skinny hand,

T h e r e was a ship,*

quoth he, loon!


#

^Hoid o f f t u n h a n d m e , g r e y - b e a r d Eftsoons h i s h a n d dropt he *

C S . T . C o l e r i d g e , *Tfhe R i m e of the Ikiclent Marin]r* I The archaic forms g i v e a which a the

t e n s ion in the coatuporaiiry p e r c e p t i o n bro ght about b y

33

linguistic world of

signification. reality To

These a

for s

defa i 1 iatrize

the

to capture

supernatural

mysterious to

experience.

share

this experience,

the reader has

readjust the c o n v e n t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e s i g n and the concept, hence a renewed @ r u c t i o n the use of an sentence can p o i n t to an a t t e m p t nay be brought

word in a to generate a sense of

tinelessness: From a dark oouirtyard came a s o u n d of and oaths and blows,

f o l l o w e d b y s h r i l l screams, step he

, h u d d l e d u p o n a d a m p dooreld. Crime,

saw the crooked-back Oscar Wilde,

forms of p o v e r t y and Lord Arthur Savile*s

ch,2 With ma^ changes in language, iu what is normal The nou^ in a period was

^cone like

archaic the v e r ^

another.

^ind* times:

pronouned

in Shakespeare's

B l o w , b l o w , thou w i n t e r w i n d , not A s man s


1

i a g r a t i tude

(As Y o u L i k e It II, v i i ) It b e c a m e archaic w h e n S h e l l e y u s e d it t o address t h e W i n d O Wind, If W i n t e r c o m e s , c a n S p r i n g b e far b e h i n d ?


I M c to the West Win<3T
*

The

d e l i b e r a t e archaism of S h e l l e y 34

is

only

by

the

fact

that it

it also

is

used may

within

the

context

of of felt wind

an the in to

apostrophe, winter wind

e v o k e echoes

in m e a n i n g is the

in Shakespeare. of the

A n d the t e n s i o n c o n n o t a t i o n of

extension

i n c l u d e its g e n e r a t i v e f u n c t i o n in its d e s t r u c t i v e p o w e r . Choices random is the in the l i t e r a r y use of language are not made at in h i s Table Talk that poetry , prose in be in the

C o l e r i d g e has d e f i n e d

words in t h e i r best order best o r d e r Whether by


1

the b e s t words to

it is the best or not has

assessed

its effects and the e f f e c t s have Stylistics is a comparative

to be seen study of

comparison*

e f f e c t s of the choice made ft d i a c h r o n i c

in the l i t e r a r y use of

language* from

perspective w i l l

furnish the b a c k g r o u n d

w h i c h we locate traces of d e v i a t i o n , will help us to e v a l u a t e the

and a s y n c h r o n i c s t u d y This , can be most

s i m p l y s t u d i e d in items of l e x i c a l c h o i c e m a y serve as an singular person in s u b j e c t i v e plural The case was opposed to case

and the p r o n o u n as second person as second the


x

in o b j e c t i v e

in an e a r l i e r state of
#

l a n g u a g e In modern E n g l i s h , is used

^ thou

became archaic and s u b j e c t i v e as will him yield with it

you

in both singular and p l u r a l cases* A in ink if thou Sir Toby synchronic

as the the shall to But

objective effects of

analysis

l i c e n c e of not be
4

h i m some t h r i c e , uses

appropriately l e v e l , Sir A n d r e w .

address h i s it becomes

friend of the same social

i n s u l t i n g when it is used to a mere 35

The

insult

is the

foregrounded not effect

only

through

repetition i ediate clash of

(*thrice* j when the

is m a d e m o r e u r g e n t and The

pronoun

is i n f l e c t e d to a

contexts

in w h i c h the

*thou* is used creates a t e n s i o n w h i c h of A for

u n s e t t l e our effect treason^ can be

found w h e n Edward Coke p r o s e c u t e d R a l e g h

^ 1 1 that he d i d was at thy inst igait i o n , for thou


1

thee, thou traitor A comparative how language

study of

and

*you* w i l l

illustrate to create a

is c o n s c i o u s l y used in l i t e r a t u r e is to be interpreted as

certain

effect w h i c h

meaning*

In

is addressed b y a l l h i s as Cassio and he addresses them as with *you io, iii*


$

seniors endears on his

Othello

but

it is changed to

dismissal: m ine
#

l o v e thee, But nevermore be officer of addresses h i s in with father-in-law as

(II, b u t he

Othello

is snubbed w i t h each other

O t h e l l o and * you ^ But Othello and that of the

Desdemona switches violent choice and

address to

at m o m e n t s of great a f f e c t i o n The nuances of reflect The interplay

is deliberate and h i g h l i g h t s the style of study of

literary and literature registers and a the tthou* in was the

change

in

the r e l a t i o n between

has become a the langue*

convention

But as a l i t e r a r y c o n v e n t i o n ,

36

used

differently. affection

Shakespeare for the

used it in h i s here it

sonnets

to

convey

beloved

coimunicates

i n t i m a c y . H o w e v e r , in R o m a n t i c p o e t r y , it suggests d i s t a n c e : Thou wast not born for d e a t h , No hungry generations Ode tread immortal B i r d ! down and

Thou s t i l l u n r a v i s h , d b r i d e of q u i e t n e s s , Thou ( What What of s i l e n c e and slow t i m e Ode to the G r e c i a n not; and

art we know

is o s t like thee? To a Skylark)

The

* thou here belongs to the p o e t i c mode of apostrophe, to set these apart the ordinary

it

functions

W i t h i n the p o e m s ,

it serves to estrange the r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n In this case, the use of

the addresser and the addressee*

p o i n t s to the a l i e n a t i o n of the p o e t from the and nature, in it may suggests the failure of

world poetic The

imagination arachic between the

u n i f y i n g the object w i t h the is chosen and to register the the

relationship And between this the

addresser creates the

addressee

relationship

p o e t and the r e a d e r -

Beyond

lexical

choice,
37

decisions

about

prosodic

features

can a l s o be seen as s t y l i s t i c m a r k e r s . into a certain pattern are

The act of And

p u t t i n g words these of p o e t r y , and make

implies a decision^ in the

o b v i o u s and c o n d e n s e d in rhyme ,

genre

which may consist form* of

al1iteration, meter necessarily rhyming literary

stanzaic a stanza of

The use of r h y m e d o e s not lines poetic* are no The

del iberate B u t as a

convention, ornamental * structuring up Time

the

f u n c t i o n of r h y m e is m o r e than m n e m o n i c or in Shakespearean Sonnets is a

The rhyme scheme

p r i n c i p l e .The abab cdcd e f e f gg p a t t e r n In Sonnet 73,

is m a d e *That one Each

of three q u a t r a i n s and a c o u p l e t * of and is for each sentence predicated and by

each q u a t r a i n consists of contains verbs one of metaphor* percept the leads

sentence metaphor

sequence of

fro

wintry

cold, ie*

t w i l i g h t to the death-bed increase of a f f e c t i o n expressed

to

perception, of

the

in the awareness couplet strong,

its p r e c i o u s n e s s ,

in the c o n c l u d i n g

T h i s thou p e r c e i v * s t , w h i c h makes thy l o v e more To love tliat well which thou must The rhyme scheme leave ere long*

creates e x p e c t a t i o n s and constraints, In t h i s poetry

which

c o n s t i t u t e a k i n d of c h a l l e n g e to the p o e t * we can see any that Shakespeare by has created the

not

by to to

breaking

mastering

constraints serves

ingeniously fulfil our expectations: )3 express the m e a n i n g * .

the form

38

R h

m e

i s

o b l i g a t o r y only i n

s o m e

p o e

tic

form,
1 4

sti1i

is u s e d to s p e c i a l e f f e c t s in m a n y o c c a s i o n s : Lear** * Thy b a n i s h e d trunk b e found in our d i m i n i o n s , The m o m e n t is thy death* Away! by J u p i t e r ,

T h i s shall not be K e n t . Fare thee w e l l , K i n g . Si th t h u s tm h o lives u wilt Freedo hence, and b a n i s h m e n t is here* Lear) The rhymed couplet is foregrounded in the backdrop of b l a n k lays emphasis by the

verse. on the

The tension d e r i v e d words of Kent* The

from the contrast

is h i g h l i g h t e d

And

in a contemporary p o e m : location lived

The p r i c e seemed

I n d i f f e r e n t . The landlady swore she Off Nothing remained I am of

B u t self-confession* hate a wasted Silence*

Silenced transmission

Pressurized g o o d - b r e e d i n g * Lipstick coated, long

Voice, When

it c a m e ,

gold-rolled foully* ^ARE YOU

C i g a r e t t e - h o l d e r p i p p e d * Caught I was, ^How D a r k ? LIGHT


h 1

. - .1 had not m i s h e a r d

OR V E R Y D A R K * (Hole S o y i n k a , T e l e p h o n e Conv?r^tloo.)

39

The stanza it fall series poetic

is spoken n a t u r a l l y as a c o n v e r s a t icm W h a t is the use of i n t e r n a l rhyme and a s s o n a n c e i m p o r t a n t words to reinforce the m e a n i n g connecting with

makes They in a

within of

N o t i c e also the d e l i b e r a t e foreground the these and run-on

lines
<

to In are

confession

>

fact,

the poem is full of

lines,

which

patterned to g i v e e p h a s i s to

signicant

The syntactic pauses vary a lot b e t w e e n and points to within break the the lines creating of a tension stanzaic which form* of

threatens

constraints

Tension can also be created in the registers literature langue, different consciously within can the a As we have common

mixing

that core of at are

draw on anything incorporating are not of only

from the different often

registers they

levels

found,

manipulated

to produce

a desired effect Japonica

Today we have n a m i n g of parts* like coral

in all of the

we have n a m i n g of And this you can see Is to open the is the b o l t * as you The purpose We can this forwards flowers of it this

R a p i d l y backwards and f o r w a r d s : we call E a s i n g the s p r i n g * The e a r l y b e e s are , T h e y call

A n d r a p i d l y backwards and

a s s a u l t i n g and f u m b l i n g the

it e a s i n g the S p r i n g . (Henry R e e d , a m i n q of Parts)

40

Here to

the t e c h n i c a l heighten

jargons of t e a c h i n g m a n u a l s are A

adapted is the

the l i t e r a r y use of l a n g u a g e . the of the b e e s . act The

contrast

created

between

of the w e a p o n and syntactical

productiveness helps and

arrangement verbs these these a

focus on these adverbs on and the

that we have the Repetition the levels of All

facilitates components

reinforces

are structured at d i f f e r e n t

to produce

tension w h i c h draws our a t t e n t i o n to the d i f f e r e n c e the and the

between

Mixing in

of registers was considered a breach of in classical literary theory*

decorum in

Besides

the genre of poetry even essential the in his

, we find m i x i n g of registers c o m m o n and to drama and the of and comic Shakespeare and And

incorporated characters

prattling serious

tongue tragedies

histories*

interestingly

, the rascal

g o o d - f o r - n o t h i n g Falstaff can ape language to

c o m i c s i m u l a t i o n of moralize: Harry, but the I do not only art marvel

where thou s p e n d e s t thy t ime* though the the faster it grows, y e t youth,

also how thou more

it is trodden o n , it

the more , And

is wasted, the sooner it wears* 1 H e n r y IV, iv

in

the

novel,

mixing
41

of

registers

is

subtly

e m b e d d e d in the n a r r a t i v e the adult,

In D i c k e n s , s Great

Expectations the

ironical narrative voice

is in contrast to A n d in a more the

childTs

r e g i s t e r of the innocent P i p .

subtle

the registers

in the n a r r a t i v e reveal

character

He returned a

to Mercedes and

, as he brooded u p o n her Sometimes a

image, fever

strange unrest crept

into h i s b l o o d .

gathered w i t h i n h i m and led h i m to rove alone along kindly his the quiet avenue.

in the e v e n i n g the into

The peace of the gardens and

in the w i n d o w s p o u r e d a tender influence They w o u l d raeet q u i e t y as t h e i r tryst,

restless heart

if they had of

known each other and had made the gates or in some more surrounded supreme

perhaps at one

secret place* and

They w o u l d be in that

alone, of

by darkness and silence

tenderness he w o u l d be

( J . J o y c e , ft Portrait of the A r t i s t as a Y o a n q Marn,ch^ 2 )

On

superficial

level,

it

reminds

us Here,

of

Lawrence's for internal elevated to

d e s c r i p t i o n of Paul

in S o n s and

is d e l i b e r a t e l y using some from the k i n d of If maturity* in

describe an adolescent g r o w i n g towards Mixing of genres is also

In the Brutus

p l a y J u l i u s Caesar, Antony were to different

the t w o m o s t faous speeches of in prose and In J o y c e ' s in verse Ulysses,

rendered

respectively the central

effects.

42

character which

is presented o n d i f f e r e n t to e n v i s i o n

levels: in d r a m a t i c world

form

serves

t h e fantasy

of t h e form to

subconscious depict

and in v a r i e t i e s of prose n a r r a t i v e
c #

the mundane world of r e a l

life*

Literary registers framework effect

conventions

and d e c o r u m s

such

as

genres, a

and other

formal

m a y constitute to

in w h i c h the use of literary language It is clear that

certain are not

is c h a r a c t e r i z e d .

they

absolute# to f i x the two must

or d e f i n i t e or u n c h a n g e d Just as it is d i f f i c u l t it is also hard t o f i x the b e seen in relation to each other The

and s t y l i s t i c

effects in this

of the l i t e r a r y use of language have to b e analysed dynamic relationship* If style is a matter of only its

decision, reflects

the d e c i s i o n e m b o d i e d h i s personal w i t h the style

in a w r i t e r ^ s works not , b u t also registers and

relationship Stylistic

conventions

analysis describes and evaluates writer to certain effect

the choice

of an of the

individual

in the If w e apply

l i t e r a r y conventions and t r a d i t i o n s * linguistic terms to l i t e r a t u r e ,

Saussure^s

literary

c o n v e n t i o n s and style to

traditions may be c o m p a r e d to langue and i n d i v i d u a l parole* And their elationship* as it has been

said, can

usually be

w e l l as reciprocal*

To

analyse

individual

style, 43

distinction

between helpful considered Preface of the

syntagmatic

and

paradigmatic

relationships

is

The choice of a particular word or m o r p h e m e the s m a l l e s t s t y l i s t i c indicator.

can be

Wordsworth's refutation And are

to The Lyrical Ballads p o e t i c d i c t i o n of novel the

is e s s e n t i a l l y a

although

c o m b i n a t i o n s of m o r p h e m e s and n e o l o g i s m s

found to h i g h l i g h t the literary use of be taken in poetry The a

they cannot is is must not not be for more in a

A stanza of p o e t i c d i c t i o n collection of neologisms

necessarily literature. analysed in the

effects

of the choice of words

in both use and

syntagaatic and p a r a d i g m a t i c syntax The ordering of

relations becomes words

of literary deliberate.

conscious sentence

is b a s i c to

foregrounding* can be detected are not * T e n d e r is the n i g h t * inverted. And an sharpens our and found more

Syntagmatic easily

deviation its

and many of

The catchy line of Keats* sensitivity deviant because is

it is

ungramrnat ical

syntax

illustrated

in c u m i n g s * s Me up at does

M e u p at does out of the floor q u i e t Stare a poisoned still who


4

mouse

is a s k i n g W h a t have i done that You 44 have

In at,

this P is

o e m

the p r e p o s i t i o n a l The

object

in the l i n e followed

up is who

inverted. And

auxiliary inversion yet

*does* that

displaced.

adverbial

is found in The

They are

syntax

is d e l i b e r a t e l y d e f o r m e d to foreground the The create suspense that Foregrounding More than than usual for usual need not be appearance of the subject in the first three is

c o n f u s i o n of the to those

l i n e s and irony in

or less

orderliness m a y be as conspicuous as The effect of up

justification parallel

the murder of Caesar is b u i l t

in

, structure

As

caesar

loved

weep

for

him ;

as

he

was

fortunate , I rejoice at it as he was


But as he was a m b i t i o u s , love, for his joy for h i s

valiant;, I honor h i m . is t e a r s for his and death

slew him* There

fortune,

honor for his v a l o r ,

CShakespeare,iai ius C a e s a r , iii * i i, 23-29)

Here climax

the with

structure emphasis, Notice emphatic suspense climax the

is b u i l d i n g up to a balance and clarity

concluding of idea honour rhythm to

organization. The create a

regular r h y t h m up to arrests the flow of the short

w h i c h serves slew 45

to

foreground The

logical stressed

concluding

syllables of this line also h e l p

create e m p h a s i s

The

same

idea is r e p e a t e d in the p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e , w h i c h is m a d e u p of two The a d v e r b c l a u s e of reason w i t h the which emphasizes in apposition. to the the v e r b is f o l l o w e d b y The a d j e c t i v e s in the the main noun clause to to in these

clause clause

in the f i r s t

correspond

nouns to

second: and

A n d the v e r b s are r e l a t e d to the nouns two clauses: to and to to to The c o n n e c t i v e s the sentences

and

f u n c t i o n to structure

and to construct is

the reasoning. The c o n c l u s i o n , ie the k i l l i n g of C a e s a r , made logical and j u s t i f i a b l e when it is introduced

after

Caesar is p r a i s e d . foregrounding* responses rebuttal constitute Appendix It

R e p e t i t i o n in s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a t i o n h e l p s is also interesting persuasion to and here the

of the m o b to The a

addresser/addressee good example for speech

relationships act analysis

The the

effect of syntax

foregrounding can be more is d e v i a t e d and seen

striking in a longer

repeated

cohes i v e Fog

sequence : Fog up the r i v e r , where it flows it among rolls

everywhere.

green a i t s and meadows defiled Fog

fog down the r i v e r , where fog on the of

Fog on the Essex creeping into the cabooses

Kentish

46

fog

l y i n g o u t o n the y a r d s ,

fog d r o o p i n g on the

. . .# F o g

in the e y e s and throats of a n c i e n t fog

G r e e n w i c h p e n s ioners * ..;

c r u e l l y p i n c h i n g the toes and fingers is rawest, and the dense fog is by Temple fog, of 1)

The raw afternoon and Bar, sits the

m u d d y streets are muddiest

A n d hard

in L i n c o l n ' s Inn H a l l , the Lord High

at the v e r y heart of the in his High court

Chancellor

Chancery* (Charles D i c k e n s , B l e a k H o u s e , C h .

