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Weimar Germany (1918 - 1933)

WEIMAR GERMANY (1918 - 1923) - Early threats to the Rep !li"# WEIMAR GERMANY (1923 - 1929) - $he %tresemann Years# WEIMAR GERMANY (1929 - 1933) - $he Impa"t o& the 'epression#

GCSE Revision Notes 1933)

Weimar Germany (1918 -

WEIMAR GERMANY (1918 - 1923) Early threats to the Rep !li"


$he (reation o& the Weimar Rep !li") On 9 November 1918 the Kaiser abdi ated and !"ed to #o""and$ On 11 November 1918 Germany si%ned an armisti e endin% WW1$ &riedri h Ebert' "eader o! the So ia" (emo rati )arty' de "ares Germany a re*+b"i $ On , -an+ary 1919 .he S*arta ist /*risin% er+*ts and is de!eated by the army$ On 19 -an+ary 1919 Ebert is e"e ted )resident o! the German Re*+b"i $ .he ne0 demo rati %overnment meets in the to0n o! Weimar be a+se 1er"in is too dan%ero+s$

$he *ro!lems o& the Weimar Rep !li" (1918 - 1923) in"l +e+) 2t had to a e*t the terms o! the .reaty o! 3ersai""es$ .he Wea4nesses o! its Constit+tion$ 5e!t0in% Revo"ts "i4e the S*arta ist /*risin%' 1er"in and 1avaria Revo"ts$ Ri%ht0in% Revo"ts "i4e the Ka** )+ts h and 6+ni h )+ts h$ .he &ren h O +*ation o! the R+hr$ #y*erin!"ation$

$he $reaty o& ,ersailles#


$he terms o& the $reaty o& ,ersailles in"l +e+) Germany had to a e*t War G+i"t (so"e res*onsibi"ity !or startin% the 0ar)$ Germany had to *ay 78899 mi""ion in re*arations (!ines !or the 0ar dama%e)$ Germany had to %ive +* "ar%e amo+nts o! its territory$ Germany had to a%ree to the disarmament o! its armed !or es$ Germany 0as !orbidden !rom +nitin% 0ith :+stria$ Germany had to %ive +* a"" o! its overseas o"onies$

German rea"tion to the $reaty o& ,ersailles in"l +e+) .hey 0ere enra%ed 0hen they sa0 the e;treme"y harsh terms o! the treaty$ .hey 0ere not a""o0ed to ne%otiate over its terms and 0ere !or ed to a e*t it$ .hey !e"t that the terms o! the treaty 0ere e;treme"y +n!air and h+mi"iatin%$ .hey !e"t that they sho+"d not have to a e*t so"e res*onsibi"ity !or the 0ar$

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GCSE Revision Notes 1933)

Weimar Germany (1918 -

6any Germans started a""in% !or reven%e to reverse the e!!e ts o! the treaty$ 6any Germans atta 4ed the ne0 Weimar demo rati %overnment !or si%nin% it$ 6any "abe""ed the *o"iti ians 0ho si%ned the treaty =November Crimina"s> 0ho had =stabbed in the ba 4> the army' 0hi h sti"" ontro""ed most o! E+ro*e in 1918$ .he treaty +ndermined the ne0 demo rati %overnment' "ed to the rise o! the Na?i *arty and the Se ond Wor"d War$

-e&t.in/ atta"0s a/ainst the Weimar Rep !li"


$he (a ses o& the %parta"ist 1prisin/ (1919) .ere) .he S*arta ist 5ea%+e "ed by Rosa 5+;emb+r% and Kar" 5ieb4ne ht 0anted a Comm+nist Revo"+tion in Germany ins*ired by the Comm+nist Revo"+tion in R+ssia$ .he S*arta ist 5ea%+e renamed itse"! the German Comm+nist )arty$ On , -an+ary 1919 the S*arta ists sei?ed %overnment b+i"din%s and or%anised a %enera" stri4e$

$he (onse2 en"es o& the %parta"ist 1prisin/ (1919) .ere) .he army @+i 4"y r+shed the S*arta ist /*risin% and its "eaders 0ere shot$ Ebert did a dea" 0ith the army 0hereby in ret+rn !or r+shin% the S*arta ist /*risin% he *romised not to reate a ne0 army sym*atheti to the ne0 Weimar Re*+b"i $

$he 3erlin an+ 3a4aria (omm nist Re4olts (1919)) .he ne0 Weimar %overnment !a ed !+rther +*risin%s by Comm+nists$ 2n 6ar h 1919 the Comm+nists or%anised stri4es in 1er"in b+t 0ere r+shed by the &rei4or*s (&ree Cor*s)$ 2n :*ri" 1919 the German *rovin e o! 1avaria de "ared itse"! an inde*endent Comm+nist Re*+b"i b+t a%ain 0as r+shed by the &rei4or*s$

