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97-1

97
RadIafIon-Cured
CoafIngs
97.1 Intioduction ......................................................................97-1
97.2 Equipment .........................................................................97-2
97.3 Chemistiy...........................................................................97-3
97.4 End Uses ............................................................................97-8
Refeiences .....................................................................................97-8
97.1 Intruductiun
Cuiing coatings by means of iadiation iepiesents one of the new techniques that is ieplacing the use of
conventional oi low solids, solvent-boine coatings. Radiation-cuied coatings offei a manufactuiei seveial
impoitant featuies. These include the following:
· High solids - usually 100% solids
· Low capital investment (with ceitain specifc exceptions)
· Low eneigy cuiing costs - low powei iequiiements and elimination of solvent costs
· Rapid cuie speeds
· Ability to cuie a vaiiety of substiates, including heat-sensitive substiates such as plastics and paits
foi the electionics industiy
· Incieased pioductivity
· Shoitei cuiing lines and decieased ßooi space iequiiements foi opeiating line and foi liquid
coating stoiage
· A vaiiety of diffeient chemistiies fiom which to select, and thus bioad foimulating latitude fiom
the wide vaiiety of foimulation ingiedients available
The main souices of actinic eneigy foi cuiing coatings by iadiation aie election beam and ultiaviolet
light.¯ It 1984, Pincus
1
indicated that theie weie foui supplieis of election beam (EB) equipment and
moie than 40 supplieis of ultiaviolet light (UV) equipment. The ninth edition (1987) of the Radiaticn
Curing Buyer´s Guide lists the same numbei of EB supplieis and about 50 supplieis of UV equipment.
In the United States, theie weie about 100 EB units and about 25,000 UV light units opeiational in
1983-1984.
1
These fguies include laboiatoiy, pilot, and pioduction units. With the industiy giowing at
about 10 to 15% pei yeai,
2-4
it is veiy ieasonable to expect that these numbeis had incieased by the end
¯It is iealized that othei iadiation piocesses such as miciowave, infiaied, and gamma iays can be used to cuie
coatings. Howevei, this chaptei is only conceined with election beam and ultiaviolet light iadiation, which aie the
most impoitant commeicial piocesses.
}oseph V. KoIesIe
Con·u|ronr
© 2006 by Taylor & Erancis Group, LLC
Election Beam · Ultiaviolet Light
Photoinitiatois · Foimulation
97-2 Cooríng· Tec|no|ogy Hondboo|, T|írd ídíríon
of the decade. Equipment foi EB cuiing is signifcantly moie expensive than that foi UV cuiing, and it
iepiesents the exception listed above in the °low capital iequiiement" advantage of iadiation cuiing.
Even a laboiatoiy-sized EB unit will iun into six fguies, wheieas simple conveyoiized UV systems can
be obtained foi a few thousand dollais. Fuitheimoie, eneigy consumption is high with EB units and low
in UV systems.
In 1980 about 80 million pounds of foimulated iadiation-cuiable pioduct weie sold in the United
States. This numbei incieased to 127 million pounds in 1985 and was expected to inciease to 216 million
pounds in 1990.
4
About 88% of the 1985 total was cuied by UV light and the iemaindei by EB. Thus, it
is ieadily appaient that iadiation cuiing is a specialty aiea, but it is one that is giowing much fastei than
the oveiall coatings maiket. A study
5
indicated that the maiket will be 336 million pounds by 1995, which
iepiesents a 9.2% compounded giowth iate fiom the piediction foi 1990.
Theie aie two basic technologies involved in the iadiation-cuied coatings maiket. The oldei and moie
well-known technology involves fiee iadical chemistiy, and the cuie of compounds containing unsatui-
ation (i.e., aciylates, styiene/unsatuiated polyestei, and the like). The othei technology involves cation
chemistiy and the cuie of cycloaliphatic epoxides and compounds that will copolymeiize with them
undei the inßuence of Bionsted oi Lewis acids.
97.2 Equipment
97.2.1 E!ectrun Beam
With EB cuiing, eneigy tiansfei is caused by eneigetic oi acceleiated elections.