The s h a p e l e s s n e s s and p e r v a s i v e n e s s of the fog is d r a m a t i z e d and foregrounded the by main between the verbless noun of phrases, the text* are which The then move only

constitute connections

syntactic these - the

units noun

phrases

eye seems to to another, ,II


#

from

one

disconnected

scene

catching

glimpses

of what lies w i t h i n the fog

But the

embedding is

of these disconnected scenes logic in the the scenes

is not at r a n d o m , and there syntactic in which the fog

Apparently pervades people it

u n c o v e r the bleak and t h e i r is densest, to the very

of the c o m m o n

W e f o l l o w the fog to where heart of the fog. A

logical

connection is expressed in the contrast between the inverted syntax of the last paragraph and the v e r b l e s s syntax of the * p r e v i o u s o n e s . In the last sentence, the three a d v e r b i a l s of place show d e f i n i t e directioru
47

The f i n i t e v e r b

is

foregrounded create irony

in the i n v e r s i o n of s u b j e c t and and satire This verb its*

predicate in a

to most

prominent

position

i r o n i c a l l y conveys action or and is s t r u c t u r e d in

i n a c t i o n of The syntactic from the

carelessness presentation suspense deviant which is and and of the C h a n c e l l o r in e n d - f o c u s . the

The t e n s i o n d e r i v e d creates The an

inverted syntax

expectation of the

fulfiled

o n l y at the end*

effects

deliberate connection

and s y s t e m a t i c order of w o r d s suggest a between

logical of for

the C h a n c e l l o r and the b l e a k p l i g h t

the p e o p l e

it is the C h a n c e l l o r w h o is h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e

t h e i r p l i g h t * Thus through

d e v i a t i o n and c o h e s i v e is c o l o u r e d . The and stylistic

s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n i n g , the a u t h o r ' s a t t i t u d e structure is to

a n a l y s i s can lead

Stylistic

effects

can

be

analysed

in

paradigmatic

The use of l i t e r a r y language n u m b e r of u n u s u a l the expected and collocations. the of fresh perception are of Tension and

is m a r k e d b y a large is p r o d u c e d hence our between usual and a

unexpected language reality

will may be

be q u e s t i o n e d brought.

Unusual there are

collocations many

more n o t i c e a b l e verse

in p o e t r y and grief ago,* the of they cannot be

in D y l a n T h o

*once b e l o w a sun

as the heart was was A d a m and deviance These

break s e l e c t i o n rules b u t

considered

48

ungrammatical.

They

serve to u p s e t our r e g u l a r

linguistic

e x p e c t a t i o n and h e i g h t e n the i n t e n s i t y of eaning. There are other e x a m p l e s o f v i o l a t i o n o f s e l e c t i o n r u l e s : The y e l l o w fog that rubs its back u p o n the w i n d o w panes, The y e l l o w smoke that rubs its m u z z l e on the w i n d o w panes ( E l i o t , The Tove Sorny of J . A l f r e d Pro f r o c k ) The stars are not wanted now p u t out e v e r y o n e : Pack up the m o o n and di swan tie the sun Pour away the ocean and sweep up the w o o d s For n o t h i n g now can e v e r come to any g o o d * (ftuden^Two songs fr..Hed]li ftnderson) The the first gives to inanimate nouns so in draatizait ionu that The

fog and smoke are g i v e n animacy

second one turns things l i k e the into disposable with clashes The first the objects* Tension

the sun and the ocean clash these

Both e x a m p l e s make the verbs is created when we s i t u a t e paradigmatic The

nouns*

in the usual

conventional

relations* in the a the seen of

effects are q u i t e estranging. song are presented and a m u s i n g

fog and smoke

in a k i n d of caricature

giving Notice are

humorous funny from mind* here, But

impression to the reader* of the fog and smoke

animated

attributes p o i n t of

w h i c h reflects his state which is to extent

the

satirical

is created b y the p o e t , and in s h a r i n g t h i s , w e e n t e r or a kind of discourse with The

into the him

i n d i r e c t l y through and at the expense of Prufrock*

49

second

song

is

expressed

in h y p e r b o l e

forth

v i o l e n t f i t of e m o t i o n s o n the part of the speakers his love emotional is sincere or n o t , we nevertheless impact. feel the

Whether violent of it or

The p a r a d i g m a t i c deviance has a kind

d i s t a n c i n g e f f e c t in the c h o i c e of language n o m a t t e r if is achieved through meaning is heightened in

The

G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , it is a m e t a p h o r i c a l use of l a n g u a g e . In linguistic constitute deviates a syntactic normative and lexical from which And restraints language Randolph

background and

Q u i r k e x p r e s s e s it m o r e c l e a r l y : A metaphor involves the one it introduces, and a paradigmatic it replaces and the relation

figurative the

and a syntatgroatic r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n elements in the

literal

metaphorical

linguistic

environment (Hinnis, p.308) The metaphorical What use makes of language the language is not confined to the both

literature*

l i t e r a r y can be

t e n s i o n b e t w e e n the l i t e r a l and f i g u r a t i v e e l e m e n t s in the p a r a d i g m a t i c and syntagmatic relations* and this narrative The And discourse* the novel use of be

The s y s t e n a t ic* can create in the story

tension can

In K a t h e r i n e Mansf ieldt,s short

the narrative begins on a It was a

P i c t o n boat was due to l e a v e at h a l f past e l e v e n . beautiful night, m i l d ,

s t a r r y ' B u t w h e n Fene 11a appears, 50

the n a r r a t i v e s w i t c h e s to a f i g u r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i ve : *He re and there huge afraid on a rounded w o o d - p i l e , black m u s h r o o m , to unfurl it that was l i k e the stalk of a but it all seemed that The of

there hung a lantern, quivering as here if

its t i m i d ,

1 ight in for

blackness metaphorical strangeness


1

burned of from

softly, language Fene 11a

itself a sense The the

use seen

conveys

impression.

words

seemed*

and

if* c o l o u r the m o d a l i t y of

narrator, this are

who

enters

into the m i n d of the character to describe Things are figures and people

presented as

Men, by a

t h e i r caps p u l l e d down their collars turned up, few w o m e n all m u f f l e d scurried along he and one into

swung tiny the

looked l i k e a baby fly that had f a l l e n

cream A shilling! of dark She must be g o i n g away for e v e r ! A huge f l y i n g through the to s l i d e , coil the

rope went

dark wharf began p slip*

to edge away from them*

Dark f i g u r e s of m e n lounged a g a i n s t the rails* of their p i p e s a nose shone out, p a i r of

In the

glow or a

or the peak of a ^ P *

hardly ever she looked strange*

saw her

w i t h her head

uncovered

51

In

these seen

examples,

the n a r r a t i v e h e l p s d e f a m i I i a r i z e And this

the

world

from Fenel la's p o i n t f v i e w .

world feels.

reflects These

the k i n d of u n c e r t a i n t y and insecurity she are filtered through the free

feelings

indirect

discourse, and colours

w h i c h fuses the narrator^ and character^ v iewpo int the a u t h o r * s a t t i t u d e especially the attention towards F e n e l l a and The through narrative deviation other style and

strikes

the

so that he may compare the l i t e r a r y use of language here with This different use of system of in ordinary use of language for the the is

may create a tension b e t w e e n in our awareness in which of

language r e s u l t i n g

language A renewed perception

reality

articulated. about *

of r e a l i t y

can be

brought

Stylistic the tension

study describes

and analyses

the effects

of

in the d i a l e c t i c a l But

r e l a t i o n s h i p between the norm the reader

and the d e v i a n t . has to be to become its taken

in analysing these effects, The very c o n d i t i o n

into account.

for a work it hard and to

is to have people who effects. The role of the reader

read is

evaluate

d e f i n e , b u t it cannot b e b y p a s s e d . In chapter t h r e e , I shall try to situate s t y l i s t i c analysis of and literary its language in

teaching

institutions

evaluate

pedagogical

i m p l i c a t ions

52

CHAPTER THREE

; LITERATURE

TEACHING LANGUAGE AND

Before stylistic outline Hong

d i s c u s s i n g the p e d a g o g i c a l analysis

implications I would

of like

the to in my the the

of literary language

the s i t u a t i o n s and p r o b l e m s This outline is

in E n g l i s h teaching very much on

Kong

based

observations past eight of

and e x p e r i e n c e as an E n g l i s h t e a c h e r for I shall restrict my reference language and l i t e r a t u r e in senior to

teaching levels such a

secondary for my I

from the f o u r t h form to the s e v e n t h . reference is that it is these levels

The reason in which

t e a c h i n g has b e e n m o s t l y consider the

A n o t h e r reason is that for

fourth form to b e the t h r e s h o l d I have t r i e d not very

analysis of literary language lower, but the result

it w i t h a

level

was

sat isfactory. cause* The of two the

Insufficient

l i n g u i s t i c competence

is the m a i n

J u n i o r Secondary E d u c a t i o n the performances mat in one e x t e r n a l

takes a c c o u n t examination and

internal

can also be one of the causes as important schools,

s t u d e n t s h a v e to cope w i t h a l l these The to outline over a p p l i e s to A n g l o - C h i n e s e

w h i c h atount in in Hong these in

n i n e t y percent of a l l is used as a m e d i u m of my essay does n o t address

schools

English schools, language


4

but

b i l i n g u a l ism

It covers E n g l i s h Language and

English of

L i t e r a t u r e w h i c h are taught

in the curricula as s u b j e c t s

53

study. Notice

that E n g l i s h Language

in the A d v a n c e d l e v e l the

is

c a l l e d Use of E n g l i s h and it is c o n s i d e r e d entrance an requirement. subject

University

The p l a n to m a k e E n g l i s h Language as for

is now p e n d i n g

W i t h i n the l e v e l s of r e f e r e n c e , e x a m i n a t i o n s : the S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e at the the end of end of arts the the or science fifth

there are two e x t e r n a l to b e taken Examination streamed from at into form whereas And of

form and the A - L e v e l Students w i l l b e class starting

either

f o u r Engl ish English this

language

is m e a n t

for all

students, arts

Literature has

is o n l y o f f e r e d to become a m i n o r i t y

students. the number of

subject is

one:

candidates subjects,

not o n l y s m a l l compared w i t h that

other I

it is also d r o p p i n g e s p e c i a l l y the causes for such

in the A - L e v e l . It

shall try to e x a m i n e a certain e x t e n t Language

is to ways

related to both the contents and the is and For

English the

S o I shall b e g i n b y l o o k i n g at p r o b l e m s of the convenience, teaching use there be of English the are term no

situations first* to mean

Language

I shall

Language and where Literature

other Literature .

is meant to

The

teaching of E n g l i s h as a second language o c c u p i e s


54

v e r y important p o s i t i o n in the school c u r r i c u l u m .


1 1

Not

only time

the only c o m p u l s o r y * amounts


^ .

subject,

the class of

allocated whole

to an average
18

of twenty percent to the

the

school

timetable*

According

Education language every of use Kong

Department, curriculum

the p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e of the E n g l i s h in the schools of Hong Kong

to p r o v i d e

p u p i l w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y to d e v e l o p the m a x i m u m degree functional which are competence specially in for appropriate those d o m a i n s of to the Hong

p . 5 ) T h e d o m a i n s of use i n c l u d e : E n g l i s h as a v a l u a b l e asset in with the working the as the key to of the

world outside Hong Kong

English as one E n g l i s h as

languages of

of government and o f f i c i a l d o m and entertainment with other

medium of and

pleasure

English as the of Hong

medium Kong

inhabitants

Englsih as a tool

for study < Syllabuses, p p . 5 - 7 ) *

To realize

these o b j e c t i v e s , a

^Communicative A p p r o a c h of can

was advocated by the Syllabuses* approach summarised 1%

The main principles

this be

according to the fraiiiiers of the S y l l a b u s e s as follows:

The needs and interests of the learner s h o u l d be of central concern*

2.

A u t h e n t i c rather than a r t i f i c i a l Engl ish should b e used. The learner should be involved in geriuiae acts
55

of

p u r p o s e f u l communicat ion
q

Equal medium

emphasis of

should be placed on E n g l i s h as as on the

commurxicaition

formal

l i n g u i s t i c system of English. (Syllabuses, pp* 9-16) These principles has are sensible, some of for the at least the of new the

Approach

reduced

drawbacks

traditional

and the structural approaches, w h i c h rest on the *the learner, the able having **mastered * in for use* into to different of the one way the or

false a s s u m p t i o n that formal another, purposes elements will be of

target language to a p p l y these

c o m m u n i c a t i ve

in real s i t u a t i o n s of language But when not

these p r i n c i p l e s are p u t only they are are they open

practice,

affected by the nature 15 contents and the First are of a l l , the interests and needs of the

learner of

g e n e r a l l y taken to be the and for some w i t h flying

passing the exm inat ions, There is

colours. are

n o t h i n g wrong w i t h this end if B u t the

treated as an o b j e c t i v e testing is that in many cases

trouble

both teachers and learners tend to This is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , for results has the

s u b s t i t u t e testing for learning. the undue the

importance attached to e x a m i n a t i o n teaching materials and extent

shaped

learning/teaching h a b i t s to a great

conditioned 20

56

Most

textbooks

are

functional

especially

for

e x a m i n a t i o n s they are designed and c o m p i l e d to students Even with

familiarize

the v a r i e d e x a m i n a t i o n r u b r i c s and their workbooks and l i s t e n i n g Despite their kits

the set texts w i t h

have serious 1 imitations. they are merely

comprehensiveness, language items Those

of d i f f e r e n t for testing

required model teachers

b y the e x a m i n a t i o n s

test paper series d o e v e n m o r e harm than g o o d to b o t h and students by they usurp the chance testing for for genuine and

communication thus learning provide

substituting

learning

g i v i n g users a w r o n g

idea of what

language they

S t u d e n t s become a d d i c t e d to t h e m because something s o l i d such as m u l t i p l e choice

language by

i t e m s , c l i c h e d phrases and e x p r e s s i o n s rote to in for

for t h e m to learn

The E x a m i n a t i o n s

warning paragraphs the

c a n d i d a t e s n o t to r e p r o d u c e set s e n t e n c e s o r

the e x a m i n a t i o n on c o m p o s i t i o n w r i t i n g t e s t i f i e s to

p r e v a l e n c e of t h i s h a b i t . As units it for m a n y of find these ready-made

t a i l o r e d to e x a m i n a t i o n s c o n v e n i e n t and for their

saves them the trouble of d e s i g n i n g m a t e r i a l s it is hard for these

s t u d e n t s * A n d in m a n y

to compete w i t h those m a r k e t . Most they


c

ones on trust on the

the

students place

more

latter because even if some them in

are

closer to e x a m i n a t i o n do not use them in c l a s s ,

teachers

students will b u y

for t h e i r own

Since students prefer t e s t i n g d r i l l s

57

lessons to a u t h e n t i c l e a r n i n g , t e a c h i n g s o m e t h i n g b e y o n d the s y l l a b u s is in m a n y cases u n w e l c o m e and e v e n u n a c c e p t a b l e In this way, language l e a r n i n g lessons can b e c o m e a k i n d of

answer g u e s s i n g and c h e c k i n g r o u t i n e tutorial centres Their reduce language to a handy have become

This may e x p l a i n why popular with packages on sale on the

increasingly

education reinforce a

T h e i r p o p u l a r i t y and c o m m e r c i a l in the m i n d s of students that language by taking course*

success is

learning a

m a t t e r of p a s s i n g the money-back guaranteed

certain

shortcut

U n d e r such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , g e n u i n e acts of are hard to generate to in the classroom* What

communication expect teachers books we

What do we we

students

communicate?

should

Let us take a closer look at the course besides have those model test paper

series

just d i s c u s s e d . fifth

The m o s t popular course books forms are

for the

fourth and the

by the Longman Press and ffew Access of the Oxford Press. Both books for 4

University of the

c l a i m to f o l l o w the g u i d e l i n e s Schools* since I choose

Syllabuses English

Secondary to analyse

Integrated using

Book

school has been

it for s i x y e a r s . Press,
r

A n d a c c o r d i n g t o a s p o k e s m a n from L o n g m a n in Hong Kong are divided with using

o v e r fifty percent of s c h o o l s the fourth form* The

it and

for each

book is passage

into u n i t s

unit

consists of a 58

cornpreherision

questions a taught and

Language R e v i e w s e c t i o n in w h i c h other The passages seem to

grammar have

is been Nor are

s e l e c t e d at random are they

t h e y are not s t y I i s t i c a l 1 y s a m p l e d r e l a t e d to the structures that

taught

in the Language R e v i e w The language

They are at best used in these passages It is is

for c o m p r e h e n s i o n to a certain ,

e x t e n t not a u t h e n t i c .

stylistically ^easy^

uniform

w r i t t e n w i t h a c o n t r o l l e d v o c a b u l a r y for

r e a d i n g . Some d i a l o g u e s and i n t e r v i e w s are i n c l u d e d , b u t not e v e n one of t h e m is a u t h e n t i c speech in w r i t t e n few passages are extracted registers, from authentic form sources Very of

different

styles,

or types such as

expository,

n a r r a t i v e or a r g u m e n t a t i v e w r i t i n g . exposure and f a i l T h e y are use for c o m m u n i c a t i o n interaction and to m o t i v a t e

So they l i m i t s t u d e n t s '

t h e m to read and discuss much only

t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s w h i c h are not in the classjroow* Very often, the the

occasioned by these passages b e t w e e n is in checking and answering

teacher

the student

questions

The structures

Language with

Review

Section

teaches R u l e s of

grai ar

and are

inadequate in single

explained but

illustrated

sentences*

Exercises

and do

d r i l l s that f o l l o w , not
4

as w e l l as those

in the Work Book, < See

encourage g e n u i n e The

acts of c o m m u n i c a t i o n

Appendix not

2) .

q u e s t i o n s or d r i l l s are a r t i f i c i a l , to experience* So

they are the

related

examples

59

or

formulas but

s t u d e n t s can r e p r o d u c e grammatical what they

meaningless T h e y are to

or not

uncontextualized motivated to

sentences. have learned

apply

express

themselves with a purpose.