Ri/ht.in/ atta"0s a/ainst the Weimar Rep !li"


$he 5app * ts"h (1926)) .he .reaty o! 3ersai""es had restri ted GermanyAs army to 199'999 men and many o! the demobi"ised so"diers Boined the &rei4or*s (&ree Cor*s)$ .he :""ies demanded that the Ebert disband the &rei4or*s$ Wo"!%an% Ka**' "eader o! &rei4or*s' mar hed into 1er"in to sei?e *o0er$ Ebert a""ed +*on the 0or4ers o! 1er"in to s+**ort the Weimar %overnment$ .he 0or4ers or%anised %enera" stri4es and the Ka** )+ts h !ai"ed$

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GCSE Revision Notes 1933) $he M ni"h * ts"h (1923))

Weimar Germany (1918 -

#it"er and the Na?i *arty tried to sei?e *o0er in the ity o! 6+ni h' a*ita" o! the German *rovin e o! 1avaria to s*ar4 the overthro0 o! the Weimar %overnment$ :s the Na?is mar hed in the ity entre armed *o"i e and army so"diers 0ho !ired +*on them in s+**ort o! the Weimar %overnment$ #it"er and the other Na?is "eaders 0ere arrested and im*risoned$ #it"er +sed his tria" to %ain ma;im+m *+b"i ity to *ortray himse"! as a nationa" hero$ #e +sed his time in *rison to ri%ht his boo4 =6ein Kam*!> that o+t"ined his ideas$ #e de ided to sei?e *o0er ="e%a""y> by !i%htin% and 0innin% e"e tions rather than by tryin% another )+ts h

E"onomi" *ro!lems o& the Weimar Rep !li"


$he 7"" pation o& the R hr (1923)) .he .reaty o! 3ersai""es ordered Germany to *ay 78899 mi""ion in re*arations$ 2n 19<< the German %overnment anno+n ed it o+"d not *ay re*arations any "on%er$ .he &ren h invaded the R+hr ind+stria" re%ion to %et re*arations by !or e$ .he &ren h too4 ontro" o! the R+hrAs !a tories' stee"0or4s' mines and rai"0ays$ .he Weimar Government o+"d not de!end itse"! be a+se 3ersai""es had "imited the si?e o! the German armed !or es$ .he &ren h shot 13< Germans and e;*e""ed 1,9'999 Germans !rom the re%ion !or re!+sin% to obey the orders o! the &ren h mi"itary ontro""in% the R+hr$ :s a res+"t o! the o +*ation o! the R+hr and the resistan e a%ainst it ind+stria" *rod+ tion in Germany %ro+nd to a ha"t$

8yperin&lation (1923)) .o *ay !or re*arations the German started *rintin% money b+t this a+sed hy*erin!"ation be a+se the more money it *rinted the more 0orth"ess it be ame$ :s a res+"t o! hy*erin!"ation *ri es 0o+"d rise' 0hi h "ed to the demand !or 0a%es to rise' 0hi h "ed more money bein% *rinted' 0hi h "ed to *ri es to rise more$ .he *ri e o! %oods a"0ays tended to rise !aster than 0or4ers 0a%es$ Wor4ers 0ere seen arryin% their 0a%es home in 0hee"barro0s$ .he rise in *ri es meant that in omes 0ere too sma"" to "ive on$ )eo*"e str+%%"ed to b+y !ood' "othes and to heat their homes$ )eo*"e 0ith savin%s in ban4s no0 !o+nd that their savin%s 0ere 0orth"ess$ )eo*"e on !i;ed in omes "i4e *ensioners s+!!ered the most$ #$ :"nassiri C

GCSE Revision Notes 1933)

Weimar Germany (1918 -

On"y *eo*"e 0ho had debts or had ta4en o+t "oans bene!ited !rom hy*erin!"ation$ #y*erin!"ation in reased the +n*o*+"arity o! the Weimar %overnment$

$he Weimar (onstit tion


$he Weimar (onstit tion) .he Weimar Constit+tion made Germany a demo ra y$ .he )resident 0as to be e"e ted by the *eo*"e every D years$ .he Chan e""or ()rime 6inister) had to have the s+**ort o! a maBority o! the Rei hsta% ()ar"iament)$ :"" man and 0omen over <9 years o"d o+"d vote !or members o! the Rei hsta%$ .he votin% system 0as based on )ro*ortiona" Re*resentation 0hereby i! a *arty 0on ,E o! the vote it 0o+"d %et ,E o! the seats in the Rei hsta%$ 2t made Germany a &edera" Re*+b"i 0here ea h state had its o0n %overnment$ 2t %+aranteed *ersona" !reedoms "i4e !reedom o! s*ee h and !reedom o! re"i%ion$