6-9
Theiefoie, photoiniti-
atois usually aie not used in EB cuie foimulations and theie aie no photoinitiatoi fiagments, which
might have an odoi oi otheiwise detiact fiom piopeities in the cuied coating. The election souice is a
flament that is heated inside a vacuum tube. The elections aie acceleiated to a high eneigy (~10
5
V) by
an impiessed electiical feld with the degiee of acceleiation incieasing with incieasing applied voltage.
High voltages (150,000 to 300,000 V) aie involved. The acceleiated elections pass thiough a metallic foil
window and aie sent on to the compound, which is capable of absoibing theii eneigy and thus undeigoing
polymeiization. The ability of the elections to be absoibed by the compound (i.e., the iadiation-cuiable
foimulation) depends on the mateiial`s density, and theiefoie depth of penetiation is inveisely piopoi-
tional to density. The election bombaidment of the foimulated coating abstiacts hydiogen atoms fiom
some of the molecules, theieby geneiating shoit-lived fiee iadicals that can initiate the polymeiization
of aciylates and similai compounds that will inteiact and ieact with such species. Cleai coatings of up
to 20 mils (500 m) and pigmented coatings of about 15 mils (400 m) can be cuied with EB equipment.
97.2.2 L!traviu!et Light
In geneial, UV light units opeiate with electiomagnetic iadiation that is in the optical iegion of 200 to
760 nm. They do pioduce infiaied iadiation of 760 nm to 1.0 mm, but this eneigy is theimal and acts
eithei to anneal the cuied coating and ielieve inteinal stiesses and stiains oi to enhance cuie iate in
cationic cuie systems. Of couise, in ceitain foimulations, this theimal eneigy can have a deleteiious effect
by causing volatilization of ieactants, and it is minimized in some equipment. In othei cases, such as
cationic UV cuiing, the theimal eneigy can be highly benefcial by kinetically enhancing the cuie iate
of the compounds.
Basically, in the case of UV cuiing, compounds susceptible to iapid polymeiization aie contacted with
initiating species obtained by photolysis of a photoinitiatoi. In the UV cuie¯ of such compounds, a
photoinitiatoi that is capable of photolyzing oi degiading to an active species is added to the foimulation.
When light of the piopei wavelength stiikes the photoinitiatoi, the active species is geneiated and
¯ Ultiaviolet light photons aie of ielatively low eneigy (~10
3
V) and aie not capable of abstiacting hydiogen atoms
fiom molecules. Thus, a photoinitiatoi is needed when ultiaviolet light cuiing technology is piacticed.
© 2006 by Taylor & Erancis Group, LLC
FodíoríonCured Cooríng· 97-3
polymeiization iapidly takes place. Ceitain photoinitiatois geneiate fiee iadicals, and these aie used to
cuie aciylates. Othei photoinitiatois geneiate cations, which aie used to cuie cycloalipathic epoxide-
based systems. It should be ieadily appaient that matching the output of the UV light souice with the
absoiption spectia of the photoinitiatoi is an impoitant aspect of this technology.
Theie aie foui diffeient UV light cuiing technologies. These aie as follows:
· Medium piessuie meicuiy vapoi lamps (in ceitain countiies, low piessuie and high piessuie
meicuiy vapoi lamps aie also used)
· Electiodeless vapoi lamps
· Pulsed xenon lamps
· Laseis
Medium piessuie meicuiy vapoi (MPH) lamps have been used commeicially foi about 20 yeais. The
bulb is an evacuated quaitz tube that contains metallic meicuiy and has electiodes at each end. Electiical
eneigy is supplied thiough the electodes, and an aic is stiuck between them. This heats meicuiy in the
tube to a plasma that emits UV, visible, and infiaied iadiation. Output ianges fiom about 100 to 400
in., and a waim-up time of 10 to 15 min is often iecommended foi the bulb to be fully opeiational. The
systems can be doped to altei the emission spectium, but usually only meicuiy is used.
Electiodeless lamps have been in use foi about a decade and cuiiently aie veiy populai in the
industiy.