These lessons student kind

teaching do

contents

taught

in for

General the

English and The

not p r o v i d e

m u c h chance

teacher

to c o m m u n i c a t e of English

in u s i n g E n g l i s h here can be characterized for language

found

as

taught Long mould and

especially

s i n g u l a r e x p o s u r e to t h i s k i n d of

will testing

p r e d i l e c t i o n w h i l e the m e c h a n i s m of

and d r i l l i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h e i r many four,

That m a y e x p l a i n w h y only in form

started to s t u d y L i t e r a t u r e t o l d m e the k i n d of language t h e y found

in L i t e r a t u r e

is d i f f e r e n t * A l s o t h e y f o u n d it d i f f i c u l t e s p e c i a l l y in the f i r s t t e r m , b u t after that m o s t of t h e m said that about L i t e r a t u r e , they were really using language But is more in t a l k i n g to express

t h e m s e l v e s w h i c h they had s e l d o m done who do not choose L i t e r a t u r e , to read they h a v e even a the it

for those to short so* they might I am to my

difficult

encourage story This


*

them

modern

unabridged to do

although

language

competence

m a y lead us to p o s t u l a t e

that the k i n d of E n g l i s h they h a v e b e e n d o i n g

are e x p o s e d to and the e x e r c i s e s not be congenial not

to the study of L i t e r a t u r e . Of course, that E n g l i s h should be What


60

so crazy as to students to read

taught from

prepare

teaching

experience

and from c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r form f i v e either

more

experienced is

teachers is that an a v e r a g e

graduate further the

i l l - e q u i p p e d in language c o m p e t e n c e for or for It is these

study

problems

which

i m p l i c a t i o n s of the s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s of l i t e r a r y address Most teachers and s t u d e n t s w i l l experience a

language

gap

in is a

E n g l i s h teaching b e t w e e n form f i v e and form good reason to call the l a n g u a g e ^ Use of language

There

E n g l ish* a to

because tool

students have to a c t u a l l y p u t

to use as

for study* to

The teaching contents a i m take notes

to train t h e m

listen

lectures

read and adapt of the

reference subjects

materials; they study. habitual fifth what of they

discuss and present the k n o w l e d g e

It is o b v i o u s that the k i n d of language and the to it they a c q u i r e d in the fourth and to

attitude

forms are

inadequate and to some e x t e n t u n r e l a t e d in forms s i x and Many

they have to do

teachers that in

the s i x t h form o f t e n hear t h e i r cannot take down the m a i n p o i n t s they confess sense in

complain And

reading each word b u t or

that they do of the w h o l e

understand paragraph they have in

they cannot make

grasp the g i s t of the chapter*

In w r i t i n g

difficulties analysing

in expressing t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and opinions of a h i s t o r i c a l

the causes and consequences

event

in e x p l a i n i n g the demand and s u p p l y theory in f o r m u l a t i n g a


f

physical

change or a c h e m i c a l r e a c t i o n ,

etc.

61

In the w o r l d of w o r k , the gap m a y b e w i d e r . The k i n d of training received m o s t f i f t h form g r a d u a t e s and m a n y s e v e n t h does not give them either formers or

competence

They seem to be at a loss b e y o n d the or e x a m i n a t i o n c o n t e x t . how to use language language extent foundation M o s t of t h e m h a v e to start

classroom learning

in r e l a t i o n

to t h e i r w o r k , a l t h o u g h the some

t h e y h a v e b u i l t u p h e l p s t h e m to

The p o p u l a r i t y of language i n s t i t u t e s ,

extra-mural problems

courses and a d u l t e v e n i n g courses m a y p o i n t to the of t h e i r p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g * M y e x p e r i e n c e these learn courses business

in t e a c h i n g one of not just to

t a u g h t m e that students came

language or language related to t h e i r language

their to to

They wanted to learn how

f o u n d a t i o n and acquired

to put what they had

previously

practical of language in

A n d those whose work does not r e q u i r e w i l l p r o b a b l y not read or The to or

the use write

anything

e f f o r t s and m o n e y t h e y spend of let of

on learning E n g l i s h to some e x t e n t do not p a y * T h i s k i n d English alone education for I does not e x t e n d A beyond to schooling, the study

s t y l i s t i c approach

language m a y h e l p

The

teaching interest

of

Readers

is

supposed

to

develop And many

and h a b i t provide it

in reading contents

good

Readers

can

in

the

and beyond B u t the s i t u a t i o n story books

if they are m e a n i n g f u l l y Despite

approached*

is not

the fact that one or two

are p u t on the s y l l a b u s and that 62

periods often

are allocated been either

in the t i m e t a b l e neglected or

for t h e m , treated

they have or

lightly Many how

inadequately have admitted

b y b o t h teachers and students that they r e a l l y do not k n o w

teachers to use

Readers

in c l a s s .As a r e s u l t ,

d u r i n g the lessons, m a n y just ask to on HOWa any many teach the felt

read and e x p l a i n a few sentences or d i f f i c u l t words and some most the And book students Readers. to read and check the q u e s t i o n s a t t a c h e d M a n y of these q u e s t i o n s are factual ones instead of W H Y and

s t o r y - e v e n t l e v e l asking W H A T as a f o l l o w - u p e x e r c i s e , report, but

students are asked to w r i t e the story There without are

m a n y just r e t e l l or or s e m i n a r s

personal training English

opinions courses

for teachers on how to but as to

in terms of grammar and structures,

course on the t e a c h i n g of Readers the need is u r g e n t l y (Refer to A p p e n d i x 3 )

In short,

n e g l i g e n c e or wrong approaches not o n l y interest of b u t also d e p r i v e communication* them of

kill the it

reading chance breeds for

genuine acts

Moreover,

in t h e m a m i s c o n c e p t i o n of the study of many students have the is not o n l y d i f f i c u l t but

Literature* misconception

This p a r t l y that They Literature

uninteresting* in an why

have not the chance to be exposed to Literature It

is also one of the reasons dropping*

the n u m b e r of Literature

students has been

63

Having

o u t l i n e d the s i t u a t i o n s and

problems,

we

may is to

then ask how the s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s of l i t e r a r y language related examine to E n g l i s h teaching in Hong Kong* I shall try

the r e l a t i o n s w i t h less

language teaching f i r s t

because

these seem

We serve as

have

in chapter one proposed that for the study of

literature This of the By

may is

a paradigm

because one of the essential use of language is its

literary our us the image

drawing it makes

attention aware

to the message as a linguistic relationship between the

of the

which depends on sound/graphic and the

conventional and the

concept,i, analysis affirms

the s i g n i f i e r

signified* use of

Stylistic language because

of this conscious and r e f l e x i v e as w e l l as unsettles this

relationship and

any b r e a k i n g of the

c o n v e n t i o n has to b e seen has language because it

understood on the basis of the for the our of study of

important rectifies

language as something g i v e n and is t a u g h t as a second language, serious* Most students study They put and

In the c o n t e x t where E n g l i s h the is

E n g l i s h as f a c t u a l and concrete data b y rote l e a r n i n g . like them to m e m o r i z e in their idioms, writing They employ are set phrases and cliches irrespective not of and

style

appropriateness. themselves; communication^ they

actually

expressing act of

these set phrases in the in this way t h u s 64

Using

language

is a kind of

surrogate e x p e r i e n c e the c o m m u Q i c a t i o Q o r e x p r e s s i o n cannot be T h i s m a y be d u e to the fact that t h e y are

n o t e x p o s e d to d i f f e r e n t s t y l i s t i c use of language and that they other have b e e n t r a i n e d to treat E n g l i s h as a subject to b e s t u d i e d for like

subjects

Stylistic language

analysis

of l i t e r a r y language can m a k e t h e m treat

not as a kind of factual data or f i x e d e n t i t y , but as a use a medium of signification for coromunicat ion*

The

concept Many

s t y l e as d e v i a n c e people

has

also in

teaching exposing will

have reservations for fear that

students

to

works

of l i t e r a t u r e

they

f o l l o w the d e v i a n t or found concept context. correct years in

e x a m p l e s w h i c h are o f t e n on the wrong

T h i s k i n d of fear is based is a c q u i r e d

that language And the

in b i t s and p i e c e s out of exposed to ten

fact that s t u d e n t s h a v e b e e n language that

grammatical does not

in text books o v e r they can use

guarantee let alone and

language incessant on making Their

Despite structure, and It they keep

drills

in

gratumar

carelessly language compare in a also d e v i a t e s from the

is i n s t r u c t i v e

to

in c o n t e x t the d e v i a n t and ungaatt; ical work of literature w i t h do not those deviate in

sentences students*

writing* deliberately deviate

Students

consciously But w h y do

or they

to a c h i e v e a certain

from

the norm? Lack of competence can be one 65

factor^

Another

more

subtle

factor

may

suggest

that

singular

e x p o s u r e to the n o r m in langue does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l a correct knowing language speak of only relative is r i g h t or or deviating grammatical what use of language b y an is n o t e n o u g h Just because to are

is r i g h t or g r a m m a t i c a l

is not a f i x e d of

It is m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e D e v i a t i o n and n o r m

instead of j u s t t e l l i n g s t u d e n t s what we m u s t show t h e m the e f f e c t s from a c e r t a i n of

using

grammatical

This w i l l d e v e l o p volition initiated parole, the in u s i n g l a n g u a g e to

in t h e m a sense of p u r p o s e and they can b e i.e. , of

W i t h that in m i n d , of

analyse t h e i r actual use

language,

in the l i g h t of the norm implications

in l a n g u e * stylistic

In t h i s case analysis

teaching

of the

l i t e r a r y language b e c o m e

obvious*

We h a v e language relation as with

in chapter one considered a k i n d of parole the langue* sharpen of language*

the and

use

of

in d y n a m i c

dialectical in the

D e v i a t i o n and foregrounding in Stylistic and

language conscious registers effects analysis of of

use and choice this the

analysis the

relationship choice*

to describe Through

evaluate in become is made

practice students it

literary

language, and the

more easier use of in

conscious of and
4

learning of the

more

is because provides a meaningful and

literary

language

interesting

context

66

which become

grammar

is u n d e r s t o o d and l e a r n e d .

G r a m m a r then

can when

c h a l l e n g i n g and c r e a t i v e b u t not a b s o l u t e r u l e s are encouraged to use it w i t h a sense in of

students and i.e.

purpose

d i r e c t i o n to create a certain effects to d e v e l o p t h e i r own s t y l e

in an illocutionairy act

of that

It m a y be wrong for some teachers to assume students should not be encouraged to d e v e l o p their

style

before they have mastered the them w i t h grammar exercises and

So t h e y tend to d r i l l their grammatical speech

i istakes

in w r i t i n g . Some e v e n stop them d u r i n g t h e i r in graamair* As a r e s u l t ,

to correct a m i n o r m i s t a k e

students Fear or also an

are u s i n g grammar b u t may not be expressing t h e m s e l v e s . of making a mistake leads them to m e m o r i z e in set phrases Fear

sentences makes

and e v e n paragraphs in

exawinaLtions.

t h e m falter in

Anyone who has been Exainaition

examiner notice

the School Certificate Oral In s h o r t , We

will

this problem.

grammar and style, norm and cannot teach grammar without and

d e v i a t i o n are analysing of

interrelated*

the purposes, language

functions and effects

in the use

Another

essential

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l i t e r a r y is discourse.

language every sense the

w h i c h has teaching message of

implications

In fact*

can b e t r e a t e d as a d i s c o u r s e The police the message force) is (all 67

in the general that

the w o r d *

addresser instruction

(the to

giving

prohibitive Literary

addressee

otoirists*

discourse the

can be m o r e p r o b l e m a t i c and meaning is o f t e n not

complicated

because and be of How? text

the r e l a t i o n s h i p more difficult to pin

the addresser and addressee can So stylistic analysis

l i t e r a r y d i s c o u r s e can be c h a l l e n g i n g and stiroulating. The kind of messages that students are e x p o s e d to is m a i n l y factual , in

books and M o d e l Test Series and e v e n out of and writer's precis

informative bland the and

They are m o s t l y

There are v e r y p o i n t of v i e w . writing As do

few messages w h i c h r e g i s t e r in c o m p o s i t i o n or

Most q u e s t i o n s

not touch on

attitudes

individual the

opinions.

a result, or

most students use language on level* They seldom

express to an

their a t t i t u d e s

in w r i t i n g because they are not required Given, for e x a m p l e , writing the relevant to

do so and they do not know how to. editorial from

a newspaper as a precis

practice, points, the the

m o s t students can at best o n l y l i s t all but they cannot

a r r i v e at a c o n c l u s i o n as

grasp

viewpoint

and a t t i t u d e of the e d i t o r . force of a

They do not feel

stylistic

analysis

of

literary

discourse

can

be

useful here. how unusual

In chapter two,

we have

illustrated

in d e t a i l in

d e v i a n t syntax and

modality

free i n d i r e c t s p e e c h , and att itudinal

e t c . create the *speech p a r t i c i p a t i o n * of the literary discourse. A The

colouring

story can be

treated as a k i n d of counicaitioii content*

68

addresser/addressee

situation

is created

to

involve

the

reader in discourse w i t h the a u t h o r . The p o i n t of v i e w of an author can be seen from his attitudes towards in the the choice literary

A n d these a t t i t u d e s are and p a t t e r n i n g of

A s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s of

d i s c o u r s e a c t i v a t e s the r e a d e r ^ s r o l e . the response to of the a u t h o r it.

It s e n s i t i z e s h i m to his

in the n a r r a t i v e and engages

R e a d i n g t h e n can b e c o m e an a c t i v e

speech only of a

p a r t icipat ion.. stimulated message, to

Through t h i s practice, get into the

students are not meaning

i 1 locut ioriary

they are also m o t i v a t e d to express t h e i r They then have to c o m m u n i c a t e something

attitudes

and i n d i v i d u a l and meaningful

in the classroom or in

their the

writing, teacher is to

instead

of b e i n g p a s s i v e l y r e c e p t i v e of what To see all language use as

and the b o o k say* consider that

discourse are

language

acts

really

^situational'

Having

said

all this,

I hope

I have not

given

the

i m p r e s s i o n that- o n l y s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s of l i t e r a r y language has pedagogical Let teaching be me implications propose for language teaching for in Hong

the k i n d of text book

language should

in order to c l a r i f y m y standpoint. compiled. It s h o u l d

The book

stylisticailly

include

authentic business jokes and legal

passages of d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s and r e g i s t e r s , f e t t e r s and eroos, humour, historical advertise ents* writing, news reports,

technical

writing,

69

documents^

^ ^ igious and p h i l o s o p h i c a l and speeches, as literary

writing,

authentic and etc.

conversations terms, Grammar analysis exposed purposes tool for as

linguistic works and

description criticism, the

well

can be taught w i t h i n of these passages.

the context of In t h i s way,

stylistic are

students for

to d i f f e r e n t a c t u a l in d i f f e r e n t study,

language

different a of in

It b e c o m e s r e a l l y

a m e d i u m of g e n u i n e c o m u icait; n i on and as w e l l as a v a l u a b l e asset

p l e a s u r e and e n t e r t a i n m e n t , the working 1 i fe

In different

fact,

I have t r i e d out

m o s t of these passages in language classes the

of and

styles

w i t h m y students

found v a r y i n g degrees of s u c c e s s analysis of w i t h most s t u d e n t s * language

Above all,

stylistic

is m o s t successful

and p o p u l a r

In the s u a m e r of

1986, I was i n v i t e d to in Methodology of The teaching Course Chinese fifty

speak on the use of l i t e r a r y m a t e r i a l s in the English by the Language School of Teaching

organized University teachers present share asked

Education 2).

of Hong Kong Csee A p p e n d i x English the talk, different we

There were in Hong

of

schools

After

formed an i n f o r m a l group I was

to also video

literary m a t e r i a l s by the students* to

for language

to speak again and to make a This in a camp organized

recording of I was invited

do this

fay

the

Secondary by The

S c h o o l E n g l i s h Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n and s p o u s e r e d British There were


70

f i f t y teachers

and

h u n d r e d students from f i f t y d i f f e r e n t schools in the carop* Details Appendix and f i n d i n g s of

p a r t i c i p a t ing talks are

these

analysed

As to the teaching of L i t e r a t u r e , we have analysed the present kind about students* some aiy of language education against seems to

that give to

and p r e j u d i c e

Literature four more

M a n y schools offer L i t e r a t u r e at form start at form three, at the and o n l y those

well-

established most of

ones start

form one

As to the

teachers, Literature Caesar

them who take

lower forms are not

I r e m e m b e r the teacher w h o taught me J u l i u s form three was a P * E * form teacher

the one who taught me at at any

five was a H i s t o r y Major and the one who taught me studied

form seven was only an E n g l i s h Major who had not Literature (After all, at a l l * there

I am talking about two schools are not many schools

already* this

offering

The one where education cannot my to teach it* students there* still

I f i n i s h e d my f i f t h

form Literature because I it

cannot offer

Literature A n d the one where

find a Literature

finished was

closed the We were the

for last batch of

nobody

Literature

There

is

a shortage n o t o n l y of s t u d e n t s b u t a l s o 71

of

teachers

and the s i t u a t i o n is in a k i n d of v i c i o u s

circle. the The

The three C o l l e g e s of E d u c a t i o n w h i c h t r a i n teachers of lower forms do of Language offer any Literature

Institute to

in E d u c a t i o n o f f e r s refresher courses these are concerned w i t h the practical Chinese offer.

teachers, b u t a l l

t e a c h i n g of University

The School of E d u c a t i o n of the of Hong Kong has no L i t e r a t u r e course to

A n d the o n l y teacher course of the s u b j e c t Department of Professional Studies in

is o f f e r e d b y the Education of the

U n i v e r s i t y of Hong K o n g * I t is o n l y a were less than twenty teachers e n r o l l e d that the major emphasis in

course and there 1987. the It is

understandable

of

teacher

training institutions small exclude

is on language teaching in v i e w of the B u t there is a tendency to The word

Literature candidature* literary m a t e r i a l s

from language t e a c h i n g * students* this

Literature analysis prejudice*

scares m a n y teachers and m o s t of literary

language can d i s p e l

fear

and

We different So And

have analysed

in d e t a i l

that literary

language in

is

in use b u t n o t

in k i n d from use of language we place in the

we speak of the in our stylistic

Literature* procedural

p r i m a c y on the use of language of a linguistic which is described

seen in the form or in approach terms and from a does present

orientation*

This

72

p r o b l e m s to teachers w h o are an extension of t h e i r usual use of l a n g u a g e .