$he Wea0nesses o& the Weimar (onstit tion) .he )resident had the *o0er to a**oint and dismiss the Chan e""or$ .he )resident' +nder :rti "e C8 o! the Constit+tion' o+"d s+s*end demo ra y$ )ro*ortiona" Re*resentation meant that no *arty ever had an overa"" maBority in the Rei hsta% and this "ead to a series o! 0ea4 oa"ition %overnments$ )ro*ortiona" Re*resentation %ave a voi e in the Rei hsta% to sma"" e;tremist *arties "i4e the Na?i )arty$

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GCSE Revision Notes 1933)

Weimar Germany (1918 -

WEIMAR GERMANY (1923 - 1929) $he %tresemann Years


$he role o& %tresemann in"l +es) 1et0een 19<3 and 19<9 the Weimar Re*+b"i be ame stab"e and *ros*ered$ G+stav Stresemann' "eader o! the German )eo*"eAs )arty ((3)) be ame Chan e""or in 19<3 and 0as GermanyAs &orei%n 6inister bet0een 19<3 to 19<9$ #e bro+%ht abo+t e onomi re overy in Germany$ #e bro+%ht im*roved internationa" re"ations !or Germany$

E"onomi" re"o4ery (1923 - 1929)) Stresemann introd+ ed a ne0 +rren y' the Rentenmar4' to re*"a e the o"d 0orth"ess +rren y to he"* sto* hy*erin!"ation$ #e ordered stri4in% 0or4ers in the R+hr to %o ba 4 to 0or4 and a%reed to start re*ayin% re*arations to the a""ies "eadin% to the &ren h 0ithdra0a" in 19<,$ $ 19<C Germany a%reed to the (a0es )"an 0ith the /S' 1ritain and &ran e$ .he /S: "ent Germany 899 %o"d mi""ion mar4s to b+i"d ne0 !a tories to in rease German *ros*erity to raise the standard o! "ivin% and abi"ity to *ay ba 4 re*arations$ .he (a0es )"an s*read the "oad o! re*arations a ordin% to GermanyAs abi"ity to *ay based on the *ros*erity o! the German e onomy$ .he (a0es )"an restored on!iden e in the German e onomy and investments *o+red into Germany !rom abroad$ .he Fo+n% )"an o! 19<9 e;tended the dead"ine !or the *ayment o! German re*arations !+rther ,9 years$ .he /S: "ends Germany money$

.he :""ies *ay ba 4 0ar debts to the /S:$

$8E 'AWE% *-AN

.he Germany e onomy *ros*ers$

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GCSE Revision Notes 1933)

Weimar Germany (1918 -

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GCSE Revision Notes 1933) Germany9s International Relations (1923 - 1929))

Weimar Germany (1918 -

.he internationa" omm+nity a e*ted Germany ba 4 on the 0or"d sta%e$ 2n 19<, &ren h troo*s ended their o +*ation o! the R+hr$ 2n 19<, Germany and &ran e si%n the 5o arno )a t in 0hi h they a%reed never to han%e the border bet0een them a%ain$ 2n 19<8 Germany 0as a""o0ed to Boin the 5ea%+e o! Nations$ 2n 19<8 Germany si%ned the Ke""o%%-1riand )a t 0ith over 89 o+ntries *romisin% never to %o to 0ar a%ainst one another$

$he s ""esses o& the %tresemann Era .ere) .he Weimar Re*+b"i 0as its most stab"e and *ros*ero+s bet0een 19<3 to 19<9$ .here 0as a !a"" in the s+**ort !or "e!t0in% and ri%ht0in% e;tremists$ .he German e onomy stabi"ised and hy*erin!"ation 0as bro+%ht +nder ontro"$ Germany 0as 0e" omed ba 4 on to the 0or"d sta%e$ Germany e;*erien ed a h+%e +"t+ra" reviva"$

$he :ail res o& the %tresemann Era .ere) Germany 0as no0 de*endent on /S "oans that 0o+"d *rove disastro+s in 19<9$ .he 0ea4nesses o! the Weimar onstit+tion remained$ .here ontin+ed to be resentment a%ainst the .reaty o! 3ersai""es$ Ri%ht0in% movements atta 4ed de adent and +n*atrioti ne0 +"t+re that s*read a ross Germany$ &ina""y the stabi"ity and *ros*erity o! the Stresemann Era o""a*sed !o""o0in% the 19<9 Wa"" Street Crash and start o! the (e*ression$