10,11
The vacuum tube UV bulb is manufactuied fiom quaitz, which is invisible to the UV
iadiation. The bulb contains eithei meicuiy oi othei piopiietaiy metals and gases. The system is activated
by miciowave oi iadiofiequency eneigy (i.e., it does not have electiodes). Because of the natuie of this
activation system, it essentially has instant on and off opeiation. A vaiiety of doped bulbs aie available
with vaiious output spectia that can be °matched" to that of diffeient photoinitiatois. Bulb lifetime is
usually 5 to 10 times longei than that of standaid MPH lamps.
Xenon lamps aie quaitz tubes flled with doped xenon. The lamp is poweied by pulsed electiical
cuiient.
10,12
These units offei veiy low heat output along with shoit time, extiemely high peak intensity
output. (Some types have as high as 8000 to 10,000 W output, although most opeiate at much lowei
intensities.) The output spectium is continuous with this souice iathei than that of the disciete line
types as fiom the MPH lamps. Howevei, in ceitain instances, meicuiy is added to the tube contents to
enhance cuiing in the iegion of meicuiy`s spectial lines. The output has also been modifed with othei
metals such as iion and beiyllium.
Aigon ion and nitiogen laseis in combination with specifc photoinitiatois that have a stiong absoi-
bance at the emission line of the lasei have been used to cuie multifunctional aciylates.
13,14
Although the
studies aie inteiesting and may hold piomise foi the futuie, at piesent, this is consideied to be a ieseaich
aiea of potential inteiest foi the electionics industiy.
97.3 Chemistry
Most of the following discussion deals with UV light technology. The ieason foi this is that photoinitiatoi
bieakdown is impoitant to cuie. In a geneial sense, the same compounds that will cuie with the fiee
iadical photoinitiatois will cuie with EB.
97.3.1 Phutuinitiaturs
97.3.1.1 Free Radica! Type
Fiee iadical geneiating photoinitiatois aie of two geneial functional types.
15,16
The fist type involves a
mechanism known as hemclytic fragmentaticn, in which a compound such as a benzoin alkyl ethei
undeigoes a photochemically induced fiagmentation into highly active fiee iadicals as desciibed in
The second type of fiee iadical geneiation functions thiough a mechanism that is teimed electrcn
transfer. This mechanism involves a photolytic excitation of the photoinitiatoi fiom a found state
© 2006 by Taylor & Erancis Group, LLC
Figuie 97.1.
97-4 Cooríng· Tec|no|ogy Hondboo|, T|írd ídíríon
singlet to an excited tiiplet state. This is followed by election tiansfei to a hydiogen atom donoi, such
as dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), and the foimation of highly excited fiee iadicals as desciibed in
Figuie 97.2.
Typical commeicial photoinitiatois include compounds such as 2,2-diethyoxy-acetophenone,
2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenyl acetophenone, hydioxycyclohexylphenyl ketone, benzophenone-tiiethylamine,
2-methyl-1-4-(methylthio)-2-moipholino-piopane-1, 1-phenyl-2,2-piopane dione-2-(c-ethoxycaibo-
nyl)oxime, and benzoin methyl, isopiopyl, isobutyl, and othei alkyl etheis.
Fiee iadical geneiating photoinitiatois of the foiegoing types aie inhibited oi inactivated by oxygen
as a iesult of a complex that foims between the light-activated photoinitiatois and moleculai oxygen.
This effect can be oveicome by ineiting the coating with nitiogen duiing cuie, by adding waxes to the
system, oi by using excess photoinitiatoi. Aii that has been dispeised in the coating system duiing
foimulation contains oxygen, and it acts as a stabilizei. Howevei, foimulations containing veiy active
photoinitiatois of this type have a tendency to polymeiize duiing stoiage if this oxygen is depleted ovei
a peiiod of time. Compounds that will help pievent such instability include phenothiazine and Maik
275 stabilizei.
FIGURE 97.1 Homolytic fiagmentation.
FIGURE 97.2 Election tiansfeis.