It So I

to would

r e c o m m e n d t h i s approach to language m a j o r s w h o h a v e to teach Literature proved b e l o w the T h i s approach has a l s o using it been

effective in and

in t e a c h i n g Readers or in I one of the

literary to be

materials accepted

language used within as the

propose language

teaching of the

methodologies

tCommunicait ive Approach*

English Syllabuses

in Hong Kong*

For the L i t e r a t u r e a j o r s , teacher t r a i n i n g

is n e e d e d .

It is true that they c o u l d c u l t i v a t e i n t u i t i v e j u d g e m e n t and critical intelligence in t h e i r undergraduate practised might There their The not is a own

k i n d of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m they have be tendency

for the students at secondary l e v e l s * for untrained teachers to s u b s t i t u t e for t h e i r students*

c r i t i c i s m and experience especially pressure of to of when

authentic

This tendency b e c o m e s a practice b o t h teachers and students are But we cannot under shift the the

There

are

adverse

effects

in

teaching

ready how

interpre tat ions these theory these

to the students.

Students do not know what

are arrived at or on it is based* interpretations As a Many a tie, is more

literary of work rote

the k i n d of

language the by

difficult

than it

have to swallow
73

learning. Students the

It

stifles

individual

response and

creativity. feel because are to in

h a v e no c o n f i d e n c e to say w h a t t h e y notes And and the critic*s

teacher' s

comments

because in

they h a v e not b e e n trained own words, to do it

express

themselves

their

e x a m i n a t i o n s w i l l expose their weaknesses M o r e o v e r ,

their

own v i e w s or o p i n i o n s on a work h a v e not b e e n a c k n o w l e g e d b y their risk. teachers, and to express t h e m in examinations is a

As a r e s u l t , notes

they are i n c l i n e d to incorporate as well as some is w e a k ,

their

comments we can and

i n t o the answers. many awkward

For those whose language of

undigested

phrases

sentences. A n d for the o t h e r s , we ay s t i l l be a b l e to trace the sources of these n o t e s * It does not take too long for an examination m a r k e r to i d e n t i f y the same p a t t e r n s of notes schools their

appearing each year. There are some we 11-estaLbl ished whose teachers instruct t h e i r students n e v e r to lend

notes to others.

T h i s e l i t i s t a t t i t u d e of m o n o p o l y is based Literature.

on a wrong concept of the s t u d y of

Literature competence. levels, use we And

is open to a l l who h a v e the b a s i c in teaching L i t e r a t u r e in the

linguistic secondary the in

s h o u l d sharpen students* foster t h e i r the as well

s e n s i b i 1 it ies to to engage as develop own

of language with

their words.

abilities

to

express t h i s e x p e r i e n c e

in t h e i r

74

Intuitive after

judgement and c r i t i c a l exposure It to

intelligence texts exposure

may come in to

only

long

literary from

authentic ready-made So to

encounter.

w i l l not c o m e

l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m s and spoonfeed critical of Literature a i n s i g h t s to s t u d e n t s surrogate is to m a k e the The

study

experience.

teaching language primacy students look for

i m p l i c a t i o n s of the s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s of l i t e r a r y become given tend obvious to F i r s t of is the procedural Many they language.

the message or form

to treat

l i t e r a t u r e as a f i x e d irrespective of the

t h e m e s and contents I when

r e m e m b e r the o n l y t h i n g our f i f t h Farm the

form teacher notes the on

did, the of facts

teaching on

was to g i v e us and

blackboard communism. in the

Russian R e v o l u t i o n

evils

L i t e r a t u r e was then s t u d i e d as h i s t o r i c a l of a certain ideology. This can be

service

an

opposite extreme

to the F o r m a l i s t s .

To a v o i d b o t h use of

extremes, language speech in

w e m a y start b y f o c u s i n g on the a l l e g o r i c a l and each and foregrounding* the ice the can be We

of h u m a n treated as a k i n d of engage the

deviation in to

can then

students

discourse w i t h the p o l y p h o n i c out

the author b y a t t u n i n g their s e n s i t i v i t i e s v o i c e s of the a n i m a l s . Then students can

find

the a u t h o r * s a t t i t u d e s b y a n a l y s i n g the of them each which the interesting and the kind of

characteristic

speeches # between speeches

force speech act

of

these is

A very

75

to

e x a m i n e the M a j o r ' s and S q u e a l e r ' s s p e e c h e s , a s

well

as the

the responses of other a n i m a l s . O n l y at the vefry end of

t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s h o u l d w e s i t u a t e the a l l e g o r y in a p o w e r relationship, necessarily fix politics it and ideology. We should Let not

to b e R u s s i a at

first .

students in some or

relate it to t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e . aspects they among

Maybe

it happens

their f a m i l y members, their in

classmates, the

m a y find aspects of t h i s s i t u a t i o n

capitalist

s o c i e t y of Hong

The utterance, teachers, theme

procedural i e the

primacy use

g i v e n to the message of language is

or

the Many the

cardinal.

for fear that the students do not understand

of the story,

t e l l them the m e a n i n g of or the k e y to T h i s can k i l l one our The

the fable before they start teaching the their interest and i m a g i n a t i o n . use and keep of it literary

We m u s t r e m e m b e r that language is to frustrate create it.

characteristic expectation tension

in suspense or

between e x p e c t a t i o n and frustration can be

embodied them this

in the special and c o n s c i o u s use of language. what the content of the book means

To t e l l them

is to deny

literary experience. summarising examinations* the

As a r e s u l t , we can find m a n y students meaning of the story in

prescribed

And paraphrase

in a

poetry poem

, in

m a n y students have answer to whatever

tendency

to

examination

76

questions*

This

m i g h t p a r t l y b ^ due to the fact that

some

teachers paraphrase p o e t r y and S h a k e s p e a r e ' s p l a y s by way of e x p l a n a t ion. To do it w i l l of language In t h i s case, lose the total effects of the use the concept of deviation and

foregrounding attention deviant to

can h e l p the s i t u a t i o n . the choice of special words

By d r a w i n g unusual prosody,

students'

syntax

features of

they

can so

e x p e r i n c e the t e n s i o n b e t w e e n the d e v i a t i o n and the n o r m , that choice they can analyse the total effects of linguistic the

stylistic

in the l i g h t of the

constraints.

The

s t y l i s t i c analysis of l i t e r a r y language for syllabus design. We

has

also that tried as is of the the

implications Formalism to one not Formalism. message in

understand

favours a certain type of texts and we have

a v o i d t h i s b i a s b y introducing the discourse e l e m e n t important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l i t e r a r y language. T h i s for we have made selective use on

We g i v e procedural p r i m a c y to the focus

This can also be j u s t i f i e d by language first language we lack the

fact that as background vacuum,

cultural In need this to the their work,

w h i c h the

learners feel an urgent

both teachers and students

find e v e r y t h i n g author. Critics* ways

that has been w r i t t e n about the work or commentaries and interpretat ions f i n d

in ^naturally^ So b e f o r e t h e y a c t u a l l y read the it* Our background

they m i g h t have read a lot of books about analysis advantage, may turn the lack of cultural

stylsitic into an feel

if we can make both teachers and

students

safe

and

secure

that

they

will

not

miss

anything it

in is

confronting

the t e x t on t h e i r own

That m e a n s to t h e m and are

b e t t e r to choose w o r k s w h i c h a p p e a l to their e x p e r i e n c e *

To

take

an and

actual The

example, on

the the

choices, current

Great School

Crucible might This

Certificate Syllabus, Sons and Hard

b e t t e r b e replaced w i t h A l l My is because many students and

teachers do not l i k e from

Why?

The

is too r e m o t e As a is greater. time By and the

t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e and so they feel m o r e

result t h e i r need to consult secondary texts it spacem reasons Hard some is not n e c e s s a r i l y m e a n t

in terms of

Many Shakespearean works appeal

to us, and one of

m a y b e the k i n d o ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ e r s a l ' e x p e r i e n c e w e can be more relevant to us because it

share.

addresses certain is It one must They

of our p r o b l e m s And the more

in s o c i e t y and schooling to a use of language in Hard

Times

i n t e r e s t i n g for s t y l i s t i c

analysis*

seems we have is the use of

set two c r i t e r i a

for the choice of texts is discourse. It

language and the other

be p o i n t e d out that they are not two different are integrated in the text of a its literary work. Let

us

analyse

each c r i t e r i o n and

teaching

There

are

good reasons

to prescribe 78

texts w h i c h

are

stylistically focus learner teaching on

more e x p e r i m e n t a l

in the use of

language

to

the m e s s a g e at t h i s l e v e l
. 23

in the second the

language in

W e do n o t d e n y Literature, nor do we

cultural values the

neglect

critical

intelligence But before these

that one m a y d e v e l o p b y b e i n g e x p o s e d to great one m u s t g e t s t u d e n t s o j ect ives can be i n t e r e s t e d in t h e m realized* To get first them

t h e y m u s t first b e able to r e a l l y understand the text themselves. Language is the f i r s t b a r r i e r to t h e m * So

the use of language in the t e x t m u s t be the i n i t i a l their Texts which are

focus of more the

s i g n i f i c a n t can be more i n s t r u c t i v e and i l l u s t r a t i v e of literary texts use of language. will enable them The to

s t y l i s t i c approach to these locate their obstacle to their training of

u n d e r s t a n d i n g and to h e l p o v e r c o m e t h i s b y potential they have w i t h Language competence in the long years of language integrate the

It helps teaching.

teaching

language A English

typical- Hong Kong student has already been for t w e l v e years w h e n he reaches the fourth

studying As received of

a second language has equipped its use language,

the k i n d of t r a i n i n g he at least w i t h the basic

knowledge

r u l e s and although

He has also been trained to in a restricted way within the

e x a m i n a t i o n context. _ texts we suggest

The s t y l i s t i c approach and the take advantage

literary of this

can h e l p them

79

k n o w l e d g e and e x t e n d t h e i r use of langnaige. B e i n g c o n v e r s a n t w i t h g r a m m a r r u l e s and fcermSy t h e y are m o r e ready and b e t t e r prepared for t r a i n i n g in l i n g u i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n , which is

b a s i c to s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s . On the o t h e r h a n d , the d o m i n a n t or foregrounded (not n e c e s s a r i l y d e v i a n t ) s t y l i s t i c in the texts can be illustrative of the features and

interesting

m e a n i n g f u l use of grammar in a c t i o n . and L i t e r a t u r e teaching reinforce

In t h i s w a y , language

each

W h e n language a focal p o i n t of

is changed interest,

b e i n g a b a r r i e r to b e c o m e s t u d e n t s then are ready for i.eto e v a l u a t e the the the

the second stage of s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s , effects of language use * introduced*

At this juncture,

discourse

e l e m e n t can be

As we have said, the literary use to or an way

of language presupposes a choice and an i n t e n t i o n , w h i c h , some e x t e n t , iplicaite the author And audience, at the act of in the act of utterance expression presupposes So we the

least an implied or

i m a g i n a r y one* involves

say that the literary m e d i u m or message and the author it, the in a k i n d of

reader in

To participate

reader cannot just r e m a i n on the l o c u t i o n a r y

level the he

of the use of language* He m u s t be

i n i t i a t e d to perceive This speech act now be the use and

of the act of has to situate Cultural the language of the

its

effects* *in to

and social

references

the students, the effects

so that they can relate in context* 80

of

language to

As a result,

they m a y

discern

the a t t i t u d e or p o i n t of v i e w of the

author.

Some light be an

ideological and the

i m p l i c a t i o n s of the work may be brought to intention In this if discoverable may

we can say they are

in a c t i v e is of

speech

and

O n l y when t h i s

done can students start to appreciate the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s Literature objectives and to d e v e l o p c r i t i c a l can be fully accomplished in And

these

Coming

back

to the second c r i t e r i o n of

the

syllabus of

d e s i g n at the secondary l e v e l s , the teaching i m p l i c a t i o n s choosing texts which y i e l d a more interesting

discourse are

analysis have been made o b v i o u s * also related to language

But these A

implications

teaching*

true contents a

language and

s y l l a b u s cannot do w i t h o u t co unicative The literary use of language

approaches*

can p r o v i d e

good c o m m u n i c a t i v e c o n t e n t ,

whereas

the k i n d of

stylistic

a n a l y s i s we have c h a r a c t e r i z e d can be a p r a c t i c a l and u s e f u l approach* M o r e o v e r , the m e t h o d of literary literary can be of s t y l s i t i c a n a l y s i s of the

language can be a p p l ied to the analysis of nonThe learning of language and L i t e r a t u r e

language*

81

To

conclude,

do

not of

want the

to

recapitulate analysis

the of

pedagogical

implications

stylistic

l i t e r a r y language for the s t u d y of L i t e r a t u r e and I shall try to s i t u a t e these i m p l i c a t i o n s

language. in the

f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s in E n g l i s h t e a c h i n g of Hong that the importance of E n g l i s h does not

Assuming diminish, But the the of

situation gradual

in teaching w i l l not change drasticatl 1 y switch to the use of Chinese as a

medium

instruction the standard

in m a n y secondary schools w i l l o b v i o u s l y of special English arrangements to drop proposed in

cause

Although

many

the

E d u c a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n Report N o . 2 been

<pp 28-31) h a v e their

already efficacy and

i m p l e m e n t e d to i m p r o v e the s i t u a t i o n ,

can o n l y be e v a l u a t e d

in due course* F r o m m y e x p e r i e n c e

the s t u d e n t ^ s p o i n t of v i e w , because the actual use is reduced, the study of it as a subject

English will be

affected.

I find

at least ten to twenty percent of

students This

in schools of average standard m a y suffer an

is because t h e y have the language p o t e n t i a l to s p e c i a l i z e either English teaching

in

1 i n g u i s t i c s and/or l i t e r a t u r e A n d the reduced use of can affect t h i s p o t e n t i a l . So to reinforce when I English propose is b e i n g phased out as a that the i plicafcioas we language of have should

instruction, discussed be

in s t y l i s t i c analysis of literary language in any p l a n n i n g of the future These

considered

directions are they whole

teaching of Hong only relevant may be

to the ten to t w e n t y percent of students, the p r o b l e m s in Hong Kong. in the

a v i t a l key for of English e d u c a t i o n sz

system

NOTES

CHAPTER ONE

Saussure,

pp.14-15^

2. S a u s s u r e , p ^ X X V .
Refer to in Lemon and Re is, as Russian Formalist

Translated

^ C r i t i c i s m Four E s s a y s , 1965, 4* Q u o t e d in E a g l e t o n , p^ 2 . p.110

p p . 3 H

5. Q u o t e d in C u l l e r ,

6* R e f e r to Chapman, L i n g u i s t i c s and L i t e r a t u r e , p . 3 6 . 7* The many 8^ Refer to Jakobson, Roman (1960 , t^Closiiag Statement in Language, focus on the message is one important function of

L i n g u i s t i c s and P o e t i c s " * 1960, p p . 3.50-377 9.

In Sebeok, S t y l e

In Fowler, L i n q u i s t i c s and the N o v e l , p . 7 2 .