WEIMAR GERMANY (1929 - 1933) $he Impa"t o& the 'epression


$he impa"t o& the 'epression on Germany 1929 ; 1933 .as) .he /S demanded its "oans ba 4 b+t Germany o+"d not *ay$ 1y 193< over si; mi""ion Germans 0ere +nem*"oyed$ 6i""ions be ame home"ess and de*endent on harity to s+rvive$ .here 0as a %ro0th in s+**ort !or both "e!t0in% and ri%ht0in% e;tremist *arties "i4e the Comm+nist and Na?i )arty$ .he Weimar Re*+b"i be ame e;treme"y +n*o*+"ar and seemed in a*ab"e o! *+""in% Germany o+t o! the (e*ression$ #it"er and Na?i )arty did not han%e their *o"iti a" messa%e b+t more *eo*"e 0ere 0i""in% to "isten to their messa%e no0 that times 0ere bad$

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GCSE Revision Notes 1933)

Weimar Germany (1918 -

2n 1933 #it"er sei?ed *o0er in Germany brin%in% an end to the Weimar Re*+b"i $

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GCSE Revision Notes 1933) G-7%%ARY

Weimar Germany (1918 -

A!+i"ate (.o %ive +* *o"iti a" *o0er$) Armisti"e ( ease!ire$) (han"ellor (.he German )rime 6inister$) (omm nism (1e"ie! in reatin% an e@+a" so iety by 0or4ers or%anisin% a revo"+tion a%ainst the r+"in% "ass$) 'emo"ra"y (Co+ntries 0hose %overnments are hosen by !ree and !air e"e tions$) 'epression (.he ra*id "oss o! 0ea"th in the e onomy$) 'isarmament (Gettin% rid o! o+ntries 0ea*ons$) E"onomy (.he 0ea"th o! a o+ntry or ho0 b+sinesses in a o+ntry are doin%$) :rei0orps (.he &ree Cor*s 0ere e;treme ri%ht0in% so"diers 0ho 4e*t there 0ea*ons a!ter bein% demobi"ised at the end o! WW1 to !i%ht Comm+nism$) 5aiser (.he tit"e o! the German Kin%$) -ea/ e o& Nations (.he or%anisation set +* a!ter WW1 to 4ee* 0or"d *ea e$) -e&t.in/ ()arties that 0ant to han%e thin%s to reate a more e@+a" so iety e$%$ so ia"ists' omm+nists et $) Na<i *arty (Short !or the German abbreviation NS(:) 0hi h stands !or the Nationa" So ia"ist German Wor4ers )arty$) No4em!er (riminals (.he ni 4name o! the German *o"iti ians 0ho a%reed to an armisti e in 1918 and "ater si%ned the .reaty o! 3ersai""es$) * ts"h (German !or coup meanin% an attem*t to sei?e *o0er by !or e$) Rei"hsta/ (.he German )ar"iament$) Reparations (&inan ia" !ines !or the 0ar dama%e$) Rep !li" (: o+ntry 0itho+t a monar hy$) Ri/ht.in/ ()arties that 0ant thin%s to stay the same or %et even stri ter e$%$ nationa"ists' !as ists' Na?is et $) %ta!!e+-in-the-3a"0 $heory (.he be"ie! amon%st German so"diers that they 0ere +nde!eated d+rin% the 0ar b+t had been betrayed by *o"iti ians' omm+nists and -e0s into s+rrenderin% at a time 0hen they sti"" o +*ied "ar%e *arts o! E+ro*e$) %tri0es (When 0or4ers re!+se to 0or4 in *rotest a%ainst somethin%$) $reaty o& ,ersailles (.he treaty !or ed on Germany a!ter WW1$) War G ilt (: e*tin% so"e res*onsibi"ity !or startin% the 0ar$)

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GCSE Revision Notes 1933)

Weimar Germany (1918 -

Weimar Germany (1918 - 1933)#


Weimar Germany 1918 ; 1923 (Early $hreats to the Rep !li")# - .he Creation o! the Weimar Re*+b"i $ - .he .erms o! the .reaty o! 3ersai""es$ - German Rea tion to the .reaty o! 3ersai""es$ - .he Weimar Constit+tion$ - .he S*arta ist /*risin% (1919)$ - .he 1er"in and 1avaria Revo"ts (1919)$ - .he Ka** )+ts h (19<9)$ - .he 6+ni h )+ts h (19<3)$ - .he O +*ation o! the R+hr (19<3)$ - #y*erin!"ation (19<3)$ Weimar Germany 1923 ; 1929 ($he %tresemann Years)# - .he Ro"e o! G+stav Stresemann$ - E onomi Re overy (19<3 - 19<9)$ - .he (a0es )"an (19<C)$ - .he Fo+n% )"an (19<9)$ - 2nternationa" Re"ations (19<3 - 19<9)$ - .he S+ esses o! the Stresemann Era$ - .he &ai"+res o! the Stresemann Era$ Weimar Germany 1929 ; 1933 (Impa"t o& the 'epression)# - .he 2m*a t o! the (e*ression$ - .he Na?i Sei?+re o! )o0er in 1933$

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