+ C
O
C-C
O
OR
H
C
OR
H
h
Benzoin Alkyl Ether Benzoyl Radical Alkoxybenzyl
Radical
C
C

(CH
3
)
2
NCH
2
CH
2
OH
··
··
+
h
(CH
3
)
2
NCH
2
CH
2
OH +
CH
3
-N-CH
2
CH
2
OH
CH
2

+
+

O
C

OH
Dimethylethanol amine Benzophenone
Transition State
Benzophenone derived free
radical which decays to
an inert species
Ìnitiating free radical
© 2006 by Taylor & Erancis Group, LLC
FodíoríonCured Cooríng· 97-5
Teitiaiy amines will act as photosyneigists,
17,18
and they gieatly enhance cuiing iate of compounds
such as those desciibed above. Uieas and amides also have been desciibed as syneigists foi benzophe-
none.
19
Compounds that have been used to acceleiate cuie iate of pigmented systems include isopiopyl-
thioxanthone, ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate, and 2-chloiothio-xanthone.
97.3.1.2 Catiunic Type
Although theie aie vaiious types of photoinitiatois that photolyze to yield a cationic species capable of
polymeiizing cycloaliphatic epoxides and active hydiogen compounds of the hydioxyl type oi vinyl
etheis, only the aiylsulfonium salts aie commeicial at piesent. These types include aiyldiazonium salts,
aiyliodonium salts, iion-aiene complexes, aluminum complex-silanols, and the commeicial aiylsulfo-
nium salts.
20-24
Aiyldiazonium hexaßuoiophosphates and tetiaßuoioboiates decompose undei the action of UV light
and yield Lewis acids such as BF
3
and PF
5
, nitiogen, and othei fiagments.
25-27
These photoinitiatois weie
used in the infancy of cationic UV cuie of cycloaliphatic epoxides. Although they weie quite active foi
fist-geneiation pioducts, the disadvantages of theimal instability, which led to shoit shelf life, and of
nitiogen evolution, which led to pinholes and bubbles in flms thickei than about 0.2 mil, inhibited
commeicial use and led to theii ieplacement by the onium salts in the maiketplace.
The polymeiization of epoxides with aluminum complex-silanol photoinitiatois has been
desciibed.
28,29
The technology is not being piacticed in the United States, but it may be in use in Japan.
The iion-aiene complexes iepiesent a new type of cationic photoinitiatoi that was iecently desciibed.
30,31
When photolyzed, these compounds degiade to yield both Lewis acid-type catalysts and fiee iadicals.
Because these compounds aie ielatively new, detailed infoimation about them is not available.
Vaiious investigatois studied the onium salts of iodine oi the Gioup VI elements.
32-37
Cuiiently, the
aiylsulfonium salts aie commeicially used as photoinitiatois. These compounds do not have the def-
ciencies of the diazonium salts because theie is no nitiogen evolution on photolysis and, if piotected
fiom UV light, the systems can have ambient-condition shelf lives in excess of 2 yeais. When UV light
inteiacts with the onium salts, an excited species is foimed. This species undeigoes hemolytic bond
cleavage to yield a iadical cation, which extiacts a hydiogen atom fiom a suitable donoi and geneiates
anothei fiee iadical species. The new compound then gives up the pioton foi foimation of a stiong
Bionsted acid. The Bionsted oi piotic acid that is the polymeiization catalyst is of the foim HMF
6
wheie
M is a metal such as antimony, aisenic, oi phosphoius. This catalyst is long-lived, and the cationic
polymeiization of the epoxide system can continue in the °daik" aftei initial exposuie to UV light until
the available epoxide is exhausted oi the polymeiization is teiminated by some othei mechanism. Thus,
the onium salts geneiate both cationic species and fiee iadicals and can be used in iadiation-activated,
dual-mechanism systems.
Note that the onium salt photoinitiatoi is a blocked oi latent photochemical souice of the stiong
Bionsted acid that acts as a catalyst/initiatoi foi the foimulated system. Because of the acidity of the UV-
geneiated catalyst oi initiatoi, it is necessaiy to keep the foimulated system (substiate, coating equipment,
etc.) fiee fiom basic compounds that would neutialize the acid and eithei negate oi slow cuie iate. Even
veiy weak basic compounds will ieact oi inteiact with the stiong acidic species.