CHAPTER

TWO were into a vehicle of to let

I presume that the literature propaganda * degenerate

political

1 1 . E x a m p l e s quoted in p . 23 More e x a m p l e s are found in

L i n g u i s t i c s and L i t e r a t u r e ,

The

of

^Literature, p.103 A d e t a i l e d analysis of this sonnet ^Language collected and in The R e a d e r : is found in Sonnet 73' ed

Shakespeare's in

Style and Structure

Literature,

R.Fowler, p.79-122. ch.3. 14* A d e t a i l e d analysis of prosody ^The Language is found in H e l e n Kwok' s Linguistic

of Poetry and the Concept of pp.13-15.

D e v i a t i o n ' Cnot yet published), 15. This example is quoted p94.

in C h a p a n , s Th^

^^guage

of

English Literature 16. My

d e t a i l e d analysis of their 3.

speeches

is

found

in

Appendix 17*

Leech, Deuchar, Haagenraad, Today, p.160. ch10

Engl ish

Grammar

for

CHAPTER 18. By

THREE compulsory, I do not m e a n in legal terms. Every in this failure to

Chinese will

student takes up this

Failure

d i s q u a l i f y him from studying form six. And

in A - L e v e l E n g l i s h will d i s q u a l i f y him from e n t r a n c e ' the University.

9f

A d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the C o m m u n i c a t i v e S y l l a b u s e s found in P-D* Reynolds* 'COMMUNICATE - W H A T ? " i a o t

is yet

published) 20. Accesses based in the to further s t u d i e s and work o p p o r t u n i t y are Salary scale especially of these

on examinatioti

results.

C i v i l Service e v e n takes the ^ grades

r e s u l t s into a c c o u n t *

21

I am not l a y i n g the b l a m e o n l y on the student. do share the and they

Teachers can

take i n i t i a t i v e to rectify the too few teachers trying this in d i f f e r e n t

There are not

22*

The

NEW

1989 Use of E n g l i s h E x a m i n a t i o n The Work and Study Skills

proposed

to For

include

Component.

refer to Hong Kong Advanced L e v e l E x a m i n a t i o n Circular N o , <9> 86/87*

23*

It

m u s t be p o i n t e d out that e v e r y text can be used the use of The After all, is

to a is a

matter

of emphasis and degree* study*

stylistics

comparative

BS

APPENDIX

ONE

USING L I T E R A T U R E IN L A N G U A G E T E A C H I N G

Explanatory

Notes

This is one e x a m p l e of u s i n g L i t e r a t u r e in language teaching. Act I I I , i i , 1 3 - 1 1 5 of J u l i u s CaesarCsee p S7 > was shown on v i d e o in a form four language class^ M a i n s t y l i s t i c features of the two speeches were d i s c u s s e d . A s a f o l l o w up a s s i g n m e n t , students were asked to use the structures, s t y l e s and t e c h n i q u e s found in these two speeches for c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g . The purpose was to encourage t h e m to a p p l y what they had learned to express themselves A n d the two scripts, B E A U T Y SPEAKS and THIEVES SPEAK IN COURT were the result of t h e i r e f f o r t s * They staged three performances based on these scripts

1. In the school h a l l 2. In the S u m m e r M e t h o d o l o g y 86 In Camp Leap 87

for all students of the school Course in English Language

in 1986 Teaching

3.

All t h e i r performances were students and teachers were v e r y they w r o t e *

interested

And many in the scripts

Contents of A p p e n d i x O n e : 1 * 2. Extract Beauty Speaks

3* T h i e v e s Speak in Court

dM^iLQAm^

( iuii.>

noble Brutus h SlW^t patient till the last. * Romans, aountrymcn, 0 and lovers! Hear me for my s c
e
& r

cm

4. CIT. Twcrc best he speak no harm of Brtic^


here.

, ^

For m m c that you mav believe. Censure mc m your*wisdom r ^ t r u y 0 U [ s c n s c s , t h 2 t y u the better' lh this , any'dear Incnd o ^ ^ s ^ s , to Mm I say that Brutus' love to

silent,>hat you mayH e a r pdi eve tnc J onor, nonof, Md have respeez to mine n' 5 0

3- - Nay, that's ccrtam W c arc blest that Rome i s rid of him. ^


2. CIT. Peace! Let us hear what Antony can say ' ANT. You emtlc Romans * , Ajx. . Pcacc, ho! Let us hjrar him IrAKT* Friends, Romans, country men, lend mc your cars. I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. . The evil that men do lives after them, * 80 The good is oft interred with their bones. - S o let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus Hath told you Caesar was ambitious. If it were so, it was a grievous fault, And grievously hath Cacsa^ answered it. % Here, under leave of Brutus and the r e s t For Brutus is an honorable man, So arc they all, all honorable men Come I to speak in Caesar's funeral. He was my friend, faithful and just to me. 90 But Brutus says he was ambitious, And Brutus is an honorable man. He hath brought many captives home to Rome, Whose ransoms did the genera! coEcr$ lilt Did this in Caesar seem ambitious? - 95 When that the poor have cricd, Caesar hath wept Ambition should be made of sterner stuff. Yet Brutus says he was ambitious, And Brutus is an honorable man. You all did see that on the Lupcrcal 100 I thricc presented him a kingly ci"ownf Which he did thrice refuse. Was this ambition? Yet Brutus says he was ambitious, And, sure, he is an honorable man. I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, But here I am to speak what I do know. You all did love him oncc, not without cause. What cause withholds you then to-mourn for Kim? 0 judgment, thou art fled to brutish bcasls, * And men have lost their reason I Bear with me* 111 My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, And I must pause till it comc back to me : , J] 1. CIT. Mcthinks there i s much rcasoriln lis ^T* ings. C I T , If thou consider rightly of the matter, Caesar has had great wrong.

1. c m This Caesar wa> a tyrant. CIT

Caesar was no less than his. If tHcn that fHcnd 20 demand why Brutus rose against Caesar, this is my answer not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more. Had you rather Caesar were living, and die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead, to live all freeman? As Caesar loved mc, I weep 25 for him; as he wz$ fortunate, I rcjoice at it; as he was valiant, I honor him. But as he wis ambitious, I slew him. There iS tears for his love, jcy for his fortune, honor for his valor, and death for his ambition. Who is here so base that would be a bondman? If 31 any, speak, for him have I offended. Who is f^crc so rude 0 that would not be a Roman? If any, speak, for him have I offended. Who is here so vile that will not love his country? If any, speak, for him have I offended. I pause for a reply. 37 a l l % None, Brutus, none.

more to Caesar than you shall do to Brutus. The question of his death is enrolled 0 in the Capitol, his glory not extenuated, wherein he. was worthy, 42 nor his offenses enforced,0 for which he suffered death. * [Enter ANTONY and others, with c a e s a h ' s Here comes hisv body, mourned by Mark Antony, who, though yik had no hand in his death, shall receive the benefit of his dying, a pbcc in the 47 commonwealth ~ as which of you shall not? With this I depart that, as I slew my best lover for the good of Rome, I have the same dagger for myself 1. cit. Bring him with triumph home unto his house, 2. CIT. Give him a statue with his ancestors. 3. CIT. Let him be Caesar. 4. cit. . Caesars better parts SHaH be crowncd in Brutus.

'bru Then none have I offended, I have done no

when i t shall pkasc my country to need my death, ALL. Live;Brutus! Live,live{ 53

3. CIT.

* Has lie, masters? "5.

1 fear there will a-worse come in his place 4. cm Marked yc his words? He would not tKc crown, , *

4. gcoSr: p u b l i c txtMmtyi 15^ trasrc


n o . Bar with m^t be patient

07

BEAUTY

SPEAKS

MCI J please

F a n s ^ w a t c h e r s of b e a u t y , t a s t e r s of t a s t e s . W o u l d y o u lend me y o u r y o u r eyes and y o u r sense the Y o u are

g o i n g to taste the b e a u t y , the energy of our

intel 1 igence and share

MC2: that

Yes, censure the in y o u r w i s d o w and awake y o u r you Many b e the b e t t e r judge of o u r people Some fantastic

senses beauty is too the will from toe.

say that h o l d i n g b e a u t y

contests are

even

say that our contestants a l l are idiots!

common, beauty find hand

naive speaks,

and s t u p i d ,

But after A s they

they will change t h e i r mind*

our contestants who are f i l l e d w i t h to mouth and with beauty

intelligence head to

from

MCi is

: not

So they w i l l a l l b e l i e v e meaningless it is

that h o l d i n g b e a u t y contests full of sound and fury and

s i g n i f i e s many things*

It is just l i t t l e ado about

MC2 : to

Coming eet you

is our first sei-f inal i s t . M i s s M o n e y e a r , Miss Moneyear* W o u l d y o u please choose

Glad an

envelope. of this

W h a t d o y o u s u g g e s t for the p r i z e s t o the w i n n e r s contest? m u s t be in

Moneycar M o n e y and c a r , of c o u r s e ! B u t the cash

AHU

MC1:

Cash!

How about Not

cheque?

Moneycar:
m o r e

t h a t I l o v e c h e q u e less b u t that I l o v e cash n o t e b y n o t e and

M y f a v o r i t e h o b b y is c o u n t i n g cash,

coin by

A n d w h i c h type of car w o u l d y o u prefer? Moneycar The b i g g e r the b e t t e r . M C I : W o u l d y o u l i k e a v a n o r a lorry? M o n e y c a r N o , I m e a n the m o r e e x p e n s i v e , the b e t t e r s Rolls Royce Like a

MC2: Why

y o u choose other t h i n g s b u t m o n e y and car?

Moneycar

Cars

are

status s y m b o l

and m o n e y

earns

power.

M o n e y can b u y e v e r y t h i n g , e v e r y t h i n g

in the w o r l d !

Everything very

MC2 Y o u 1 ike m o n e y and car and y o u r n a m e Was it g i v e n b y y o u r parents?

just f i t s y o u

Moneycar Yes MC2 Then y o u r parents m u s t know y o u v e r y n o g e n e r a t i o n gap b e t w e e n y o u and y o u r Moneycar: name Exactly * parents* they gave m e car the A n d there is

A s they understand m e , A s they l i k e m o n e y and * Moneycar \

* Moneycar*

themselves, I

t h e y g a v e m e the n a m e ,

A s m y name

is M o n e y c a r ,

l o v e m o n e y and car. So s i p i e ! Moneycar I l o v e m y n a m e MC2: T h a n k y o u M i s s Moneycar* Thanks*

Moneycar

99

MClz

C o m i n g is o u r second c o n t e s t a n t ,

Miss Innocent,

Miss

Innocent, join this

w o u l d y o u p l e a s e choose an e n v e l o p e ? contest? Everyone

Why did you

Innocent:

says that b e a u t y contests are

stepping

stone to the tv a f r a i d y o u h a v e not answered m y q u e s t i o n Innocent: Not that I want to get i n t o the tv c i r c l e experience* less,

b u t that I want to get m o r e MCI : Innocent

Innocent: innocent f

W h o is here so innocent to say that I am In fact, y o u are a l l is fair, innocent Y o u a l l t h i n k t h i s Emm Let m e Do someone you to is

b e a u t y contest tell think y o u the a

how innocent y o u are f is no fairness at

There

contestant can w i n the contest w i t h o u t

back her up? Or y o u can say it is v e r y fair. As m y father rich,

he is i n f l u e n t i a l , as he is i n f l u e n t i a l , her daughter f a i r chance to be chosen w i t h

Miss Innocent

Innocent

is v e r y h u m o u r o u s

thank y o u M i s s

MC2:

It*s

time

for our third c o a t e s t a n t *

Miss Bodily

So.

G l a d to touch you M i s s B o d i l y So. Bodily: afraid you made a m i s t a k e on m y Is that B o d i l y Sold? family

MC2: O h excuse m e .

S-O-L-D?

90

Bodily:

h no S

I just w a n t to show m y b o d y n o t to s e l l

it.

^Show'S-H-O-W, MC2: Bodily: B u t the is m o r e

It is b e c a u s e I am not a from?

MCIr Where d i d y o u c o m e

B o d i l y : I came from Sochau . MCI: h Sochau g i r l s are v e r y b e a u t i f u l . B u t are y o u a f r a i d

to e x p o s e y o u r body? B o d i l y : A s y f i g u r e is p e r f e c t , I want to show it o f f . A s I want to show MCi: Yes, what I joined this kind of fashion do y o u suggest for the

contestants? B o d i l y The more sexy, the b e t t e r . So that I can show off m y perfect But e v e r y b o d y w i l l see m o s t part of y o u r

the

I want to be an e v e r y b o d y * Had y o u a than that

rather that you were a nobody and you were s o m e b o d y to l i v e colourfully?

That means showing off is the u n i q u e B o d i l y To be true to y b o d y , yes MCI: Thank y o u M i s s B o d i l y Show. a pleasure*

for your

joining

Bodily:

91

MC2 C o m i n g is our last b u t not the least c o n t e s t a n t , Vanity^ Miss Vanity

Miss

V a n i t y You want to ask me w h y I j o i n e d t h i s c o n t e s t . A m I r i g h t ' MC2: Yes. The other contestant m u s t have f r o m the W h o is here so Who is here so honour? to an all My told

V a n i t y Let me see E r . you

that they just want to get

Right?

But for m e , the aira is to be f a m o u s *

h y p o c r i t i c a l as to deny she has no a m b i t i o n ? high sounding is a as not to say she does not but

want also a

ambition famous,

o n l y to get h o n o u r movie star,

famous

a singer,

DJ,

rounder* * * MC2 I question contest? V a n i t y For those who are rich, who are p o w e r f u l , I honour t h e n . For those am afraid you were not answering my is how w o u l d y o u treat your friends question* The

if you w i n the

I flatter t h e m * them.

But for those who are

c o m m o n and poor,

I dispise

MC2: E r * * * T h a a k y o u M i s s V a n i t y * Vanity T h a n k s

MCI: Well, it comes to the most e x c i t i n g owent * W h i c h w i l l be our M i s s Perfect? MC2: Our M i s s Perfect Reporter: result is M i s s Innocent* Innocent* Soe says that the

Congrafculations

Miss

is unfair*

What do you

think?

92

Innocent: indeed*

Certainty

not.

The w h o l e contest

is v e r y

fair,

And the q u e s t i o n s were designed by you you

audience. in

R e p o r t e r w h y wereA s o c o n f i d e n t to say that y o u w o u l d w i n the semi-final? Because I am f i l l e d w i t h w i s d o m relatives relatives? from hand

Innocent:

to

m o u t h . And I have useful

Reporter What do y o u m e a n b y u s e f u l Innocent:

Just l i k e m y aunt, she is a close f r i e n d of Mr Y ,

and m y u n c l e is the boss of one of the j u d g e s . Y O U s e e , if I w e r e n o t M i s s P e r f e c t , w h o s h o u l d take y place? Reporter: contest? leave) Reporter M o n e y c a r , w h y d o y o u l o o k so u n h a p p y ? Moneycar U n f a i r * R e p o r t e r : Why? M o n e y c a r M y great h o p e has b r o k e n i n t o p i e c e s . i n n o c e n t g i r l b e M i s s Perfect? S u c h a p e r f e c t a great be Reporter Yes,, .why can an innocent gi r i p p e r feet? Moneycar Money Car M o n e y Car Reporter There is s o m e t h i n g w r o n g w i t h h e r * MCI: I'll send h e r to C a s t l e Peak. H o w can an unfair!
f

I (filling

Is there any o t h e r r e a s o n that y o u w o n the oney into the e p o i r t e r * s pocket and

Moneycar T o the Peak? MCI: In a n a m b u l a n c e .

In a R o l l s Royce?

93

Reporter: you

Vanity,

what do y o u t h i n k a b o u t the result?

Are

disappointed? D i s a p p o inted! N o , Of course n o t . h a v e a c h i e v e d m y famous am now known by over f i v e mill ion

Vanity: goal

to become

people * Reporter: Vanity: What are you g o i n g to do then? am g o i n g to marry an h o n o u r a b l e m a n , a rich man,

an influential man *

Reporter: contest? Bodily

B o d i l y Show,

is it a p i t y that y o u can* t w i n

the

Show: but were

Of course*

have the most perfect

figure

in

the world, unfair * We

I c a n / t w i n it required to wear

feel that the contest was the most old-fashioned

swimming suit. had

lost the chance to expose my b o d y . The BTV in the w o r l d , it is next

all their clothes the sexiest

to wearing your skin*

should have joined t h e i r contest*

Reporter:

be upset*

You just want to expose your body* Then you can show

can i n v i t e you to take a set of photos* your perfect figure B o d i l y Show to sacrifice

in our Perfect M a g a z i n e , Playman* A r t for a r t * s sake I a m p r e p a r e d

Fantastic everything* End

9^

1 np SPEAv T h

Cast T h i e f ,

Judge,

Prosecutor

Mi 11ionfacturer

and

Jury.

Mr

Judge,

this

suspect

stole

one dollar

from

m i l l i o n f a c t u r e r o n the second of M a y , 1986J : Plead g u i l t y o r n o t ? T N o , I hadrit stolen it P Even though you deny it, w e have our honourable Mr
mi 11ionfacturer

citizen,

to prove

the case.

Mr

Millionfacturer

please . M Swearing I am* What I speak is true, Okay? if n o t , I will be

struck dead b y the Thunder G o d . T: (wickedly) Okay!

J: B e s e r i o u s . P: W to Is h e the one w h o stole your one d o l l a r coin? Y e s , I saw h i steal h i s left it in h i s right hand, then hand it it into h i s right

hand and at last h e p u t

pocket J H a v e y o u g o t a n y p r o o f ?

M:

Proof?

As work

I am a for people

I p r o v i d e goods for a s 1 contribute so am

society, regarded
f

as a n honourable an

as I a m a n h o u o u r a b l e m a n , I

am t h e proof*

95"

J Do you plead g u i l t y or not? If n o t , d e f e n d T : A l l r i g h t ! I p l e a d g u i l t y but J: Then why did you r u i n your future

yourself*

for such a l i t t l e

money?

T: Oh! N o t that I l o v e m y future less, b u t that I l o v e m o n e y


more Hrnm

and I l o v e a l l of y o u m o r e , understand?

J No!

Y o u m e a n y o u stole the m o n e y for us?

T. my

In fact, m o n e y is for e x c h a n g i n g p u r p o s e and n o w , effort to exchange the money Besides, if I had

I use not

stolen i t , other p e o p l e w o u l d do it. A n y w a y , some need to be thieves, if not what are y o u is a p o i n t . you all be judge and prosecutor here for?

J & P: There T Had

y o u rather I ha<3iit stolen the m o n e y , t h e i v e s or u n e m p l o y e d ,

either

than that I stole the m o n e y , I save

you all be honourable men? you a l 1 * J (moved) G o o n .

In fact, I am v e r y g r e a t

As indulge

you see l u x u r y goods,

you b u y t h e m ,

as I find

you

in such m a t e r i a l ist ic l u x u r i e s , I want to save you

I weep for you as I save

wept for y o u , you,

and as I anted to

I m u s t steal all your money*

You see I I d i d it for all

the honourable m o t i v e s "J, P, Jury

in the world.

(moved and crying)

96

T:

Shut
1

up!

Who

is here so m e a n as to p u n i s h an

innocent is here so speak,

TOarx ? If any speak, for h i m h a v e I o f f e n d e d . W h o base that t h i n k an h o n o u r a b l e m a n is w r o n g . for h i m have I o f f e n d e d . I p a u s e for a reply.. None J But, Mr Mill ion fact urer trust him Mr much luxury, him innocent? society, overcharges workers. luxury strength his an He so is our honourable man

If a n y ,

We must

is an h o n o u r a b l e m a n . he is honourable honourable says he he is

A s he produces we or our he his the our used can one been

as we e n j o y it so m u c h , But is the goods and But boss, as he luxury work free for

provides honourable. as

producer, underpays

his

consumers,

In fact,

he makes e v e r y o n e of us h i s worker

he produces makes us labour to the last ounce of for it* Who goods? is here so d u l l that he has not Who is here so strong that he

resist the t e m p t a t i o n ? dollar, we condemn

As the suspect has o n l y stolen h i B u t M r Mi 11 ionfacfcurer has should we honour M m ? then Mr Mi 11 i o n f a c t u r e r

stealing m o s t of our income, say the suspect is g u i l t y ,

So if we is more

g u i l t y Y e t , M r Mill ionfacturer proves our suspect and he is an honourable an Our c l e v e r jury,

is g u i l t y is the

which

^real t h i e f ? Jury Mr Mill ionf a c t u r e r should be g u i l t y of making our poor evil. T : (wickedly and t r i u m p h a n t l y ) Ha ha in l u x u r i e s w h i l e the suspect has d e l i v e r e d us life

97

A P P E N D I X TWO T E A C H I N G ENGLISH T H R O U G H POETRY A N D D R A M A

Explanatory Notes :

T h i s Speech was d e l i v e r e d in the S u m m e r Course in E n g l i s h Language M e t h o d o l o g y 86 o r g a n i z e d b y the School of E d u c a t i o n , The C h i n e s e U n i v e r s i t y of H o n g K o n g * There were f i f t y teachers p r e s e n t . They were v e r y i n t e r e s t e d in the m a t e r i a l s and a p p r o a c h * We f o r m e d an i n f o r m a l g r o u p a f t e r the Speech and we still meet often to share experience and teaching k i t s < m o s t of them were l i t e r a r y o n e s ) in language t e a c h i n g .

Contents of A p p e n d i x

Two:

1 . The s c r i p t of the Speech Samples of a workbook and a reader

98

G o o d m o r n i n g , dear col leagues M a y b e , y o u h a v e a l r e a d y c l a r i f y a few p o i n t s before sharing my experience w i t h you. F i r s t , I am not a g a i n s t g r a m m a r o r d r i l i s o r g r a m m a t i c a l drills* They are i n d i s p e n s a b l e b u t t h e i r e f f i c a c y depends v e r y much on how and when we use them * What I find uncreative and u n p r o f i t a b l e are those uncontexualized e x e r c i s e s w h i c h are n o t r e l a t e d to b o t h the t e a c h e r ' s and the l e a r n e r ^ s e x p e r i e n c e M a n y of those d r i l l s on language workbooks, q u e s t i o n s at the back of readers, and mul t iplechoice items belong to this category. Example from workbooks- please refer to p^ }o3 Students may just reproduce m e c h a n i c a l l y m e a n i n g l e s s b u t g r a m m a t i c a l sentences on the f o r m u l a p r o v i d e d . E x a m p l e from readers-please see the same p a g e . Most of the q u e s t i o n s ask What and H o w . They can o n l y f a m i l i a r i s e s t u d e n t s w i t h the a c t i o n of the story and enable t h e m to paraphrase the c o n t e n t s They do not appeal to t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e or e l i c i t personal responses. A s for m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e i t e m s , it is too o b v i o u s to q u o t e e x a m p l e to show that b o t h teachers and students m a y take testing as teaching.

read my article on A Practical Literary Approach,

let

me

So, in short, what are the p o i n t s of d o i n g and m a r k i n g such exercises? Is it e n o u g h just to m a k e sure that the students h a v e read the story or a c q u i r e d some v o c a b u l a r y b y doing the exercises on p Perhaps, we might p e r s o n a l i z e the context of the q u e s t i o n s . Thus in Section 1, we m a y ask What do I need to pass the e x a m ? or What does HK need to r e m a i n stable and prosper? And in Section 2, we m a y f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n 1 ask If y o u were caught d o i n g t h a t , how w o u l d y o u r parents p u n i s h you? Or we m a y ask them Is Tom naughty> b u t do y o u l i k e hixi/ Why? If w e want to d r i l l students, w e m u s t first get the interested and i n v o l v e d in the things they learn. T h i s can be done b y a p p e a l i n g to their experinces, enlarging their sensibilities and c h a l l e n g i n g the ir u n d e r s t a n d i a g * A n d h e r e , p o e t r y and drama w i t h t h e i r a u d i o - v i s u a l impact can be v e r y impressive> thus useful. i

For we start w i t h songs w h i c h are poetic and m e a n i n g f u l M a n y songs are catchy and popular w i t h youngsters, they are p o t e n t i a l l l y p r o d u c t i v e if we make good use of t h e m . However, youngsters are enthralled nore by the melody and the singer than by the words, they d o n ' t know and they are seldom g u i d e d to find out the m e a n i n g of the songsIn a d d i t i o n , most song series like Mister Monday and English Through Songs on Newspaper c o n c e n t r a t e o n structural d r i l l s in tenses and a s p e c t s The approach m a y not be a p p e a l i n g and m o s t of the songs are not f a m i l i a r and m e a n i n g f u l to s t u d e n t s . T h u s , t o make full ^se of songs in teaching, we m u s t g u i d e students to analyse and

99

appreciate the l y r i c . O n l y a f t e r t h e i r responses h a v e oeeri initiated and d e v e l o p e d can s i m u l a t i o n of structure and grammar be started. And it w i l l be productive if the s e n t e n c e s are s i m u l a t e d t o e l i c i t and e x p r e s s authentic e x p e r i e n c e s and f e e l i n g s .

Fair

Maybe, let (the lyric

u s l i s t e n t o the f i r s t is in A p p e n d i x 3).

song,

Scarborough

Most students have no d i f f i c u l t i e s in f i n d i n g out the subject m a t t e r * The what q u e s t i o n is not a p r o b l e m * But the m o r e e s s e n t i a l task is to s e n s i t i z e t h e m to the experiences of the soldier * This l e a d s u s f r o m the c o n t e n t s to the techniques of the song o r w e m a y say p o e m . How does the w r i t e r p r e s e n t the c r u e l t i e s of war? H o w e f f e c t i v e is t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n ? W h y d o e s it c u t a d e e p i m p r e s s i o n o n us? Let u s l i s t e n t o t h e song a g a i n , and at t h e same t i m e , I have p r o d u c e d a set of s l i d e s to h i g h l i g h t the t h e m e and its presentat ion.

First, we may guide s t u d e n t s to see the narrative structure* The song d o e s n o t narrate a s t o r y in a straight chronological order* It d r a m a t i z e s a t h e m e h i n g i n g o n the i n t e r p l a y s of the p r e s e n t w i t h the past the n o w w i t h then here w i t h t h e r e . Contrast is here b a s i c to the structure. The s e t t i n g of b a t t l e f i e l d stands in g r e a t r e l i e f to the background of home The cruelties of war and the helplessness of the soldier become more striking and oppressive a m i d the s p i c e s of the k i t c h e n and the w a r m t h of home* Repetition serves to reinforce t h i s i m p r e s s ion and effect* The line * Parsley, sage, rose m a r y and thye* reiterating in e v e r y stanza sends o u t the scent of sweet memory* It r e v i v e s the s o l d i e r w h o has b e c o m e n u m b e d and stupefied f o l l o w i n g m e c h a n i c a l l y the order of the generals to ight for a cause that t h e y ^ v e long ago forgotten.' These h e r b a l s p i c e s are b o t h h e a l lag as t h e y help restore the senses to the s o l d i e r , and s o o t h i n g as t h e y b r i n g him back s w e e t m e m o r y of h i s l o v e * However, she can o n l y b e a true l o v e to m o u r n for h i m as h e can s l e e p * u n a w a r e of the c l a r i o n c a l l * o n l y in h i s g r a v e *

If s t u d e n t s are m o v e d to p u t t h e m s e l v e s in the p o s i t i o n of the s o l d i e r , t h e i r s y m p a t h y w i l l b e e n l a r g e d and their ' s e n s i b i l i t i e s sharpened* T h e y w i l l b e g i n to analyse the techniques in p r e s e n t a t i o n , such as the use of contrast, repetition, i m a g e r y and e v e n c o u n t e r p o i n t in u s i c * Their p o w e r of a p p r e c i a t i o n w i l l b e increased*

t 00

M a y b e , w e l i s t e n to a n o t h e r song, Jhe I m p o s s ible D r e a t (the lyric is in A p p e n d i x 3).

W h a t are the t e a c h i n g p o i n t s of i t . V e r y o b v i o u s l y , w e can teach students word f o r m a t i o n as p r e f i x and s u f f i x . We h a v e here e g , right, r i g h t a b l e and uar i g h t a b l e , etc Mo we can teach them the use of to-inf in i t i ve * B u t 9 reover, I 1 1 concentrate on the r h y t h m of the song* It is the rhythm here w h i c h i n v i g o r a t e s the w h o l e song and adds i n t e n s i t y to it* It starts s l o w l y and s o f t l y with 1 dream.. * L i s t e n to the 1 attack of the verbs that follow To fight, To b e a r * . * , each becomes forte or stronger b u i l d i n g up a m o m e n t u m u n t i l it reaches the cadence of the first stanza where the b e a t slows d o w n .

In the second stanza, the m oJm e n t u m p i c k s up again w i t h To r i g h t , To l o v e , To t r y . But t h i s t i m e it carries onto the third stanza *This is m y q u e s t * - * u n t i l it reaches the c l i m a x in the 1 ine: *To b e w i l l i n g to march into hell for a h e a v e n l y c a u s e . * Here the i n t e n s i t y of the m a n ' s will is at the peak where the t h e m e of sacrifice is g l o r i f ied^
t

Thus, if we want to teach the use of t o - i n f i n i t i v e to express a purpose, we had b e t t e r s e n s i t i z e students to the rhythm first, so that they can feel the sense of urgency, d e t e r m i n a t i o n and m o m e n t u m . As for the teaching of word f o r m a t i o n , here the p r e f i x and s u f f i x , it w i l l be ore m e m o r a b l e and interesting if we relate it to the t h e m e * H e r e , all the p r e f i x e s are n e g a t i v e or they g i v e a n e g a t i v e sense to the a d j e c t i v e s , eg* i m p o s s i b l e , unbearable* If the to-infinitive p h r a s e s , f i g h t , to bear, to right,'etc. express a m o t i v a t e d , p o s i t i v e a c t i o n , we find the clash b e t w e e n the p o s s i b l e w i t h the i m p o s s i b l e the right w i t h the unrightable the p o s i t i v e w i t h the negative the thesis w i t h the antithesis* This clash culniiiates in the c l i m a c t i c l 9 ine, *To be w i l l i n g to m a r c h into h e l l for a h e a v e n l y c a u s e * The paradoxical c o n d i t i o n of m a n is suggested*

If after the lesson, students forget about toi n f i n i t i v e and p r e f i x , they can s t i l l r e m e m b e r the t h e e and Ideas, and the r h y t h m of the s o n g , I a m s u r e , r e v e r b e r a t e s on the

tot

Let us listen to a more formal poem, a sonnet by S h a k e s p e a r e > S o n n e t 73. What is s i g n i f i c a n t about t h i s p o e m is the mood and the f e e l i n g s w h i c h are c r y s t a l 1 ized in the v i v i d imagery in the first q u a t r a i n , the speaker compares himself to a u t u m n , w h e n trees are bare of l e a v e s . In Q u a t r a i n t w o , h e c o m p a r e s it to s u n s e t , the t w i l i g h t m o m e n t w h e n black n i g h t a p p r o a c h e s . In the t h i r d q u a t r a i n , he compares it to a g l o w i n g b e d of coals s m o u l d e r i n g in its ashes.

These m e t a p h o r s c o n v e y a concrete p i c t u r e of 1 , the speak e r ' s l i f e and fee 1 ings The p a u s e a f t e r * l e a v es , * # x none , few* in l i n e 2 adds an e m o t i o n a l impact of the slow and tragic s o l e m n i t y . The m o o d is l a d e n and i n t e n s i f i e d . The use of a l l i t e r a t i o n in l i n e 7 *by and by* b l a c k night increases the horror of d y i n g .

S o m e p e o p l e m a y t h i n k that p o e t r y is u n p r a c t i c a l or e v e n i r r e l e v a n t in the l e a r n i n g of language. Language is not just a tool of g i v i n g and f o l l o w i n g instruct i o n s , it e m b o d i e s t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s .

Let us watch a S h a k e s p e a r e ' s p l a y , J u l i u s . Caesar on video* I selected the two m o s t f a m o u s speeches for y o u . A f t e r v i e w i n g , m y students w i l l p e r f o r m two p l a y s . The scripts of these p l a y s were w r i t t e n b y t h e m s e l v e s after watching Shakespeare's *

Section T a k e n

from r a t s d

S n ^ l i s h WorLc'-co:

A M a k i n g and doing things Ask for what you need to make or do the following,

and then answer your

question.

Example: (wood) What do I need to make a chair? You need some ^ood to make a chair.

Section 2 : Teien from T V i p Advftnturft of T o m a/bridged, f o r i2 s t u d e n t s

Sawver.O.U.P,

Questions
Chapter 1 1. What was Tom doing when his Aunt Polly called him? 2. How did his aunt find out that he had been swimming? 3. Why didn't Tom like the boy he met in the street? 4. What happened when he got home that night? 1. What had Aunt Polly planned for Tom on Saturday morning? 2. What happened to Jim when he tried to paint the fence? 3. How did Tom get all the work done? 4. What did */om do to show he was angry with Sid? 1. 2. 3. 4. What nude Tom dislike going to church? How did he spend his time in dxurch? How did A- nt Polly get iid of Tom's pain? How would Tom know if Huckleberry Finn was waiting for him that ni^it?

Chapter

Chapter

A P P E N D I X THREE P O E T R Y , DRAMA AND SONGS

E x p l a n a t o r y Notes: Camp L e a p 87 was organized by the Secondary School E n g l i s h Teachers Association and sponsored by the British C o u n c i l . There were 100 students and 50 teachers fro 50 d i f f e r e n t secondary schools who joined the c a n p . It p r o v i d e d a very good occasion for testing the use of the s t y l i s t i c a p p r o a c h to language and Literature teaching. T h e i r responses to the prograitne were analysed and a p p e n d e d .