97.3.1.3 Dua!-Mechanism Curing
Since the cationic photoinitiatois geneiate both fiee iadicals and Bionsted acids when exposed to UV
light, it is possible to combine aciylates that will cuie with fiee iadicals and epoxides that cuie with the
piotic acids. Fiee iadical geneiating photoinitiatois such as 2,2-diethoxyacetophenone can be added, if
an additional souice of fiee iadicals is necessaiy. Expeiience has shown that this usually is not necessaiy.
Of couise, the benzophenoneamine systems desciibed eailiei should not be used. Little can be found in
the liteiatuie
38-40
about this inteiesting topic, but dual-mechanism cuiing should piove to be a useful
technique in the futuie and meiits fuithei study.
Dual-mechanism systems that involve fiee iadical chemistiy coupled with theimal chemistiy aie also
known. Dual-cuie plastisols
41
and dual-cuie pigmented
42
coatings have been iepoited. The combination
© 2006 by Taylor & Erancis Group, LLC
97-6 Cooríng· Tec|no|ogy Hondboo|, T|írd ídíríon
of UV and infiaied iadiation foi cuiing coatings, which can be benefcial foi eithei of the dual-mechanism
systems, has also been discussed.
43-44
97.3.2 Furmu!atiun
The subject of foimulation involves both fiee-iadical-cuiable ingiedients and how they aie used, and
cationic-cuiable ingiedients and how they aie used. If one takes an extiemely simplistic appioach, only
a single species that will cuie undei the inßuence of iadiation is needed foi a coating. Howevei, most
foimulations contain a vaiiety of ingiedients to achieve the piopeity balance that is needed to meet a
given set of peifoimance ciiteiia.
Most foimulations contain a base oligometiic oi multifunctional compound, a ßexibilizei (which
may be the base compound) a low viscosity, ieactive diluent (which may be mono- oi multifunctional),
foi viscosity contiol, a multifunctional aciylate foi high cioss-link density, a photoinitiatoi (unless
election beam cuie is used), and usually a suifactant oi ßow and leveling agent. Combinations of moie
than one mateiial of each type aie usually used to optimize piopeities. The peifoimance chaiacteiistics
of specifc end uses may also iequiie use of a slip agent, nonieactive oiganic oi inoiganic flleis and/oi
pigments, adhesion piomoteis, ßattening agents, an augmenting ßow and leveling aid, oi some othei
additive-type ingiedient.
97.3.2.1 Free Radica! Systems
In geneial, systems based on aciylates aie used in fiee iadical cuie systems.
45-48
The base mateiial is
usually an epoxy aciylate oi a uiethane aciylate. Epoxy aciylates aie the ieaction pioducts of aciylic acid
with vaiious diglycidyl etheis of bisphenol A. The epoxy aciylates contain aciylate and hydioxyl func-
tionality, but they do not contain epoxide functionality and should not be confused with the epoxides
to be discussed in the cationic cuie systems section. The teim °epoxy aciylate" is a widely used and
accepted misnomei; as can be seen by the stiuctuial foimula in Figuie 97.3, °aciylated epoxy" would be
a bettei teim to use foi these compounds.
Uiethane aciylates aie often piepaied by end capping a polyethei, polyestei, oi capiolactone polyol
with a diisocyanate and then ieacting this isocyanate piepolymei with an hydioxyalkyl aciylate.
49-51
The
chemistiy is moie complex than this simple desciiption, and the oidei of component addition is impoi-
tant to minimizing viscosity. Both epoxy aciylates and uiethane aciylates have a high viscosity ( 10
6
cp)
at ambient tempeiatuies.
52
To facilitate manufactuie, handling, and latei foimulation, the compounds
aie often made in a low viscosity mono- oi multifunctional aciylate, which will latei seive as a ieactive
diluent and/oi cioss-linking agent in a foimulated system.
In eithei the neat oi the diluted foim, these base compounds aie diluted to application viscosity with
moie mono- oi polyfunctional aciylate. Polyfunctional aciylates inciease cioss-link density and impiove
solvent iesistance, inciease haidness, and inciease glass tiansition tempeiatuie. Caie is always taken to
avoid skin and eye contact and inhalation of the aciylates because of the potential foi skin iiiitation,
sensitization, and toxicological ieaction. It is impoitant to iead the Mateiial Safety Data Sheets supplied
with these and all othei compounds. The manufactuiei`s piecautions should be caiefully iead and heeded
when woiking with these and othei chemicals. The ACS Monogiaph Chemical Carcincgens (No. 182,
published in 1984) is a useful geneial iefeience.
Aciylates aie available fiom a vaiiety of souices. In addition to the uiethane aciylates and epoxy aciylates
desciibed above, polyfunctional aciylates such as tiimethylol piopane tiiaciylate, pentaeiythiitol tiiaciy-
late, 1,6-hexane diol diaciylate, tiipiopylene glycol diaciylate, and tetiaethylene glycol diaciylate, aie
FIGURE 97.3 An °epoxy aciylate."
C
CH
3
CH
3
OH OH
CHOOCH
2
CHCH
2
O OCH
2
CHCH
2
OOCH CH
2
CH
2
© 2006 by Taylor & Erancis Group, LLC
FodíoríonCured Cooríng· 97-7
available. Theie has been a tiend to inciease moleculai weight by alkoxylation of compounds used to
make multifunctional aciylates, to give them bettei handling and health chaiacteiistics. Monofunctional
compounds useful as ieactive diluents include N-vinyl-2-pyiiolidone, 2-ethylhexyl aciylate, dicyclopen-
tadiene aciylate, hydioxyalkyl aciylates, hydioxylactone aciylates, and ethoxyethoxyethyl aciylate.
Specifc foimulations aie highly vaiied, and peifoimance iequiiements guide oi dictate ingiedient
levels. Many foimulations can be found in the cited liteiatuie oi othei liteiatuie available fiom mateiial
manufactuieis.
97.3.2.2 Catiunic ur Epuxy Systems
The most impoitant foimulating ingiedient in a cationic UV cuie system is a cycloaliphatic epoxide of
the 3,4-epoxy cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxy cyclohexane caiboxylate oi bis(3,4-epoxy cyclohexylmethyl)
adipate type.
53
Systems usually contain fiom 100% to about 30 to 49% cycloaliphatic epoxide. When this
epoxide is used alone oi at veiy high concentiations, stiong, haid, and biittle coatings that aie useful on
iigid substiates iesult. These iigid coatings can be ßexibilized and toughened in vaiious ways. Although
commeicial, compounded ßexibilizeis/tougheneis exist
20
foi these systems, vaiious polyols such as the
piopylene oxide
54
oi capiolactone polyols
55
can be used. Polyestei adipates can be used, but the ielatively
high acidity of these polyols can lead to shoitened shelf life because the cycloaliphatic epoxides aie well-
known acid scavengeis
56
and will ieadily ieact with any caiboxylic oi othei acid gioups in this system.
This will eithei inciease viscosity oi cause gelation. Othei ßexibilizing agents include epoxidized soybean
and linseed oil epoxides and epoxidized polybutadiene. Caie should be exeicised when incoipoiating
these compounds in the foimulation because they can cause signifcant softening, along with ßexibili-
zation, and little oi no inciease in toughness.
Relatively small amounts ( 1 to 20%) of the diglycidyl etheis of bisphenol A can be added to systems.
Howevei, the light absoibing chaiacteiistics of these compounds lead to a deciease in cuie iate and in
depth of cuie. In addition, the compounds cause iapid incieases in viscosity. Novolac epoxides appeai
to cuie well in cationic systems, but theii high viscosity is iapidly ießected in foimulation viscosity.
Low moleculai weight epoxides available undei tiade names
20
can be used as ieactive diluents. Although
somewhat slowei in ieactivity than many othei cycloaliphatic epoxides, limonene mono- and diepoxide
can be used as ieactive diluents. Vinyl etheis can act as ieactive diluents and cuie iate enhanceis in
cationic cuie, cycloaliphatic epoxide based systems.