C o n t e n t s of Appendix Three: 1. Progranne Notes 2 . A S t y l i s t i c Analysis of the two S p e e c h e s in jpi t ^esar 3 . .^f^yhnrnnqh P a Q u e s t i o n s aad D i s c u s s i o n

4 . Theses of the Movies- The Lyrics 5 . Hemingway's n^t. in h gP a Q u e s t i o a s 6. and Analysis

Saitple Questiotiaires on the Pirogra e; P o e t r y , D r a m a a n d Soags

7 . F i n d i n g s of the Q u e s t i o n a i r e s for T e a c h e r s 8 . F i n d i n g s of the Q u e s t i o n a i r e s for S t u d e n t s

1 04-

POETRY, D R A M A AND SONGS Philip I . J u l i u s Caesar and D r a m a t i c a) B e a u t y S p e a k s b) T h i e v e s Speak in Court Performances Chan

II* S c a r b o r o u g h F a i r - Slide Show

III* Themes of the Movies


a) What is a Youth? from R o m e o and J u l i e t

b) Sunrise Sunset from F i d d l e r on the Roof c) The I m p o s s i b l e D r e a m from M a n of La M a n c h a IV* Cat in the R a i n - An A n a l y s i s

Programme

Notes:

These h a n d o u t s were g i v e n to the campers and they read and d i s c u s s e d t h e m in groups b e f o r e the p r o g r a m m e * The p r o g r a m m e p r o c e e d e d as f o l l o w s : The two speeches from were shown on Main stylistic features w e r e analysed and discussed f o l l o w i n g the notes o n the h a n d o u t * A f t e r the d i s c u s s i o n , m y s t u d e n t s p e r f o r m e d B e a u t y Speaks and T h i e v e s Speaks in Court* I I * D i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w i n g the n o t e s on the h a n d o u t s after the S l i d e Show

III,

a) and b) were shown o n v i d e o * T h e m e s of these m o v i e s were d i s c u s s e d w i t h reference to the lyrics* c) was p l a y e d on tape recorder* M a i n s t y l i s t i c features were analysed* They had not e n o u g h t i m e to read t h i s before the p r o g r a m m e , so n o d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n c o u l d b e d o a 105

IV*

A S T Y L I S T I C A N A L Y S I S OF THE TWO SPEECHES IN J U L I U S

CAESAR-

B e f o r e y o u look at t h i s a n a l y s i s and answer the q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e read the e x t r a c t f r o m S h a k e s p e a r e * s J u l i u s Caesar. W r i t e d o w n y o u r i m p r e s s i o n s or a n y t h i n g y o u f i n d i n t e r e s t i n g or s p e c i a l * endearing address of socializing and c o n d e s c e n s i o n E d o i n g s o m e t h i n g b e n e a t h one * s social ratr^jk to w i n the p e o p l e ' s support b y t r e a t i n g t h e m as friendly e q u a l s . A l s o an appeal to s o l i d a r i t y and p a t r i o t i s m * 1*16 R e p e t i t i o n of ^believe* and ^honour serves to relate and e v e n e q u a t e t h e m in the b a l a n c e d sentences of circular agreement, ie . *Bel ieve m e for m i n e honour* * * that y o u m a y b e l i e v e * A l s o an appeal to a u t h o r i t y . 1 * i8: F l a t t e r y - to c o n d e see nd i rig I y A n appeal to reason. praise in emotional order appeal to please here b e n e a t h a show of
ftn

1.23 c o m p a r i n g Caesar w i t h R o m e on the a s s u m p t i o n that they are o p p o s i t e s . 1.24 A r h e t o r i c a l question that c o m p l e t e agreement w i t h h i s p o i n t of the u n s t a t e d a s s u m p t i o n that Caesar c o m p l e t e p o w e r w h o r u l e s c r u e l l y and allows no answer but v i e w w h i c h is based on is a t y r a n t [person w i t h unjustly *

1.28 A p a r a l l e l structure b u i l d i n g up to c o n c l u d i n g c l i m a x w i t h e m p h a s i s , balance and c l a r i t y of idea organization. N o t i c e the regular rhythm up to honour hlfa* The e m p h a t i c ^But * arrests the f l o w of r h y t h m to create a s u s p e n s e [state of uncertain e x p e c t a t i o n ] w h i c h leads to a l o g i c a l cli actic conclusion ^ I s l e w h i m * . C o m p a r i n g the stress of t h i s l i n e w i t h that of w e e p for hi ,, r e j o i c e at it * and h o n o u r hiffi^What e f f e c t does the d i f f e r e n c e add to the reasoning? 1 29: A p a r a l l e l structure to reinforce the reasoning b u i l t in the p r e v i o u s structure. N o t i c e the m e a n i n g is the same but there are structural changes 1.28 is made up of an adverb clause of reason w i t h the a in clause which entphasizes the verb 1.29 is n o u n clause in a p p o s i t i o n Ctwo words or phrases h a v e the same r e f e r e n c e 1 * B u t 1.28 and 1.29 are integrated the a d j e c t i v e s in 1.28 c o r r e s p o n d to the nouns in 1.29, ie. fortunate to fortune, val iant to valour* and a m b i t i o u s to a m b i t i o n : the verbs in 1*28 are related to the nouns in 1.29, i e . w e e p to tears, rejoice to joy, h o n o u r to honour and slew to death. N o t i c e both in 1 *28 and f o r ' in 1.29 f u n c t i o n to structure the s e n t e n c e s a n d to c o n s t r u c t the reasoning. The c o n c l u s i o n , ie* the k i l l i n g f C a e s a r , is made l o g i c a l and acceptable w h e n it is introduced after Caesar is praised. To w e i g h l o v e , v a l o u r and hoaoar against a m b i t i o n is a tactic w h i c h j u s t i f i e s the k i l l i n g as 106

1) r e a s o n e d , 2) out of necessity in p u b i i c personal one, 3) against p e r s o n a l will for # we / so B r u t u s is r e l u c t a n t to do so

interest not C a e s a r loved

. 1 . 3 0 : R h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s making the killing inevitable. The q u e s t i o n s are based on an u n s t a t e d e q u a t i o n , ie. Caesar=tyrant=people become bondmen=not Romans=not love his c o u n t r y a r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n d o e s n o t ask for c h o i c e s or o p i n i o n s , it i m p o s e s v i e w p o i n t on the addressee so that he w i l l act a c c o r d i n g l y H e r e , the p r e d i c t e d and c o n d i t i o n e d negative response is reinforced by the derogative f adjectives, r u d e ' , W i l e ' and *base as w e l l as, the n e g a t i v e c o n s t r u c t ion It is a foregone c o n c l u s 1on A n d the pause is inserted for an o p e n d e c l a r a t i o n of a g r e e m e n t , for an act of c o m p l iance 1 4 4 : A n act of a p p e a s e m e n t , a g e s t u r e of g e n e r o s i t y , as w e l l as, a d e w o n s t r a t ion of p o w e r taken o v e r b y B r u t u s n o w . 1 * 5 2 : Not a c o m m i s s i v e act of p r o m i s e * Confident of the p e o p l e ' s support, B r u t u s p l a y s on t h e i r e m o t i o n s b y accusing himself in order to p r o m p t t h e m to a c q u i t and honour h i m * The direction is g i v e n indirectly* Complying with it, the people become m o b Ccommon p e o p l e whose f e e l i n g s and o p i n i o n s change from m o m e n t to m o m e n t w i t h o u t t h o u g h t I See 1.75. A n e x p r e s s i v e act of a p # o l o g y in face of the angry m o b w h o h a v e b e e n swayed to B r a t u s s s i d e . 1 ^84: The s u b j u n c t i v e * w e r e ' suggests that Caesar was not, so he was unjustly and * grievously* k i l l e d * 1 It undermines the v a l i d i t y of what the ^noble* B r u t u s * t o l d If what he * told* is false, his n o b i l i t y w i l l be in question* R e p e t i t i o n of are treated as a g r o u p w h i c h also B r u t u s and h i s a c c o m p l i c e s i m p l i e s a gang. *says* is

1*92: U n d e r w i n ^ B r u t u s ' s honour by showing what he wrong.

1*99 The word *honourable * b e c o m e s ironic tsuggest o p p o s i t e of what one says] in c o n t e x t , ie* w i t h proofs Caesar was not a m b i t i o u s *

the that

The irony becomes aggressive and sarcastic in tone* A n t h o n y changes key as he speaks on from being submissive to satirical* The r e p e t i t i o n has a c u n n l a t i v e effect, the m e a n i n g of the word h o n o u r a b l e is negated each t i m e when it occurs in contexts at variance w i t h its ponaotation^ How does the contrast between Verse and Prose help Shakespeare to create d i f f e r e n t effects for t h e i r speeches and to contrast the t w o characters?

07

SCARBOROUGH

FAIR

B e f o r e y o u l o o k at and a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , please read the l y r i c first* W r i t e down your i m p r e s s i o n s or a n y t h i n g you f i n d i n t e r e s t i n g or s p e c i a l .


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I S P E E C H A C T 1 ^ Who is the speaker? W h e r e is he? the these

2 . H o w does h e g e t y o u i n v o l v e d in t h e song? Does speaker w a n t y o u just t o carry o u t h i s i n s t r u c t ions? 3. What does the w r i t e r w a n t to e x p r e s s i n s t r u c t ions? H o w d o e s h e e x p r e s s t h i s ? IIVoice through

1 . A second v o i c e in the t h i r d p e r s o n is e m b e d d e d in the c o u n t e r p o i n t C O n e o r more i n d e p e n d e n t m e l o d i e s a d d e d a b o v e o r b e l o w a g i v e n melody to make a single harmonic texture J . Whose v o i c e is that? F r o m w h e r e d o e s the v o i c e come? To w h o m is the v o i c e a d d r e s s e d ? " 2 . H o w is t h i s v o i c e r e l a t e d t o the v o i c e of the Contrast and R e p e t i t i o n 1 4 W h a t are in c o n t r a s t D i f f e r e n c e s e e n in c o m p a r i s o n ] in the song? W h a t d o e s the w r i t e r m a k e use of t h e s e contrasts for? W h i c h l i n e s are repeated? W h a t ar t h e e f f e c t s of t h e s e repetitions? D o t h e y s e r v e to r e i n f o rc e the t h e m e o r cohere the structure?
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S U N R I S E SUNSET
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S u D s e h S u n r- i s e , Sin-set, swift-ly f l o w d a y s ; ^^ s e e d j i n g st u rn o v e r n i ^ b t to s u a H r o w 's Slos-son r inj v e f t as we gaxe^ ^Sttn-sct, swift-)y fly t h e /oi - lov ing a n - otli ,and hap pi Sun-rise &va-9tU Sun-rise. s e as o n Lad tears. vith

(2) W h a t w o rd o sf w i s d o mc a nI g i v et h e m , H o wc a n I hep to e a s tt h e i r w a y , N o wt h e y m u s tl e a r nf r o mo n ea n o t h e rd a yb yd a y . T h e yl o c ks on a t u r a lt o g e t h e r , J u s tJ i l c et w on e w l yw e d ss h o u l d be. I st h a t 1 1k i n d o( p e a c ea n ds t o o d for jne.


WHAT IS A YOUTH
THE IMPOSSIBLE DREAM

Cmaj7 C6 Cmaj7 To dream the Impossible dream, Fmajl F6 Fmajl To fight the unbeatable foe, To bear with unbearabh sorrow, To run where the brave dare not go,
7b right the unnghtable wrong, to fove pure and chaste from afart To try when your arms are too weary, To reach the unreachable stor. Dm G Am

En F What is a yotrfh? impe^cus fire.


F6 C Om yfhat is a maid? ice and desire Am he world wags on,

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Em Fmajl A rose wi" btoom. it then wilf fede.

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Om Em So does a youth.

Am Em Am So does the fairest maid.

Comes a time when one sweet smile has its Dm season for a whtle^ Em Then love's in h\fe with me. C F C Dm Am Some they think only to marry, others will tease C G and tarry, C F C Dm F M/ne is the very btst parry, cupid he rufes as ofL Am E Am E Caper the caper but sing me the song, C G C G Death will com e soon to hush us chng^ 1 Am Am G Sweeter than honey and bitter as gall, C G m A E Love is a pastime that never will pott; Am E m A G Sweeter than honey and bftter as gafj^ C m E Am Cupid he rules us a/L

Am

This is my guesi, to foUow the star, Em F6 No matter how hopttess, no matter how far Am Ab And to fight for a right without question or pause Ab+ C C+ Am Bb To be ing to march into hdi for a heaveniy cause, Dm Bb - And t know if i oniy be true to this glorious quest FS 87 That my heart wiii He peacefuf and calm, Fm G7 Whtn ! fay to my rest, And the world wilt be better for this, That one man strong and covered widr scars, Stii! strove with his hst ounce of courage, To reach the umwhabit star.

CAT IN THE RAIN B e f o r e y o u l o o k at and answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e read the story first. W r i t e down your impressions or a n y t h i n g you find interesting or special* I ^Def inite Article what In the first paragraph, * the occurs t w e n t y - s e v e n t i m e s , i m p r e s s i o n does it g i v e to the setting of the story? of relationship

Does this i m p r e s s i o n suggest the kind b e t w e e n the characters?

Does the paragraph r e m i n d y o u of any d e s c r i p t i o n y o u h a v e read in o t h e r k i n d s of w r i t i n g ? II N o m i n a l Structure

1. The story is c a l l e d *Cat in the Rairi* b u t not * A Cat in # tJ J the R a i n or The Cat in the R a i n In m o d e r n E n g l i s h , a s i n g u l a r n o u n u s e d w i t h o u t an a r t i c l e is u n u s u a l or e v e n u n g r a m m a t ical, where do you u s u a l l y find this besides in 1iterature? 2* T h r o u g h o u t the s t o r y , the a n i m a l * C a t ' is referred as c Cat in the R a i n ' Title U h e c a d 2 1 I , ^the k i t t y M l . 263 , ^a kitty'II .86], ^a c a t ' C f o u r t i m e s 1 1 . 9 6 - 9 7 ] . A r e t h e y the same cat? W h a t does she w a n t the cat for? W h a t d o e s the oat r e o r e s e n t ? 3 * I n what s i t u a t i o n is the w o m a n c a l l e d W h a t does the change 111^ Verbal Structure suggest? and

1. Compare the use of verbs in 11* 25-27 w i t h that1 in 11*3539* N o t i c e the a u x i l i a r y or modal verbs ^would , ^could* and ^must* in the second extract* Does the d i f f e r e n c e in the w a y s the characters are described b e t w e e n these two e x t r a c t s express the t e l l e r ' s standpoint to the characters? 2 * N o t i c e also that m o d a l verbs are o n l y used w i t h the w i f e w h e r e a s the husband is d e s c r i b e d in the same way throughout do it,** her husband offered fro the bed* C1 201 aad * G e o r g e was not l i s t e n i n g * He was r e a d i n g h i s book* ^ tl98J Does y o u r s / n p a t h y lie w i t h the husband o r wife? Vhy?

110

rf ?n 2 ^ % ^ ' o c c u r many times and usea in ai fp-feren* , ^ ^^ 1 ^,.,,., *i t ^ n f l R f l / a s p e c t s , e g * f ro.m I i k e d ' t o r + lKing _ f^rff W a n t e d ' to ^want'. Notice also , t h e repeated p6 a9r a l l1 e l sentence s t r u c t u r e s in w h i c h these v e r b s 1 3 0 3 5a n d Z L T , ^ " U . 9 6 - 9 7 , H o v ^ o these f e a t u r e s h e l p e x p r e s s f cfter needs? A n d w h a t d o e s she r e a l l y need? Reference consulted Ronald Carter's style and Inn t e r p r e t a t i o n in H e m i n g w a y ' s " C a t in the R a i n " c o l l e c t e d i Lancfuaqe and L i t e r a t u r e , e d . R o n a l d C a r t e r , G e o r g e A l l e n and U n w i n , 1982.
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Hemingway's Cat in the Rain'


1

There were only two Americans stopping at the hotel. They did not know any of the people they passed on the stairs on their way to and from their room. Their room was on the second floor facing the sea. ft also faced the public garden and the war monument. There were big palms and 05 green benches in the public garden. In the good weather there was always an artist with his easel. Artists itked the way the palms grew and the bright colours of the hotels facing the gardens and the sea. Italians came from a long way off to look up at the war monument. It was made of bronze and glistened in the rain. It was raining. The rain dripped from the 10 palmtrees. Water stood in pools on the gravel paths. The sea broke in a long line in the rain and slipped back down the beach to come up and break again in a Jong line in the rain. The motor-cars were gone from the square by the war monument. Across the square m the doorway of the cafe a waiter stood looking out at the empty square. 15 The American wife stood at (he window looking out. Outside right under their window a cat was crouched under one of the dripping green tables. The cat was trying to make herselfso compact that she would not be dripped on. Tm going down to get that kitty," the American wife said. 20 '('II do t,' her husband offered from the bed. 'No, I'll get it. The poor kitty out trying to keep dry under a table." The husband went on reading, lying propped up with the two piHows at the foot of the bed. 'Don't get wet/ he said. 25 The wife went downstairs and the hotel owner stood up and bowed to her as she passed the office. His desk was at the far end of the office. He was an old man and very tall, *I1 piove the wife said. She liked the hotet-koopor. Si si Signora, brutto tempo. It is very bad weather/ 30 He stood behind his desk in the far end of the dim morn. The wife liked him. She liked the deadly serious way he received any complaints. She liked his dignity. She Jikedthe way he wanted to serve her. She |jked way he felt about being a hotel-keeper. She liked his old, heavy face and big hands. 35 Liking him she opened the door and looked out. It was raining twder. A man in a rubber cape was crossing the empty square to the caf The cat would be around to the right. Perhaps she could go along under the

f *

eaves As she stood m the doorway an umbrella opened behind her ^ was the maid who looked after their room 40 You must not get wet; she smiled, speaking Italian Of course, the hotel-keeper had sent her With the maid holding the umbrella over hert she walked along the grave! path unit! she was under their window. The table was there, washed brightgreenintherain, butthe cat was gone. She was suddenly 45 disappotrited The maid looked up at her. 'Ha perduto qualque cosa, Signora,. There was a cat/ said the American girl. A cat 9 .S!, il gatto "A cat?' the maid laughed. 4Acat in the ram?" 4Yes/ she said, 'under the table/ Then, I wanted rt so much. I wanted a krtty/ When she talked English the maid's face tightened. 'Come, Signora/she said. *We must get back inside. You wiii be wet/ 55 1 suppose so/ said the American girl. They went back along the gravel path and passed in the door. The maid stayed outside to close the umbrella. As the American girl passed the office, the padrone bowed from his desk. Something felt very small and tight inside the girl. The padrone made her feel very small and at the 60 same time really important. She had a momentary feeling of being of supreme importance. She went on up the stairs. She opened the door of the room. George was on the bed, reading. 'Did you get the cat?' he asked, putting the book down. I t was gone.1 65 'Wonder where it went to?' he said, resting his eyes from reading. She sat down on the bed. 1 wanted it so much/ shesaid, 1 donl know why I wanted it so much. 1 wanted that poor kitty, it isn't any fun to be a poor kitty out in the rain/ George was reading again. 70 She went over and satin front of the mirror of the dressing4able, looking at herself with the hand glass. She studied her protife, first one side and then the other. Then she studied the back of her head and her neck 'Don't you think it would be a good idea if f let my hair grow out?* she 75 asked, looking at her profile again. George looked up and saw the back of her neck, clipped close like a boy's. 1 like ft the way it is/ 1 get so tired of it/ she said. 1 get so tired of looking like a boy.* 80 George shifted his position in the bed. He hadnt looked away from her since she started to speak. 'You look pretty darn nice/ he said. She laid the mirror down on the dresser and went over to the window and looked out. ft was getting dark. 85 1 want to pull my hair back tight and smooth and make a big knot at the back that I can feel/ she said. 1 want to have a kitty to sit on my lap and purr when } stroke her." 50 *Yeah?# George said from the b e d "And I want to eat at a table with my own silver and I want candles. And 90 I want it to be spring and I want to brush my hair out in front of a mirror and t want a kitty and I want some new clothes/ *Oh shut up and get somathing to read,* Geocge sakt Hewas reading 95 rafailng in the palm trees. #Anyway, I want a cat* she said. 1 want a cat 1 want a cat now. If I can't have Sor^ hair or any tmt I can have a cat* George was not Istenlng. He was readmg his book. His wife looked out of the window where the I g M had come cm in t i e square. 100 Scmeone km)cked at the door. * Avanti George saki. He looked from Ws boc^c the doorway stood the maid. She held a big tortoise-shell cat pressed iglit s^akist her and swwi down against her body. Excuse me/she smd, the fcko*ie asked me to bring this for the
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112

a u E S T l O N N A l R ^ ^ ^
You are a teacher/^Sjderxt ( C r o s s out W h i c h p r o g r a R n e s you ^ a w ^ / , the inapplicable 1 i k e / d i s l i k e n o s t ? Please g ive r e a s o n s

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Do you 1 ike/ W J l I k e " t h e p r o g r a i m c s o r / a n d the w a y s t h e y are presented? Please s u g g e s t o t h e r p r o ^ r a n n e s or w a y s of p r e s e n t a t 1 on . iw?

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Do you find the n o t e s a n d q u e s t i o n s on Jul i us r:a<>sar. Sc^^prouqh F a i r a n d Cat tti the R a t n u s e f u l ? Can t h e v help you to b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d the p r o g r a e s ? H o w ? u^M*

Do you think you c a n t e a c h / l e a r n E n g l i s h b e t t e r t h r o u g h

these

H o w s u c h l e s s o n ti^e do you g i v e to these p r o g r a a n e s ? l e s s o a / p e r i o d p e r oath o r p e r w e e k / c y c l e , e g . V t/^^. dju. -h tApcil^f in^Hnhi^l J Do you w a a t to have si ilar k i n d of p r o g r a a n e s course/text book One oot of ten c h a p t e r s , e g . S u W , . a> Do you e n j o y t e a c h i n g / X w d , 1, R a d * r a l e s s o n s ? Afat 0^ ^ f ^ in

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F o r t e a c h e r s o n l y . D o you t h i n k there should be more s e i n s r sor c o u r s e s on h o w to draiia, pos a n d s t o r i e s in l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g ? w / v J Csuld. /Vol A^ta t^sirut^ /ftore to

If your s c h o o l o f f e r s E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e > w i 1 1 you c h o o s e t^ach/aiuJf? Why? Why not?

QUESTIONNAIRE
You are a trc^te^w^/student. < C r o s s out 2. W h i c h p r o g r a n m e s you
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Do you like/ dislike the p r o g r a n n e s o r / a n d the w a y s t h e y are presented? Please s u g g e s t other or w a y s of presentation 1 _ tet eA/^^Vvi^t^ oxib SC sfmt ihaf coctch uAuch tow^+u^. 4. Do you find the n o t e s a n d q u e s t i o n s on Jul lus Scarborough Fair a n d Cat In the R a i n u s e f u l ? Can t h e y you to b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d the p r o g r a a a e s ? H o w ? m
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U t t W ^ l Oae How u c h l e s s o n time do you g i v e lessorx/perlod p e r n o n t h or p e r ireek/cycle A e g . (ch ^ ^ ^ A u ^ c f t u men t T m ^ ^ ^ Ouur rwt orrof^^ - ^ fxmrnwi^^ you 7 Do you w a n t to have s i a i l & r k i n d of p r o g r a n i e s T a c o u r s e / t e x t b o o k One o a t of t n c h a p t e r s , eg*

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a ) Do you e n j o y t e a c h i n g / s t a d f i n g R*aderfl lessons?
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b ) Oor you w a n t to include some poe s, s o n g s a n d p l a y s in the re a d i n s 1 e s s o a s ? W ^ i I ^ V W . c ) For t e a c h e r s o n l y Do y o u t h i n k there s h o u l d be more s e m i n a r s o r c o u r s e s on h o w to use drafta> poes a n d s t o r i e s in 1 a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g ?

If your school o f f e r s E n g l I s h L i t e r a t u r e , i 1 1 teach/study? Why? Why not?

you c h o o s e

to

findings

of

:e C/aestiora^i-eg f o r Tea:

ivo of teachers present:

32

i^lo- of q"^estIonriair3s ccl ctea: 3C 2. You are a teacrer ^ & . ( Gross o. t the est? FL se liccre
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Which pro gran, es -ov. like/dislike


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39% li^ed the Trerne of zhe Movies' . They found the dies a p p e a l i n g , bea-j^iirJ. and stinulatin^, Sone e v e n 1 suggested sing sonrs : Lie were rici. :an' a n d
30% llieci the Jiilias C a e s a r and Draiuatic Performance They found it delirhtful^ i n s t r u c t i v e , inaginatnve and provided students opport' nities to a p p l y the language" learnt 'The thieves speak in C o u r t ' , in p a r t i c u l a r , is a brilliant extension of the 2a guares learnt in the Roman Speech 15% liked the Scarboronph Fair-slide show* They found it t o u c h i n g , selfexplanatory and easy to understand* l i k e d all the p r o g r a m m e s . They described them as effective , f a n t a s t i c , stimulating scd wel] d o n e . 3. Do you like/dislite the programn:es or/and the ways they a r e presented? Please sugrest other programmes or ways of presentation* "

Options

Like 93 -thought provoking -stimulating -well-prepared - p r o f e s s i o n a l l y presented -excellent - e n c o u r a g e students' participations -leader diecusred the contents before pre sentation -more in ^epth discusrions reouired
5
t x f t

Dislike 7 -failed to see a n y connections among the items

%
Seasons

Stig^estions

4.

Do you find ths notes ar-d que?ticr.3 cn ^-...-Ivs Caesar, 7 Scarcorough Fair and Cat in r.ai.-. -seifV !? "V .1 f y h e l p y o u to t s t t e r nd;r":ar.? the rrc~rai"-r.".e? hcvr? Options Besss
Yes

-useful - n o t e r.cufh to -esfential in go ove r the note s thought gliding -soe pasc:a5es zoo p i c t u r e c selfaii'Icult f o r stuexplanatory dents e J -"background inforGsGsar mation valuable -arous e stud ents tc irJc

5.

Do you think you can teach/learn English ''etter through, these programmes? V/hy? Why rot? Options Reasons ices
yo

Do
it: -

l i v e l y , authentic - d i f f i c u l t for those -stimulati arouse less brilliant 1ng^ students imaginat- students ion - s t u d e n t s m a y lose 1 i n t e r e s t i n g , easy irtereet if they c a n 1 to "understand follow - c a p t i v e ting touch- n o t so p r a c t i c a l in ing d a i l y teaching - a u d i o - v i s u a l aids - r e q u i r e much prepau s e f u l in language ration work learning - v i s u a l aids not easy
to nidi e

6.

How much lesson time do you give to these pro^raramee? lesson/period, per m o n t h or per week/cycle, e g . 55 preferred 2 periods a week 20% preferred 2 periods a m o n t h 27% no idea

pile

7-

Do you want to have s i m i l a r kind of programmes in y o u r c o u r s e / } text book? One out of ten chapters,egOptions
les

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86.6

Few mentioned the f r e q u e n c y

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b) c)

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Do wan^u to i n c l u d e s o m e p o e m s , sor.^s ar reading lessons? i^or t e a c h e r s o n l y . D c y o u think t h e r e s h o u l d n i n a r s o r c o u r s e s en h o w use draz-a, poe" s ir. l a n g u a g e , zeachlng?

ce ore s e stories

Options 8a) % 8b) % 8c) %


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76.6 96.6 95.3

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choose

if y o u r s c h o o l o f f e r s E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , w i l l y o u to t e a c h / s t u d y ? W h y ? Why n o t ?

Options -Reasons

Yes

ho 56.6 - t e a c h in a technical school - t h e r e is a teacher for it already 1 - h a v e n 1 studied i before -too r ubjects have been offered a l r e a d y - n o t an expert in it n o t interested in it - t o o demanding

43.4 - a l r e a d y teaching Eng* Literature - E n g . L i t . is a u s e f u l subject - E n g . iiit reflects life - a pleasure to the one who teaches

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127

Pindir-jgs of the wuesti.O-u.sirc f o r Stud

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of students present: 72 of queetionn-irss collected: 60 lou are a ent. (uross out the inapplicable) PI s e give r e a s o n s .

Which pro g r a c e s you ike/dislike most?

39'- liked "he Julius C a e s a r and Dramatic P e r f o r m a n c e . 35/= of it preferred 'Beauty Speak' in p a r t i c u l a r . They found it interesting, a m u s i n g , earcastic, vivid and p o r e r i u l . OrJ.of it opted ' Thieves Speak in C o u r t ' . Most of then found it difficult to u n d e r s t a n d . 5. 6 liked the S c a r b o r o u g h i^air Slide Show. ..oving grid easy to imd erst a n d . They found it

30.3% liked 1 the Themes of the M o v i e s . 25,3 cf it loved t h e song What is a y o u t h " . They found it ^ ^ c i n a t i n g and r o c a n t i c . 3 - 3 % of it enjoyed 'Impossible Dream'. 1 Only . 6 of it enjoyed 'Sunrise, s u n s e t . 0% liked the 'Cat in the Rain' as they hadn't time to re-d it,

15% loved a l l the programmes . 6 ^ didn't enjoy lie programmes at a l l Do you liie/disL ike the programmes or, a presented? Please suggest other programmes or ways of presentation. Options Eeasons Like 8C -interesting -'enj oyable -useful Dislike 3.3 - n o t quite underthey waan-t. JNo idea 6.7

S u r e s t - - t i m e too short ions - n o r e discussion "better - m o r e u s e f u l if the p r o g r a m m e s chosen are related to the m e n - c a n try m i m e s , games o r concerts by students u a . n g the songs or language items learnt

iS

4.

Do yoii 'ind the notes sc. c "uestions or. Juli :s C a e s T , 3c=r" orovrl: fair and Cat in the fiai:- useful? C n -fchey help you to better imderstr.r-d the profrarx^es? iiov? Optior.r
les

Wo
5

Wo ic'sa

%
Keasons

73-3 -analytical and expJanatory -easy to vjiderstand

-difficult to understand - b e t t e r to discuss the progrranmes before presentation English better through

Do "ou think -ou can teach/learn these prbgra^mes? Why? Wl.y not? Options
les

^0

%
Reasons -programmes interestins, so more retentive -learning became

6.6

- c o u l d n ' t j oin the discussion - f a i l e d to follow/understand ~ time too short One

6.

How much lesson time do you give to these programmes? lesson/period per -onth or per week/cycle, e g . 30 preferred lesson per t week/cycle. 20% preferred or 2 lessons per ^.onth.

50% didn't -understand the question or simply left it unanswered . 7. Do you wait to have similar kind of programmes in your course/text book? One out of ten chapters, eg. Options % I xes 1 76.6
WO

13.3

j \ ( 0 idee 10.i

8.a) Do you enjoy teaching/studying Readers (Story books) in lessons b) Do you waat to include some poems, song^and. plays in the r'adinr lessons?
Options
3

HU

les

Wo
20

96.6
I 1 9

3.3

" D -

9.

If your school 9 offers B -^iish literature wi 1 yen ~hcose 7 9 to t e a c h / s t u d y Why Wny n o t Options
fo
Reasons

xes 50 -interestin' aid enjo* acl c a n improve E -glish -make one more thoi^htfvl -learn a l o t from it

NC

^4.6

Alrsrd' ^aken 1 3.4 i

idea ' 2 , I 1| '

-too difficult to le -not interested m it -not ~ood at v Englis -preferred Sc^ice subjects -boring

**** EUD

120

AUSTIN,

J.L.(1962)

How To Do Things

With

Words.

Oxford,

Clarendon Press . BANFIELD, Paul. B E L S E Y , C , 1 9 8 0 ) Critcal P r a c t i c e . M e t h u e n . BOOTH, W . ( 1 9 6 1 ) The R h e t o r i c of F i c t i o n . Chicago University A . ( 1 9 8 2 ) Unspeakable Sentences> Routledge & K e g a n

Press. BRUMFIT, C. J. et al, edsC1986) Literature & Language

Teaching. Oxford University

Press.

B l o o m , H . (1975> A M a p of M i s r e a d i n g , O U P , New Y o r k , T o r o n t o , Melbourne . CARRTER, R . ed < 1 9 8 2 ) L a n g u a g e and L i t e r a t u r e , George Allen

& Unwin. C H A P M A N , R . (1973) L i n g u i s t i c s & L i t e r a t u r e . Edward Arno1dCHAPMAN, R. (1982) i h g _ L a n q q ^ q g gf Enq u h _ L i t g r a t u r e >

Edbward A r n o l d . CHATMAN, S., ed <1971a> L i t e r a r y S t y l e : a s y a p o s i u , O x f o r d

University Press. C O T T L E , B . ( 1 9 8 5 ) The Language of L i t e r a t u r e . Macatillan C U L L E R , J . <1976> S a u s s u r e , F o n t a n a / C o l i ins. CUMHINGS, E. M. & SIMMONS, D. U . < 1 9 8 3 ) , The L a n g u a g e of

Literature, Pergason. 121

DAVY,

D.

& CRYSTAL,

D 1969Investigating English

Style

Longman * EAGLETON, Education Kong). FOWLER, 1971 The Languages of L i t e r a t u r e , Rout ledge T. (1983) Literary Theory, 2 * Basil Blackwell. Hong

Commission Report N o ,

( August, 1986,

K e g a n Paul FOWLER, R 1 9 7 5 S t y l e a n d S t r u c t u r e in L i t e r a t u r e ; Blackwell. essays

in the new s t y l i s t i c s , O x f o r d , FOWLER,

and the

F O W L E R , R , , ed( 1966 Essays o n S t y l e and Lanuaiqre, R o u t l e d g e & KeganPaal FREEMAN, D, C. ed 981) E s s a y s in Modern Stylistics.

Methuen FREEMAN, D. C1970 L i n g u i s t i c s and L i t e r a r y S t y l g > New

York, H o l t & Fowler, R*

Rinehart & Winston, Batsford

(1981) L i t e r a t u r e a s S o c i a l D i s c o u r s e *

Academic ISER, W. (1974) T h e Reade,Baltimore, Johns Hopkins

UniversityPress. JEFFERSON, A, & ROBEY, Deds (1982) Modem Literary

Theory^Batsford

Acamemic.

122

Jakobson,

(1960),

^Closing S t a t e m e n t Style in L a n q u a q e ,

Linguistics I960,

and

Poetics. In S e b e o k , 377. Kwok, H. The Language

pp.350-

of

Poetry

and

the

Concept

of

Linguistic Deviation*

<not yet published S t y l e in F i c t i o n , Long an. Guide to Enqlish Poetry,

LEECH, G* N . A N D SHORT, M 1 9 8 1 > LEECH, G . ( 1 9 6 9 ft Linguistic

Longman MUKAROVSKY, J. In Esthetics, Georgetown Literary Structure University Press, at Pratt, M i (1977 Toward a Speech A c t T h e o r y of Literary and 1964. Style (1932)^Standard Language and Poetic

Reader pp. 19-35,

University QUIRK, RICHARD, Reynolds, ^SAUSSURE, F. (1962) The Ose of English, L o n g m a n I.A 1929) Practical Criticism^ K e g a n , Paul & Co.

* Counicate - W h a t s * (not yet p u b l ished Course in G e n e r a l L i n g u i s t t r a n s l a t e d by

Wade B a s k i n , F o a t a n a , 1974*

12 3

S h k l o v s k y , V . 1 9 1 7 ) . 'Art as Technique. T r a n s l a t e d and Re is, R u s s lap. F o r m a l 1st Criticism,; Four

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Coamittee.

T- ( 1 9 7 7 ) The P o e t i c s of P r o s e , B l a c k w e l l . H.G.,C1975) Longman. Accents. Stvlistics and the Teaching__ qX

^jtgratyye

W I D D O W S O N , P . e d ( 1 9 8 2 ) R e - R e a d i n g English New