57,58
These compounds have not been fully investigated,
but the available evidence suggests that they have foimulating potential.
Since nonbasic, active hydiogen compounds ieact undei cationic conditions with the oxiiane oxygen
of cycloaliphatic epoxides to foim an ethei linkage between the compound and the iing and a secondaiy
hydioxyl gioup on the epoxide iing,
54
low moleculai weight alcohols, ethoxylated oi piopoxylated
alcohols such as butoxyethanol, and similai compounds can be used as ieactive diluents in cationic
systems. Howevei, since these compounds aie monofunctional, they can act as chain stoppeis - although
they do geneiate the secondaiy, iing-attached hydioxyl gioup, which can fuithei piopagate polymeiiza-
tion oi chain extension - and can be used only in limited amounts, about 1 to 10%, that aie dependent
on moleculai weight. Low moleculai weight glycols (diethylen glycol, 1,4-butanediol, etc.) can also be
used. Such compounds may enhance cuie iate by pioviding a souice of active hydiogen; but, when used
at peimissible low levels, the glycols do not enhance toughness. In ceitain instances, ineit solvents such
as 1,1,1-tiichloioethane aie used to deciease viscosity and/oi inciease coveiage fiom a given volume of
coating. Howevei, most end useis piefei systems that only contain ieactive components.
As mentioned above, the ieaction mechanism of epoxides and hydioxyl gioups
53,54
is such that a new
hydioxyl gioup is geneiated foi eveiy hydioxyl gioup that is piesent. Thus, the initial hydioxyl content
of a foimulation is conseived aftei the ieaction is complete. Although low levels of hydioxyl gioups will
often enhance adhesion, too many of these gioups can detiact fiom peifoimance chaiacteiistics and
cause adhesion loss undei wet, moist, oi high humidity conditions.
Specifc foimulations aie highly vaiied, and peifoimance iequiiements guide oi dictate ingiedient
levels. Many foimulations can be found in the cited liteiatuie oi othei liteiatuie available fiom mateiial
manufactuieis.
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97-S Cooríng· Tec|no|ogy Hondboo|, T|írd ídíríon
97.4 End Lses
Radiation-cuied coatings, which aie often taken to include inks, adhesives, and sealants, aie used in a
laige numbei of ways foi iigid and ßexible metal, plastic, glass, papei, and wood substiates. Paiticulai
end-use aienas include the communication, constiuction, consumei pioducts, electionics, giaphic aits,
medical/dental, packaging, and tianspoitation maikets. Specifc end uses foi iadiation-cuied compounds
aie numeious and include coatings foi appliances, beei and beveiage can bodies and ends, book coveis,
bottles and bottle caps, catalogs, closuies, compact discs, cosmetic caitons, ciedit caids, decoiative and
functional foils and flms, decoiative miiiois, electionic components, ßocked fabiic, fuinituie, labels,
magazines, magnetic tape, natuial and simulated wood paneling, optical fbeis, oithopedic casts and
splints, photoiesists, plastic cups and containeis, piinted ciicuit boaid assemblies (confoimal coatings),
iecoid album jackets, soldei masks, steel can ends foi composite papei-metal cans, toys, tiansfei letteis,
and vinyl ßooiing.
Relerences
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3. A. H. Pincus, °Radiation cuiing maikets and maiketing data," in Prcceedings cf Radiaticn Curing
VI, Chicago, 1982.
4. J. Weisman, °Radiation cuiing in the United States - An oveiview," in Prcceedings cf Ccnference
cn Radiaticn Curing Asia, Tokyo, 1986, p. 11.
5. G. E. Ham, peisonal communication.
6. R. Kaidashian and S. V. Nablo, Adhes. Age, Decembei, 27 (1982).
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FodíoríonCured Cooríng· 97-9
30. K. Meiei, °Photopolymeiization of epoxides - A new class of photoinitatois based on cationic
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´83 Ccnference, Lausanne, Switzeiland, 1983.
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F-5005, Maich 1984.
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58. GAF Coip., Tiiethylene Glycol Divinylethei, 1987.
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